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How is the world going to change in the near future, say, the next five years? This question has several answers, each bearing a different nuance depending on the area of interest. As far as communication and communications are concerned, a few elements are extremely probable. In my opinion, in the following period we are going to witness at least seven major changes concerning human interaction: 1) Integrated electronic equipment will be employed; 2) Generalization of interconnection; 3) Diversification of available services and applications; 4) Widening and generalization of the field of cloud computing; 5) Generalized communication, through exchange of information and generation of content; 6) Communication will become a large field, as people will move on from exchange of information to exchange of services and products; 7) Rewriting the principles of ethics. All components are taken in view, from the interpersonal to the global one, including mass-media and social media.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
Available online at
1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer review under the responsibility of the West University of Timisoara.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.283
CESC 2013
The Future of Communication: from New Media to Postmedia
Lucian-Vasile Szabo
West University of Timisoara, Romania, Department of Philosophy and Science of Communication
How is the world going to change in the near future, say, the next five years? This question has several answers, each
bearing a different nuance depending on the area of interest. As far as communication and communications are concerned, a
few elements are extremely probable. In my opinion, in the following period we are going to witness at least seven major
changes concerning human interaction: 1) Integrated electronic equipment will be employed; 2) Generalization of
interconnection; 3) Diversification of available services and applications; 4) Widening and generalization of the field of
cloud computing; 5) Generalized communication, through exchange of information and generation of content; 6)
Communication will become a large field, as people will move on from exchange of information to exchange of services and
products; 7) Rewriting the principles of ethics. All components are taken in view, from the interpersonal to the global one,
including mass-media and social media.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer review under the responsibility of the West University of Timisoara.
Keywords: new media, online, information, convergence, social media, surveillance, virtual communication
1. The future and its image
I believe that, in the near future, the following changes will be taking place in communication:
1) Integrated electronic equipment will be employed: the wide screen mobile phone and the tablet. Under
these circumstances, landline telephony will see its role diminished, almost coming to a halt. There will be
increasingly less usage for personal computers and laptops, even though the latter were still fashionable in 2013
everywhere in the world. The mobile phone and the tablet stand apart due to their reliability, high operability,
increased data storage capacity, various and complex functions, as well as the ability to run a high number of
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +40-735-788-929
E-mail address: e-mail:,
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer review under the responsibility of the West University of Timisoara.
Lucian-Vasile Szabo / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
2) Generalization of interconnection. The spread of wireless connections and access to services provided by
satellites will become generalized, with costs dropping at the same time. The following years will bring
telephones and tablets with automatic Internet connection as a basic integrated service. It is going to be nearly
impossible to renounce this function, which will keep us constantly online. Communication will thus be
possible in almost any place and under any circumstances.
3) Diversification of available services and applications. The tablet and the mobile telephone will be used
both for communication proper, as well as for content creation. In this case, they will be used to edit, store,
process information, create communication products, modify and archive them. The new applications will prove
useful in surveillance and control processes, activity monitoring, elements that are essential in intelligence. The
area is wide; because there are already programs being developed that will boost the level of media and
technological integration. Health and education are top fields. Thus, the cell telephone and the tablet will be
taking x rays, also supplying the first clues on possible illnesses.
4) Widening and generalization of the field of cloud computing. Most people, some with poor training in
using computers and other electronic tools, will benefit from services and applications without needing to know
how they are built. These services and applications (from website hosting and the need for broad band, to using
mobile telephones for medical diagnosis) will be usable (some have already been accessible for a while now)
free of charge or for a fee (by buying or renting). Under these circumstances the online newsroom concept takes
shape, there no longer being a need for physical work space. The notion can be generalized, tracing information
from source to receiver, by typing, selecting and editing, in other fields, as well, such as education, public
relations and information services (intelligence).
5) Generalized communication, through exchange of information and generation of content. Technology
becomes easy to handle, so that all people, even those of average education, are able to realize high level
communicational products. It is an on-the-go professionalization, practicing for fun or as a means of production,
to earn one’s living. Differences will be erased between professionals and amateurs. Up to a certain level, i.e.
college level, all users will be to a great extent familiarized with these tools turned into a necessity.
6) Communication will become a large field, as people will move on from exchange of information to
exchange of services and products. Electronic trade will become dominant, and financial systems will
emphasize their dependence on informatics systems. Physical money (coins, bank notes and securities) will be
in less and less numbers, as payments and banks transfers will become dominant. The educational system will
benefit even more from the new services, which in the meantime will have become interactive and more
stimulating. Entertainment will also change as there will be a great pressure for such products, and visual
culture will itself become interactive.
7) Rewriting the principles of ethics. The erasure of the differences between professionals and non-
professional will also involve a change in deontological codes. Obviously, the Internet has to stay a free space
for the expression of thoughts, ideas and for promoting people, products, services and values. As we cannot
formulate specific limitations, as is the case with professional ethics, access and manifestation in the virtual
space will involve a return to the fundamental principles of ethics. There is a great deal of concern regarding
some aspects considered negative in the virtual space. Protection can be achieved, however not by establishing
control, but by resorting to existing legal instruments and by promoting moral values which would be accepted
by as many as possible. The rewriting of ethical codes has already begun.
In this context we are talking about the postmedia phenomenon. It defines the change from the classic mass
media to the new (digital) media, assimilating the facilities of fast communication and of tightening bonds, but
also the tensions emerged as a consequence of generated dangers, or simply from the pressures exerted by fast
changes. We are going through a time of accumulations, but on a postmodern background, of superficiality,
fickleness and permanent undermining of values, but also of contradictions generated by the helplessness or
lack of will to act, as well as violent actions of protest in favour of or against democracy. We are living in a
media culture which is no longer understood as one belonging to the elites, to indisputable preeminences, but
one of mass (popular culture, according to a coined term in the English language), a culture which seems to
offer unimaginable possibilities to exploit creativity and imagination, often undermining itself in lazy or strange,
incomprehensible experiments. Postmedia offer the framework for all these hesitations and certainties.
38 Lucian-Vasile Szabo / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
2. Media: new or online?
Everything is media and anything can be propagated through the media. We are living in a society where
communication has become decisive, in that it is not only a linking tool, but an element which structures
society. Everything is placed under the sign of... totality, these being aspects identified by Altheide & Snow
(1991). Integration is explicit: “Today all institutions are media institutions. As more experiences are influenced
by media logic and discourse, our media is totally media”. What is surprising is that the statements of the two
authors were made a few years before the communication explosion in the Internet Era. The network would
come and simplify these forms of interaction and media structuring of the society. The suggestions formulated
by the two would be subsequently developed by other researchers. Among them, Peter Dahlgren (1996) would
add the technical dimension of media integration, beside the organizational one. An approach in the context of
new media explosion would be made by Deuze & Dimoudi (2002). Mark Deuze would approach the
characteristics of media logic by referring to the specialized field of journalistic communication. He would
estimate that integration, by what he called “convergence continuum”, would become a reality and a way of
work: “sooner or later all media organizations move towards a stage where integration of different parts of the
news-making process (including audio, video, text, images, graphics; but also marketing, cross-promotion,
sales, redistribution and inter-activity with publics) is achieved” Deuze (2007). It would even be signaled that
evolution towards integration is not linear, as some parts of the media organizations are slower. This is an idea
which can be extended to the whole society. Some organizations adapt more easily, by adopting the new
technologies, while others show a conservative spirit. Even states have different integration rhythms. It is not
necessarily an issue of choice. There are social, economic and administrative stakeholders who wish to become
part of the convergence trend, but lack the necessary resources for acquiring services and materials. It is a
delicate situation, also manifested on an individual level, because the new tools and technologies cost money.
Ian Hargreaves would use the expression ambient news to highlight the fact that, presently, we cohabit with
media products and are surrounded by them: “Today surrounds us like the air we breathe. Much of it is literally
ambient: displayed on computers, public billboards, trains, aircraft and mobile phones” (2003: 3)”. We place
ourselves in this network through the connections made, and contemporary existence and quality of living
depend to a great extent upon the utilities at hand (Szabo 2011, 40-41). Media content can be accessed with
relative ease, sometimes overwhelming us with the multitude of offers aimed at us, however it is difficult to
establish, under optimum circumstances, how many are useful and how many are harmful. This is an issue also
underlined by Bob Franklin: “But, paradoxically, because so much news is available, people are not always able
to discriminate between the good and the bad” (Franklin 2005, 16).
“What’s new about the new media?” was a question posed by Sonia Livingstone in 1999. The answer given
at the time placed technology at the centre of attention. Television, with its several channels available,
terrestrial, via satellite and cable, was at that time the pole of attraction. A second new sector had at its core the
computer, with games, Internet access, but especially through its opening to online trade (Livingstone 1999).
The two fields of development were possible by way of interaction. Thus, technological convergence was taking
place, which in turn favoured media convergence. A fundamental change was being reached in people’s homes,
through social convergence, undermining traditional ways of communication, so that the question now needs to
be reformulated: What’s new about the new media and in the social area? After more than a decade, the
landscape was almost unrecognizable. First mobile phones, then laptops, wireless technology and tablets
modified yet again the way we communicate. The TV set in the living room or bedroom, the computer in the
study or at work lost ground to the newcomers. It was a new face of convergence, bringing changes to the public
and private sectors, especially by the integration offered by social media. But what is presently the place of
mass media in this framework?
3. Challenges for journalists
Journalists use social media for two precise purposes: 1) promoting their own journalistic productions; 2)
gathering information, according to a recent study. However, if we look at the percentages we see reason for
Lucian-Vasile Szabo / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
worrying: 84% of journalists use the opportunities offered by social media as sources of information and only
81% of it for publication. The data are presented in Social Journalism Study 2012, a report drawn up by Cision
& Canterbury Christ Church University (UK), which has the purpose of highlighting the impact of new
technologies on the work of journalists. It is a serious research, with respondents from Great Britain, but also
from other states with an advanced media market. 84% documentaries in social media leave very little space for
the other professional communication techniques. Another relevant change of rapport shows a decreasing trend
of the trust professionals have in the quality of social media products. While in 2011 33% appreciated the
quality of these products, in 2012 the level was of merely 24%. Explicably, young journalists are the most
active in this sector, qualifying themselves as cyberspace information “hunters”, as termed by the quoted study.
At this stage one needs to make an analysis of what is happening before the news reaches the printed page, or
the television or computer screen. Research of various types, applying the methods and tools of several sciences
(social and engineering) have brought forward relevant answers about how the world has changed under the
influence of mass media and what the consequences are in small communities or in the global village. However,
media communication changes even the way we perceive the exchange of information. Modifications take place
because there are important evolutions regarding the way of doing and understanding journalism. Bardoel &
Deuze (2001) would advance the expression new information in relation to the Internet and the offensive of
other new technologies. The new information has a polyvalent meaning here, because it expresses: 1) the
fundamental character of knowledge offered for the first time to the various categories of the public; 2) the
development and use of updated methods and techniques for the editing and dissemination of information, and
for its propagation throughout the media; 3) the multiplying of communication channels and the reconsidering
of some already existing ones, an operation carried out in the context of technological evolution.
Journalists generate the change, and the new communicational reality is also reflected upon them, causing
other evolutions. Challenges seem greater than at other times, as the multimedia implications are more obvious.
Following a few coordinates of the new status of journalists in the era of digital media we notice two important
traits of those who edit and process news: (1) the professionals of this genre are compelled to undergo a
overspecialization, becoming what is designated with an already existing term videojournalists or even
universal, integrated journalists; (2) the borders between professionals and outsiders of the citizen journalist
type tend to diminish, due to a specialization of the latter. At the same time, we notice the emergence of the
virtual editorial concept (online newsroom), as the old gathering place for reporters and editors becomes a mere
4. Social media and surveillance
There is also pressure coming from social networks, with their wide offer of blogs and portals, having a great
permeability between journalistic genres and a much higher subjectivism of approach and content. The future
will bring along yet another important change, already visible, by the fact that the equipment used will be
increasingly integrated, so that soon journalists will use the same equipment for everything they have to do. And
there’s a lot they have to do. The new multimedia tools are, however, available to the wide public, and various
people are presently involved in news production either for traditional media institutions or for the ones freshly
emerged in the electronic environment.
The new technologies also allow the intensification of the surveillance process. Development is seen in two
directions, which can become contradictory: (1) surveillance of the environment for the identification of
challenges and of those who make attempts to disrupt society and quiet, safe life; (2) use of data to induce
control of society, to determine a certain obedient social behaviour. In this context, the future of mass media
outlines itself in a thought-provoking and challenging way. The opening offered by digital media, translated
into the transmission speed of signals and the establishing of links between people, in large or smaller
communities, but animated by specific interests, requires an essential note to be made: the Internet is in itself
neither bad nor good, just as new media is (or should be) morally inert and impartial. In reality, the advantages
of instantaneous communication and of the possibility to establish contact, even over great distances, also
benefit those who wish to undermine judicial and social values, to exploit the new communicational
convergence in order to fulfill reprehensible purposes.
40 Lucian-Vasile Szabo / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
We are mentioning here two of them: 1) cyberbullying, which translates as the exposure of children to subtle
or direct psychological attacks, often with sexual implications; 2) ideology-based violence, which can imply
terrorist, anarchistic attacks, meant to undermine democracy and the values of open societies. A recent study,
carried out by 13 American researchers, which is going to become one of reference regarding communication in
ideology-centered groups (often violent ideology), shows the way new communication possibilities facilitate
their activity and increase their cohesion: “The internet provides an outlet for these groups to spread messages
that are not typically socially acceptable or would not be welcomed on mainstream media outlets. Consequently,
the internet has quickly become the preferred method of communication for these groups” (Byrne et. al. 2013).
These activities come, most of them, to the attention of information services. The field of intelligence has
itself undergone significant mutations in the digital era. The challenges are numerous and real, especially after
the bloody attack of September 11th 2001 on the United States. Surveillance of cyberspace activity has
extended, has become more complex and has gained in depth. The Internet and multimedia allow intensification
and broadening of contacts within groups of criminal intent, but they also offer government agents more refined
methods of surveillance, which helps several threats, but not all, to be identified in time.
5. The terminological and technological offence
The investigated field, with focus on journalism, uses concepts typical of this area of practical evolution, but
also of research: new media, digital media, cybermedia, mobile media, multimedia, technomedia,
inter(net)media, global media, social media. Some have overlapping meanings, others designate various fields,
but with some junction points. Some designate rather the technical toolbox; others also include structuring
elements of some areas of human activity. It is, however, an evolution which cannot be separated from the
present’s media culture, from the moldings in the fields of scientific research and education. I am reiterating
here a (short) work definition for new media, following which I’ll lay down in context the analyses which give a
wholesome meaning, closer to reality. New media “includes online communities, social networking (e.g.
LinkedIn, friendster, Facebook), social bookmarking, blogging (including vlogging and microblogging), video
and photo sharing, mashups, wikis, podcasts, tagging, RSSfeeds, apps, interactive maps and other online based
tools” (Wolf & Archer 2012). In a paper on the fundamental concepts in the field of journalistic communication,
Hamer would paradoxically give a short definition, which would however prove adequate: This is a broad
communication concept which can refer to any of the following related terms: emerging digital technologies and
platforms; online journalism; and electronic and multimedia publishing (particularly on the Internet and world
wide web) (2005b, 160-161).
Mark Deuze (2004) would make a distinction between online journalism and multimedia journalism. For the
first term he would add synonymous formulae: cyberjournalism, e-journalism and internet journalism. For
multimedia he seems to reserve the field of technological convergence, where one acts with unique equipment,
but having multiple functions, capable of ensuring communication on several panels. The reference is to
existing or possible links, to channels, and not to media contents. Also, it can be understood as an integrated
form of presenting various contents. These can function independently or can be assembled into more ample
constructions, such as websites or even portals (large media and communication platforms). Online journalism
makes one think of a real time link between user and author. Contents are accessed as soon as they are posted,
which means there is a relationship, one facilitate by multimedia. Understanding things this way, we see that
multimedia can function as a part, as composing element, of online journalism. By analyzing the various
meanings given to multimedia, sometimes contradictory ones, as well as the contexts where it appears, Martin
Hamer seems to favour rather the manifestation of multimedia as hypermedia, but also as a possibility to
disseminate contents over networks: “Multimedia online news can also offer specific features such as
webcasting, can provide maps and diagrams, and polls, in addition to nurturing partnerships and resulting in
mergers between different media companies” (2005a, 156).
Lucian-Vasile Szabo / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
6. The complex context of communication
Evolution is explosive, in the sense that the present is marked by a large sphere of challenges.
Communication becomes complex, being propagated throughout media to an ever larger extent. Paradoxically,
it is not a gain for journalism as a type of specialized communication, because in the era of digital media anyone
can be communicator, and professionalism becomes an option, not a necessity. Anything is transmitted,
although it is hard to believe that there is a public, as small as it may be for each content placed into the
electronic environment. However, perspective is important. There are virtual data in a dormant state, unsearched
by anyone. Sometimes, quite rarely, they may come to the attention of a larger public, being propelled by
mechanisms that are not very easy to understand. It is a paradox: there is a whole lot if data made public, but
also a lot of data which find no public, no users. Under these circumstances, it is clear that it does not suffice to
publish on a website, but one needs to ensure the elements which would make this content interesting for the
others. Increasingly, the Internet becomes a storage place (ever larger, of course), which is however mostly
filled with useless things.
A constant influence in this field comes from the new philosophical and thought investigation theories.
While most of us live in a communicational “bath”, subjected to influences and influencing in turn, at the
junction of radio and electromagnetic waves, it is equally true that the world is influenced by the results of
various epistemological surveys, but also by ideologies or influencing strategies. In this context, I bel ieve that
the manifestations of communication in correlation with new technologies call for an approach which would
also take into account the impact of theoretical thinking, in an ensemble identified with the term postmedia. As
can be seen from the enumeration of specific terms above, these took shape either in opposition or in agreement
with other dominating concepts in present day public debates. The mechanisms of change are not always
obvious and there probably is a complex of factors and influences which mark evolution. Bruun (2011)
formulated this issue as a question: “Is it systemic forces, for instance, technology, economy and competition, or
is it the change producing forces of human agency, for instance, creativity, artistic vision and imagination?” The
answer has to be an integrating one, to contextualize all the factors mentioned, but also others.
At the same time, we need a unifying term, capable of guiding us in the maze of these challenges and quick
changes. We use the name postmedia, which is defined in three areas of understanding: (1) New (digital) after
old media, the one before the Internet and mobile telephones; (2) New media (the one in the present) depending
on the generated effects and in confluence with the elements of the public and social spheres; (3) New media in
contemporaneity and the implications of the changes it brings about, which can be defined as a new
communicational ethics. All these aspects contextualize in the field of human existence and of challenges for
the future. Postmedia can offer elements for a correct anticipation of what will follow from the point of view of
what is typical of media, of integrating with social media, but also with political media, that liquid and pulsating
field where decisions are taken. Both information, as well as decisions in postmedia, can facilitate increasingly
easy access to direct sources of information, but can also imply an increase in control, by surveillance and
imposing rules of compliance. Not for a second must we omit the great discrepancy emerged, the challenge
between efforts for generalized access to information, even strategic ones, and the trend to turn them into
merchandise and trade them.
The exploring of these two media contexts mentioned above (what happens in journalistic activity before
publication and how technology is influencing this activity) is defined in relation to a particularly important
element in communicational space: the deadline. It remains a traditional pressure factor for professionals in
printed press editorial offices or for electronic publications with a set date of posting. There is a moment when
any given newspaper has to be printed, in order to arrive in time and meet the readers (Szabo 1999, 12). In the
case of electronic publications, the deadline is the moment until which all editorial operations have been
concluded, and the articles can be posted on sites or can be reproduced on various platforms in order to be
distributed through these.
42 Lucian-Vasile Szabo / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 163 ( 2014 ) 36 – 43
7. The speed of information
One of the basic rules of media communication is the quick dissemination of new information obtained. A
quick review of the way this happens, from a historical point of view, gives us the context for adequate
understanding. When it was about events having a major impact on community life, newspapers printed special
editions. Thus, one did not wait around with the fresh news until the usual edition would be printed. Radios, and
later televisions, stood apart due to this very ability to quickly transmit new information. When ne ws is out of
the ordinary, the current programme is interrupted to give way to news. The heavy digitalization of
communication imposes a new kind of pressure on presenting news quickly. The strict framework of media
communication is overstepped, as media workers are compelled to specialize in connected fields in order to deal
with the informational flow and new professional challenges. It is the postmedia dimension, because several
traditional aspects of the way journalism is practiced disappear. There are periods of transition between the
various stages of evolution, but they are much faster than in the past, which allows us to speak of a balanced
The participants of the PR News Media Relations Next Practices Summit of December 2012 concurred
among other ideas regarding the evolution for 2013, that the deadline exigency has lost some of its importance,
so instead the always-on exigency was formulated (Pressfeed 2012). Always live implies a permanent link
between the reporter and the media institution, in order to transmit or post information. Ottosen & Krumsvik
(2012) retain some of the old formula, but suggest a new expression: continuous deadlines. However, changes
are profound depthwise, because the presenting of truly interesting news really means new ways of writing, and
upgrading classic techniques. Working on the field and the relationship with sources (face-to-face, by e-mail or
telephone) also becomes structured as a continuous state. We are not only online with the public, but also with
the suppliers of information. Thus, reporters are redefined as universal journalists. They discover the news
bearing potential, establish and maintain the relationship with the sources, edit texts, gather and process images,
then send everything to the editorial office (which can also be online) or post it themselves directly onto the
press institution’s site. The managers’ trend in media organizations is to select personnel capable of doing all
these operations (Deuze 2004). In editorial offices there has occurred an overlapping of tasks. The differences
between reporters, editors and other staff has blurred, all of them also undertaking technical tasks, which were
before not typical of them. There is a trend in this respect, of the journalist-of-all-trades: “In newsrooms the
focus is changing from working for a single medium towards a situation in which journalists are required to
produce news for several media platforms simultaneously” (Hermans & Vergeer 2009). It is a good thing up to
a certain point. Too great a diversification and the carrying out of operations in different fields can overload the
personnel, leading to a decrease in performance and poor results. Then again, it is obvious that certain jobs need
to be done by specialists, because a good journalist cannot be equally efficient as an operator, image editor and
newsroom director.
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... It also expresses the ability of some people to produce communication products without specialized training, and often having minimal experience in the field of communication. Obviously, social media facilitates this phenomenon (Szabo, 2014). ...
... Communication will thus be possible in almost any place and under any conditions. Interconnectedness will be possible at a low cost, by including a subscriptionbased package of services when purchasing equipment or by connecting to public networks, such as those in major cities or those dedicated to public institutions, even ministerial, being a good example (Szabo, 2014). ...
... The education system will benefit from new services even more, becoming interactive and more stimulating. Entertainment is also changing, with great pressure for such products, with visual culture also becoming interactive (Szabo, 2014). ...
Full-text available
This study aims to make a synthetic theoretical presentation of the main challenges currently noticeable in the evolution of the mass media and social media in the context of the accelerated development of new technologies. It is a slow, but decided, visible change, one that profoundly affects human society. In this context we put forward the use of the post-media concept, which defines the transition from classical to new (digital) media, assimilating both the facilities of rapid communication and linking, as well as the tensions arising as a result of the dangers generated and the pressures exerted by various changes. The analysis covers the main types of convergence in communication, the integration of new technologies and equipment, the generalization of interconnection, the extension and diversification of handling arrangements, and the need to rewrite ethical and professional codes for the use of those working on digital platforms.
... For any organizations, social media has become a major channel of interactive participation where the level of an organization's transparency can be seen and used to attract and engage many more people than traditional lines can (Asiedu, & Boateng*, 2019 We live in a culture that offers unimaginable possibilities in exploiting creativity and imagination. The internet is now an integrated service that allows our world to keep us constantly online (Szabo, 2014). Social media technology has revolutionized the way people connect, communicate, and develop relationships with one another on a global level (Beal & Strauss, 2009;Derks & Bakker, 2013). ...
... According to Szabo (2014) social media has changed the way that humans interact, from the way we communicate with one another, view the world, hear and even exchange goods and services. ...
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This qualitative study explores pastors use of social media technology. Unit of analysis was non-denominational Protestant pastors. The theoretical framework was Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations Theory. Three research questions guided the study: How do pastors describe their use of social media technology to recruit potential members? How do pastors describe their use of social media technology to assimilate people into church culture? How do pastors describe their use of social media technology to retain church members? Data sources were questionnaires and individual interviews. Seven themes were generated: 1) Pastors use various mainstream social media platforms, to share church life and vision with local and online communities, as part of their church recruitment efforts. 2) Pastors engage in member sharing and ad buying, to establish and maintain an online social media presence, as part of their church recruitment efforts. 3) Pastors use their church’s social media accounts to post online resources as an aid to new church member assimilation. 4) Pastors use some interactive platforms to allow new members to engage in real time discussion with church leadership as part of their church’s assimilation efforts. 5) Pastors rely more on traditional lines of communication over technological platforms to build relationships with new members as part of their church’s assimilation efforts. 6) Pastors use social media platforms to share church information as part of their church member retention efforts. 7) Pastors use social media platforms to interact with members more consistently throughout the week as part of their church member retention efforts.
... Now is the era of online media, and in the future, world of communication will be changed, and one of the new players who will dominate is integrated smart electronic devices [1]. For now, in the context of mass communication, online media is the answer. ...
... It can be said that YouTube as a social network is supported by the theory of new media whose communication network simplifies the form of human interaction [86] by reframing consumer and organizational relationships [87] and creating new lifestyles [88], including marketing beauty products through video marketing. ...
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As an information management system, YouTube transforms marketing into structured content that serves as an archive and database to build social media marketing consistently for brands. In order to increase the greatest traffic through audience engagement, YouTube channels are used as a place to promote itself as a brand. There is even a tendency to present employees on YouTube as a business strategy. In the goal of building a brand through a YouTube channel, video content will certainly show an identity both as an independent video talent and as an organization. As the external face of the company, the company employees are seen by consumers and define the "who" a corporation is by showing personality traits that have been defined by the company, which are known as corporate brand personality. This qualitative study aimed to determine the marketing of beauty products constructed in beauty YouTube channel, to know the corporate brand personality constructed in beauty YouTube channel, and to find out the corporate brand personality constructed in the marketing of beauty products on the YouTube channel. The results show that the videos are displayed according to the personality of YouTubers and how they represent themselves through their video contents. On the other hand, corporate brand personality strengthens the personal branding of individuals in the company. Personality created by employees needs to be implemented from inside to outside the organization. Meanwhile, the construction of corporate brand personality in marketing beauty products on the YouTube channel can be seen in how video talents communicate verbally as a self-presentation of a part of the company, but also capable of nonverbal self-impression management. Although the implementation of the corporate brand personality dimension on YouTube channels is not free from risks, this step is worth to be taken.
... A hazai trendkutatásban, öt év vonatkozásában Szabó Lucian-Vasile 2014-es tanulmányában a következő, a kommunikációt érintő változásokat jelezte: 1) integrált elektronikus berendezések használata, 2) az összekapcsoltság általánossá válása, 3) a szolgáltatások és applikációk sokfélesége, 4) a felhőalapú számítógéphasználat széles körűvé és általánossá válása, 5) a tartalmakat közösen generáló és együtt építkező kommunikáció, 6) a kommunikáció óriási terület lesz, mivel az emberek az információcseréről a szolgáltatások és termékek cseréjére fognak elmozdulni, 7) az etikai elvek minden összetevő tekintetében újraíródnak, az interperszonálistól a globálisig, beleértve a tömegkommunikációt és a közösségi médiát is (Szabó, 2014). ...
Jelen tanulmány témája a vállalati kommunikációmenedzsment, mint diszciplína kialakulása, elméletei, globális és lokális jellegzetességei, szerepe és trendjei a kutatások tükrében. Noha a vállalati kommunikációmenedzsment mára a menedzsmenttudományok egyik legdinamikusabban fejlődő területévé vált, önálló tudományterületként megjelenését tudományos nézetek ütközése övezte. A vállalatvezetésben ugyan nyilvánvaló volt, hogy e menedzsmenttevékenység kiemelten fontos az eredményességhez, azonban a vállalati kapcsolatok, a PR és a kommunikációmenedzsment egymáshoz való viszonyában értelmezési eltérések alakultak ki. Ennek következtében különböző fókuszok rajzolódtak ki a kutatásokban. A tanulmány készítésének módszere a nemzetközi és hazai szakirodalom rendező és értelmező áttekintése. A szerzők bemutatják a kommunikációmenedzsment fogalom megjelenését, értelmezését és a diszciplína kialakulását. Ezt követően ismertetik az eltérő kutatási súlypontokat az angol nyelvterületeken, egyes európai országok kutatásaiban és a hazai megközelítésekben. Kiemelik a vállalati kommunikációmenedzsmentnek a vállalati értékteremtésben betöltött szerepét, a mérhetőséget, az infokommunikációs technológia hatását és egyes specifikus feladatokat, valamint a vállalati kommunikációmenedzsment gyakorlati jelentőségét. A trendeket vizsgálva felrajzolják a jövő várható útjait. ----- The topic of this review is the emergence of corporate communication management as a discipline, its theories, global and local characteristics, and its roles and trends in the light of research articles. Although today corporate communication management has become one of the most dynamically evolving fields of management, the first decades of the discipline were characterised by coexisting conflicting scientific theories. For the corporate management it was beyond doubt that corporate communication was elemental in the performance of the enterprises, however corporate PR, corporate relations and communication management had contradicting interpretations. These contributed to the appearance of distinct foci of international research. This review summarises international and Hungarian concepts. The authors demonstrate the emergence of the term of communication management, its interpretations and the development of the discipline. Next they present various foci of research in the UK and USA, in certain European countries and Hungary: the role of corporate communication management in value creation, its measurement, effects of info communication technology on it and some special areas. They overview the analyses of the trends and the projections for the near future: internationalisation, the effects of globalisation, mass media, digital media, social media; and the expected new challenges in corporate communication management.
... The advance of new information technologies and a new ways of communicating science through social media create an easily available and accessible to everyone to learn. The new reality as demonstrated in communicating emerging issue with online media (Szabo, 2014). The pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities and individuals, social media aspects improve the frequency of usability, immediacy and permanence and spend more time of the site. ...
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My interest in doing the research is to investigate the effect of social media in higher education on globalization. As the learning process changes, social media takes a step ahead to present itself to support the learning process on the campus. Furthermore, students can communicate and share everything about the content of learning with their peers, lecturers, staff, and others. The changes refer to available demand on access toward contents, schedules, and news, in a different time, location and digital devices that provide the user with the chance to interact through comments, feedback, and creative participation. The objective of the research is to describe the problems faced by the stakeholders of higher education regarding the use of social media in the higher education context. The research found that ignorance or lack of preparation was the most significant challenges. In fact, innovation in learning has converged with all application in the mobile device, and the change of learning has led to the new management. The design of the research was a mixed method research quantitative and qualitative method. Data collection technique was done through observation, questionnaires and interview and data analysis. The result of the research showed that social media in higher education need to be implemented in university. And the effect in higher education needed to be incorporated into the curriculum for the learning by social media and the adoption of social media as a teaching and learning process including the program of e-learning.
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Wattpad platform has reached a significant number of users in Turkey as well as in the world. Therefore, books written in Turkish on Wattpad are essential reference sources for researchers to determine the transformation and development of Turkish and popular literature in the digital environment. The tags are keywords assigned by the author and contain valuable information about the general characteristics of a book. The browse categories when sorted by hot listing option, give a popularity ranking of a category at the current time. Tags enable the readers to discover the book more easily and provides the book to be ranked on top of the popularity rankings. In this study, from the tags that are obtained from the top 10 books of popularity rankings of a 13-year-old user profile, it is aimed to analyze the subjects of interest of adolescent readers, their choices and the quality of the Turkish books that appeal to them. The tags are classified and it was determined that the most used tags among the classified groups were related to the genre of the story, the subject of the story, and the K-pop culture, respectively. This shows the effect of K-pop culture in Turkish books on Wattpad. It is also seen that words related to kinship and affinity names, professions and occupational names, media and social media communication tools, mature themes, venues, supernatural, and mythological elements, Watty Awards, gender and age, religions, personal, physical and age characteristics of protagonists, and reign are used as tags.
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Yeni iletişim teknolojileri bağlamında kayda değer gelişmelerin yaşandığı günümüzde, bu araçların teknolojik, ekonomik, toplumsal ve politik anlamda yarattıkları etki birçok disiplinden araştırmacı tarafından incelenmektedir. Özellikle internet, bilgisayar teknolojileri ile dijitalleşmeye bağlı olarak gelişen ve sürekli bir devinim halinde olan yeni medya alanı da bu bağlamda öne çıkmaktadır. Yeni medyanın öncelikli olarak kitle iletişimini ve kişilerarası iletişimi büyük bir dönüşüme uğrattığı düşünüldüğünde, bu alan çerçevesindeki gelecek çalışma ve eğilimlerin tespit edilmesi önem kazanmaktadır. İşte bu çerçevede mevcut çalışmanın amacı yeni medya alanının/çalışmalarının geleceğinde öne çıkması muhtemel konuları alanın uzmanlarından veri toplayarak tespit etmek ve bunları tartışmaya açmaktır. Araştırmada yöntem olarak, belirli bir uzman grubundan ve bir dizi anket yoluyla kontrollü geri bildirim almaya dayanan Delfi metodu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda yeni medyanın geleceğinde “kişisel verilerin kullanılması/korunması,” “sosyal medya veri analitiği,” “siber güvenlik,” “çevrimiçi arama motoru optimizasyonu,” ve “dijital siyasal iletişim” başlıklarının ön plana çıktığı görülmüştür. Tüm bu başlıkların büyük veri ve bu verinin kullanılması çerçevesinde ortaya çıkan sorunlarla ilintili olmasına bağlı olarak, yeni medyanın geleceği büyük veri kavramı ışığında tartışmaya açılmıştır
The article presents a qualitative study which explores Chinese school teachers’ imaginaries of Chinese and other education systems. It also investigates how social media has shaped their imaginaries. By reference to the literature on imaginary, discourse, and media, the study views imaginary as an instantiation of a particular discourse or discourses. This research employs qualitative coding methods and textual analysis to interpret the meanings of 163 opinion articles written by part-time graduate students, who were full-time school teachers. These methods were also used to analyse interview and observation transcripts. The findings reveal that most participants adopted stereotypical perspectives of western and Chinese education, and exhibited a strong sense of self-deprecation. Interestingly, WeChat, a popular Social Network Services (SNSs), played a prominent role in constructing these teachers’ imaginaries. The study highlights the hegemonic power given to western education and the critical role played by social media in the Chinese context.
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This article summarises findings from a research project on the digitisation of Norwegian newsrooms, analysing trends in the industry and changes in user-habits. Findings suggest that most journalists are positive about the digitisation of the newsroom but fear that cutbacks in staff will prevent them from exploiting the potential of the new technology. They also fear that too much focus on technical skills will leave less space for critical journalism. Findings also suggest a correlation between resources used to develop the online edition and the perceived ethical standards of the content. More online journalism leads to a higher degree of scepticism among the readers. There are two different justifications for using resources on the online edition. Some newspaper executives hope to use the online edition to recruit new readers to the paper edition while another group hopes to develop the breadth of market service through a portfolio of publishing platforms.
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This contribution will take the developments in journalism on the Internet as the starting point for a discussion about the changing face of journalism in general. The key characteristics of journalism on the Net - convergence, interactivity, customisation of content and hypertextuality - put together with the widespread use and availability of new technological ‘tools of the trade’ are putting all genres and types of journalism to the test. The outcome seems to suggest a turn towards what the authors of this article call 'network journalism’; the convergence between the core competences and functions of journalists and the civic potential of online journalism.
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This article reports the findings of a nationwide web-based survey of so-called digital or, rather, online journalists. The survey results indicate basic, occupational and professional characteristics of online journalists working for broadcast and print media as well as online-only media. It focuses, in particular, on the question of whether it is too early to be able to determine the specifics of the new professional model of online journalism, following the proposition that the developments on the internet in terms of journalism – and more specifically, news on the world-wide web – have led to the formation of internet journalism as a separate model within the profession of journalism as a whole. One of the main conclusions from this study is that a distinct media logic for online journalists is emerging, the main characteristic of which seems to be empowering audiences as active participants in the daily news.
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Convergence, media cross‐ownership and multimedia newsrooms are becoming increasingly part of the vocabulary of contemporary journalism—in practice, education, as well as research. The literature exploring multimedia is expanding rapidly but it is clear that it means many different things to different people. Research into what multimedia in news work means for journalism and journalists is proliferating. In this paper the social and cultural context of multimedia in journalism, its meaning for contemporary newsrooms and media organizations, and its current (emerging) practices in Europe and the United States are analyzed. The goal: to answer the question in what ways “multimedia” impacts upon the practice and self‐perception of journalists, and how this process in turn shapes and influences the emergence of a professional identity of multimedia journalism. This paper offers an analysis of the professional and academic literature in Europe and the United States, using the concept of media logic as a theoretical framework
The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. Key Concepts in Journalism offers a systematic and accessible introduction to the terms, processes, and effects of journalism;a combination of practical considerations with theoretical issues; and further reading suggestions. The authors bring an enormous range of experience in newspaper and broadcast journalism, at national and regional level, as well as their teaching expertise. This book will be essential reading for students in journalism, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. © Bob Franklin, Martin Hamer, Mark Hanna, Marie Kinsey and John E. Richardson 2005.
How do we explain changes in media genres? Are they the result of economic, technological or other kinds of structural forces; or are they the result of the change-producing agency of the media producers? And how are changes in media texts connected to contextual conditions for media production on micro-, meso- or macro levels? This article suggests that a theoretical approach using a pragmatic and socio-cognitive understanding of genre will help us to address these questions. This approach can highlight the interplay between human agency and different kinds of structural forces involved in specific professional media production cultures. Furthermore, it has the potential to integrate media texts and especially the micro- and meso levels of production. Using lessons learned and findings from my recent production study of Danish television satire, the article will argue three major methodological as well as knowledge-producing advantages of a genre approach.
The concept of media logic, a theoretical framework for explaining the relationship between mass media and culture, was first introduced in Altheide and Snow's influential work, "Media Logic. "In "Media Worlds in the Postjournalism Era, "the authors expand their analysis of how organizational considerations promote a distinctive media logic, which in turn is conductive to a media culture. They trace the ethnography of that media culture, including the knowledge, techniques, and assumptions that encourage media professionals to acquire particular cognitive and evaluative criteria and thereby present events primarily for the media's own ends. Case studies and examples of the mass media presentation of entertainment, news, politics, organized religion, and sports during the past twenty years illustrate how scheduling, sources of information, style, format, and professional awards influence how the world is portrayed in the various media. The authors analyze the influence of media logic on society's perceptions and judgments of issues and its impact on public opinion, culture, and social institutions.
This study examined and compared the websites of ideological groups from a communications and media use perspective. Thirty‐six websites with message boards categorized as either violent ideological, nonviolent ideological, or nonviolent nonideological were content coded for several distinguishing characteristics. The results indicated that group type was predicted by the type of information presented, the difficulty of becoming a member, and the amount of freedom members had on discussion boards. These findings suggest that characteristics of violent ideological group websites can be used to distinguish them from websites of both nonviolent ideological and nonideological groups. This study also provides a demonstration of a research methodology that can be used to naturally observe ideological groups via an online setting.
This study set out to explore the current usage and knowledge of new media as a public relations tool and channel amongst practising public relations consultants in Australia. The research was motivated by a nationwide benchmarking study by de Bussy and Wolf (2009), which concluded that new media was an extremely low priority for Australian public relations practitioners. Taking into account the speed of change associated with new media adoption, the authors examine whether these findings are still true today. This study takes a qualitative approach, based on a critical analysis of semi-structured interviews with Western Australia (WA) based Registered Consultancy Group (RCG) members of the Public Relations Institute of Australia (PRIA) (n=7). Findings suggest a cautious attitude towards the benefits of new media amongst RCG consultants. This is largely based on the assertion that the dynamics of basic communication principles and theories have not changed and that there is consequently no perceived pressure to move into the new media sphere half heartedly.