Article

Personal Experience With Narrated Events Modulates Functional Connectivity Within Visual and Motor Systems During Story Comprehension

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Abstract

Past experience of everyday life activities, which forms the basis of our knowledge about the world, greatly affects how we understand stories. Yet, little is known about how this influence is instantiated in the human brain. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how past experience facilitates functional connectivity during the comprehension of stories rich in perceptual and motor details. We found that comprehenders' past experience with the scenes and actions described in the narratives selectively modulated functional connectivity between lower- and higher-level areas within the neural systems for visual and motor processing, respectively. These intramodal interactions may play an important role in integrating personal knowledge about a narrated situation with an evolving discourse representation. This study provides empirical evidence consistent with the idea that regions related to visual and motor processing are involved in the reenactment of experience as proposed by theories of embodied cognition. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... middle temporal gyrus; Deen & McCarthy, 2010;Samur, Lai, Hagoort, & Willems, 2015). Similar associations between reading auditory descriptions and activation in multiple areas involved in auditory processing (Kurby & Zacks, 2013) and between reading vivid visual descriptions and connectivity between different areas in the visual processing system (Chow et al., 2015) have also been found. ...
... Additionally, in several neuroimaging studies, it has been found that action words (Hauk, Johnsrude, & Pulvermüller, 2004), sentences (Tettamanti et al., 2005), and even complete passages describing actions (Kurby & Zacks, 2013) all elicit activation in areas in the (pre)motor cortex. An association has also been found between reading vivid descriptions of actions and connectivity between different areas in the motor cortex (Chow et al., 2015). However, motoric language processing does not always elicit activation in the same way and in the same areas; for a more elaborate review of the task effects at hand and the precise role of the motor cortex in action language processing see for example Kemmerer (2015) or Willems and Casasanto (2011). ...
... Previous research has suggested sizeable individual differences in how much readers engage in mental simulation (e.g. Altmann, Bohrn, Lubrich, Menninghaus, & Jacobs, 2014;Chow et al., 2015;Hartung, Hagoort, & Willems, 2017;Hsu et al., 2014;Nijhof & Willems, 2015). In the present experiment we linked individual differences in gaze duration to passages high in simulation-eliciting content to absorption and appreciation for the stories. ...
Article
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People engage in simulation when reading literary narratives. In this study, we tried to pinpoint how different kinds of simulation (perceptual and motor simulation, mentalising) affect reading behaviour. Eye-tracking (gaze durations, regression probability) and questionnaire data were collected from 102 participants, who read three literary short stories. In a pre-test, 90 additional participants indicated which parts of the stories were high in one of the three kinds of simulation-eliciting content. The results show that motor simulation reduces gaze duration (faster reading), whereas perceptual simulation and mentalising increase gaze duration (slower reading). Individual differences in the effect of simulation on gaze duration were found, which were related to individual differences in aspects of story world absorption and story appreciation. These findings suggest fundamental differences between different kinds of simulation and confirm the role of simulation in absorption and appreciation.
... The general finding from these latter studies is that performance on social-cognitive measures increases immediately after reading a literary, fictional narrative, but not after reading a piece of popular fiction, nonfiction (e.g., an expository text), or nothing at all. However, three recent replication attempts did not find any significant direct effect of exposure to literary fiction compared with any of the other categories, and these failed replications have cast doubt on the social-cognitive benefits of narratives (Camerer et al., 2018;Panero et al., 2016;Samur et al., 2018). ...
... However, other studies, including some direct replications of experiments, have not found evidence for a direct positive effect of reading a piece of literary fiction as opposed to either popular fiction or nonfiction (Camerer et al., 2018;De Mulder et al., 2017;Panero et al., 2016;Samur et al., 2018; see also Djikic et al., 2012), causing many to cast doubts on the original claims. Nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis (Dodell-Feder & Tamir, 2018) that also included two of the recent failed replications (i.e., Panero et al., 2016;Samur et al., 2018), found that reading a piece of literary fiction does in fact have a small positive effect (g = .15-.16) on social-cognitive abilities (both when looking at all effect sizes and when looking exclusively at effect sizes obtained with the RMET) when compared with reading nonfiction or nothing. ...
... As described above, some studies have found evidence for a beneficial effect of literariness by comparing the effect of reading a piece of literary fiction to the effect of reading a piece of popular fiction Pino & Mazza, 2016;van Kuijk et al., 2018). However, others have not been able to reproduce this finding (Camerer et al., 2018;Panero et al., 2016;Samur et al., 2018) and this approach has since been criticized (Gavaler & Johnson, 2017;Koopman & Hakemulder, 2015;Panero et al., 2016). One of the objections is that the texts in the original experiments were chosen based on extrinsic criteria, such as prizes and ranking (for an elaborate critique, see Gavaler & Johnson, 2017), and the various texts used in the different conditions were poorly matched on, for example, content. ...
Article
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It is often argued that narratives improve social cognition, either by appealing to social-cognitive abilities as we engage with the story world and its characters, or by conveying social knowledge. Empirical studies have found support for both a correlational and a causal link between exposure to (literary, fictional) narratives and social cognition. However, a series of failed replications has cast doubt on the robustness of these claims. Here, we review the existing empirical literature and identify open questions and challenges. An important conclusion of the review is that previous research has given too little consideration to the diversity of narratives, readers, and social-cognitive processes involved in the social-cognitive potential of narratives. We therefore establish a research agenda, proposing that future research should focus on (1) the specific text characteristics that drive the social-cognitive potential of narratives, (2) the individual differences between readers with respect to their sensitivity to this potential, and (3) the various aspects of social cognition that are potentially affected by reading narratives. Our recommendations can guide the design of future studies that will help us understand how, for whom, and in what respect exposure to narratives can advantage social cognition.
... The past 15 years have provided a great deal of evidence to suggest that language comprehension involves sensorimotor representations (for a recent review of this literature, see Meteyard, Cuadrado, Bahrami, Vigliocco, 2012; for a metaanalysis of relevant behavioral findings, see Louwerse, Hutchinson, Tillman, & Recchia, 2015). Most of this work has used individual words or sentences as stimuli but recent neuroimaging research shows that sensorimotor representations are also activated during the comprehension of discourse (e.g., Chow, Mar, Xu, Liu, Wagage, & Braun, 2015;Kurby & Zacks, 2013;Nijhoff & Willems, 2015). ...
... The prediction is that there will be more sensorimotor activation in the title condition than in the control condition. Recent neuroimaging evidence shows that personal experience with the narrated events strongly modulates interactions between higher-and lower-level areas within the visual and motor processing systems (Chow et al., 2015). Thus, perhaps the neural instantiation of the clutch is as a modulator of the retrieval and integration of visual and motor knowledge into the evolving situation model. ...
Article
This article sets out to examine the role of symbolic and sensorimotor representations in discourse comprehension. It starts out with a review of the literature on situation models, showing how mental representations are constrained by linguistic and situational factors. These ideas are then extended to more explicitly include sensorimotor representations. Following Zwaan and Madden (2005), the author argues that sensorimotor and symbolic representations mutually constrain each other in discourse comprehension. These ideas are then developed further to propose two roles for abstract concepts in discourse comprehension. It is argued that they serve as pointers in memory, used (1) cataphorically to integrate upcoming information into a sensorimotor simulation, or (2) anaphorically integrate previously presented information into a sensorimotor simulation. In either case, the sensorimotor representation is a specific instantiation of the abstract concept.
... For example, in a neural narrative processing study, Chow et al. did not find evidence that prior experience must be a "one-to-one mapping . . . for experience to play a role in comprehension" (Chow et al., 2015(Chow et al., , p. 1501; instead, the researchers posit that individuals draw on "semantic knowledge" and "episodic memories" in constructing an understanding of narrative (Chow et al., 2015(Chow et al., , p. 1502. Furthermore, there is no additional evidence that suggests that the "weight" of the prior experience affects processing differentially. ...
... For example, in a neural narrative processing study, Chow et al. did not find evidence that prior experience must be a "one-to-one mapping . . . for experience to play a role in comprehension" (Chow et al., 2015(Chow et al., , p. 1501; instead, the researchers posit that individuals draw on "semantic knowledge" and "episodic memories" in constructing an understanding of narrative (Chow et al., 2015(Chow et al., , p. 1502. Furthermore, there is no additional evidence that suggests that the "weight" of the prior experience affects processing differentially. ...
Article
Narratives have been shown to alter health beliefs through a process called narrative engagement; however, this process has yet to be empirically investigated for how the increasingly popular young adult (YA) novel format can impact health beliefs about anorexia nervosa among emerging adults. Using an experimental design, we found that the YA format fosters narrative engagement through mechanisms of transportation, which is associated with greater endorsement of accurate social and emotional beliefs about anorexia nervosa. Compared to an informational brochure, the narrative format where the main character was a “supportive peer” (but not experiencing the illness herself) increased self-referencing and was perceived as more relevant among emerging adult participants. Results suggest narratives may be viable tools to communicate about little understood social and emotional aspects of chronic diseases with emerging adults, who are more likely to provide support for sick peers than experience chronic illnesses. Encouraging narrative engagement could facilitate a better understanding of the social and emotional complexity of anorexia nervosa and improve the quality of peer interactions.
... Consequently, neural activity that corroborates empathizing with fictitious characters seems to be top-down controlled, as in cognitive empathy. However, individuals seem to differ with respect to which neural systems are employed while listening to excerpts from novels (Chow et al., 2015). Nijhof and Willems (2015) found that participants who had high activation in the mentalizing network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex) when listening to the mentalizing content of literary fiction had lower motor-cortex activity when listening to the action-related content of the story, and vice versa. ...
Article
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The objective of this article is to review extant empirical studies of empathy in narrative reading in light of (i) contemporary literary theory, and (ii) neuroscientific studies of empathy, and to discuss how a closer interplay between neuroscience and literary studies may enhance our understanding of empathy in narrative reading. An introduction to some of the philosophical roots of empathy is followed by tracing its application in contemporary literary theory, in which scholars have pursued empathy with varying degrees of conceptual precision, often within the context of embodied/enactive cognition. The presentation of empirical literary studies of empathy is subsequently contextualized by an overview of psychological and neuroscientific aspects of empathy. Highlighting points of convergence and divergence, the discussion illustrates how findings of empirical literary studies align with recent neuroscientific research. The article concludes with some prospects for future empirical research, suggesting that digitization may contribute to advancing the scientific knowledge of empathy in narrative reading.
... Cela suggère que la compréhension des actions de lecture du personnage implique une simulation motrice de ses actions qui module les actions correspondantes (Gunraj, Drumm-Hewitt, & Klin, 2014). De plus, à l'intérieur d'un texte, la lecture de phrases sensorielles ou motrices active les aires correspondantes (Kurby & Zacks, 2013), ces activations étant modulées par l'expérience réelle passée du sujet avec ce qui est décrit dans le texte (Chow et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The embodied cognition is a framework which has been developed in contrast to the traditional cognitivism. This theory claims that, instead of conceiving the mind as a computer, it must be understood in the context of its relationship to a physical body that interacts with the world. Surprisingly, spatial cognition has received very little interest from this field. The aim of this review is to discuss an embodied view of spatial representations in such a way that 1. spatial representations are for guiding actions, 2. spatial representations are grounded on sensorimotor systems, that is, they share processing resources with these systems rather than being strictly separated from them. To achieve this aim, we will review experiments which show that the systems at the source of spatial representations, perception, memory, and language, are themselves embodied in that way. Finally, we will mention research focusing more directly on spatial representations. La cognition incarnée est un mouvement de pensée qui s’est développé en opposition avec le cognitivisme traditionnel. Elle considère que l’esprit ne doit pas être conçu comme un ordinateur, mais doit être compris dans le contexte de son corps, et de l’interaction de ce dernier avec l’environnement. Étonnamment, la cognition spatiale a reçu peu d’attention de la part de ce courant de recherche. L’objectif de cet article est de discuter une vision incarnée des représentations spatiales au sens où 1. elles auraient pour fonction de guider l’action, 2. elles seraient ancrées sur les systèmes sensorimoteurs c’est-à-dire qu’elles auraient des ressources de traitement en commun avec eux plutôt que d’en être indépendantes. À cette fin, nous rapporterons des expériences qui suggèrent que différentes sources des représentations spatiales ; la perception, la mémoire, et le langage, sont incarnés. Nous terminerons en mentionnant les recherches plus directement centrées sur les représentations spatiales.
... For example, Green (2004) found that undergraduate participants with personal experience or knowledge of the key themes of a story (a homosexual man attending a university reunion) reported greater transportation into the story and, correspondingly, tended to have beliefs that were consistent with the story ideas. A recent study by Chow et al. (2015) has also found preliminary evidence that past experience of particular scenes and actions directly modulates functional connectivity of visual and motor brain areas during story comprehension. ...
Article
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Readers often describe vivid experiences of voices and characters in a manner that has been likened to hallucination. Little is known, however, of how common such experiences are, nor the individual differences they may reflect. Here we present the results of a 2014 survey conducted in collaboration with a national UK newspaper and an international book festival. Participants (n=1566) completed measures of reading imagery, inner speech, and hallucination-proneness, including 413 participants who provided detailed free-text descriptions of their reading experiences. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that reading imagery was related to phenomenological characteristics of inner speech and proneness to hallucination-like experiences. However, qualitative analysis of reader's accounts suggested that vivid reading experiences were marked not just by auditory phenomenology, but also their tendency to cross over into non-reading contexts. This supports social-cognitive accounts of reading while highlighting a role for involuntary and uncontrolled personality models in the experience of fictional characters.
... Important 'cognitive' subprocesses are inferences for bridging successive events/situations, the use of background knowledge and discourse context, and pragmatic interpretations. Crucial 'affective' subprocesses are personal experience/resonance and knowledge about atmospheres and moods conveyed, e.g., by a poetic text, and so-called mood empathy Chow et al., 2015;Gittel et al., 2016;Hogan, 2010Hogan, , 2014Jacobs et al., 2016a;Lüdtke et al., 2014;Oatley, 1999). ...
Article
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Fiction is vital to our being. Many people enjoy engaging with fiction every day. Here we focus on literary reading as one instance of fiction consumption from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. The brain processes which play a role in the mental construction of fiction worlds and the related engagement with fictional characters, remain largely unknown. We discuss the Neurocognitive Poetics Model (Jacobs, 2015a) of literary reading specifying the likely neuronal correlates of several key processes in literary reading, namely inference and situation model building, immersion, mental simulation and imagery, figurative language and style, and the issue of distinguishing fact from fiction. An overview of recent work on these key processes is followed by a discussion of methodological challenges in studying the brain bases of fiction processing. 3 Introduction Fiction does not take us outside the range of human nature into something else — " convention, " or " culture, " or " literary tradition. " Ultimately, it's all human nature. Carroll (2012, p. 298).
... Ainsi, lorsque le personnage d'une histoire est décrit comme lisant silencieusement ou parlant de manière rapide ou lente, le rythme de lecture du participant est affecté seulement lorsqu'il lit silencieusement ou parle de manière congruente avec le personnage de l'histoire. Cela suggère que la compréhension des actions de lecture du personnage implique une simulation motrice de ses actions qui module les actions correspondantes (Gunraj, Drumm-Hewitt, & Klin, 2014) (Kurby & Zacks, 2013), ces activations étant modulées par l'expérience réelle passée du sujet avec ce qui est décrit dans le texte (Chow et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The embodied cognition is a framework which has been developed in contrast to the traditional cognitivism. This theory claims that, instead of conceiving the mind as a computer, it must be understood in the context of its relationship to a physical body that interacts with the world. Surprisingly, spatial cognition has received very little interest from this field. The aim of this review is to discuss an embodied view of spatial representations in such a way that 1. spatial representations are for guiding actions, 2. spatial representations are grounded on sensorimotor systems, that is, they share processing resources with these systems rather than being strictly separated from them. To achieve this aim, we will review experiments which show that the systems at the source of spatial representations, perception, memory, and language, are themselves embodied in that way. Finally, we will mention research focusing more directly on spatial representations.
... Stimuli were recordings of short paragraphs spoken by a native English male speaker in a neutral tone at approximately 155 words per minute (Chow et al., , 2015. The passages were assessed to be at a 7th grade Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. ...
Article
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Previous neuroimaging investigations of overt speech production in adults who stutter (AWS) found increased motor and decreased auditory activity compared to controls. Activity in the auditory cortex is heightened, however, under fluency-inducing conditions in which AWS temporarily become fluent while synchronizing their speech with an external rhythm, such as a metronome or another speaker. These findings suggest that stuttering is associated with disrupted auditory motor integration. Technical challenges in acquiring neuroimaging data during continuous overt speech production have limited experimental paradigms to short or covert speech tasks. Such paradigms are not ideal, as stuttering primarily occurs during longer speaking tasks. To address this gap, we used a validated spatial ICA technique designed to address speech movement artifacts during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. We compared brain activity and functional connectivity of the left auditory cortex during continuous speech production in two conditions: solo (stutter-prone) and choral (fluency-inducing) reading tasks. Overall, brain activity differences in AWS relative to controls in the two conditions were similar, showing expected patterns of hyperactivity in premotor/motor regions but underactivity in auditory regions. Functional connectivity of the left auditory cortex (STG) showed that within the AWS group there was increased correlated activity with the right insula and inferior frontal area during choral speech. The AWS also exhibited heightened connectivity between left STG and key regions of the default mode network (DMN) during solo speech. These findings indicate possible interference by the DMN during natural, stuttering-prone speech in AWS, and that enhanced coordination between auditory and motor regions may support fluent speech.
... We must admit that, even with current findings, we still have a long way to fully understand how language is represented and processed in natural settings. Experiments using longer linguistic materials than single words, such as phrases, sentences or discourse, have repeatedly found activities in modality-specific brain regions (Aziz-Zadeh, Wilson, Rizzolatti, & Iacoboni, 2006;Boulenger, Hauk, & Pulvermüller, 2009;Chow et al., 2015;Kurby & Zacks, 2013;Nijhof & Willems, 2015;Tettamanti et al., 2005); however, other studies have also revealed that such activation varies, depending on whether a word appeared in a literal or a figurative/idiomatic context (Desai, Binder, Conant, Mano, & Seidenberg, 2011;Raposo, Moss, Stamatakis, & Tyler, 2009;Schuil, Smits, & Zwaan, 2013). Therefore, we believe that linguistic representations may be capable of functioning as stand-alone representations to help users process quickly and make rapid responses in many situations, but, depending on the context (in most cases more extended than the kind of prime context used in our experiment), such representations may still need to interact with sensorimotor systems to achieve deeper comprehension (Zwaan, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that concepts are associated with modality-specific features widely distributed in the brain and that semantic hubs or convergence zones may exist to mediate or integrate distributed representations. Although much neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature has provided support for the existence of hubs/convergence zones from the spatial perspective, opinions differ as to whether the representations in the hubs/convergence zones are modality-specific or amodal. The current ERP study aimed to explore whether there is an amodal stage in conceptual processing from the temporal perspective. Participants were presented with prime-target pairs and were asked to judge whether the prime (a sensory or functional feature) could be an attribute of the target (a noun in a natural or artifactual category). The results revealed that a semantic hub or convergence zone may be reached no later than 350–450 ms in conceptual processing and that the representations in the hub may be amodal.
... В соответствии с концепцией «воплощенного» понимании (embodied comprehension) понимание включает в себя мультимодальное моделирование (simulation), т.е. процесс извлечения перцептивных, моторных и аффективных знаний понимающего через реактивацию мозговых структур, ответственных за восприятие, действие и эмоции [Barsalou 2003;Zwaan & Madden, 2005;Meteyard, 2012;Kurby, Zacks, 2013;Chow et al., 2014Chow et al., , 2015Zwaan, 2016]. Было показано, что прошлый опыт понимающего в отношении сцен и действий, описываемых в текстах, избирательно модулирует функциональные связи между низшими и высшими отделами областей, отвечающих за зрительные или моторные процессы. ...
Book
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The collective monograph reflects the problems of Russian psycholinguistics from its inception in Russia to the present day. Russian psycholinguistics, which grew out of the research of a small group of enthusiasts A.A. Leontiev, nowadays unites numerous research directions and centers and can justly be proud of important results of both theoretical as well as applied significance. The monograph is a kind of summarizing review of the development and achievements of The monograph is a kind of summarizing review of the development and achievements of psycholinguistics in Russia. Each section is supplemented by a bibliography on the relevant Each section is supplemented with the bibliography of the corresponding problem. The appendix contains scientometrics of leading Russian psycholinguists, The appendix contains a scientometric chart of the leading Russian psycholinguists, and the main monographs, manuals, and dissertations defended on psycholinguistic problems. For specialists in the field of language theory, psycholinguistics, methods Experimental methods of language research, all those interested in the history and current All those interested in the history and current state of linguistics and psycholinguistics in Russia.
... Musicians activate parts of the auditory cortex when viewing images of musical instruments, but laypersons do not (Hoenig et al., 2011). In addition, there is evidence that personal experience with events and actions affects the functional connectivity between visual and motor systems when listening to sentences describing those experiences ( Chow et al., 2015). This opens up the possibility that greater experience with the lower senses leads to stronger activation of the relevant perceptual systems during language comprehension. ...
Article
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Grounded theories hold sensorimotor activation is critical to language processing. Such theories have focused predominantly on the dominant senses of sight and hearing. Relatively fewer studies have assessed mental simulation within touch, taste, and smell, even though they are critically implicated in communication for important domains, such as health and wellbeing. We review work that sheds light on whether perceptual activation from lesser studied modalities contribute to meaning in language. We critically evaluate data from behavioural, imaging, and cross-cultural studies. We conclude that evidence for sensorimotor simulation in touch, taste, and smell is weak. Comprehending language related to these senses may instead rely on simulation of emotion, as well as crossmodal simulation of the “higher” senses of vision and audition. Overall, the data suggest the need for a refinement of embodiment theories, as not all sensory modalities provide equally strong evidence for mental simulation.
... This can be seen in the co-emergence in childhood of narrative and episodic memories (Nelson and Fivush, 2004;Hoerl, 2007), the pressure on autobiographical memories to cohere with beliefs about the self (Conway, 2005), and the role of memory in developing a narrative of the self (Fitzgerald, 1988;Wang and Conway, 2006). This relationship may also be seen in findings on the relationships between personal experience and narrative processing (Chow et al., 2015), on false memories in pictures versus verbal narratives (Garry and Wade, 2005), and on a "self-reference" effect (Carson et al., 2016). The default mode network may moderate this relationship between episodic memory, narrative, and the self, through a role in generating narrative both during task-related activities and in "resting" or "screen-saver mode" (Gerrans, 2014, p. 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reading fiction for pleasure is robustly correlated with improved cognitive attainment and other benefits. It is also in decline among young people in developed nations, in part because of competition from moving image fiction. We review existing research on the differences between reading or hearing verbal fiction and watching moving image fiction, as well as looking more broadly at research on image or text interactions and visual versus verbal processing. We conclude that verbal narrative generates more diverse responses than moving image narrative. We note that reading and viewing narrative are different tasks, with different cognitive loads. Viewing moving image narrative mostly involves visual processing with some working memory engagement, whereas reading narrative involves verbal processing, visual imagery, and personal memory (Xu et al., 2005). Attempts to compare the two by creating equivalent stimuli and task demands face a number of challenges. We discuss the difficulties of such comparative approaches. We then investigate the possibility of identifying lower level processing mechanisms that might distinguish cognition of the two media and propose internal scene construction and working memory as foci for future research. Although many of the sources we draw on concentrate on English-speaking participants in European or North American settings, we also cover material relating to speakers of Dutch, German, Hebrew, and Japanese in their respective countries, and studies of a remote Turkish mountain community.
... Ainsi, lorsque le personnage d'une histoire est décrit comme lisant silencieusement ou parlant de manière rapide ou lente, le rythme de lecture du participant est affecté seulement lorsqu'il lit silencieusement ou parle de manière congruente avec le personnage de l'histoire. Cela suggère que la compréhension des actions de lecture du personnage implique une simulation motrice de ses actions qui module les actions correspondantes (Gunraj, Drumm-Hewitt, & Klin, 2014) (Kurby & Zacks, 2013), ces activations étant modulées par l'expérience réelle passée du sujet avec ce qui est décrit dans le texte (Chow et al., 2015). ...
... В соответствии с концепцией «воплощенного» понимании (embodied comprehension) понимание включает в себя мультимодальное моделирование (simulation), т.е. процесс извлечения перцептивных, моторных и аффективных знаний понимающего через реактивацию мозговых структур, ответственных за восприятие, действие и эмоции [Barsalou 2003;Zwaan & Madden, 2005;Meteyard, 2012;Kurby, Zacks, 2013;Chow et al., 2014Chow et al., , 2015Zwaan, 2016]. Было показано, что прошлый опыт понимающего в отношении сцен и действий, описываемых в текстах, избирательно модулирует функциональные связи между низшими и высшими отделами областей, отвечающих за зрительные или моторные процессы. ...
Book
The monograph reflects the problems of Russian psycholinguistics from the moment of its inception in Russia to the present day and presents its main directions that are currently developing. In addition, theoretical developments and practical results obtained in the framework of different directions and research centers are described in a concise form. The task of the book is to reflect, as far as it is possible in one edition, firstly, the history of the formation of Russian psycholinguistics; secondly, its methodology and developed methods; thirdly, the results obtained in different research centers and directions in different regions of Russia; fourthly, to outline the main directions of the further development of Russian psycholinguistics. There is no doubt that in the theoretical, methodological and applied aspects, the main problems and the results of their development by Russian psycholinguistics have no analogues in world linguistics and psycholinguistics, or are represented by completely original concepts and methods. We have tried to show this uniqueness of the problematics and the methodological equipment of Russian psycholinguistics in this book. The main role in the formation of Russian psycholinguistics was played by the Moscow psycholinguistic school of A.A. Leontyev. It still defines the main directions of Russian psycholinguistics. Russian psycholinguistics (the theory of speech activity - TSA) is based on the achievements of Russian psychology: a cultural-historical approach to the analysis of mental phenomena L.S. Vygotsky and the system-activity approach of A.N. Leontyev. Moscow is the most "psycholinguistic region" of Russia - INL RAS, Moscow State University, Moscow State Linguistic University, RUDN, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Sechenov University, Moscow State University and other Moscow universities. Saint Petersburg psycholinguists have significant achievements, especially in the study of neurolinguistic problems, ontolinguistics. The most important feature of Russian psycholinguistics is the widespread development of psycholinguistics in the regions, the emergence of recognized psycholinguistic research centers - St. Petersburg, Tver, Saratov, Perm, Ufa, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Voronezh, Yekaterinburg, Kursk, Chelyabinsk; psycholinguistics is represented in Cherepovets, Ivanovo, Volgograd, Vyatka, Kaluga, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Vladivostok, Abakan, Maikop, Barnaul, Ulan-Ude, Yakutsk, Syktyvkar, Armavir and other cities; in Belarus - Minsk, in Ukraine - Lvov, Chernivtsi, Kharkov, in the DPR - Donetsk, in Kazakhstan - Alma-Ata, Chimkent. Our researchers work in Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, China, France, Switzerland. There are Russian psycholinguists in Canada, USA, Israel, Austria and a number of other countries. All scientists from these regions and countries have contributed to the development of Russian psycholinguistics, to the development of psycholinguistic theory and methods of psycholinguistic research. Their participation has not been forgotten. We tried to present the main Russian psycholinguists in the Appendix - in the sections "Scientometrics", "Monographs and Manuals" and "Dissertations", even if there is no information about them in the Electronic Library and RSCI. The principles of including scientists in the scientometric list are presented in the Appendix. Our analysis of the content of the resulting monograph on psycholinguistic research in Russia allows us to draw preliminary conclusions about some of the distinctive features of Russian psycholinguistics: 1. cultural-historical approach to the analysis of mental phenomena of L.S.Vygotsky and the system-activity approach of A.N. Leontiev as methodological basis of Russian psycholinguistics; 2. theoretical nature of psycholinguistic research as a characteristic feature of Russian psycholinguistics. Our psycholinguistics has always built a general theory of the generation and perception of speech, mental vocabulary, linked specific research with the problems of ontogenesis, the relationship between language and thinking; 3. psycholinguistic studies of speech communication as an important subject of psycholinguistics; 4. attention to the psycholinguistic analysis of the text and the development of methods for such analysis; 5. active research into the ontogenesis of linguistic ability; 6. investigation of linguistic consciousness as one of the important subjects of psycholinguistics; 7. understanding the need to create associative dictionaries of different types as the most important practical task of psycholinguistics; 8. widespread use of psycholinguistic methods for applied purposes, active development of applied psycholinguistics. The review of the main directions of development of Russian psycholinguistics, carried out in this monograph, clearly shows that the direction associated with the study of linguistic consciousness is currently being most intensively developed in modern Russian psycholinguistics. As the practice of many years of psycholinguistic research in our country shows, the subject of study of psycholinguists is precisely linguistic consciousness - this is a part of human consciousness that is responsible for generating, understanding speech and keeping language in consciousness. Associative experiments are the core of most psycholinguistic techniques and are important both theoretically and practically. The following main areas of practical application of the results of associative experiments can be outlined. 1. Education. Associative experiments are the basis for constructing Mind Maps, one of the most promising tools for systematizing knowledge, assessing the quality, volume and nature of declarative knowledge (and using special techniques and skills). Methods based on smart maps are already widely used in teaching foreign languages, fast and deep immersion in various subject areas. 2. Information search, search optimization. The results of associative experiments can significantly improve the quality of information retrieval, its efficiency, as well as adaptability for a specific person (social group). When promoting sites (promoting them in search results), an associative experiment allows you to increase and improve the quality of the audience reached. 3. Translation studies, translation automation. An associative experiment can significantly improve the quality of translation, take into account intercultural and other social characteristics of native speakers. 4. Computational linguistics and automatic word processing. The results of associative experiments make it possible to reveal the features of a person's linguistic consciousness and contribute to the development of automatic text processing systems in a wide range of applications of natural language interfaces of computer programs and robotic solutions. 5. Advertising. The use of data on associations for specific words, slogans and texts allows you to predict and improve advertising texts. 6. Social relationships. The analysis of texts using the data of associative experiments makes it possible to assess the tonality of messages (negative / positive moods, aggression and other characteristics) based on user comments on the Internet and social networks, in the press in various projections (by individuals, events, organizations, etc.) from various social angles, to diagnose the formation of extremist ideas. 7. Content control and protection of personal data. Associative experiments improve the quality of content detection and filtering by identifying associative fields in areas subject to age restrictions, personal information, tobacco and alcohol advertising, incitement to ethnic hatred, etc. 8. Gender and individual differences. The data of associative experiments can be used to compare the reactions (and, in general, other features of thinking) between men and women, different social and age groups, representatives of different regions. The directions for the further development of Russian psycholinguistics from the standpoint of the current state of psycholinguistic science in the country are seen by us, first of all:  in the development of research in various areas of linguistic consciousness, which will contribute to the development of an important concept of speech as a verbal model of non-linguistic consciousness, in which knowledge revealed by social practice and assigned by each member of society during its inculturation is consolidated for society and on its behalf;  in the expansion of the problematics, which is formed under the influence of the growing intercultural communication in the world community, which inevitably involves the speech behavior of natural and artificial bilinguals in the new object area of psycholinguistics;  in using the capabilities of national linguistic corpora in the interests of researchers studying the functioning of non-linguistic and linguistic consciousness in speech processes;  in expanding research on the semantic perception of multimodal texts, the scope of which has greatly expanded in connection with the spread of the Internet as a means of communication in the life of modern society;  in the inclusion of the problems of professional communication and professional activity in the object area of psycholinguistics in connection with the introduction of information technologies into public practice, entailing the emergence of new professions and new features of the professional ethos;  in the further development of the theory of the mental lexicon (identifying the role of different types of knowledge in its formation and functioning, the role of the word as a unit of the mental lexicon in the formation of the image of the world, as well as the role of the natural / internal metalanguage and its specificity in speech activity);  in the broad development of associative lexicography, which will meet the most diverse needs of society and cognitive sciences. The development of associative lexicography may lead to the emergence of such disciplines as associative typology, associative variantology, associative axiology;  in expanding the spheres of applied use of psycholinguistics in social sciences, sociology, semasiology, lexicography, in the study of the brain, linguodidactics, medicine, etc. This book is a kind of summarizing result of the development of Russian psycholinguistics today. Each section provides a bibliography of studies on the relevant issue. The Appendix contains the scientometrics of leading Russian psycholinguists, basic monographs, psycholinguistic textbooks and dissertations defended in psycholinguistics. The content of the publications presented here is convincing evidence of the relevance of psycholinguistic topics and the effectiveness of the development of psycholinguistic problems in Russia.
... Вариативность в видении глобальной ситуации объясняется различием индивидуального знания и опыта испытуемых, в том числе опыта прочтения и анализа художественных произведений. Когнитивные исследования дифференцируют читателей художественных текстов по разным критериям: 1) по избирательности интрамодальных связей в интеграции личных знаний об описываемой ситуации [13]; 2) по приоритетности вовлечения разных отделов мозга в процессы понимания и интерпретации текста: одни читатели «зеркалят» действия персонажей, а другие фокусируются на переживаниях героев, что предполагает активацию разных корковых отделов мозга [14]. Полнота/неполнота понимания главного события текста и способность воплотить индивидуальное понимание в вербальной форме зависят от множества факторов, прежде всего от специфики уникального перцептивно-когнитивно-аффективного опыта реципиента текста, его языковых и экстралингвистических знаний. ...
Book
The human imagination manifests in countless different forms. We imagine the possible and the impossible. How do we do this so effortlessly? Why did the capacity for imagination evolve and manifest with undeniably manifold complexity uniquely in human beings? This handbook reflects on such questions by collecting perspectives on imagination from leading experts. It showcases a rich and detailed analysis on how the imagination is understood across several disciplines of study, including anthropology, archaeology, medicine, neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and the arts. An integrated theoretical-empirical-applied picture of the field is presented, which stands to inform researchers, students, and practitioners about the issues of relevance across the board when considering the imagination. With each chapter, the nature of human imagination is examined – what it entails, how it evolved, and why it singularly defines us as a species.
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The embodied view of language processing proposes that comprehension involves multimodal simulations, a process that retrieves a comprehender's perceptual, motor, and affective knowledge through reactivation of the neural systems responsible for perception, action, and emotion. Although evidence in support of this idea is growing, the contemporary neuroanatomical model of language suggests that comprehension largely emerges as a result of interactions between frontotemporal language areas in the left hemisphere. If modality-specific neural systems are involved in comprehension, they are not likely to operate in isolation but should interact with the brain regions critical to language processing. However, little is known about the ways in which language and modality-specific neural systems interact. To investigate this issue, we conducted a functional MRI study in which participants listened to stories that contained visually vivid, action-based, and emotionally charged content. Activity of neural systems associated with visual-spatial, motor, and affective processing were selectively modulated by the relevant story content. Importantly, when functional connectivity patterns associated with the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), and the bilateral anterior temporal lobes (aTL) were compared, both LIFG and pMTG, but not the aTL, showed enhanced connectivity with the three modality-specific systems relevant to the story content. Taken together, our results suggest that language regions are engaged in perceptual, motor, and affective simulations of the described situation, which manifest through their interactions with modality-specific systems. On the basis of our results and past research, we propose that the LIFG and pMTG play unique roles in multimodal simulations during story comprehension.
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Stimulus repetition in identification tasks leads to improved behavioral performance ("repetition priming") but attenuated neural responses ("repetition suppression") throughout task-engaged cortical regions. While it's clear that this pervasive brain-behavior relationship reflects some form of improved processing efficiency, the exact form that it takes remains elusive. In this Discussion Paper, we review four different theoretical proposals that have the potential to link repetition suppression and priming, with a particular focus on a proposal that stimulus repetition affects improved efficiency through enhanced neural synchronization. We argue that despite exciting recent work on the role of neural synchronization in cognitive processes such as attention and perception, similar studies in the domain of learning and memory - and priming, in particular - have been lacking. We emphasize the need for new studies with adequate spatiotemporal resolution, formulate several novel predictions, and discuss our ongoing efforts to disentangle the current proposals.
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High-γ amplitude (80-150 Hz) represents motor information, such as movement types, on the sensorimotor cortex. In several cortical areas, high-γ amplitudes are coupled with low-frequency phases, e.g., α and θ (phase-amplitude coupling, PAC). However, such coupling has not been studied in the sensorimotor cortex; thus, its potential functional role has yet to be explored. We investigated PAC of high-γ amplitude in the sensorimotor cortex during waiting for and the execution of movements using electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in humans. ECoG signals were recorded from the sensorimotor cortices of 4 epilepsy patients while they performed three different hand movements. A subset of electrodes showed high-γ activity selective to movement type around the timing of motor execution, while the same electrodes showed nonselective high-γ activity during the waiting period (>2 s before execution). Cross frequency coupling analysis revealed that the high-γ amplitude during waiting was strongly coupled with the α phase (10-14 Hz) at the electrodes with movement-selective high-γ amplitudes during execution. This coupling constituted the high-γ amplitude peaking around the trough of the α oscillation, and its strength and phase were not predictive of movement type. As the coupling attenuated toward the timing of motor execution, the high-γ amplitude appeared to be released from the α phase to build a motor representation with phase-independent activity. Our results suggest that PAC modulates motor representation in the sensorimotor cortex by holding and releasing high-γ activity in movement-selective cortical regions.
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AIthough intraclass correlation coefficients (lCCs) are commonIy used in behavioral measurement, pychometrics, and behavioral genetics, procodures available for forming inferences about ICC are not widely known. Following a review of the distinction between various forms of the ICC, this article presents procedures available for calculating confidence intervals and conducting tests on ICCs developed using data from one-way and two-way random and mixed-efFect analysis of variance models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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People differ in their ability to perform novel perceptual tasks, both during initial exposure and in the rate of improvement with practice. It is also known that regions of the brain recruited by particular tasks change their activity during learning. Here we investigate neural signals predictive of individual variability in performance. We used resting-state functional MRI to assess functional connectivity before training on a novel visual discrimination task. Subsequent task performance was related to functional connectivity measures within portions of visual cortex and between visual cortex and prefrontal association areas. Our results indicate that individual differences in performing novel perceptual tasks can be related to individual differences in spontaneous cortical activity.
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In analyses of the motor system, two hierarchies are often posited: The first-the action hierarchy-is a decomposition of an action into subactions and sub-subactions. The second-the control hierarchy-is a postulated hierarchy in the neural control processes that are supposed to bring about the action. A general assumption in cognitive neuroscience is that these two hierarchies are internally consistent and provide complementary descriptions of neuronal control processes. In this article, we suggest that neither offers a complete explanation and that they cannot be reconciled in a logical or conceptually coherent way. Furthermore, neither pays proper attention to the dynamics and temporal aspects of neural control processes. We will explore an alternative hierarchical organization in which causality is inherent in the dynamics over time. Specifically, high levels of the hierarchy encode more stable (goal-related) representations, whereas lower levels represent more transient (actions and motor acts) kinematics. If employed properly, a hierarchy based on this latter principle of temporal extension is not subject to the problems that plague the traditional accounts.
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Interest has increased recently in correlations across brain regions in the resting-state fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response, but little is known about the functional significance of these correlations. Here we directly test the behavioral relevance of the resting-state correlation between two face-selective regions in human brain, the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA). We found that the magnitude of the resting-state correlation, henceforth called functional connectivity (FC), between OFA and FFA correlates with an individual's performance on a number of face-processing tasks, not non-face tasks. Further, we found that the behavioral significance of the OFA/FFA FC is independent of the functional activation and the anatomical size of either the OFA or FFA, suggesting that face processing depends not only on the functionality of individual face-selective regions, but also on the synchronized spontaneous neural activity between them. Together, these findings provide strong evidence that the functional correlations in the BOLD response observed at rest reveal functionally significant properties of cortical processing.
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Task-based neuroimaging studies face the challenge of developing tasks capable of equivalently probing reading networks across different age groups. Resting-state fMRI, which requires no specific task, circumvents these difficulties. Here, in 25 children (8-14 years) and 25 adults (21-46 years), we examined the extent to which individual differences in reading competence can be related to resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of regions implicated in reading. In both age groups, reading standard scores correlated positively with RSFC between the left precentral gyrus and other motor regions, and between Broca's and Wernicke's areas. This suggests that, regardless of age group, stronger coupling among motor regions, as well as between language/speech regions, subserves better reading, presumably reflecting automatized articulation. We also observed divergent RSFC-behavior relationships in children and adults, particularly those anchored in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) (the visual word form area). In adults, but not children, better reading performance was associated with stronger positive correlations between FFG and phonology-related regions (Broca's area and the left inferior parietal lobule), and with stronger negative relationships between FFG and regions of the "task-negative" default network. These results suggest that both positive RSFC (functional coupling) between reading regions and negative RSFC (functional segregation) between a reading region and default network regions are important for automatized reading, characteristic of adult readers. Together, our task-independent RSFC findings highlight the importance of appreciating developmental changes in the neural correlates of reading competence, and suggest that RSFC may serve to facilitate the identification of reading disorders in different age groups.
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During object perception, the brain integrates simple features into representations of complex objects. A perceptual phenomenon known as visual crowding selectively interferes with this process. Here, we use crowding to characterize a neural correlate of feature integration. Cortical activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, simultaneously in multiple areas of the ventral visual pathway (V1-V4 and the visual word form area, VWFA, which responds preferentially to familiar letters), while human subjects viewed crowded and uncrowded letters. Temporal correlations between cortical areas were lower for crowded letters than for uncrowded letters, especially between V1 and VWFA. These differences in correlation were retinotopically specific, and persisted when attention was diverted from the letters. But correlation differences were not evident when we substituted the letters with grating patches that were not crowded under our stimulus conditions. We conclude that inter-area correlations reflect feature integration and are disrupted by crowding. We propose that crowding may perturb the transformations between neural representations along the ventral pathway that underlie the integration of features into objects.
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The division of cortical visual processing into distinct dorsal and ventral streams is a key framework that has guided visual neuroscience. The characterization of the ventral stream as a 'What' pathway is relatively uncontroversial, but the nature of dorsal stream processing is less clear. Originally proposed as mediating spatial perception ('Where'), more recent accounts suggest it primarily serves non-conscious visually guided action ('How'). Here, we identify three pathways emerging from the dorsal stream that consist of projections to the prefrontal and premotor cortices, and a major projection to the medial temporal lobe that courses both directly and indirectly through the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. These three pathways support both conscious and non-conscious visuospatial processing, including spatial working memory, visually guided action and navigation, respectively.
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Over the last decade, there has been an increasing body of work that explores whether sensory and motor information is a necessary part of semantic representation and processing. This is the embodiment hypothesis. This paper presents a theoretical review of this work that is intended to be useful for researchers in the neurosciences and neuropsychology. Beginning with a historical perspective, relevant theories are placed on a continuum from strongly embodied to completely unembodied representations. Predictions are derived and neuroscientific and neuropsychological evidence that could support different theories is reviewed; finally, criticisms of embodiment are discussed. We conclude that strongly embodied and completely disembodied theories are not supported, and that the remaining theories agree that semantic representation involves some form of convergence zones (Damasio, 1989) and the activation of modal content. For the future, research must carefully define the boundaries of semantic processing and tackle the representation of abstract entities.
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Texts form a powerful tool in teaching concepts and principles in science. How do readers extract information from a text, and what are the limitations in this process? Central to comprehension of and learning from a text is the construction of a coherent mental representation that integrates the textual information and relevant background knowledge. This representation engenders learning if it expands the reader’s existing knowledge base or if it corrects misconceptions in this knowledge base. The Landscape Model captures the reading process and the influences of reader characteristics (such as working-memory capacity, reading goal, prior knowledge, and inferential skills) and text characteristics (such as content/structure of presented information, processing demands, and textual cues). The model suggests factors that can optimize—or jeopardize—learning science from text.
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According to embodied theories of language, people understand a verb like throw, at least in part, by mentally simulating throwing. This implicit simulation is often assumed to be similar or identical to motor imagery. Here we used fMRI to test whether implicit simulations of actions during language understanding involve the same cortical motor regions as explicit motor imagery. Healthy participants were presented with verbs related to hand actions (e.g., to throw) and nonmanual actions (e.g., to kneel). They either read these verbs (lexical decision task) or actively imagined performing the actions named by the verbs (imagery task). Primary motor cortex showed effector-specific activation during imagery, but not during lexical decision. Parts of premotor cortex distinguished manual from nonmanual actions during both lexical decision and imagery, but there was no overlap or correlation between regions activated during the two tasks. These dissociations suggest that implicit simulation and explicit imagery cued by action verbs may involve different types of motor representations and that the construct of "mental simulation" should be distinguished from "mental imagery" in embodied theories of language.
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The brain is not a passive sensory-motor analyzer driven by environmental stimuli, but actively maintains ongoing representations that may be involved in the coding of expected sensory stimuli, prospective motor responses, and prior experience. Spontaneous cortical activity has been proposed to play an important part in maintaining these ongoing, internal representations, although its functional role is not well understood. One spontaneous signal being intensely investigated in the human brain is the interregional temporal correlation of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal recorded at rest by functional MRI (functional connectivity-by-MRI, fcMRI, or BOLD connectivity). This signal is intrinsic and coherent within a number of distributed networks whose topography closely resembles that of functional networks recruited during tasks. While it is apparent that fcMRI networks reflect anatomical connectivity, it is less clear whether they have any dynamic functional importance. Here, we demonstrate that visual perceptual learning, an example of adult neural plasticity, modifies the resting covariance structure of spontaneous activity between networks engaged by the task. Specifically, after intense training on a shape-identification task constrained to one visual quadrant, resting BOLD functional connectivity and directed mutual interaction between trained visual cortex and frontal-parietal areas involved in the control of spatial attention were significantly modified. Critically, these changes correlated with the degree of perceptual learning. We conclude that functional connectivity serves a dynamic role in brain function, supporting the consolidation of previous experience.
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The sensory-motor account of conceptual processing suggests that modality-specific attributes play a central role in the organization of object and action knowledge in the brain. An opposing view emphasizes the abstract, amodal, and symbolic character of concepts, which are thought to be represented outside the brain's sensory-motor systems. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which the participants listened to sentences describing hand/arm action events, visual events, or abstract behaviors. In comparison to visual and abstract sentences, areas associated with planning and control of hand movements, motion perception, and vision were activated when understanding sentences describing actions. Sensory-motor areas were activated to a greater extent also for sentences with actions that relied mostly on hands, as opposed to arms. Visual sentences activated a small area in the secondary visual cortex, whereas abstract sentences activated superior temporal and inferior frontal regions. The results support the view that linguistic understanding of actions partly involves imagery or simulation of actions, and relies on some of the same neural substrate used for planning, performing, and perceiving actions.
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This meta-analysis explores the role of the mirror and mentalizing systems in the understanding of other people's action goals. Based on over 200 fMRI studies, this analysis demonstrates that the mirror system - consisting of the anterior intraparietal sulcus and the premotor cortex - is engaged when one perceives articulated motions of body parts irrespective of their sensory (visual or auditory) or verbal format as well as when the perceiver executes them. This confirms the matching role of the mirror system in understanding biological action. Observation of whole-body motions and gaze engage the posterior superior temporal sulcus and most likely reflects an orientation response in line with the action or attention of the observed actor. In contrast, the mentalizing system - consisting of the temporo-parietal junction, the medial prefrontal cortex and the precuneus - is activated when behavior that enables inferences to be made about goals, beliefs or moral issues is presented in abstract terms (e.g., verbal stories or geometric shapes) and there is no perceivable biological motion of body parts. A striking overlap of brain activity at the temporo-parietal junction between social inferences and other, non-social observations (e.g., Posner's cuing task) suggests that this area computes the orientation or direction of the behavior in order to predict its likely end-state (or goal). No conclusions are drawn about the specific functionality of the precuneus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Because the mirror and mentalizing systems are rarely concurrently active, it appears that neither system subserves the other. Rather, they are complementary. There seems, however, to be a transition from the mirror to the mentalizing system even when body-part motions are observed by perceivers who are consciously deliberating about the goals of others and their behavioral executions, such as when perceived body motions are contextually inconsistent, implausible or pretended.
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Neuronal gamma-band synchronization is found in many cortical areas, is induced by different stimuli or tasks, and is related to several cognitive capacities. Thus, it appears as if many different gamma-band synchronization phenomena subserve many different functions. I argue that gamma-band synchronization is a fundamental process that subserves an elemental operation of cortical computation. Cortical computation unfolds in the interplay between neuronal dynamics and structural neuronal connectivity. A core motif of neuronal connectivity is convergence, which brings about both selectivity and invariance of neuronal responses. However, those core functions can be achieved simultaneously only if converging neuronal inputs are functionally segmented and if only one segment is selected at a time. This segmentation and selection can be elegantly achieved if structural connectivity interacts with neuronal synchronization. I propose that this process is at least one of the fundamental functions of gamma-band synchronization, which then subserves numerous higher cognitive functions.
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Experience alters behavior by producing enduring changes in the neural processes that support performance. For example, performing a specific action improves the execution of that action via changes in associated sensory and motor neural circuitry, and experience using language improves language comprehension by altering the anatomy and physiology of perisylvian neocortical brain regions. Here we provide evidence that specialized (sports) motor experience enhances action-related language understanding by recruitment of left dorsal lateral premotor cortex, a region normally devoted to higher-level action selection and implementation—even when there is no intention to perform a real action. Experience playing and watching sports has enduring effects on language understanding by changing the neural networks that subserve comprehension to incorporate areas active in performing sports skills. Without such experience, sport novices recruit lower-level sensory-motor regions, thought to support the instantiation of movement, during language processing, and activity in primary motor areas does not help comprehension. Thus, the language system is sufficiently plastic and dynamic to encompass expertise-related neural recruitment outside core language networks. • expertise • premotor • action planning • motor stimulation • comprehension
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A theory is proposed that the feeling of personal resonance while reading literary texts arises when the reader is reminded of personal experiences from the past in which he / she played an active role. The usefulness of conventional thinking aloud methods for studying this phenomenon and appreciation of literature in general is questioned, primarily because they interrupt and disturb the reading process. A method called self probed retrospection is developed which is a hybrid of concurrent thinking aloud and retrospective probing, involving self-cued recall of concurrent thoughts after the person has finished reading. It is shown that very few of the remindings that occured while reading are forgotten when this method is used. An experiment comparing a literary and an expository text of 3000 words was carried out. It was found that in remindings elicited by the literary text, the subject was more often an actor than an observer or receiver of information; in the expository text, just as many remindings were elicited, but the reader was most often a passive receiver in these memories. Furthermore, remindings occurred more frequently at the beginning of the texts than at the end, especially in the literary text.
Article
The neural correlates of narrative production and comprehension remain poorly understood. Here, using PET, fMRI, contrast and functional network connectivity analyses we comprehensively characterize the neural mechanisms underlying these complex behaviors. Eighteen healthy subjects told and listened to fictional stories during scanning. In addition to traditional language areas (e.g., left inferior frontal and posterior middle temporal gyri), both narrative production and comprehension engaged regions associated with mentalizing and situation model construction (e.g., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and inferior parietal lobules) as well as neocortical premotor areas, such as the pre-supplementary motor area and left dorsal premotor cortex. Narrative comprehension alone showed marked bilaterality, activating right hemisphere homologues of perisylvian language areas. Narrative production remained predominantly left lateralized, uniquely activating executive and motor-related regions essential to language formulation and articulation. Connectivity analyses revealed strong associations between language areas and the superior and middle temporal gyri during both tasks. However, only during storytelling were these same language related regions connected to cortical and subcortical motor regions. In contrast, during story comprehension alone, they were strongly linked to regions supporting mentalizing. Thus, when employed in a more complex, ecologically-valid context, language production and comprehension show both overlapping and idiosyncratic patterns of activation and functional connectivity. Importantly, in each case the language system is integrated with regions that support other cognitive and sensorimotor domains.
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Four theories of the human conceptual system—semantic memory, exemplar models, feed‐forward connectionist nets, and situated simulation theory—are characterised and contrasted on five dimensions: (1) architecture (modular vs. non‐modular), (2) representation (amodal vs. modal), (3) abstraction (decontextualised vs. situated), (4) stability (stable vs. dynamical), and (5) organisation (taxonomic vs. action–environment interface). Empirical evidence is then reviewed for the situated simulation theory, and the following conclusions are reached. Because the conceptual system shares mechanisms with perception and action, it is non-modular. As a result, conceptual representations are multi-modal simulations distributed across modality‐specific systems. A given simulation for a concept is situated, preparing an agent for situated action with a particular instance, in a particular setting. Because a concept delivers diverse simulations that prepare agents for action in many different situations, it is dynamical. Because the conceptual system’s primary purpose is to support situated action, it becomes organised around the action–environment interface.
Article
"Transportation into a narrative world" (Green & Brock, 2000, 2002) has been identified as a mechanism of narrative impact. A transported individual is cognitively and emotionally involved in the story and may experience vivid mental images. In the study reported here, undergraduate participants (N = 152) read a narrative about a homosexual man attending his college fraternity reunion, rated their transportation into the story, rated the perceived realism of the story, and responded to statements describing story-relevant beliefs. Transportation was positively correlated with perceived realism. Furthermore, individuals with prior knowledge or experience relevant to the themes of the story (e.g., had homosexual friends or family members, were knowledgeable about American fraternities) showed greater transportation into the story. Highly transported readers showed more story-consistent beliefs, and the positive relationship between transportation and story-consistent beliefs held for those both with and without previous relevant experience.
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Reports 3 errors in the original article by K. O. McGraw and S. P. Wong (Psychological Methods, 1996, 1[1], 30–46). On page 39, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and r values given in Table 6 should be changed to r = .714 for each data set, ICC(C,1) = .714 for each data set, and ICC(A,1) = .720, .620, and .485 for the data in Columns 1, 2, and 3 of the table, respectively. In Table 7 (p. 41), which is used to determine confidence intervals on population values of the ICC, the procedures for obtaining the confidence intervals on ICC(A,k) need to be amended slightly. Corrected formulas are given. On pages 44–46, references to Equations A3, A,4, and so forth in the Appendix should be to Sections A3, A4, and so forth. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1996-03170-003.). Although intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are commonly used in behavioral measurement, psychometrics, and behavioral genetics, procedures available for forming inferences about ICC are not widely known. Following a review of the distinction between various forms of the ICC, this article presents procedures available for calculating confidence intervals and conducting tests on ICCs developed using data from one-way and two-way random and mixed-effect analysis of variance models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments, theoretically motivated by the construction‐integration model of comprehension (W. Kintsch, 1988), investigated effects of prior knowledge on learning from high‐ and low‐coherence history texts. In Experiment 1, participants’ comprehension was examined through free recall, multiple‐choice questions, and a keyword sorting task. An advantage was found for the high‐coherence text on recall and multiple‐choice questions. However, high‐knowledge readers performed better on the sorting task after reading the low‐coherence text. In Experiment 2, participants’ comprehension was examined through open‐ended questions and the sorting task both immediately and after a 1‐week delay. Little effect of delay was found, and the previous sorting task results failed to replicate. As predicted, high‐knowledge readers performed better on the open‐ended questions after reading the low‐coherence text. Reading times from both experiments indicated that the low‐coherence text requires more inference processes. These inferences are more likely to be successful and useful for high‐knowledge readers.
Article
Oscillations in brain activity have long been known, but many fundamental aspects of such brain rhythms, particularly their functional importance, have been unclear. As we review here, new insights into these issues are emerging from the application of intervention approaches. In these approaches, the timing of brain oscillations is manipulated by non-invasive brain stimulation, either through sensory input or transcranially, and the behavioural consequence then monitored. Notably, such manipulations have led to rapid, periodic fluctuations in behavioural performance, which co-cycle with underlying brain oscillations. Such findings establish a causal relationship between brain oscillations and behaviour, and are allowing novel tests of longstanding models about the functions of brain oscillations.
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After an initial consideration of psychological experimentation, the author describes a long series of experiments in the fields of perception, imagination, and remembering, using material which approximated that found in everyday life. The work on perceiving utilized chiefly geometrical diagrams; and that on imagination, ink-blots. The results in these two cases revealed the influence of the subjects' attitudes and indicated their tendency to introduce previously learned material. In the experiments on remembering two methods were used, one the method of repeated reproduction by a given subject and the other the method of serial reproduction where the material reproduced by one subject became the learning material for a second subject whose recall constituted the learning material for a third subject, etc. This latter series of experiments showed that proper names and titles are very unstable in recall, that there is a bias toward the concrete, that individualizing aspects of the material (stories) tend to be lost, and that abbreviations and rationalizations occur. Throughout the book emphasis is placed on the social determinants of the manner and matter of recall, a point of view which is supported in the anthropological material cited. "Remembering is not the re-excitation of innumerable fixed, lifeless and fragmentary traces. It is an imaginative reconstruction, or construction, built out of the relation of our attitude towards a whole active mass of organized past reactions or experience, and to a little outstanding detail which commonly appears in image or in language form." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Perception is influenced both by the immediate pattern of sensory inputs and by memories acquired through prior experiences with the world. Throughout much of its illustrious history, however, study of the cellular basis of perception has focused on neuronal structures and events that underlie the detection and discrimination of sensory stimuli. Relatively little attention has been paid to the means by which memories interact with incoming sensory signals. Building upon recent neurophysiological/behavioral studies of the cortical substrates of visual associative memory, I propose a specific functional process by which stored information about the world supplements sensory inputs to yield neuronal signals that can account for visual perceptual experience. This perspective represents a significant shift in the way we think about the cellular bases of perception.
Article
We investigated how auditory language processing is modified by a listener’s previous experience with the specific activities mentioned in the speech. In particular, we asked whether neural responses related to language processing depend on one’s experience with the action-based content of this language. Ice-hockey players and novices passively listened to sentences about ice-hockey and everyday situations during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When listening to action-related sentences, neural activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) depended on one’s actual (physical) experience with the action described in the sentence: hockey experts showed greater activity in these regions than novices for hockey sentences, but not for everyday-action sentences. Thus, personal experience with linguistic content modulated activity both in regions associated with language comprehension (IFG) and in those related to complex action planning (PMd). Moreover, hockey experts (who have extensive experience with both hockey and everyday situations) showed greater activity in left IFG regions for hockey relative to everyday sentences. This suggests that the degree to which one finds information personally relevant (i.e., over and above one’s direct experience with it) also modulates processing in brain regions related to semantic-level processing.
Article
The present paper presents a series of studies showing that relevant contextual knowledge is a prerequisite for comprehending prose passages. Four studies are reported, each demonstrating increased comprehension ratings and recall scores when Ss were supplied with appropriate information before they heard test passages. Supplying Ss with the same information subsequent to the passages produced much lower comprehension ratings and recall scores. Various explanations of the results are considered, and the role of topics in activating cognitive contexts is discussed.
Article
Semantic memory includes all acquired knowledge about the world and is the basis for nearly all human activity, yet its neurobiological foundation is only now becoming clear. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate two striking results: the participation of modality-specific sensory, motor, and emotion systems in language comprehension, and the existence of large brain regions that participate in comprehension tasks but are not modality-specific. These latter regions, which include the inferior parietal lobe and much of the temporal lobe, lie at convergences of multiple perceptual processing streams. These convergences enable increasingly abstract, supramodal representations of perceptual experience that support a variety of conceptual functions including object recognition, social cognition, language, and the remarkable human capacity to remember the past and imagine the future.
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This article reviews research on the use of situation models in language comprehension and memory retrieval over the past 15 years. Situation models are integrated mental representations of a described state of affairs. Significant progress has been made in the scientific understanding of how situation models are involved in language comprehension and memory retrieval. Much of this research focuses on establishing the existence of situation models, often by using tasks that assess one dimension of a situation model. However, the authors argue that the time has now come for researchers to begin to take the multidimensionality of situation models seriously. The authors offer a theoretical framework and some methodological observations that may help researchers to tackle this issue.
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In this article we assume a domain-specific organisation of conceptual knowledge and consider two questions: How does this architecture constrain further assumptions that might be made regarding (1) the organisation of conceptual knowledge in the brain, and (2) the representation of conceptual knowledge in the brain? Data from category-specific semantic deficits, functional neuroimaging, and apraxia are recruited in attempt to clarify these questions. It is shown that the domain-specific hypothesis can account for the extant facts. Furthermore, we outline one possible theoretical framework that imposes empirical constraints on proposals that might be advanced in response to the two questions raised above.
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Reading, writing, and oral communication are critical literacy practices for participation in a global society. In the context of science inquiry, literacy practices support learners by enabling them to grapple with ideas, share their thoughts, enrich understanding, and solve problems. Here we suggest five instructional and curricular features that can support students in developing literacy in the context of science: (i) linking new ideas to prior knowledge and experiences, (ii) anchoring learning in questions that are meaningful in the lives of students, (iii) connecting multiple representations, (iv) providing opportunities for students to use science ideas, and (v) supporting students' engagement with the discourses of science. These five features will promote students' ability to read, write, and communicate about science so that they can engage in inquiry throughout their lives.
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According to the "sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge," different categories of knowledge differ for the weight that different "sources of knowledge" have in their representation. Our study aimed to evaluate this model, checking if subjective evaluations given by normal subjects confirm the different weight that various sources of knowledge have in the representation of different biological and artifact categories and of unique entities, such as famous people or monuments. Results showed that the visual properties are considered as the main source of knowledge for all the living and nonliving categories (as well as for unique entities), but that the clustering of these "sources of knowledge" is different for biological and artifacts categories. Visual data are, indeed, mainly associated with other perceptual (auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactual) attributes in the mental representation of living beings and unique entities, whereas they are associated with action-related properties and tactile information in the case of artifacts.
Article
To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character's physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change.
Article
Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this framework, simulators implement the concepts that underlie knowledge, and situated conceptualizations capture patterns of multi-modal simulation associated with frequently experienced situations. A pattern completion inference mechanism uses current perception to activate situated conceptualizations that produce predictions via simulations on relevant modalities. Empirical findings from perception, action, working memory, conceptual processing, language and social cognition illustrate how this framework produces the extensive prediction that characterizes natural intelligence.
Article
Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using unsmoothed, single-subject analyses we show sVx can be reliably found in all 16 investigated participants. Beside the ventral premotor (BA6/44) and inferior parietal cortex (area PF) where mirror neurons (MNs) have been found in monkeys, sVx were reliably observed in dorsal premotor, supplementary motor, middle cingulate, somatosensory (BA3, BA2, and OP1), superior parietal, middle temporal cortex and cerebellum. For the premotor, somatosensory and parietal areas, sVx were more numerous in the left hemisphere. The hand representation of the primary motor cortex showed a reduced BOLD during hand action observation, possibly preventing undesired overt imitation. This study provides a more detailed description of the location and reliability of sVx and proposes a model that extends the original idea of the MNS to include forward and inverse internal models and motor and sensory simulation, distinguishing the MNS from a more general concept of sVx.
Article
Spatial navigation is a core cognitive ability in humans and animals. Neuroimaging studies have identified two functionally defined brain regions that activate during navigational tasks and also during passive viewing of navigationally relevant stimuli such as environmental scenes: the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial complex (RSC). Recent findings indicate that the PPA and RSC have distinct and complementary roles in spatial navigation, with the PPA more concerned with representation of the local visual scene and RSC more concerned with situating the scene within the broader spatial environment. These findings are a first step towards understanding the separate components of the cortical network that mediates spatial navigation in humans.
Article
This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
Article
This article outlines a theoretical framework for the understanding of the neural basis of memory and consciousness, at systems level. It proposes an architecture constituted by: (1) neuron ensembles located in multiple and separate regions of primary and first-order sensory association cortices ("early cortices") and motor cortices; they contain representations of feature fragments inscribed as patterns of activity originally engaged by perceptuomotor interactions; (2) neuron ensembles located downstream from the former throughout single modality cortices (local convergence zones); they inscribe amodal records of the combinatorial arrangement of feature fragments that occurred synchronously during the experience of entities or events in sector (1); (3) neuron ensembles located downstream from the former throughout higher-order association cortices (non-local convergence zones), which inscribe amodal records of the synchronous combinatorial arrangements of local convergence zones during the experience of entities and events in sector (1); (4) feed-forward and feedback projections interlocking reciprocally the neuron ensembles in (1) with those in (2) according to a many-to-one (feed-forward) and one-to-many (feedback) principle. I propose that (a) recall of entities and events occurs when the neuron ensembles in (1) are activated in time-locked fashion; (b) the synchronous activations are directed from convergence zones in (2) and (3); and (c) the process of reactivation is triggered from firing in convergence zones and mediated by feedback projections. This proposal rejects a single anatomical site for the integration of memory and motor processes and a single store for the meaning of entities of events. Meaning is reached by time-locked multiregional retroactivation of widespread fragment records. Only the latter records can become contents of consciousness.
Article
In contrast to expectation-based, predictive views of discourse comprehension, a model is developed in which the initial processing is strictly bottom-up. Word meanings are activated, propositions are formed, and inferences and elaborations are produced without regard to the discourse context. However, a network of interrelated items is created in this manner, which can be integrated into a coherent structure through a spreading activation process. Data concerning the time course of word identification in a discourse context are examined. A simulation of arithmetic word-problem understanding provides a plausible account for some well-known phenomena in this area.
Article
The need for a simply applied quantitative assessment of handedness is discussed and some previous forms reviewed. An inventory of 20 items with a set of instructions and response- and computational-conventions is proposed and the results obtained from a young adult population numbering some 1100 individuals are reported. The separate items are examined from the point of view of sex, cultural and socio-economic factors which might appertain to them and also of their inter-relationship to each other and to the measure computed from them all. Criteria derived from these considerations are then applied to eliminate 10 of the original 20 items and the results recomputed to provide frequency-distribution and cumulative frequency functions and a revised item-analysis. The difference of incidence of handedness between the sexes is discussed.