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Emotions in planning practice: A critical review and a suggestion for future developments based on mindfulness

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Abstract

Planners typically conceptualise themselves as professionals not emotionally engaged with their work. However, in planning practice, there are many discretionary decisions to make and these are easily affected by emotions. The uncomfortable truth is that planning practice is emotionally loaded, but scepticism about emotions discourages research on the topic. Academic research based on psychoanalytical theory has been developed in response to this. This research seems, however, to have little power to provide high quality practical tools for professional planners. Mindfulness theory and training is presented here as a better alternative to equip practitioners with resources to deal with emotions at work.

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... While planning literature has certainly acknowledged several of these factors from the perspective of plannerssuch as the importance of emotions, personal dynamics, and power relations (e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002) -, co-creative planning by definition includes several non-planners (Voorberg et al., 2015). The psychological aspects of the interaction between planners and non-planners, as well as between different non-planners involved in planning processes, warrant deeper engagement in planning research and practice, especially in view of their increasing relevance to the field. ...
... There is a wide-ranging wealth of studies on social learning in planning, especially when closely related themes, such as policy transfer, deliberative or communicative planning, reflexivity and emotions in planning are also taken into consideration (e.g. Baum, 1983Baum, , 1987Baum, , 2015Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Friedmann, 1981Friedmann, , 1987Healey, 1992aHealey, , 2008Healey, , 2013Holden, 2008;Mäntysalo et al., 2018;Peel, 2000;Schön, 1982;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002). This article builds on these important contributions and demonstrates the value of the development of social learning as an analytical lens informed by psychology, in relation to the impact of various personal and group dynamics, specifically in the context of co-creation. ...
... The concept of social learning was developed in the 1980's and '90's into various directions, sometimes along with other, similar or related concepts (such as deliberative learning, reflective learning, policy learning, communicative planning, tacit knowledge and emotions in planning (e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Healey, 1992a;Holden, 2008;Schön, 1982)). For example, some studies focused on what affects planners' learning processes, often including ways in which planners learn to interact with others, or how they learn through education, interactions, experiences and from stories and friends (e.g. ...
... While planning literature has certainly acknowledged several of these factors from the perspective of plannerssuch as the importance of emotions, personal dynamics, and power relations (e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002) -, co-creative planning by definition includes several non-planners (Voorberg et al., 2015). The psychological aspects of the interaction between planners and non-planners, as well as between different non-planners involved in planning processes, warrant deeper engagement in planning research and practice, especially in view of their increasing relevance to the field. ...
... There is a wide-ranging wealth of studies on social learning in planning, especially when closely related themes, such as policy transfer, deliberative or communicative planning, reflexivity and emotions in planning are also taken into consideration (e.g. Baum, 1983Baum, , 1987Baum, , 2015Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Friedmann, 1981Friedmann, , 1987Healey, 1992Healey, , 2008Healey, , 2013Holden, 2008;Mäntysalo, Schmidt-Thomé, & Syrman, 2018;Peel, 2000;Schön, 1982;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002). This article builds on these important contributions and demonstrates the value of the development of social learning as an analytical lens informed by psychology, in relation to the impact of various personal and group dynamics, specifically in the context of co-creation. ...
... The concept of social learning was developed in the 1980's and '90's into various directions, sometimes along with other, similar or related concepts (such as deliberative learning, reflective learning, policy learning, communicative planning, tacit knowledge and emotions in planning [e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Healey, 1992;Holden, 2008;Schön, 1982]). For example, some studies focused on what affects planners' learning processes, often including ways in which planners learn to interact with others, or how they learn through education, interactions, experiences and from stories and friends (e.g. ...
Article
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This article highlights the psychological dimension of social learning. Insights from psychology address the interrelated role of personal and group dynamics in social learning. This can provide a useful starting point for a rewarding use of social learning as an analytical tool in co-creative planning. Such an approach to social learning proves beneficial to (i) identify both positive and negative potential effects of social learning, (ii) untangle hidden power relationships at play at individual and small group levels in relation to social psychological factors, and (iii) discern the role of individuals and small groups within their larger contexts. The findings are empirically illustrated with a case of incremental urban development in Groningen, the Netherlands.
... Instead, these choices are mediated through the context offered by the existing planning institutions, the practices and structures that shape their daily operation, and their history. For further insights on the mechanisms behind this mediation process see, for example, Boissevain (1974), Pred (1981aPred ( , 1981b, Monk and Hanson (1982), Ferreira andBatey (2010, 2012 ) and Watts (2017). This literature points in the same overall direction: if the nature of the planning institutions (or of planning as an institution itself, as noted by T. Banerjee, 2007) is so consequential, then choices about which planning institutions should be promoted also become major, highly charged, dilemmas. ...
... As a result of this dominance, human logic becomes´flat´, which is a way of saying that is deprived of the depth offered by the interior quadrants. In planning, this problem has been addressed by scholars such as Baum (1987Baum ( , 2015, Hoch (2006) and Ferreira (2013) who asked for the planning community to pay more attention to how emotions influence their decisions. Doing the opposite would also be undesirable: if excessive attention would be given to emotions in particular and the interior quadrants in general, we would gain depth and subjectivity, but scientific rationality and all the other benefits of the external quadrants would be lost. ...
Article
Planning is a divided profession. Perspectives diverge on fundamental themes as to which theories, methodologies, and goals for the future should be embraced. Even though this plurality of views is a sign of intellectual resourcefulness within the field, it is disconcerting the extent to which planning finds it difficult to articulate itself to effectively address persistent problems such as environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper proposes that the Wilberian philosophy can offer a valuable contribution in this regard, and particularly when integrated with the legacy of Niraj Verma. Examples from transport planning are used to illustrate the argument.
... This map enables the empirical review of planning projects and unpacks how social learning influences planning practice in its various phases and contexts. It thereby contributes and relates to key skills planners need (see Baum 1983Baum , 2015Ferreira 2013;Forester 1999;Healey 1992;Schön 1982). ...
... Similarly, a person can learn how financial requirements are met through the interaction with and copying of others. Process knowledge also includes subjective knowledge (this can also be seen as a skill), such as reflexivity and emotional management under stress (Ferreira 2013;Schön 1982;Vanderhoven 2016). An individual can socially learn during and about any part of project development. ...
Article
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Social learning is the process of exchanging and developing knowledge (including skills and experiences) through human interaction. This key planning process needs to be better understood , given the increase and variety of non-planners influencing planning processes. This article explores who learns what from whom through social learning in planning. We unpack social learning theoretically to be able to map it, and employ empirically-based storytelling to discuss its relevance to planning practice. We conclude that social learning can lead to positive and negative outcomes and provides a useful analytical lens to understand planning practices at the level of individuals.
... The essay critiques common beliefs using insights from debates among cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, and philosophers about how humans imagine the future and importantly how this shapes our conceptions of the world and how we conceive plans to guide what we do. This overview builds on and complements scholarship on planning and emotions (Fisher 2009;Hoch 2016) including the salience of unconscious feelings (Baum 2015), narrative ), compassion (Lysle et al. 2018, mindfulness (Ferreira 2013), anger (Gault and Sabini 2000), and even love (Porter et al. 2012). ...
... Political consultants have used the insights of cognitive science to design and implement attractive and persuasive narratives that demonize or dismiss progressive efforts to remedy racial injustice or environmental sustainability (Jacobs 1998;MacLean 2017;Rodriguez 2021;Tumber and Waisbord 2021). Professional planners need to compose arguments and narratives that imaginatively challenge and reframe these caricatures (Ferreira 2013;Lakoff 2004;Lyles, Swearingen White, andLavelle 2018, Porter et al. 2012). How they do this will draw upon their own experience making practical judgments that combine analytical acumen, political savvy, moral virtue, and social empathy as they compose plans with others (Mandelbaum 1991;Sandercock 2003;Throgmorton 1996). ...
Article
Research evidence from cognitive science documents how everyday thought actively composes imaginary blends of possible actions. These include plans that inform intentions and infer meaning about causes, norms, and effects. Recognizing the pragmatic functional features of imagination can help scholars and professional planners better understand their own practice. I explore how this evidence supports the insights of scholars like Myers and Forester who study what planners do and how plans work. Planning educators should treat spatial planning as more craft than science, more practical than precise, and more collaborative than solitary.
... Consider as well the contributions from Baum (1980Baum ( , 1983Baum ( , 1987 or Gunder and Hillier (2004). I have myself made some attempts to contribute to enrich these quadrants (Ferreira 2013;Ferreira et al. 2009). ...
... Recent research shows that much can be gained from this in terms of productivity of organisations, not to mention in terms of well-being in the workplace (Laloux 2014). We need to be accepted as people with an interior dimension that is intrinsically subjective and emotional; planners are definitely no exception to this (Ferreira 2013). That is not our professional weakness and our bias, but our most precious quality and source of wisdom as human beings. ...
Chapter
Transport planning became a techno-bureaucratic profession and this has important ramifications. The most important one for the argument developed here is that techno-bureaucratic transport planning is performed by physically inactive professionals. It presupposes that exclusively using technologies and processes that are disconnected from the subjective and bodily experience of the built environment in general and of mobility in particular is acceptable. It dismisses all forms of subjective and embodied knowledge and professional practices. As a result, it leads to transport projects and policies that promote physical inactivity and geographical mobility at the same time in a spiralling way—that is, immobile-mobility is expanding out of control. Techno-bureaucratic transport planning is, therefore, creating a world where people travel extensively but suffer from a serious lack of physical mobility and a resulting global health crisis.
... While cultural policy-makers have yet to be considered in this context, research on a closely related professional group -urban planners -helps to develop why emotions could be important in cultural policy-making. Urban planning has been characterised as dominated by a rational-emotional dichotomy which has marginalised the role of emotions in planning practice (Baum 2015;Ferreira 2013;Das 2008). However, in the context of work which argues more broadly for the need to consider the emotional dimensions of bureaucracies (Graham 2002), planning literature has begun to explore the ways in which planning practice is emotionally loaded and combines cognitive and emotional elements (Ferreira 2013;Hoch 2006). ...
... Urban planning has been characterised as dominated by a rational-emotional dichotomy which has marginalised the role of emotions in planning practice (Baum 2015;Ferreira 2013;Das 2008). However, in the context of work which argues more broadly for the need to consider the emotional dimensions of bureaucracies (Graham 2002), planning literature has begun to explore the ways in which planning practice is emotionally loaded and combines cognitive and emotional elements (Ferreira 2013;Hoch 2006). This has a longer academic history, from the mental mapping of urban space (e.g. ...
Article
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Analysis of the role emotions play in a range of social processes has increased significantly, but is neglected in the context of cultural policy-making. Recent literatures in feminist and emotional geographies draw attention to how emotions are emergent in, and play a role in shaping, a broad range of social contexts and processes, while other literatures stress the need to ‘personalise’ the expert and consider the emotional aspects of planning. Inspired by these literatures we deploy the notion of ‘affective urbanism’ to study how emotions are interwoven with cultural policy spaces in the city and explore the ‘emotional regimes’ that incorporate emotions with the multi-scalar politics that is shaping urban cultural policy-making. This is undertaken through an analysis of emotions in the working lives and political contexts of cultural policy-makers in Stockholm (Sweden), Gdańsk (Poland) and Manchester (UK). Overall the paper seeks to develop a research agenda that places emotions centrally in studies of cultural policy formation and implementation.
... This emotional transfer can support the community project. Emotional involvement is a gateway to understanding projects, argues Ferreira [22]. ...
... A challenge is that capabilities of recognizing different instances for different uses of knowledge are missing. ' An important point about the relation between knowing and feeling in planning practice (Ferreira, 2013) was also raised in discussion with the practitioners. This adds further depth to the point raised in previous research that policymakers do not seem to grasp the full potential of foresight methods in formulating urban strategies (Güell & López, 2016). ...
Article
The article proposes a theoretical framework for the application of four scenario-planning approaches in strategic land-use and transportation (LUT) planning, focusing on city-regions. Each approach has a specific role in the process, with a distinct mode of knowing: explanation (knowing what), narration (knowing how), argumentation (knowing to what end and practical judgment) and instrumentalization (doing). The framework is contrasted with reflections from Finnish planning practitioners and applied when reviewing the scenario and impact assessment process of the Helsinki Metropolitan Region strategic LUT plan. The article highlights the key role of explorative scenario planning in strategic city-regional LUT planning.
... Such understanding of planners' everyday activities has been important in moving away from the traditional rational model of planning, recognizing that knowing and acting (Davoudi, 2015), as well as knowing and feeling, are closely interwoven (Westin, 2016). Although emotional dimensions of these everyday experiences are mentioned in some studies of planners' values, only recently has planning scholarship explicitly discussed the integral role of emotions in planners' activities (Barry et al., 2018;Baum, 2015a;Ferreira, 2013;Hoch, 2006;Lyles et al., 2017;Porter et al., 2012). ...
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This commentary centres on the question – how can we further develop the relationship between planning practice and academia? This question has been one of the central pillars of planning scholarship over several decades (Krumholz, 1986), but many would agree that previous arguments have not yet been taken far enough in action. Drawing upon the web of existing arguments for a closer theory-practice relationship, our intent is to unpack additional experiential dimensions of this overarching question that need to be understood in a relational manner. Any such understanding should be placed in the context of non-collaborative pressures in both practice and academia, and open new pathways for understanding structural barriers to their closer collaboration. To this end, we will start by explaining the demanding contexts that planning now faces. We then reflect on how planning in itself is a complex procedural practice. The central premise here is that planning is institutional, but ultimately a human action at its core, that is characterised by psychosocial dynamics that need to be accounted for. Advancing this argument, we will acknowledge previous reflections on psychosocial aspects of planners’ everyday. Arguing from inference, we conclude that furthering collaboration between practice and academia will require understanding the diverse and dynamic experiences of planners whose everyday practices are embedded within complex psychosocial processes, distributed across various social networks and time. Bearing in mind these deeper understandings of planning as a complex and deeply emotional practice, we reflect on potential actions for developing co-creation processes that engage both practice and academia.
... Prejavuje sa v debate o emóciách (napr. Hoch, 2006;Othengrafen, 2012;Ferreira, 2013;Baum, 2015;Forester, 2016;Sturzaker a Lord, 2017) a v menšej miere ako zvýraznenie schopnosti expertov robiť rozhodnutia mimo rámca racionálnych analýz (napr. Flyvbjerg, 1998Flyvbjerg, , 2001Dobrucká, 2018a). ...
Conference Paper
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The paradigm in planning is shifting towards the so-called multi-level governance, which calls for the increasing rate of cooperation and redistributes power to influence local development among diverse actors. Consequently, the impact of individuals is decreasing, especially the one of experts. This article pays attention to the variety of planners' possibilities to make personal influence. It reflects the proactive concepts of power (e.g. Aristotle's phronesis, Weber's charisma, Bourdieu's field and capital, Jones's elites and Lukes's exercise of power), thus following the tradition of the practical thinkers of power (such as Machiavelli, Nietzsche, Foucault and Flyvbjerg). The article uses the three core perspectives of scale and time: first, the perspective of limited time periods on the scale of cities; second, the perspective of continuous evolution of territories; and third, the perspective of individuals. Its contribution lies primarily in the systematic review of variable sources addressing this topic.
... While emotions in urban planning practice have been studied (Ferreira 2013;Hoch 2006), the study of emotions in the practice of policy learning is less familiar but however relevant, especially for transport policy and practice. In a field that traditionally relies on cognitive objectivity, algorithmic predictions, and "indifference to the force of passion" (Hoch 2006, 368), emotions and feelings are generally excluded, perhaps even discouraged. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conferences are theorized as crucial sites, not only for professional development, but also for policy learning. However, little empirical evidence has examined pathways for why and how learning is realized. Using a unique case approach, this paper unravels conference learning dimensions by combining literatures of policy transfer and policy mobilities with situated learning theory. Our case was a four-day international conference on cycling, taking place in the Netherlands, a country well-known for high rates of cycling and commonly sought for advice on cycling policy. Using a questionnaire with participants (n = 293) together with ethnographic fieldwork, we examine key attributes. Structure for fieldwork derived from situated learning theory, where learning is a social phenomenon embedded in sensory and spatial circumstances. Findings demonstrate that acquiring technical understanding (i.e. design specifications, sample policy language) was less prominent than the acquisition of social and experiential knowledge. Additionally, the bicycle acted as a sensorimotor transition instrument for spatial discovery, evoking emotion, and social connection. The conference represented an opportunity to convene both tacit and explicit knowledge, where an embodied experience (for example, riding a bicycle in the Netherlands) may also act as critical asset to professional development in this emerging practice. The paper adds to the debate about learning in transport policy practice by unfurling contextual mechanisms and engaging with practitioners in “their world” – an ordinary practice of attending a conference in a unique location.
... Research shows that we are able to understand other people's viewpoints from how they display emotion [74], and the development of empathy can increase the accuracy with which we understand what others aim to convey [75]. Urban planning literature makes little if any mention of the importance of empathy in practitioners' work [76][77][78]. Forester [79] notes, "to work effectively, planners must be able to respond to others' ideas and to their passions: their fears, suspicions, distrust, anger, and so on. But this is emotional work that planners are poorly trained to do" (p. ...
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Health Impact Assessment (HIA) courses are teaching public health and urban planning students how to assess the likely health effects of proposed policies, plans, and projects. We suggest that public health and urban planning have complimentary frameworks for training practitioners to address the living conditions that affect health. Planning perspectives emphasize practical skills for impacting community change, while public health stresses professional purpose and ethics. Frameworks from both disciplines can enhance the HIA learning experience by helping students tackle questions related to community impact, engagement, social justice, and ethics. We also propose that HIA community engagement processes can be enriched through an empathetic practice that focuses on greater personal introspection.
... A few studies have drawn attention to the problematic consequences of planners failing to recognize emotional experience or to take emotional concerns into account, e.g. Ferreira (2013), and have urged planners to attend to residents' emotional experiences in planning. However, Baum (2015) argues that many planning practitioners and academics ignore emotions by emphasizing the "rationality" of planning, and (2015: 507) continues that "there is no 'planning and emotion' interest analogous to 'emotional geographies'." ...
Article
Kiruna, the northernmost city in Sweden, is constructed around a classic industrial source of production – the prosperous mine. The mine has been the overwhelmingly dominant employer in the city and its fortunes have been intimately connected with the city's prosperity. However, massive, continuing expansion of the mine has led to severe risks of subsidence; thus, substantial parts of the city must be moved to assure both the citizens' safety and continuation of the mining. This will be done gradually over the coming decade, and all of Kiruna's citizens will be affected in one way or another. Schools, shops, daycare centres, homes for the elderly and workplaces will all be rebuilt in the new city centre. Drawing on an emotional geographies framework, this paper discusses how people's emotions are understood and given meaning, and even addressed in the planning context of the city transformation that is taking place.
... Such training could draw from planning scholarship that looks to mediation/dispute resolution, mindfulness, neuroscience, and psychoanalytical thought among other fields (e.g. Gunder, 2011;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 2013;Hoch, 2006). ...
Article
Scholarship on citizen activism in a digital era is growing exponentially in sociology, political science, and communications/new media studies. Theorists observe changing dynamics and power shifts within a public virtual sphere. In contrast, planning scholarship is sparse on how citizens use technology outside of official channels to participate and mobilize. To explore this under-studied phenomenon, a new conceptual framework is developed by synthesizing literature across disciplines to examine digital networked activism in planning and focusing on conservative activists’ fierce opposition to regional planning in Atlanta, Georgia and the San Francisco Bay Area. I find activists use new media in combination with traditional strategies to communicate, organize, market their cause and refine tactics. The new media facilitates their channeling of deeply held emotions into the production, performance and circulation of counter-narratives that destabilize the planning process as conventionally understood. Planners’ responses are largely reactive and catching up to the challenge. As a result, planners I interviewed are rethinking civic engagement in a digital era.
... v diskusii o emóciách (napr. Hoch, 2006;Ferreira, 2013;Baum, 2015;Dobrucká, 2021), o schopnostiach expertov robiť rozhodnutia (napr. Flyvbjerg, 1998aFlyvbjerg, , 2001 a vplývať na celú profesiu (Jones, 2011). ...
Article
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SK: Problematika revitalizácie a rozvoja sídlisk naberá v našich končinách na význame, v praxi však nezriedka naráža na otázku, či vôbec a akým spôsobom môžu mať predstavitelia miest a obcí, odborníci a najmä plánovači na dianie na sídliskách reálny vplyv. Tento článok sa na položenú otázku pozerá z troch perspektív, a to cez optiku vymedzených časových úsekov, kontinuálneho vývoja a jednotlivcov. Poukazuje na to, že výber perspektívy zásadne mení naše vnímanie skúmaného javu/aspektu aj jeho kontextu, a že každá z uvedených troch perspektív upozorňuje plánovačov iné možnosti a nástroje. EN: Revitalisation and sustainable development of estate housing in Middle European post-communist countries is desirable, yet challenging. Municipal representatives as well as experts face the question of whether and how is it possible to actively influence the development of estate housing. This article addresses the above question through three lens: via the perspective of limited time-spatial events, continuous evolution and individuals. It stresses that the particular perspective changes our understanding of observed aspects and their context, and that each of the three perspectives provides planners with different possibilities and tools.
... There, the epithet "soft" not only emphasizes the blurring of clear-cut administrative borders and governing formalities, but also accentuates the relational and emotional aspects of planning, in view of the potential political conflicts, interpersonal challenges and wicked problems, which planning is dealing with more than ever. Although no direct relationship has been established between soft planning and the emotional aspects of planning, literature points to a latent connection (Ferreira, 2013;Hoch, 2006;Lyles and White, 2019). Sandercock, for instance, delves on planning as "a process of emotional involvement," while raising the need for an alternative "sensibility" to regulatory planning, looking forward to aspects such as "city senses (sound, smell, taste, touch, sight)" and "soft-wires desires of citizens" (Sandercock, 2004: 134;139). ...
Article
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Over the last decade, soft planning has become an increasingly visible concept in planning literature. Since the term soft spaces was firstly coined, soft planning has been used to describe a growing number of practices that occur at the margins of statutory planning systems. However, as soft planning-related literature proliferates, so does the diversity of approaches and planning practices it encompasses. Such diversity fuels long-standing questions about what can or cannot be considered as soft planning as well as about its usefulness for today's planning theory and practice. To shed light on this still unclear conceptual outline, this article divides the soft planning debate into five contextual components (ethos; governance; politics; policies; spaces; and scale) while paying particular attention to the relationship between soft planning and strategic spatial planning. The aim is to foreground soft planning as a concept, and add clarity and awareness on the challenges, the risks and opportunities, planning currently faces.
... Despite the neglect of emotional aspects by many planning officials, there are also some urban planners who do recognise the importance of emotions within the field. For example, Lynch [20] recognises the emotional aspect through its link with emotions and mental maps while Ferreira [21] has urged that emotions should be presented as constructive drives with the power to positively inspire the planner to become a more competent professional. Porter et al. [22] on the other hand have claimed that attachments to community members improve the ability of planners to understand and work with residents while Gunder and Hillier [23] have interpreted planning issues through a Lacanian psychological model which acknowledge the entire process of becoming and being a planner is typically associated with strong emotional experiences. ...
Article
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This paper presents an exploratory study on the potential for sharing urban data; one where citizens create their own data and use it to understand and influence urban planning decisions. The aim of the study is to explore new models of participation through the sharing of emotional data and focuses on the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels and specific features of the urban environment. It addresses the problem in urban planning that, while people’s emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a source of data to understand future decision making. The method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Results show correlations between characteristics of the urban environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces create stress ‘peaks’. In the discussion we review how the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer—an emotional layer—that could inform a shared approach to participation in urban planning decision-making. The future implications of the application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also considered.
Article
This paper contributes to the small but growing body of literature on the factors that influence the behavioural nature of planning practice. In this contribution, we specifically focus on fear and fearfulness as emotions that can be seen as having a significant bearing on the emergence of norms of practice. Using case-study evidence from England, we draw upon work in behavioural psychology to argue that in some contexts fear can become a natural reaction for planners; and that helping to create a more positive atmosphere for planning decisions—a space for hope—is something we should all consider important.
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Compassion—the awareness of and motivation to increase care and reduce suffering—is an ethical orientation that encompasses emotions and thoughts. A growing body of evidence indicates that compassion can be intentionally cultivated, with potentially transformative impacts at the individual, organizational, and process levels. We examine the applicability of compassion for planning, particularly for transforming strongly held values and norms that contribute to seemingly intractable challenges. We identify four categories of planning work in which compassion cultivation can be undertaken and four directions for future research on the application of compassion in planning practice and education.
Preprint
Although our emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a resource to understand future actions in city planning. Yet, despite the importance of emotion, citizens’ emotions are typically seen as difficult to quantify and individualistic, even though knowledge about people’s response to space could help planners understand people’s behaviours and learn about how citizens use and live in the city. The study explores the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels, and specific features of the urban environment. This study aims to show the potential of integrating the use of galvanic skin response (GSR) within urban spatial analysis and city planning, in order to address the relationship between emotions and urban spaces. This method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Findings show correlations between characteristics of environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces such as road crossing create stress ‘hotspots’. We suggest that the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer - an emotional layer- that could inform urban planning decision-making. The implications of this application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also discussed.
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Planning aims to change people’s behavior, and success depends on understanding human motivation. However, Enlightenment culture discourages understanding emotional experiences central to human activity. Many social sciences and professions have given increased attention to emotional concerns, but most planners hold fast to a view that people think and act only rationally. This article shows why emotional understanding matters for planning, examines the nature of emotional experience, and describes how Enlightenment culture hinders comprehension. The article reviews studies of emotion in the social sciences and professions and contrasts them with a paucity of published interest in emotion in planning. The article interprets planners’ resistance to emotion in terms of the nature of professions and societal needs for order.
Thesis
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Der originäre Gegenstand von Stadtplanung ist der urbane Raum. Gleichzeitig fristet dieser in den Planungstheorien bisher ein randständiges Dasein. Ausgehend von dieser erkenntnistheoretischen Leerstelle fragt die Studie nach der Relevanz räumlichen Erlebens für die Planung öffentlicher Räume und untersucht dies empirisch anhand der Planungen zum Tempelhofer Feld in Berlin. Die Arbeit argumentiert dabei dafür, raumbezogene Emotionen als wichtigen, bisher übersehenen Bestandteil planerischer Aushandlungsprozesse zu verstehen. Konzeptionell führt die Studie den phänomenologischen Begriff der Atmosphären in den Planungsdiskurs ein. Atmosphären sind Phänomene des ‚Dazwischens‘, die weder im Subjekt noch in der Umwelt zu verorten sind, sondern im leiblichen Austausch beider situativ emergieren. Die Fokussierung auf Atmosphären erlaubt es, die leiblich-emotionale Bedeutsamkeit von Umweltwahrnehmungen als konstituierenden Teil in Planungsprozessen zu erkennen. Methodisch nähert sich die Arbeit dabei der subtilen Macht von Atmosphären über einen doppelten Zugang aus Beobachtungen und sprachzentrierten Methoden an. Die empirischen Ergebnisse zeigen, wie sich das subjektive Erleben auf dem Tempelhofer Feld in den planungspolitischen Positionen der verschiedenen Planungsakteure widerspiegelt. Es zeigt sich, dass sich die atmosphärischen Wahrnehmungen von Planer*innen und Zivilgesellschaft stark unterscheiden, wodurch wiederum der Planungskonflikt um die bauliche Zukunft des Feldes befördert wird. Angesichts der zunehmenden Ästhetisierung und Emotionalisierung der Gesellschaft, in deren Rahmen dem Wirken von Atmosphären eine zunehmend höhere gesellschaftliche Relevanz zukommt, leistet die Studie einen Beitrag dazu, die emanzipatorischen wie manipulativen Potentiale von Atmosphären aufzudecken und eine in der Stadtplanung bisher fehlende atmosphärische Kompetenz zu entwickeln.
Article
Problem, research strategy, and findings: What should planners do when members of the public “care loudly” at them? Planning scholars have recently called for more attention to the emotional dimensions of our profession. In the context of reflecting on Arnstein’s “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” we identify the emotional paradox of public engagement. This paradox arises because our emotions often motivate us to plan so that all people in our communities can flourish rather than suffer, but our instincts, reinforced by our education, training, and professional norms, may lead us to try to control or avoid emotions altogether in the actual work of planning. Our research strategy involves critically analyzing the language of Arnstein’s article for its emotional content. We systematically review contemporary sources of guidance and training for planners (including from the APA, the AICP, and the Planning Accreditation Board) to determine whether and how the emotional dimensions of planning are addressed. We synthesize insights on contending with emotion from the psychology and neuroscience literatures and also synthesize practice-oriented resources for leveraging emotional and social intelligence to overcome the emotional paradox. We find that Arnstein’s article evocatively reveals the emotional paradox. Our review of the contemporary knowledge, training, and skills available from major planning organizations demonstrates contemporary pervasiveness of the paradox. Research from psychology and neuroscience demonstrates, from a basic scientific standpoint, that trying to maintain the paradox is impossible, which helps to explain common pitfalls that planners fall into when doing their work. Takeaway for practice: Planners should reflect deeply on how they engage emotions in their work and how their approach constrains and enables their effectiveness. Deepening emotional, social, and cultural intelligence holds considerable potential for meeting our field’s aspirational goals of fostering more compassionate and inclusive communities.
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The fundamental subject matter of urban planning is urban space. However, this fact is rarely reflected in planning theory. Instead of dealing with the everyday use of urban space and its atmospheric perception, planning discourse is dominated by theories of action, which primarily focus on communication processes within planning practice. The role of urban space within these planning negotiations is often overlooked. By disregarding the feeling and sensing body/subject as being the base of any perception – including those of planning professionals – planning discourse has left out the chances of a more comprehensive understanding of how planning decisions occur. The article aims to fill this epistemological gap by applying the concept of atmospheres to the case study of the planning process for the former inner-city airfield Tempelhof in Berlin. Thereby it becomes possible to consider the impact of the – borrowing Gernot Böhme’s terminology – ‘unobtrusive obtrusiveness’ of atmospheres on the controversial planning case of Tempelhof airfield. The empirical findings – based on interview data – demonstrate how the planners’ atmospheric perception of Tempelhof airfield translates into distinctive, and more importantly, controversial planning decisions. In doing so, the article provides a basis for developing atmospheric competences, which have been absent in urban planning thus far.
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Scientists have been attempting to apply emotions in the urban planning process with qualitative methods (surveys, interviews, questionnaires and the like) since the mid-1900s. However, at that time, there were no possibilities for applying biometric or other kinds of tracking and remote technologies to detect and recognize the emotions felt by other people. The 21st century brought forth such opportunities. Nonetheless, even currently, the remotely integrated, emotional, affective and physiological states, arousal and valence (MAPS) of individuals residing or visiting urban areas are very seldom analysed. Meanwhile stakeholder groups are unable to receive digital advice with a goal to upgrade urban areas to be more pleasant, comfortable and sustainable. In such a context, the authors of this study developed an Affective System for Researching Emotions in Public Spaces for Urban Planning (ASP System). This System has added to the body of knowledge on research in several ways. ASP can prove a helpful supplement to urban planning and public participation practice by gathering and analysing MAPS data of passersby, weather conditions, pollution and other data. This unique combination of MAPS data can assist city stakeholders in initiating effective planning solutions based on an inhabitant-centric method. Additionally ASP employs a neuro decision matrix, which assisted in deriving a comprehensive analysis of the urban areas under deliberation by MAPS parameters. This article also submits eight avenues of practical use for urban planners when employing MAPS data and the ASP Method and System. The case studies on cultural heritage sustainability confirm the accuracy of the developed ASP Method and System.
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This paper examines the relationship between citizens' city perception and their involvement in city improvement. The viewpoint is based on the statistically significant relationship between the distribution of the daily places perceptions and proposals of city improvement on the online map. It was found that such proposals are more closely related to citizens' emotions than to their daily mobility. Furthermore, the positive emotions are correlated with proposals to keep places intact and negative emotions are correlated with proposals to improve the places. However, the emotions, as well as public proposals, are scarcely distributed in the space. This deficit is a major boundary for public participation in urban planning, as the initial questions on what to do with places, that are a void in public mindset, remain unsolved. The paper's conclusions can be generalized to other countries that have adopted participatory planning approaches in urban planning and specifically to the cities with developed location-based social networks.
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Although various studies have highlighted the importance of public spaces for human well-being, most of these have been based on qualitative factors. The present research provides a more objective approach, based on quantitative (heart rate variability). The data reveal how different emotions are generated in different public spaces. These differences appear to derive from both the characteristics of the user (and particularly their gender) and from the morphology of the space (including its illumination and built environment). Identifying key factors may help us to improve the design of public spaces and to make them more accessible and inclusive.
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African cities face challenges of delivering quality public open spaces within set time frames, under constrained budgets, varying levels of political will and professional capacity. These challenges in conjunction with the ‘emotional’ conundrum faced by planners, continue to define the roles of planners and prohibit them from confronting the status quo. This paper argues that the planning profession needs to acknowledge that; to respond to the challenges of contemporary African public open space, an intentional deliberate paradigm is required. This paradigm requires a spatial imagination to reconcile the disjuncture between the static place of planners and the active space of citizens.
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Research Report 2012 & 2013: an important focus of the past year has been the completion and delivery of our submission to the Research Excellence Framework (REF 2014). The scope of the previous exercise by the Higher Education Funding Council (RAE 2008) – was extended to include the assessment of not only our research outputs, but also the impacts of these outputs on industry, economy and society. The latter focus plays to one of our strengths as a provider of high-level independent research and consultancy to government and regulators. For our research activities we have held ISO9001 accreditation continuously since 1995. During 2012 and 2013, our research impacts have included the following:  Path-breaking research has exposed the inadequacy of NOX emission controls on diesel vehicles and shaped European legislation on low emission zones (Dr James Tate see page 6 ''Surveying Vehicle Emissions'').  Valuations of travel time savings and forecasts of the demand response to travel time savings have formed key inputs to the economic case for High Speed 2 (Dr James Laird and Professor Peter Mackie see page 8 ''Economic Appraisal and Evaluation''; Professor Mark Wardman and Dr Richard Batley see pages 10 and 12 ''Modelling and Valuing Reliability and Punctuality'' and ''Passenger Demand for Rail Travel'').  Long-standing research on the effectiveness of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) has been translated into changes to the Euro NCAP accreditation scheme (Professor Oliver Carsten, Dr Samantha Jamson) Publications covering our ISA research are listed on pages 22 – 25 under authors Carsten; Chorlton; Jamson and Lai. Research activities at ITS cover a diverse set of themes and have engaged a vast array of sponsors and stakeholders. On pages 3 – 21 our research projects are listed alphabetically under theme headings. Research highlights of 2012 and 2013 include:  A major new project with expert partners and cities across Europe, CH4LLENGE expands understanding, transfers knowledge, and supports implementation of schemes in sustainable urban mobility planning (Dr Caroline Mullen see page 4).  In 2013, the Department for Transport published five reports (amounting to some 500 pages of output) on the valuation of journey time savings produced by Professor Mark Wardman, Dr Richard Batley, Dr James Laird, Professor Peter Mackie and Phill Wheat (the reports can be found on our website).  ITS researchers submitted evidence to the House of Commons Transport Select Committee Inquiry on winter resilience. In their submission, Professor Greg Marsden and Jeremy Shires drew on key issues from the Disruption project (see page 15), which included a large scale survey of UK regions affected by snow, storms and flooding during January 2013.  Dr Susan Grant-Muller is a co-investigator on a Big Data centre recently funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, a collaborative venture with other academic schools at Leeds and University College London. The grant will help to establish a new Master's course in Geography and Business and will fund a Consumer Data Research Centre (CDRC). Staff achievements during 2012 and 2013 include the following highlights:  Greg Marsden, Stephane Hess and Simon Shepherd were promoted to Professor.  Charlotte Kelly was awarded a 3-year fellowship by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE).  PhD student Rawia El Rashidy is one of ten women at the University of Leeds to be honoured as a 'Woman of Achievement'. This was in recognition of her being awarded a gold medal in the 'Young Researchers in Europe' competition 2012. 
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The literature is replete with evidence that the stress inherent in health care negatively impacts health care professionals, leading to increased depression, decreased job satisfaction, and psychological distress. In an attempt to address this, the current study examined the effects of a short-term stress management program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), on health care professionals. Results from this prospective randomized controlled pilot study suggest that an 8-week MBSR intervention may be effective for reducing stress and increasing quality of life and self-compassion in health care professionals. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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This paper discusses the planning academy's avoidance of issues of power and value while discussing the author's strategies of research on planning practice as they have developed socially and historically. The analysis of planning, these days, is not in crisis but in denial. Not only do many analyses of planning end where they should begin, with the recurrent discovery that power shapes practice, they also fail to address better and worse approaches to acting in the face of power. Such facile treatments of ‘power’ actually make action in a real world of power relations more difficult, and by failing to assess strategies to empower weaker voices, such analyses effectively and conservatively strengthen established power. Further, many analyses of planning presume that ‘better’ and ‘worse’ are undiscussable matters of personal, subjective opinion. The resulting avoidance of value inquiry and value‐critical argumentation hinders planners in their inevitably evaluative work, confuses respect for different persons with agreement on different ideas, and also conservatively weakens the hand of those with legitimate rather than narrowly self‐serving needs.
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This article shows how planners can simultaneously play negotiation and mediation roles in local land use conflicts. Extensive interview data suggest how planners perceive those roles and the associated problems and opportunities. Six mediated-negotiation strategies presented indicate the discretion that planning staff often have. The strategies require that planners have not only substantive but emotional and communicative skills. Administratively, the strategies may be systematically adopted without changes in local regulations. Politically, mediated negotiation strategies need not simply perpetuate power imbalances. -Author
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The findings discussed in this paper results from two UK focus group meetings which took place in February 1996. It was felt to be important that the views of individuals from all levels of the planning hierarchy should be sought. As a result, the first meeting drew on the experiences of new entrants to the planning profession, while the second explored the views of senior practitioners. Clearly, we would not wish to suggest that our findings are representative of practice as a whole. The approach was deliberately exploratory. However, the findings of even this limited study are instructive in highlighting some of the tensions and dilemmas at the heart of contemporary practice. Our intention is to carry out further research which will build on the issues identified through additional discussions with practitioners as well as those outside the profession including politicians, developers and interest groups. The remainder of the paper outlines the findings of the focus group discussions, highlighting the nature of the dilemmas confronting planners and concerns with respect to the development of theory. In so doing, we draw attention, where appropriate, to significant differences between the opinions and perceptions expressed by the two groups of practitioners.
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This article introduces and examines aspects of Lacan's critical social theory, it examines why a Lacanian psychoanalytical appoach can be regarded as pertinent to analysis of planning processes. The article introduces the notion of the Lacanian subject and explains some of the key Lacanian concepts including the 'Real', the 'Other', and the Lacanian signifier. These concepts are then related to the acquisitions of planning education and professional skill development--what 'shapes' the planner? The article suggests that planning practices and decision-making are often constrained by the planner's desire to conform to self-imposed perceptions of professional and societal expectations. These practices contribute to maintenance of the ideological edifices which constitute social reality in that they do not necessarily materialise a planner's own values and beliefs, but rather the beliefs and values which a planner 'thinks' that planners are supposed to have and to express in society. The article concludes with a consideration of the implications this has for planning ethics.
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Planning analysts taught to separate cognitive and emotional qualities of judgment tend to study cognitive rather than emotional relationships. Psychological research on planning emphasizes the cognitive over the emotional, while social psychological research studies the effects of cognitive emotional interaction on planning judgment. This article argues that planning analysts might combine cognitive and emotional ideas about planning using research insights from the work of neuroscientist Antonio Damasio and the conceptual insights from the work of philosopher Martha Nussbaum. Two brief planning episodes illustrate the relevance of such integration for studying and understanding the kind of planning judgments practitioners make in their everyday practice.
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Investigated, in 2 experiments, whether judgments of happiness and satisfaction with one's life are influenced by mood at the time of judgment. In Exp I, moods were induced by asking 61 undergraduates for vivid descriptions of a recent happy or sad event in their lives. In Exp II, moods were induced by interviewing 84 participants on sunny or rainy days. In both experiments, Ss reported more happiness and satisfaction with their life as a whole when in a good mood than when in a bad mood. However, the negative impact of bad moods was eliminated when Ss were induced to attribute their present feelings to transient external sources irrelevant to the evaluation of their lives; but Ss who were in a good mood were not affected by misattribution manipulations. The data suggest that (a) people use their momentary affective states in making judgments of how happy and satisfied they are with their lives in general and (b) people in unpleasant affective states are more likely to search for and use information to explain their state than are people in pleasant affective states. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Objective: This paper, composed by an interest group of clinicians and researchers based in Melbourne, presents some background to the practice of mindfulness-based therapies as relevant to the general professional reader. We address the empirical evidence for these therapies, the principles through which they might operate, some practical questions facing those wishing to commence practice in this area or to refer patients into mindfulness-based therapies, and some considerations relevant to the conduct and interpretation of research into the therapeutic application of mindfulness. Method: Databases ( e. g. PsycINFO, MEDLINE) were searched for literature on the impact of mindfulness interventions, and the psychological and biological mechanisms that underpin the effects of mindfulness practice. This paper also draws upon the clinical experience of the author group. Results: Mindfulness practice and principles have their origins in many contemplative and philosophical traditions but individuals can effectively adopt the training and practice of mindfulness in the absence of such traditions or vocabulary. A recent surge of interest regarding mindfulness in therapeutic techniques can be attributed to the publication of some well-designed empirical evaluations of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Arising from this as well as a broader history of clinical integration of mindfulness and Western psychotherapies, a growing number of clinicians have interest and enthusiasm to learn the techniques of mindfulness and to integrate them into their therapeutic work. This review highlights the importance of accurate professional awareness and understanding of mindfulness and its therapeutic applications. Conclusions: The theoretical and empirical literatures on therapeutic applications of mindfulness are in states of significant growth and development. This group suggests, based on this review, that the combination of some well-developed conceptual models for the therapeutic action of mindfulness and a developing empirical base, justifies a degree of optimism that mindfulness-based approaches will become helpful strategies to offer in the care of patients with a wide range of mental and physical health problems.
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This Article proposes that introducing mindfulness meditation into the legal profession may improve practitioners' well-being and performance and weaken the dominance of adversarial mind-sets. By enabling some lawyers to make more room for - and act from - broader and deeper perspectives, mindfulness can help lawyers provide more appropriate service (especially through better listening and negotiation) and gain more personal satisfaction from their work.
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Previous studies have consistently shown that changing or avoiding emotions requires resources and therefore leads to impaired performance on a subsequent self-control task. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which acceptance-based coping requires regulatory resources. Participants who accepted their emotions during exposure to a sad video performed better on a subsequent self-control task than participants who were instructed to suppress their emotions and a control group who received no instructions. These findings suggest that acceptance is an efficient strategy in terms of resources.
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Job satisfaction is often described as an affective response to one's job, but is usually measured largely as a cognitive evaluation of job features. This paper explores several hypothesized relationships between real time affect while working and standard measures of job satisfaction. Experience sampling methodology was used to obtain up to 50 reports of immediate mood and emotions from 121 employed persons over a two week period. As expected, real time affect is related to overall satisfaction but is not identical to satisfaction. Moment to moment affect is more strongly related to a faces measure of satisfaction than to more verbal measures of satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions both make unique contributions to predicting overall satisfaction, and affect accounts for variance in overall satisfaction above and beyond facet satisfactions. Frequency of net positive emotion is a stronger predictor of overall satisfaction than is intensity of positive emotion. It is concluded that affect while working is a missing piece of overall job attitude, as well as a phenomenon worthy of investigation in its own right. Implications for further research and for improving the conceptualization and measurement of job satisfaction are discussed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Planning academics associate "methods" with research and analysis rather than all planning practice. The result misleads students about what planners do and makes it unlikely they will practice planning well. Planners must be adept in four types of methods for the activities of defining problems, identifying alternative responses, deciding on a course of action, and implementing it. The corresponding methods are social interaction, research and analysis, decision making, and intervention. When academics present research and analysis as the "methods" of planning, they inaccurately equate planning with research alone. Further insofar as students are socialized into becoming analytic researchers, they will have difficulty understanding and learning other methods. Analytic research methods emphasize quantitative secondary data. This orientation treats what cannot easily be measured as unimportant and keeps researchers away from direct contact with people. It makes it difficult for students to learn interactive methods (because they involve contact, communication, and understanding), decision-making methods (because they require comfort taking responsibility for action), and intervention methods (because they require organizing people). Because different personalities are drawn and suited to different methods, insofar as programs emphasize quantitative data analysis and research, they will attract students inclined this way, to the exclusion of students interested in interaction, decision making, and intervention. Graduates will have little competence in these methods, and employers will hire others. Copyright © 2005, Locke Science Publishing Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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This book offers a practical and theoretical guide to the benefits of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in the workplace, describing the latest neuroscience research into the effects of mindfulness training and detailing an eight-week mindfulness training course. Provides techniques which allow people in organizations to listen more attentively, communicate more clearly, manage stress and foster strong relationships. Includes a complete eight-week mindfulness training course, specifically customized for workplace settings, along with further reading and training resources. Written by a mindfulness expert and leading corporate trainer.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The critique of planning’s ‘dark’ side has been a theme of both modern and postmodern perspectives. While a great deal of anecdotal and empirical evidence exists that highlights how planning can be, and has been, used for nefarious ends there are few theoretical insights or understandings of the role of different actors, institutions or processes. This article provides a critical analysis of the notion of ‘dark side’ from a Lacanian and Derridean perspective. A short case study of the use of planning for what would broadly be regarded as ‘dark’ ends highlights a number of issues, particularly through engagement with Lacanian theory, which provides a useful theoretical framework for further research into the misuse of planning.
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Social institutions influence human behavior both by creating material interests and incentives to act on them and by giving symbolic meaning to human desires and anxieties and sanctioning their expression in certain ways and directions. The analysis of planning issues and public policies normally focuses on material interests, conflicts among them, and the exercise of power to prevail. Planning and policy analysis give little attention to how societal institutions and culture influence the expression of largely unconscious desires and anxieties in ways that create social inequality and shape policies that do little to reduce it. Material interests and economic exploitation are common planning topics. Psychological interests and the emotional and moral exploitation to which they give rise are less familiar because the western, particularly liberal, ideas that have shaped planning resist knowing about unconscious and ‘irrational’ thinking. This article explores the role of unconscious interests in contributing to poverty and punishing the poor as a problem of evil. ‘Evil’ is a name people commonly give to certain desires and anxieties that trouble them and which they may unconsciously try to get rid of by harming others and producing what is conventionally called morally evil. Planners will need to understand the ways that psychological interests sustain exploitation such as poverty and racial discrimination in order to oppose it.
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Cities draw from many voices, many rationalities. However, planners often make an effort to separate dissimilar uses from each other and even neglect plural rationalities. Their plans work like condoms, designed to defend us against being raped by the cacophonous abundance of the metropolis. The metaphor, borrowed from Georg Simmel (1903), encourages planners to use monorationality as a tool for planning. But is diversity, even if cacophonous, not also a vital sign of urbanity? Based upon Mary Douglas's cultural theory, the article aims to demonstrate how planners can profit from exploring the frontiers of polyrationality.
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The prospect of political conflict frequently threatens planners. Interviews with a sample of 60 Chicago planners indicates the incidence of job threatening political conflicts may be as high as one in two. In contrast, one in three admitted purposefully avoiding the danger of political disputes altogether. In describing efforts to prevent or cope with political conflict, planners reveal ambivalence about the expectations of their professional role and the uncertainties of political practice. For instance, winners usually claim victory based on professional prowess. Losers blame defeat on the power of their opponents. Despite the popularity of political avoidance and individual professionalism among planners, most agree they would like to know politically experienced colleagues to whom they could turn for advice when under attack. Planners may be willing to trade off some of the alleged virtue of professional autonomy for a bit of personal and practical solidarity.
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The emerging paradigm of communicative or collaborative planning has dominated theoretical discourse since the early 1980s. Rather than one coherent position, there are a variety of schools that vary in their emphasis on different aspects of social and critical theory and their mixture of analyses and prescription. Critiques of communicative planning have been scarce and have challenged or questioned specific aspects rather than critiquing the paradigm as a whole. We identify six broad themes in the paper from a variety of sources and explore their relationship to communicative planning theory. These critiques do not, in our opinion, threaten to undermine communicative planning but present questions that need to be addressed. In undertaking a dialectical engagement with such critiques, communicative planning theory will be strengthened and made more attractive to practitioners--an audience that so far has been less than willing to take up such ideas.
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The notion of reflection has featured strongly in Management Learning in recent years. While there is an important body of knowledge on how organizations can foster reflection-on-action, less seems to be known about how they can promote reflection-in-action. We suggest that reflection-in-action is closely linked to the phenomenon of mindfulness and we outline what existing research on mindfulness may teach us about understanding and organizing reflection-in-action. We believe that integrating the perspectives taken in these two streams of literature is important for a clear understanding of why some organizations seem to learn ‘better’ than others and why some initiatives to promote reflection and learning are more successful than others.
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This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision making, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions, are described. Then, I propose how emotional intelligence contributes to effective leadership by focusing on five essential elements of leader effectiveness: development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust; encouraging flexibility in decision making and change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.
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Can you succinctly and clearly define what planning and many of its guiding principles —such as the public good, sustainability, or even market forces— actually mean? For many of us, this is difficult to accomplish. Lacan provides an explanation for this challenge based on his theorizing about human subjectivity— how we acquire the identifications that constitute ourselves as planners. The article will deploy Lacan’s explanatory power for understanding how the professional identities of planners and the central ideas constituting the planning discipline are interrelated. Particularly, Lacan’s theoretical model of the four discourses will be used to explore planning education and how aspiring planners acquire and internalize the discipline’s often-diffuse sets of traditions, beliefs, knowledges, and values.
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This article argues that story has a special importance in planning that has neither been fully understood nor sufficiently valued. Planning is performed through story, in a myriad of ways. The aim here is to unpack the many ways we use story: in policy, in process, in pedagogy, in critique, as a foundation, and as a catalyst for change. A better understanding of the work that stories do can make us better planners in at least three ways: by expanding our practical tools, by sharpening our critical judgment and by widening the circle of democratic discourse.
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This article examines an issue about citizen participation that emerges in the literature on deliberative democracy and deliberative experimentation. Much of the work on deliberative participation has focused on the structures and procedures that lead to the design of effective deliberative fora. As important as this investigation has been, it has largely neglected the socio-cultural and subjective dimensions that under gird policy deliberation, especially the role of emotions. Emotional expression, in fact, has typically been portrayed as a barrier to reasoned judgment. Arguing that the successes of deliberative processes depend on more than democratic-deliberative principles and the structures derived from them, the first half of the article examines the social psychological aspects of deliberative communication, especially the role of social meaning and its implications for the creation and facilitation of deliberative settings. It does this by drawing on experiences and evidence from experiments in deliberative policy inquiry. The second part of the paper then addresses the difficult question of how to deal with the role of emotions in policy deliberation. It concludes by outlining a practical approach for integrating reasoned deliberation and emotional expression based on real-world planning and policy processes.
Article
After brief personal recollections of the origins of planning theory, the author poses the question of why, after five decades of active theorizing, it is still impossible for people engaged in writing planning theory to agree on a formal definition of their subject. Four possible answers are explored: the problem of defining planning as an object to be theorized; the impossibility of talking about planning disconnected from actual institutional and political contexts; the several modes of doing planning theory and the dilemma of choosing among them; and the difficulty of incorporating power relations into planning discourse. The paper concludes with a brief comment on three themes that should be made central to theorizing; the production of the urban habitat, the rise of civil society, and the question of power.
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Drawing on case studies and extensive interviews with planners and administrators, this book reveals the underlying psychological structure of bureaucratic organizations, showing how it may hinder members' abilities to identify problems, analyze information, and make and implement decisions. Baum takes an interdisciplinary approach, applying psychological interpretations of unconscious assumptions, transference, group phenomena, and scapegoating to such practical challenges as decision-making, planning, problem solving, and advising. The book offers guidelines to help professionals accomplish goals more effectively. This book will be of interest to practitioners, researchers, and students in the fields of planning, public administration, organizational consultation, management, social work, and organizational and social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mindfulness refers to an individual difference variable regarding the degree to which a person is in the present moment (K. W. Brown & R. M. Ryan, 2003). Despite a growing interest in the benefits of mindfulness in health and clinical outcomes, little research has explored whether mindfulness relates to individual performance. The authors examined whether mindfulness was related to performance among a group of MBA students (N = 149). The results show that mindfulness interacted with gender to predict performance. Specifically, the positive association between mindfulness and performance was stronger for women than for men. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Short courses, books, and articles exhort administrators to make decisions more methodically, but there has been little analysis of the decision-making process now used by public administrators. The usual process is investigated here-and generally defended against proposals for more "scientific" methods. Decisions of individual administrators, of course, must be integrated with decisions of others to form the mosaic of public policy. This integration of individual decisions has become the major concern of organization theory, and the way individuals make decisions necessarily affects the way those decisions are best meshed with others'. In addition, decision-making method relates to allocation of decision-making responsibility-who should make what decision. More "scientific" decision-making also is discussed in this issue: "Tools for Decision-Making in Resources Planning."
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The Strategic Choice Approach to planning under pressure has been developed by OR scientists as a means of facilitating communication among decision-makers with diverse perspectives, allegiances and skills. Its function is to enable them to make sustained progress together in exploring the structure of complex decision problems, and in charting progress towards timely commitments to agreed actions. It offers a balanced set of communication tools which are primarily visual in form, yet are interlinked within a philosophy of planning that recognises the challenges that decision-makers face in responding strategically to diverse sources of uncertainty, including those that call for a political or structural rather than an analytical response. The principles and leading tools of the approach are briefly introduced, with references to the growing range of applications in fields of collaborative planning ranging from local community action to national environmental policy. Keywords: problem structuring; decision-making; strategic choice; planning; uncertainty; participation; facilitation
Article
There has been substantial interest in mindfulness as an approach to reduce cognitive vulnerability to stress and emotional distress in recent years. However, thus far mindfulness has not been defined operationally. This paper describes the results of recent meetings held to establish a consensus on mindfulness and to develop conjointly a testable operational definition. We propose a two-component model of mindfulness and specify each component in terms of specific behaviors, experiential manifestations, and implicated psychological processes. We then address issues regarding temporal stability and situational specificity and speculate on the conceptual and operational distinctiveness of mindfulness. We conclude this paper by discussing implications for instrument development and briefly describing our own approach to measurement.
Article
This article elaborates on the question of how complex decision making can be analysed. Three conceptual models are compared: the phase model, the stream model and the rounds model. Each model is based on specific assumptions about what decision making is and how it should be analysed. The phase model focuses on successive and distinctive stages in a process, i.e. defining a problem, searching for, choosing and implementing solutions. The stream model emphasizes concurrent streams of participants, problems and solutions, defining decision making as the connection between these streams. The rounds model combines elements of the other two models, in assuming that several actors introduce combinations of problems and solutions, and create progress through interaction. Each model generates specific insights, as is shown from the example of the ‘Betwe line’, a railway line intended for the transport of cargo, in the Netherlands. The phase model concentrates on decisions taken by a focal actor; the stream model focuses on the coincidentallinks between problems, solutions and actors; and the rounds model on the interaction between actors.
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The search for scientific bases for confronting problems of social policy is bound to fail, becuase of the nature of these problems. They are wicked problems, whereas science has developed to deal with tame problems. Policy problems cannot be definitively described. Moreover, in a pluralistic society there is nothing like the undisputable public good; there is no objective definition of equity; policies that respond to social problems cannot be meaningfully correct or false; and it makes no sense to talk about optimal solutions to social problems unless severe qualifications are imposed first. Even worse, there are no solutions in the sense of definitive and objective answers.
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Transport accounts for 26% of global CO2 emissions and is one of the few industrial sectors where emissions are still growing. Car use, road freight and aviation are the principal contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and this review focuses on approaches to reduce emissions from these three problem areas. An assessment of new technologies including alternative transport fuels to break the dependence on petroleum is presented, although it appears that technological innovation is unlikely to be the sole answer to the climate change problem. To achieve a stabilisation of greenhouse gas emissions from transport, behavioural change brought about by policy will also be required. Pressure is growing on policy makers to tackle the issue of climate change with a view to providing sustainable transport. Although, there is a tendency to focus on long-term technological solutions, short-term behavioural change is crucial if the benefits of new technology are to be fully realised.
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The integration of transport and land use planning is widely recognized as essential to the achievement of sustainable development. The concept of accessibility—or what and how can be reached from a given point in space—can provide a useful conceptual framework for this integration. More specifically, a shift of focus in urban transport planning from catering for mobility to catering for accessibility helps see how more sustainable transport options can, under certain land use conditions, provide a competitive degree of accessibility that matches less sustainable options. The authors have used the concept of accessibility as a framework for the interactive design of integrated transport and land use plans in two areas of the Netherlands. The objective of these exercises was identifying solutions where economic, social, and environmental goals could be combined, defined as the achievement of ‘sustainable accessibility’. The existing situation has been evaluated, and alternative plans have been developed. In this paper we reflect on these experiences and sketch the way forward, with a focus on the methodological aspects of the undertaking. In this respect, a major challenge is finding a workable balance between an accessibility measure that is theoretically and empirically sound and one that is sufficiently plain to be usefully employed in interactive, creative plan-making processes.
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Four studies tested for gender differences in support for punitive policies, reparative human services, and preventative social policies, and explored potential emotional and attitudinal mediators of differences that were found. In Study 1, participants' relative preferences for punitive, reparative human service, and preventative political actions were measured. Women preferred human service actions more than did men, and men preferred punitive and preventative actions more than did women. Study 2 found that men support punitive political policies more than do women. Study 3 found that again, men supported punitive actions more than did women, and women supported human service actions more than did men, and that among men, state anger predicted support for punitive actions, and among women, state empathy predicted willingness to volunteer. In Study 4, among both men and women state anger predicted support for punitive actions, and trait empathy predicted support for human service actions. Trait empathy mediated the gender difference found in support for human service actions. Results provide evidence that emotional dispositions and reactions play an important role in shaping political attitudes, and more specifically, that gender differences in emotion influence gender differences in policy preferences.
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Incl. bibl., index. It is argued that professional education should be centered on enhancing the professional person's ability for "reflection-in-action," which is learning by doing and developing the ability for continued learned throughout the professional's career. Examples are drawn from an architectural design studio and the arts to demonstrate how reflection-in-action can be fostered in students and therefore in professionals in all areas. The approach involves active coaching by a master teacher, including giving students practice facing real problems, testing solutions, making mistakes, seeking help, and refining approaches. Extensive dialogues between teachers and students illustrate how reflection-in-action works, what encourages it, and behavior or attitudes that can prevent the development of reflectiveness. [ERIC]
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Despite more than four decades of efforts to integrate the two fields, the place of land-use <?tws=.2w><?tlss=.2w>models in planning remains problematic. The expanding possibilities afforded by today’s planning support systems (PSS) invite a rethinking of the relationship between land-use models and planning in the context of new approaches, tools, and techniques that can amplify the positive synergies between the two domains and enhance the ability of spatial planning to prepare for the future. This paper addresses one vitally important area in which the contribution of models to planning practice could be greatly improved. This is the neglected area of strategic planning, which is inextricably linked with the future-oriented mission of the field. The paper begins with an examination of the continuing tensions between modeling and planning, tensions that need to be reconsidered in light of the growing sophistication of land-use models intended for use in a planning context. It then outlines three interrelated roles for land-use models that would help support the mission of planning as a visionary and future-oriented process. These roles are based on approaches discussed in the planning literature (and in the ‘futures’ literature more generally) as scenario writing, visioning, and storytelling. Although scenario writing (or development) is a notion familiar to land-use modelers, not every form of scenario development commonly proposed by modelers is useful to planners. Visioning is a goal-oriented process that focuses the community on desired ends and helps sort out the means for reaching these ends. Finally, good storytelling can help to clarify the implications of different alternatives and to build consensus by presenting particular desired or feared future developments in terms meaningful enough to be credible to nonspecialists. The paper presents examples of land-use models that seem well suited to one or the other of these roles. Although no single model is likely to satisfy all three roles, a well-designed PSS can provide the context for their seamless integration and mutual reinforcement.
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The fundamental dilemma in attempts to make urban development less dependent upon mobility by car is the inability of alternatives to match the quality of accessibility provided by private motorized transport. Failure to recognize this means that bringing about environmentally more sustainable urban mobility patterns is only possible at economic, social, and political costs that are unacceptable in most societies. In this paper we identify and discuss ways out of this dilemma, in the form of solutions that pursue the goal of increasing both sustainability and accessibility. We start by contending that what people ask is not a generic mobility, but rather opportunities to participate in spatially disjointed activities. Accordingly, accessibility should be defined as the amount and the diversity of 'spatial opportunities' that can be reached within a certain amount of time. Solutions to the accessibility - sustainability dilemma building upon this perspective (that is, planning concepts, policy measures) have been the object of recent research at the Universiteit van Amsterdam and are discussed and we look for, and find, evidence of the feasibility of these solutions in the actual trends in the Amsterdam urban region. Some policy implications of the findings are discussed.
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What has becomes known in recent years as communicative or collaborative planning has forged a new hegemony in planning theory. Described by some as the paradigm of the 1990s, it proposes a fundamental challenge to the practice of planning that seeks both to explain where planning has gone wrong and (more controversially) to identify ways forward. The broad approach itself and advocates of it have lacked the advantage of any critique. This paper provides such an opportunity. Following a brief outline of communicative action, we identify three broad areas of concern that militate against the option of a collaborative planning approach. More specifically, we identify problematic assumptions in Habermas's original theoretical distinction of communicative action as a fourth separate concept of sociological action. Although we accept its useful dissection of planning and the role of values and consensus-building in decision-settings, we consider that collaborative planning theory fails to incorporate adequately the peculiar political and professional nuances that exist in planning practice. We conclude our critique by raising programmatic points for planning theory and practice in general.