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Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion

Authors:
  • American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Abstract

This is the new fourth edition of the book on dispersion modeling of continuous, buoyant air pollution plumes which takes nothing for granted. Every equation is completely derived step-by-step without any complicated or advanced mathematics. Every constraint and assumption is fully explained. The subjects covered in the book include atmospheric turbulence and stability classes, buoyant plume rise, Gaussian dispersion calculations and modeling, time-averaged concentrations, wind velocity profiles, fumigations, trapped plumes, flare stack plumes and much more ... with a great many example calculations. The book has been purchased in 84 countries and is currently available in 233 libraries worldwide. It has been referenced or cited as an educational resource more than 880 times in the technical literature and on the Internet, including 34 regulatory publications of state or national governmental agencies worldwide. It has also been used as recommended reading or a textbook in 61 university courses. A complete list of the 880 citations is available online at at http://www.air-dispersion.com/interest.html#References It is also listed in the following online sources: OpenLibrary , LibraryThing , GoodReads , Citeulike , Wageningen University Library and Internet Archive .

Supplementary resource (1)

... The atmospheric boundary layer is the layer where interactions take place between the earth's surface and the large scale of atmospheric flow [7,8]. Pollutants are mixed uniformly throughout this layer by turbulence, and turbulent mixing can be either convective or mechanically [9]. Convection occurs during the day-time, when air is heated from below by warm surface of the earth. ...
... The most commonly used atmospheric stability classification is that of Pasquill originally developed in 1961, and modified in the same year by Gifford, and referred to as the Pasquill-Gifford stability class. They classified the atmospheric stability to categories; A, B, C, D, E and F [9,12]. Atmospheric stability classes A, B, and C is light-hours stability classes. ...
... Atmospheric stabilities are determined in day hours using cloud cover and solar altitude [9,13]. In this study the method suggested by Rabeiy 2010 [19] is used to determine the atmospheric stabilities during day hours. ...
... The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices by industry or transportation devices. They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere (Milton, 2005). ...
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More recently, air pollution has been a prevailing issue for discussion due to its adverse health and environmental effects in major cities and more importantly the Niger Delta region as a whole. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The causes of air pollution are either natural or anthropogenic. While its effects could be health or environmental. In terms of remediation, there are now practical alternatives to the principal causes of air pollution. For instance, combustion of fossil fuels for space heating can be replaced by using ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal energy storage. Commonly used as pollution control devices by industry or transportation devices which can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere has been listed. Also, motor vehicles driven by fossil fuels, a key factor in urban air pollution can be replaced by electric vehicles. This has led us to present a general overview of the causes, effects and remediation of air pollution with a little focus on Nigeria. Finally, when it comes to the Niger Delta, there are numerous challenges facing air quality studies such as; lack of equipment, lack of infrastructure, inadequate expertise and weak policy framework.
... Gas flaring releases large amounts of methane, which has a high global warming potential (Ubani and Onyejekwe, 2013). The methane is accompanied by another major greenhouse gas, carbon (IV) oxide, of which Nigeria was estimated to have emitted more than 34.38 million metric tons in 2002, accounting for about 50% of all industrial emissions in the country and 30% of the total CO 2 emission (Beychok, 2005). Kindzierski (2000) reported that during the gas flaring process, complete combustion though rarely achieved, can release relatively innocuous gases such as carbon (IV) oxide and water. ...
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The biodegradation potentials of microbiota isolated from top soils collected in the vicinities of two gas flare sites at Ologbo town, Edo State and a fallow farmland in Benin City on Forcados blended crude oil was determined. Serial dilution and pour plate methods were utilized in the isolation and enumeration of the microbial load of the soils. The heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts varied from 0.4 × 10 3 cfu/g to 1.5 × 10 3 cfu/g and 0.2 × 10 3 cfu/g to 1.8 × 10 3 cfu/g respectively. The differences in the microbial counts were statistically significant (P<0.05). Ten (10) bacterial and 10 fungal isolates were identified. All the soils were sandy. Aeromonas sp., Bacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Penicillium sp. and the bacterial consortium had the best biodegradation potentials. Aeromonas sp. effected maximal reduction in the TPH (DRO) content of the blended petroleum portion of the growth medium. Soils surrounding gas flare pits are a viable source of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and fungi.
... Models of smoke stack plume models utilize the system Equations (2) -(4) with a large cross-stream K in the horizontal plane, resulting in a larger σ y than and σ z pancaking the plume. They also use parameters to define the stability of the air, it is sufficient to refer to the Briggs plume model as an example of how this kind of modelling works [24] [25]. ...
... 4 Figure 3: sketch of the plume dispersion. The concentration of contaminants for smoke fumes can be calculated in the directions (x, y, z) of the following propagation equation [10]. ...
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Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is one of the most dangerous pollutants in the air. Most of the gas is emitted from industrial sources, mainly steam power plants, which account for more than 50% of it. Its consider toxic gas that cause irritating respiratory effects in this study the effect of air pollution around Durra refinery and its neighborhood. Where adopted in the study. the data of gaseous pollutants in the air (sulfur dioxide) were analyzed in the area south of Baghdad at January month that is have high frequent of stability condition . The data provided by the Ministry of Oil / Baghdad for 2017. In addition, the effect of air stability classes on the quantities of this pollutant. The results of the study showed that the in atmospheric stability class (F) concentrations of sulfur oxides is (54442mg/m 3 ) at distance 100m and (5127 mg/m 3 ) at distance 10000m were the highest in the region. Overall results show that the concentration rates reached relatively high values during the stable and very stable atmospheric stability and that the values for the month of January for sulfur dioxide were found to be high and are inversely proportional to the speed of the wind.
... z is the m geometric mean height of the two levels. G is the 0 dry adiabatic lapse rate, approximately -10 C/km 0 or 0.01 C/m (Beychok, 2005). of the intensity of turbulent mixing and also as criterion for the existence or non-existence of turbulence in the stably stratified environment (Arya, 1999). The Richardson number which is a ratio of buoyancy force to shear stress and the M-O stability parameter (ratio of height z, to buoyancy length scale L) were estimated from the formulations of Arya (1999). ...
... A survey was carried out on the health conditions of populations' resident and working in the Niger Delta communities (Ana and Sridhar, 2009). A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles (Milton, 2005). ...
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The impacts of gas flaring on health at Ibeno, Eket, Onna, Esit Eket and Umudike were investigated measuring air quality parameters, The results showed that the mean concentration of air parameters value were below FEPA and USEPA National air quality standards with exception of carbon monoxide which exceeded the limit of 35 ppm in March at Ibeno. Concentration of air parameters at Umudike showed a similar trend to that of study locations at Eket, Ibeno, Esit Eket and Onna. The values also decreased drastically during wet season. Statistical analysis of the data showed some correlations between CO, NH 3 and pneumonia in Esit Eket and a reduced correlation with respiratory tract infection (RTI). The result also indicates that one is likely to be infected by pneumonia when the volume of CO in air increases. It shows that when the volume of NO 2 increases, the tendency for one to be RTI infected is reduced. Another variable in this equation that affect RTI is CO. The result also shows if all other explanatory variables in this equation are kept constant a 216% increase in CO will cause1% increases in the chance of one to be infected with pneumonia in the research areas.
... Temperature profiles between 0 and 10 km using a 12 h daytime average global tropospheric OH radical concentration of [OH] = 2 × 10 6 radicals cm −3 [18] and [Cl] = 1 × 10 4 atoms cm −3 (24 h average) [19], the Arrhenius parameters reported in this work and considering a lapse rate in the troposphere of −6.5 K/km [20]. Table 3 shows the OH and Cl removal rates for the HFOs studied as a function of altitude in the troposphere assuming a temperature of 298.15 ...
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A study of the temperature dependence of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with a series of hydrofluroolefins: 2-fluoropropene (CH3CF[dbnd]CH2), hexafluoroisobutylene ((CF3)2C[dbnd]CH2) and (E/Z)-1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene ((E/Z)-CF3CF[dbnd]CHF) has been performed. The relative-rate technique was used to determine rate coefficients over the temperature range 287–313 K. This work constitutes the first temperature dependence study of OH radicals and Cl atoms with 2-fluoropropene and (E/Z)-1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene and for the reaction of Cl with hexafluoroisobutylene. Atmospheric implications are discussed with particular reference to the rate coefficients obtained as a function of the temperature.
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Introduction Today, one of the most important issues in the field of climatology is air pollution and its relationship to the general circulation of the atmosphere. The atmosphere around the planet Earth is made up of gases called fixed atmosphere gases. Humans and all living things are accustomed to this composition of the atmosphere and have adapted to it. Any changes in the quality and quantity of these elements can be considered as air pollution. Therefore, since the main cause of all changes in the characteristics of the human environment is related to changes in atmospheric pressure, so in all climate-related studies, the first step is to identify patterns of air masses. Anti-cyclonic circulation patterns, both at the Earth's surface and in the upper atmosphere, create sunny weather, leading to temperature inversion and subsequent air pollution, especially in densely populated and industrial cities. In winter, when these inversions are stronger, hot air on the cold air acts like a cap that prevents air mixing. Thus, urban areas have a strong potential to face serious problems of air pollution as a result of a combination of limited conditioning of air and emission of pollutants from high atmospheric levels. Atmosphere in terms of temperature inversion is associated with minimum air mixture and stable conditions. So the highest density in the direction of the wind extends from the source of diffusion. Methodology For the recognition and extraction of the synoptic patterns affecting the temperature inversion in Tabriz city, we initially prepared the data records on the temperature inversion for the time period of 2001-2010 by the use of upper atmosphere station data. This was followed by the utilization of digital data on sea surface pressure as daily mean from the reanalyzed data series of NCEP/NCAR in the eastern longitudes of 10°-60° and the latitudes of 10°-90° in 651 pixels of 2.5/2.5 degrees. With the PCA analysis on the data of sea surface data pressure in the days having temperature inversion, we reduced their volume and carrying out cluster analysis on the obtained components we recognized the most important atmospheric patterns and through which the map of each pattern was drawn. Results and discussion Based on the results of cluster analysis on the matrix of factor scores in this study, the occurrence of temperature inversion in the city of Tabriz is due to the domination of four consecutive patterns. The general characteristics of these patterns are as follows. 1- In general, in the hot period of the year, the high-pressure pattern of Migrant Europe is the most important system in the formation of temperature inversions. In this pattern, languages from the highlands to the western shores of the Caspian Sea are advancing, and due to the presence of a mid-level ridge, it is possible to strengthen the anticyclone core at sea level and thus create a stable atmosphere. With the dominance of the downward process of air, the stability of the earth's surface air and the possibility of inversion formation in the warm period of the year intensify. Two summer patterns, which have been associated with the establishment of a high-pressure pattern on the northwest and in some cases with a low pressure on the Persian Gulf, have caused the upheavals of this period of the year.2 - In other patterns that have occurred more in the cold season, the surface stable layer due to the penetration of the tabs of Anti-cyclonic systems including high-pressure Siberian and European Migrant Europe high-pressure is done alone or in combination and in some cases with high-pressure Migrant Europe. North pressure is also present on the map, which is exacerbated by the Convection of cold weather. Despite the process of air fall due to the dominance of the convergence region of the mid-level convergence creates deep inversions and sometimes double-layer. In these patterns, the thickness of the inversion layer is low and the temperature difference between the peak and the base is high, which indicates the acute conditions of inversion to create air pollution. This phenomenon is likely to occur in any season. But its severity, which depends on synoptic factors. Conclusion The most important factor in causing temperature inversion in most cases is how to arrange the dominant pressure patterns, In this Patterns the cold weather due to the presence high pressure system expanded in the surface with the establishment Left side of a deep trough over the region, the cold air has diffused from higher latitudes on Tabriz and strong sustainability has been created in vertical column of the atmosphere. In cases of being cause the Northern low pressure along with pressure-immigrant Europe for the spread of a cold into the region. The warm air of lower latitudes has been placed over the cold air of ground by domination of a deep ridge over the region. Therefore the intensity of stability increased and severe temperature inversion into the air near the surface formed. Keywords: Circulation patterns PCA Clustering Temperature inversion Tabriz Citation: Mohammad Khorshiddoust, A., et al. (2020), Circulation patterns of the temperature inversion in Tabriz city using PCA, Geography and Planning, 24(72): 205-224.
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We quantify the impact of a valley-wind system on the transport of passive tracers in the stably-stratified atmosphere of a valley dynamically decoupled from the atmosphere above. The simple configuration of an idealized Alpine-type valley opening onto a plain is considered, for two values of the initial buoyancy frequency and of the valley steepness. The valley-wind system consists of thermally-driven downslope flows that induce a pressure difference between the valley interior and the plain, thereby triggering a down-valley flow. A steady-state regime is eventually reached, at the beginning of which passive tracers are emitted at the valley floor and at different heights above it. The tracer emitted at the valley floor is fully mixed below the height of the maximum speed of the down-valley flow, which behaves like a jet, and remains decoupled from the tracers emitted above. The down-valley flow increases linearly in the along-valley direction y so that, from the conservation of tracer flux, the tracer concentration decays as 1 / y. A simple theoretical model is proposed to fully account for the down-valley flow and tracer behaviour. The tracer concentration emitted at the valley floor also displays marked oscillations, induced by internal gravity waves radiated via a hydraulic-jump process when the downslope flow reaches the valley floor. The amplitude of the oscillations can be as high as 50% of their mean value, implying that averaged values in an urbanized valley may disguise high instantaneous—and potentially harmful-values.
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