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Amphibians of Western China

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... Brief descriptions of the larvae, and sometimes observations on the life-histories of extra-Philippine populations, are scattered through the literature, mostly in taxonomic works on the related herpetofaunas of the Asiatic mainland and islands of the Sunda shelf. Some of the more useful works include those by: Flower (1896, 1899); Boulenger (1912); van Kampen (1907Kampen ( , 1909Kampen ( , 1923; Pearse (1911); Smith (1916aSmith ( , 1916bSmith ( , 1927; Annandale (1918); Dunn (1928); Pope (1931); Boring et al. (1932); Schijfsma (1932); Mertens (1930Mertens ( , 1934; Bourret (1942); Liu (1950); and Inger (1956). THE Field work in all localities was carried out primarily in the months of March, April, May, and December. ...
... Neither does the size of the body of water seem to matter; embryos and tadpoles have been observed in ponds varying from a foot to 100 feet in diameter. This observation contrasts with those of Inger (1956) in Borneo and Liu (1950) in China, who both observed R. leucomystax breeding only in small quiet pools. The breeding sites often do not contain aquatic vegetation, except some algae, which serve as food supply. ...
... The laying of eggs out of the water by other non-Philippine species of Rana has been reported for Rana adenopleura in Formosa and China (Liu, 1950) and Rana grayi in South Africa (Rose, 1950). ...
Article
The life-histories of 11 Philippine frogs (8 ranids, 2 rhacophorids, and 1 microhylid) occurring on Negros Island are discussed in relation to their ecology, evolution, and classification. The basis for the discussion is data obtained both in the field and in the laboratory during the period, 1954-1958. Amphibian life-history characters may be interpreted as (1) those due to adaptive radiation, and (2) those which are stable characters. The stable characters can be used as indicators of phylogenetic relationships of different species. Some reproductive and developmental adaptations of the Negros frogs studied include: the laying by some species of eggs with sticky capsules for attachment to objects in the streams, the rapid rate of development of those eggs laid in temporary water, and some structural modifications in the larvae enabling them to live in the different environments. These modifications include depressed bodies, strong tail muscles, and reduced body and tail fins by larvae characteristic of streams; subspherical bodies, weak tail muscles, and high body and tail fins by larvae of the pond type; and the lack of typical larval structures with the development of functionally equivalent organs (e.g., abdominal sacs instead of gills as respiratory organs in Cornufer) among species undergoing direct development. Small eggs and large clutch size are typical of species ovipositing in water, whereas large eggs and small clutch size are typical of those ovipositing out of the water. More than fifty per cent of the species studied lay eggs out of the water. The smallest eggs develop wholly in water through metamorphosis; the largest eggs develop within the egg capsules without passing through the aquatic larval stages; eggs of intermediate size pass the embryonic stages out of the water but pass through the larval stages in the water. These specializations are correlated with the trend toward direct development as discussed by other authors. Of the 11 species considered in this paper, 3 belonging to the genus Cornufer undergo a terrestrial, direct development, and 2 species of the genus Rhacophorus and 2 species of Rana lay eggs that undergo embryonic development out of the water. The remaining species pass through the embryonic and the larval development in water. The life-histories of the Philippine species studied in general confirm the taxonomic status given them by Inger.
... This species is similar to R. adenopleura. Several authors placed R. caldwelli in the synonymy of R. adenopleura (Pope, 1931;Liu, 1950;Kuramoto, 1985;Chou, 1999). However, Dubois (1992) proposed to use the name of R. caldwelli for Fujian population and restricted the name of R. adenopleura for Taiwan population. ...
... adenopleura was described by Boulenger (1909) from four specimens collected at "Fuhacho", Taiwan. Several authors regarded the frogs from continental China belonging to R. adenopleura and regarded the congeneric species from Fukien namely R. caldwelli as a synonym (Pope, 1931;Liu, 1950;Kuramoto, 1985;Chou, 1999;Orlov et al., 2002). Based on published evidences, Dubois (1992) proposed to keep the name of R. adenopleura for Taiwan population and restricted the name of R. caldwelli for the Fujian population. ...
... Pope (1931) compared Schmidt's types with his new series of 98 specimens and showed that the characters separating R. caldwelli and R. adenopleura were not diagnostic and placed R. caldwelli in the synonymy of the original species R. adenopleura. This consideration was followed in subsequent works ( Liu, 1950;Chou, 1999). As results given above, the species Rana caldwelli is recognized as valid species as similar to Dubois (1992). ...
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Examination of specimens of ranid frogs in the subgenus Nidirana Dubois, 1992, confirms the uniqueness of these frogs based on external morphological, morphometrical and behavioral characters. The results separate the species of Nidirana into three species groups as 1) Rana okinavana group (including three species, Rana chapaensis (Bourret, 1937), Rana daunchina Chang, 1933, and Rana okinavana Boettger, 1895); 2) Rana adenopleura group (including three species, Rana adenopleura Boulenger, 1909, Rana caldwelli Schmidt, 1925, and Rana lini Chou, 1999); and 3) Rana pleuraden group (including one species, Rana pleuraden Boulenger, 1934). The revalidation of Rana caldwelli by Dubois (1992) was confirmed by morphological and morphometrical data as presented in the result. The specimens from Thailand previously listed as Rana adenopleura and Rana chapaensis are re-allocated to Rana lini based on external morphological characteristics. As for Laos, three specimens referred to Rana chapaensis were restudied and were assigned to Rana lini. To clarify some confusions of the original description of Rana lini, we provide here a re-description based on specimens from Thailand. Following our study, the recent distribution of Rana lini includes China (Yunnan Province), Laos (Xieang Khouang Province) and Thailand (Loei and Phetchabun Provinces). Rana chapaensis is known from Laos (Saravan Province) and Vietnam (Ha Tinh and Lao Cai provinces).
... All additional taxa (except M. dringi; Inger et al. 1995) from GenBank sequences that were not represented by the 54 taxa dataset (1c), were distributed amongst the Atympanophrys, Brachytarsophrys, Panophrys and Pelobatrachus groups, and the Xenophrys aceras, X. lekaguli, and X. major species groups. Atympanophrys shapingensis Liu, 1950, the type species of Atympanophrys formed the sister taxon to A. nankiangensis Liu & Hu, 1966(Hu et al. 1966 demonstrating that our use of the latter species in the phylogenetic analyses was representative of this taxon. M. dringi formed a poorly supported (bs ¼ 43) sister taxon relationship with the A-B clade, however, its systematic position was found to be unstable (see supplementary textS2,SupplementaryMaterialonline).Thisanalysesalsohighlighted a number of errors associated with GenBank sequences, and related errors in some recent publications citing data from GenBank (supplementary table S3, Supplementary Material online). ...
... Inclusion (3 species): Megophrys (Atympanophrys) gigantica Liu, Hu and Yang, 1960; Megophrys (Atympanophrys) nankiangensis Liu andHu, 1966 (Hu et al. 1966); *Megophrys (Atympanophrys) shapingensis Liu, 1950. Megophrys (Brachytarsophrys) -Brachytarsophrys Tian and Hu, 1983: Type species: Leptobrachium carinense Boulenger, 1889, by original designation for the genus-level rank. ...
... Inclusion (3 species): Megophrys (Atympanophrys) gigantica Liu, Hu and Yang, 1960; Megophrys (Atympanophrys) nankiangensis Liu andHu, 1966 (Hu et al. 1966); *Megophrys (Atympanophrys) shapingensis Liu, 1950. Megophrys (Brachytarsophrys) -Brachytarsophrys Tian and Hu, 1983: Type species: Leptobrachium carinense Boulenger, 1889, by original designation for the genus-level rank. ...
Article
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Molecular dating studies typically need fossils to calibrate the analyses. Unfortunately, the fossil record is extremely poor or presently non-existent for many species groups, rendering such dating analysis difficult. One such group is the Asian horned frogs (Megophryinae). Sampling all generic nomina, we combined a novel ∼5kb dataset composed of four nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments to produce a robust phylogeny, with an extensive external morphological study to produce a working taxonomy for the group. Expanding the molecular dataset to include out-groups of fossil represented ancestral anuran families, we compared the priorless RelTime dating method with the widely used prior based Bayesian timetree method, MCMCtree, utilising a novel combination of fossil priors for anuran phylogenetic dating. The phylogeny was then subjected to ancestral phylogeographic analyses, and dating estimates were compared with likely biogeographic vicariant events. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that previously proposed systematic hypotheses were incorrect due to paraphyly of genera. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological and timetree results support the recognition of Megophryinae as a single genus, Megophrys, with a subgenus level classification. Timetree results using RelTime better corresponded with the known fossil record for the outgroup anuran tree. For the priorless in-group, it also outperformed MCMCtree when node date estimates were compared with likely influential historical biogeographic events, providing novel insights into the evolutionary history of this pan-Asian anuran group. Given a relatively small molecular dataset, and limited prior knowledge, this study demonstrates that the computationally rapid RelTime dating tool may outperform more popular and complex prior reliant timetree methodologies.
... Amolops kangtingensis (Liu, 1950) was confused with Amolops mantzorum (David, 1871) for a long time. Liu & Hu (1961) synonymized A. kangtingensis with A. mantzorum due to the difficulty in identification between these two species under preservative condition. ...
... Morphological data of congeners were obtained from previously published literature (Liu, 1950;Fei et al., 2009b). Fei et al. (2005Fei et al. ( , 2009b, the morphological data support the Xinduqiao population as a new species of the Amolops mantzorum group based on the absence of a dorsolateral fold and the absence of a circummarginal groove on the disc of the first finger. ...
... Comparison: According to Fei et al. (2005Fei et al. ( , 2009bFei et al. ( , 2012, five species, i.e., A. granulosus (Liu & Hu, 1961), A. lifanensis (Liu, 1945), A. loloensis (Liu, 1950), A. mantzorum (David, 1871), and A. viridimaculatus (Jiang, 1983), exist in the A. mantzorum species group, which is characterized by the absence of a dorsolateral fold and circummarginal groove at the first finger. ...
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A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Xinduqiao, Kangding, Sichuan. It was previously identified as Amolops kangtingensis, which is synonymized to Amolops mantzorum in this study. The new species, Amolops xinduqiao sp. nov., is distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, adult males SVL 41.2–47.5 mm (n=15, average 43.9 mm), adult females SVL 48.5–56.6 mm (n=15, average 52.5 mm); (2) head length equal to width or slightly wider than long; (3) tympanum small, but distinct; (4) vomerine teeth in two tiny rows, separated by a space about one vomerine teeth row; (5) bony projections on lower jaw absent; (6) dorsolateral folds usually absent; (7) tarsal folds or glands on tarsus absent; (8) circummarginal groove on disc of finger Ⅰ absent; (9) tibiotarsal articulation reaching nostril or beyond; (10) webs of toe IV reaching to distal articulation, other toes fully webbed to disc; and (11) vocal sac absent in males.
... In his revision of pelobatid frogs, Boulenger (1908) tentatively transferred Ixalus lateralis to the synonymy of Megalophrys major Boulenger, 1908 (a nomen novum for Xenophrys gigas Jerdon, 1870), a large-sized Xenophrys species. Liu (1950: 180) wrote in this respect: " it seems evident that he wilfully disregarded the earlier nomen of Anderson " . However, Boulenger (1908) had preceded the nomen Ixalus lateralis in the synonymy list by a question mark and thus expressed some doubt about the identity of this species. ...
... In subsequent works, no consensus could be found in naming the large-sized Megophrys (now Xenophrys) species with white supralabial line occurring in NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan, and the identity of Ixalus lateralis remained uncertain. Boulenger (1882, 1908), Annandale (1911), Nieden (1923), Smith (1929), Gee & Boring (1929), Pope & Boring (1940), Bourret (1942), Taylor (1962) and Stuart (2005) used the specific epithet major, whereas Theobald (1882), Fea (1897), Liu (1950), Dubois (1980), Fei et al. (1990), Yang (1991), Ye et al. (1993), Rao & Yang (1997), Dubois & Ohler (1998), Fei (1999) and Khonsue & Thirakhupt (2001) employed the nomen lateralis for this Xenophrys species. Only very recently, Delorme et al. (2006: 14), after re-examination of the original description and the figure 5 in plate 78 of Anderson (1879), pointed to the fact that this figure clearly fits much more the genus Leptolalax Dubois, 1980 than any other South Asian frog genus, including Xenophrys, and formally transferred this nominal species to Leptolalax. ...
Article
The genus Leptolalax Dubois, 1980 is for the first time reported from India. The nomen Ixalus lateralis Anderson 1871, created for a specimen from an unknown type locality, probably in North-East India, is applied to this species. A neotype is designated to stabilize the taxonomic status of this nomen and to fix a precise type locality.
... Colour notes on the type series were taken from digital images captured with a Micro-Nikkor 105 mm, f/2.8 D lens mounted on a Nikon D70 body. Sources of data on character states and distribution of congeneric species of Leptolalax include material in Appendix I, in addition to the following works: Berry (1975), Boulenger (1893), Bourret (1942), Dubois (1981Dubois ( , 1983), Fei & Ye (1992), Fei et al. (1999), Grismer et al. (2004), Humtsoe et al. (2008), Inger (1966, Inger & Stuebing (1997), Inger et al. (1995), Lathrop et al. (1998), Liu (1950), Malkmus (1992), Malkmus et al. (2002, Manthey & Grossmann (1997), Matsui (1997, 2006), Matsui et al. (2009), Ohler et al. (2000 and Rowley & Trung (2009). Museum abbreviations used: FRIM = Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Malaysia; IAAST = Museum of the Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, India; ZSI = Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India and ZRC = Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ...
... Leptolalax melanoleucus Matsui 2006 Central peninsular and south-western Thailand 16. Leptolalax nahangensis Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov & Ho 1998 Na Hang Nature Reserve, Tuyen Quang Province, northern Vietnam 17. Leptolalax oshanensis ( Liu 1950) Sichuan, China, Chang Mai Province, Thailand and Phongsaly, Bolikhamxay, and Khammouan provinces, Laos 18. Leptolalax pelodytoides (Boulenger 1893) Yunnan, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Hong Kong and Fujian, China, northern Myanmar, Thailand, northern Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia 19. Leptolalax pictus Malkmus 1992 Crocker Range, Sabah and eastern Sarawak, Malaysia and northeast Kalimantan, Indonesia ( Borneo) 20. ...
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A new species of megophryid frog of the genus Leptolalax is described from the sacred groves of Mawphlang, East Khasi Hills, north-eastern India. L. khasiorum new species, is compared with congeners from India and other parts of south-east Asia. The new species is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL 24.5-27.3 (mean 25.63 ± 0.61 SE) mm in a sample of four adult males; 31.2-33.4 (mean 32.50 ± 0.67 SE) mm in a sample of three females; dorsum with fine scattered tubercles; eyelids with tubercles; tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct; macroglands, including preaxillary, pectorals and ventrolateral glands present; Finger I > II; toe tips not dilated, bearing dermal fringes; dorsum with dark blotches; flanks with large dark blotches; dark tympanic mask present; venter lacking dark blotches; labial bars present and limbs with dark cross-bars.
... Sources of data on character states include: Barbour and Noble (1916), Berry (1975), Boulenger (1905;1919), Fei et al. (1999), Inger (1966, Inger & Stuebing (2007), Kiew (1984), Liu (1950), Manthey & Grossmann (1997), Nieden (1923), Parker (1934), Taylor (1962), van Kampen (1905, Wu et al. (1987) and Yang (1991). Partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene were used to check for conspecificity of the two type specimens and to demonstrate their phylogenetic position within Microhylidae. ...
... mm in females (Yang 1991), toe tips swollen, toe webbing between Toes III and IV reaching beyond level of distal tubercle of Toe III (Parker 1934); distinct interorbital fold present; dorsum tuberculate, pale pinkish-grey with traces of a dark lateral band from canthus rostralis to mid-flanks; and venter lacks red pigmentation on gular and abdominal regions. An additional species has been described in the genus-Calluella ocellata Liu (1950), from "Szekuaipa, Chaochiaohsien, Sikang, 7,800 feet" (currently, Sikuaiba, Zhaojue County, Sichuan Province, China). However, Liu and Hu (1961) placed the name in the synonymy of C. yunnanensis Boulenger 1919, despite its obvious morphological differences, including fully webbed toes (vs. ...
Article
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A new brightly-coloured (olive and red) species of microhylid frog of the genus Calluella Stoliczka 1872 is described from the upper elevations of Gunung Penrissen and the Matang Range, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Calluella capsa, new species, is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL up to 36.0 mm; dorsum weakly granular; a faint dermal fold across forehead; toe tips obtuse; webbing on toes basal; lateral fringes on toes present; outer metatarsal tubercle present; and dorsum greyish-olive, with red spots; half of venter bright red, the rest with large white and dark areas. The new species is the eighth species of Calluella to be described, and the fourth known from Borneo. A preliminary phylogeny of Calluella and its relatives is presented, and the new taxon compared with congeners from Malaysia and other parts of south-east Asia.
... The Babina caldwelli was originally described as Rana caldwelli based on one holotype from the locality probably near Yenping (=Yanping District, Nanping City), Fujian, China, differing from R. adenopleura by more projecting snouts, rougher skin, and posteriorly broken up dorsolateral glandular folds ( Schmidt, 1925). Subsequently, Pope (1931 placed it in the synonymy of R. adenopleura and was followed by several authors ( Liu, 1950;Kuramoto, 1985;Chou, 1999;Fei et al., 2009;Fei et al., 2012). Dubois (1992) and Chuaynkern et al. (2010) resurrected population from Fujian as a valid species R. caldwelli and considered R. adenopleura to be restricted in Taiwan, further designating that R. caldwelli differs by having shorter loreal region, shorter forelimb, wider shank, narrower disc of the fifth toe and spinules on the posterior half of dorsum (vs. ...
... this study; Liu (1950); Fei et al. (2009) this study; Fei et al. (2009) this study; Chou (1999); Fei et al. (2009) Matsui and Utsunomiya (1983); Chuaynkern et al. ...
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The taxonomy of Babina sensu lato was controversial in the past decades. In this study, the phylogeny of genus Babina sensu lato was reconstructed based on genetic analysis, morphological comparison and advertisement call analysis. We found that Babina sensu stricto and previous subgenus Nidirana should be two distinct genera in the family Ranidae. N. caldwelli is confirmed to be a synonym of N. adenopleura because of the small genetic divergence and the lack of distinct morphological differences. A new species, Nidirana nankunensis sp. nov. is described based on a series of specimens collected from Mt. Nankun, Guangdong Province, China, which can be distinguished from other known congeners by having a behavior of nest construction, distinctive advertisement calls, significant divergence in the mitochondrial genes, and a combination of morphological characters. Currently, the genus Babina contains two species and the genus Nidirana contains eight species.
... Among the endemic fauna, the majority of species in the megophryid frog genus Scutiger Theobald, 1868 are known only from the montane habitats at high elevations between 1 900 m and 5 100 m in this region. Currently, there are 20 species recognized in the genus (Frost, 2015), of which six species are known from Tibet , including S. boulengeri (Bedriaga, 1898), S. maculatus (Liu, 1950), S. mammatus (Güther, 1896), S. nyingchiensis Fei, 1977, S. wuguanfui Jiang et al., 2012, and S. sikkimensis (Blyth, 1854. ...
Article
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A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed.
... The rice frog (Rana limnocharis) is a common species, widely distributed in southeastern Asian ( Liu, 1950;Zhao and Adler, 1993). In China it is distributed in a wide range area in terms of altitudes (2-2,000 m) (Fei and Ye, 2001;Liao et al., 2011). ...
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Bergmann's rule states that, within species of endotherms, individuals tend to be larger in cooler environments, and has been reputed to apply to some ectotherms including amphibians. However, the validity of the rule has been debated, questioning whether Bergmann's clines are generally present in anurans. In the view, we studied altitudinal variation in body size in the rice frog (Rana limnocharis) among populations from Sichuan province located at three altitudes to find if there exist any differences in a relatively small altitudinal range (290-375 m). The results showed that individuals from higher altitudes tended to be larger in body size than lower altitudes, which was consistent with Bergmann's cline. Moreover, when the effect of age was removed, variation in body size of the frogs across altitudes still remained. Our findings suggested that age affected the pattern of variation in body size across the altitudinal cline, we also discussed that factors other than age also contributed to size differences among populations.
... Zootaxa 2406 © 2010 Magnolia Press · 59 NEW LEPTOLALAX FROM MIZORAM, INDIA (1999), Grismer et al. (2004), Humtsoe et al. (2008), Inger (1966, Inger and Stuebing (1997), Inger et al. (1995, 1997), Lathrop et al. (1998), Liu (1950), Malkmus (1992), Malkmus et al. (2002), Malkmus and Riede (1993), Manthey and Grossmann (1997), Matsui (1997Matsui ( , 2006), Matsui et al. (2009), Ohler et al. (2000) and Rowley and Trung (2009). (Figs. ...
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A new species of megophryid frog of the genus Leptolalax is described from the Tamdil wetlands of Mizoram State, northeastern India. L. tamdil new species, is compared with congeners from India and other parts of southeast Asia. The new species is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL 32.3 mm in the only male and 31.8 mm in the only female known; dorsum tuberculate; eyelids with tubercles; tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct; supratympanic fold extending to posterior edge of tympanum; macroglands, including preaxillary, pectoral, femoral and ventrolateral glands present; Finger II > I; toe tips not dilated, bearing dermal fringes; relatively long hind limbs, with heels in contact when limbs are held perpendicular to body; dorsum with dark blotches; flanks with small dark blotches; dark tympanic mask present; venter pale; labial bars present and limbs with dark crossbars .
... Mass was recorded in life (to the nearest 0.1 g), using Pesola scales. We obtained comparative morphological data from museum specimens of L. applebyi (type specimens AMS R171703-171707), L. melicus (type specimens MVZ 258074-258077, MVZ 258197-258199), and L. tuberosus (AMS R 171715-171721; specimens fully agree with Inger et al.'s (1999) original description and are readily distinguished from other Leptolalax by having an indistinct tympanum and fine, whitish speckling dorsally), and from the literature: L. alpinis (Fei et al. 1991;Fei et al. 2009), L. arayai (Matsui 1997), L. bourreti (Dubois 1983), L. dringi (Dubois 1986;Inger & Stuebing 2005), L. fuliginosus (Matsui 2006), L. gracilis (Günther 1872;Malkmus et al. 2002;Inger & Stuebing 2005), L. hamidi (Matsui 1997), L. heteropus (Boulenger 1900), L. kecil (Matsui et al. 2009), L. khasiorum , L. kajangensis (Grismer et al. 2004), L. lateralis (Anderson 1871;Humtsoe et al. 2008), L. liui (Fei et al. 1991;Fei et al. 2009), L. maurus (Inger et al. 1997), L. melanoleucus (Matsui 2006), L. melicus (Rowley et al. 2010), L. nahangensis (Lathrop et al. 1998), L. oshanensis (Liu 1950;Fei et al. 2009), L. pelodytoides (Boulenger 1893), L. pictus (Malkmus 1992;Malkmus et al. 2002), L. pluvialis (Ohler et al. 2000), L. solus (Matsui 2006), L. sungi (Lathrop et al. 1998), L. tamdil (Sengupta et al. 2010), L. tuberosus (Inger et al.1999), L. ventripunctatus (Fei et al. 1991;Fei et al. 2009). Where available, we relied exclusively on measurements of specimens reported in original species descriptions. ...
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We describe a new species of megophryid frog from central Vietnam. Leptolalax croceus sp. nov. is most similar to L. tuberosus, but distinguished from this and all other Leptolalax species by its bright orange belly in life and by its unique, complex advertisement call consisting of 4-6 variably pulsed notes with a dominant frequency of 2635-3000 Hz. In contrast, L. tuberosus has an advertisement call consisting of a single, weakly pulsed note lasting 54-78 ms with a dominant frequency of 2584-2756.2 Hz. Leptolalax croceus sp. nov. can be further distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an indistinct tympanum, highly tuberculate dorsum, medium body size (22.2-27.3 mm in 16 adult males), head slightly wider than long, rudimentary webbing between toes I-III, no webbing between toes III-V, no lateral fringing on toes, and no ventrolateral glands. The new species is only known from a single locality in evergreen forest at 1316 m elevation. Males were found calling from leaf litter and low vegetation adjacent to a shallow, rocky stream. We suggest the species should be considered Data Deficient following IUCN's Red List categories.
... Additionally, ID refers to the last author's field series numbers, materials of which will eventually be deposited in the ZRC. Additional sources of data include:Berry (1975), Boulenger (1893),Bourret (1942), Das et al. (2010), Dubois (1981, 1983),Fei and Ye (1992),(1999),Grismer et al. (2004), Humtsoe et al. (2008), Inger (1966, Inger and Stuebing (1997),Inger et al. (1995),Lathrop et al. (1998), Liu (1950), Malkmus (1992), Malkmus et al. (2002, Malkmus andRiede (1993), Manthey andGrossmann (1997), Matsui (1997, 2006),Matsui et al. (2009), Ohler et al. (2000and Rowley and Trung (2009). ...
Article
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A new species of megophryid frog of the genus Leptolalax is described from the Tamdil wetlands of Mizoram State, north-eastern India. L. tamdil new species, is compared with congeners from India and other parts of south-east Asia. The new species is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL 32.3 mm in the only male and 31.8 mm in the only female known; dorsum tuberculate; eyelids with tubercles; tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct; supratympanic fold extending to posterior edge of tympanum; macroglands, including preaxillary, pectoral, femoral and ventrolateral glands present; Finger II > I; toe tips not dilated, bearing dermal fringes; relatively long hind limbs, with heels in contact when limbs are held perpendicular to body; dorsum with dark blotches; flanks with small dark blotches; dark tympanic mask present; venter pale; labial bars present and limbs with dark cross-bars.
... 2010b); L. alpinus Fei, Ye & Li (Fei et al., 1990(Fei et al., , 2009(Fei et al., , 2010, L. applebyi (Rowley & Cao, 2009;Rowley et al., 2016); L. arayai Matsui (Matsui, 1997), L. ardens (Rowley et al., 2016); L. bidoupensis (Rowley et al., 2011(Rowley et al., , 2016; L. botsfordi Rowley, Dau & Nguyen (Rowley et al., 2013); L. bourreti Dubois (Dubois, 1983;Ohler et al., 2011); L. croceus Rowley, Hoang, Le, Dau & Cao (Rowley et al., 2010c); L. dringi Dubois (Dubois, 1987;Inger et al., 1995); L. eos Ohler, Wollenberg, Grosjean, Hendrix, Vences, Ziegler & Dubois (Ohler et al., 2011); L. firthi Rowley, Hoang, Dau, Le & Cao (Rowley et al., 2012); L. fritinniens Dehling & Matsui (Dehling & Matsui, 2013) L. fuliginosus Matsui (Matsui, 2006); L. gracilis (Günther) (Günther, 1872;Inger & Stuebing, 2005); L. hamidi Matsui (Matsui, 1997); L. heteropus (Boulenger) (Boulenger, 1900); L. isos Rowley, Stuart, Neang, Hoang, Dau, Nguyen & Emmett (Rowley et al., 2015b); L. kajangensis Grismer, Grismer & Youmans (Grismer et al., 2004); L. kalonensis (Rowley et al., 2016); L. kecil Matsui, Belabut, Ahmad & Yong (Matsui et al., 2009); L. khasiorum Das, Tron, Rangad & Hooroo ; L. lateralis (Anderson) (Anderson, 1871;Humtsoe et al., 2008), L. laui Sung, Yang & Wang (Sung et al., 2014), L. liui Fei & Ye (Fei et al., 1990(Fei et al., , 2009(Fei et al., , 2010; L. maculosus (Rowley et al., 2016); L. maoershanensis Yuan, Sun, Chen, Rowley & Che ; L. marmoratus Matsui, Zainudin & Nishikawa (Matsui et al., 2014b); L. maurus Inger, Lakim, Biun & Yambun (Inger et al., 1997); L. melanoleucus Matsui (Matsui, 2006); L. melicus (Rowley et al., 2010a(Rowley et al., , 2016; L. minimus (Taylor) (Taylor, 1962;Ohler et al., 2011); L. nahangensis Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov & Ho (Lathrop et al., 1998); L. nokrekensis (Mathew & Sen) (Mathew & Sen, 2009); L. nyx Ohler, Wollenberg, Grosjean, Hendrix, Vences, Ziegler & Dubois (Ohler et al., 2011); L. oshanensis (Liu) (Fei et al., 2009(Fei et al., , 2010Liu, 1950); L. pallidus (Rowley et al., 2016); L. pelodytoides Boulenger (Boulenger, 1893(Boulenger, , 1908Ohler et al., 2011); L. petrops Rowley, Dau, Hoang, Le, Cutajar & Nguyen (Rowley et al., 2017a); L. pictus Malkmus (Malkmus, 1992;Malkmus et al., 2002); L. platycephalus Dehling (Dehling, 2012); L. pluvialis Ohler, Marquis, Swan & Grosjean (Ohler et al., 2000(Ohler et al., , 2011, L. puhoatensis Rowley, Dau & Cao (Rowley et al., 2017b); L. pyrrhops ; L. sabahmontanus Matsui, Nishikawa & Yambun (Matsui et al., 2014a), L. solus Matsui (Matsui, 2006); L. sungi Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov & Ho (Lathrop et al., 1998); L. tadungensis (Rowley et al., 2016); L. tamdil Sengupta, Sailo, Lalremsanga, Das & Das (Sengupta et al., 2010); L. tengchongensis Yang, Wang, Chen & Rao (Yang et al., 2016); L. tuberosus Inger, Orlov & Darevsky (Inger et al., 1999;Rowley et al., 2010c); L. ventripunctatus Fei, Ye & Li (Fei et al., 1990Ohler et al., 2011); and L. zhangyapingi Jiang, Yan, Suwannapoom, Chomdej & ...
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We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Phu Yen Province in southern Vietnam. Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) body size medium (SVL 28.0-29.3 mm in three adult males, 30.3 mm in single adult female); (2) supra-axillary glands present, creamy white; ventrolateral glands indistinct; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin roughly granular with larger tubercles, dermal ridges on dorsum absent; (5) rudimentary webbing present between fingers I-II and II-III; rudimentary webbing between all toes; fingers and toes without dermal fringes; (6) in life ventral surface greyish-violet with white speckling; (7) supratympanic fold distinct, dark brown in life; (8) iris bicolored, typically golden in upper half, fading to golden green in lower half; (9) tibia short (TbL/SVL 0.44-0.45 in males); and (10) eyes large and protuberant (ED/SVL 0.15-0.16 in males). From all congeners for which comparable sequences are available, the new species differs markedly in the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequence (P-distance>5.7%). The new species is currently known only from montane evergreen tropical forests of Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, and M'Drak District of Dak Lak Province at elevations of 470-630 m a.s.l. We suggest the new species should be considered as Data Deficient following the IUCN's Red List categories. We also report a previously unknown Leptolalax mtDNA lineage from an evergreen tropical forest in the Hoa Thinh District of Phu Yen Province, which may also represent an undescribed species.
... Terms of reproduction of toads in West Pribaikalje prolonged for more than one month, as well as on the most of its vast area. However, it should be noted that if in the southern part of the area toads can begin reproduction not only in May (the central part of China (Schmidt, 1927; Pope, 1931) but also in April (China, surroundings of Beijing) (Liu, 1950) then according to our data, in the north-western part of the area, laying of eggs occurs only in the middle of May. There is one more characteristic fact: the revival of toads in West Pribaikalje and the beginning of the reproductive season are not connected directly with the opening of spawning water bodies of ice. ...
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The number of features related to morphology, distribution of habitats, biotopical distribution, and biology of species reproduction (within the territory described) of the Mongolian toad (Bufo raddei) which inhabits western shore of Lake Baikal were described. In this paper on the basis of the results of field studies in 1997, 2001, 2005, 2012 the original data on reproduction and chemical composition of the spawning ponds, used by frogs for reproduction, is presented. It was found that reproduction of species occurs in the salty steppe (14-45 g/L) lakes in the west part of the Baikal basin.
... Comparative morphological characters were taken from references (L. alpinis [Fei et al. 1991]; L. arayai [Matsui 1997]; L. bouretti [Dubois 1983;Ohler et al. 2000]; L. dringi [Dubois 1986]; L. fulignosus [Matsui 2006]; L. gracilis [Günther 1872;Inger & Stuebing 2005]; L. hamidi [Matsui 1997]; L. heteropus [Boulenger 1900;Matsui 2006]; L. kecil [Matsui et al. 2009]; L. kajangensis [Grismer et al. 2004], L. lateralis [Anderson 1871;Humtsoe et al. 2008]; L. liui [Fei et al. 1991]; L. maurus [Inger et al. 1997]; L. melanolectus [Matsui 2006]; L. nahangensis [Lathrop et al. 1998]; L. oshanensis [Lui 1950;Fei et al. 2009]; L. pelodytoides [Boulenger 1893;Matsui 2006;Fei et al. 2009]; L. pictus [Malkmus 1992;Malkmus et al. 2002]; L. pluvialis [Ohler et al. 2000]; L. solus [Matsui 2006]; L. sungi [Lathrop et al. 1998]; L. tuberosus [Inger et al. 1999]; L. ventripunctatus [Fei 1999;Fei et al. 2009]). Leptolalax tuberosus (AMS R 171714-171722) from Song Thanh Proposed Nature Reserve, Phouc Son district, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam, and colour photographs of the holotype of L. pluvialis (MNHN 199.5675) in preservative were also examined. ...
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... medogensis Fei, Ye & Huang, 1983Fei et al. 1983M. megacephala Mahony, Sengupta, Kamei & Biju, 2011Mahony et al. 2011 (Boulenger, 1903) Boulenger 1903 M. minor Stejneger, 1926 Stejneger 1926 Ye & Fei, 1992 Ye and Fei 1992 M. zunhebotoensis (Mathew & Sen, 2007) Mathew and Sen 2007 In PCA for male group, the total variation of the first two principal components was 47.5%. On the two-dimensional plots of PC1 vs. PC2, the undescribed species was almost separated from M. kuatunensis (Fig. 3). ...
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A new species of the Asian horned toad genus Megophrys is described from Zhejiang Province, China, based on multiple data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA indicated the new species as an independent clade deeply clustered into the Megophrys clade. The new species is identified from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size small (SVL 28.4–32.4 mm in males); vomerine teeth absent; tongue not notched behind; tympanum distinctly visible, oval; a small horn-like tubercle present at the edge of each upper eyelid; two metacarpal tubercles distinctly visible in hand; toes without webbing; heels overlapped when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; tibiotarsal articulation reaching the level to middle of eye when leg stretched forward; an internal single subgular vocal sac in male; in breeding male, the nuptial pads present on the dorsal base of the first two fingers.
... medogensis Fei, Ye & Huang, 1983M. megacephala Mahony, Sengupta, Kamei & Biju, 2011Mahony et al. 2011 (Boulenger, 1903) Boulenger 1903 M. minor Stejneger, 1926 Stejneger 1926 M. mirabilis Lyu, Wang & Zhao Lyu et al. 2020 results ...
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A new species of the genus Megophrys is described from Guizhou Province, China. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA indicated the new species as a clade clustered into the Megophrys clade. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size moderate (SVL 40.0–45.5 mm in males and 48.9–51.2 mm in females); vomerine teeth absent; tongue not notched behind; tympanum distinctly visible, oval; a small horn-like tubercle at the edge of each upper eyelid; two metacarpal tubercles in hand; toes with rudimentary webbing; heels overlapping when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; tibiotarsal articulation reaching the level of mid-eye when leg stretched forward; in breeding males, an internal single subgular vocal sac present and brownish nuptial pads, made up of black nuptial spines, present on the dorsal base of the first two fingers.
... medogensis Fei, Ye & Huang, 1983Fei et al. 1983M. megacephala Mahony, Sengupta, Kamei & Biju, 2011Mahony et al. 2011 (Boulenger, 1903) Boulenger 1903 M. minor Stejneger, 1926 Stejneger 1926 Huang, 1981 Huang and Fei 1981 M. palpebralespinosa Bourret, 1937Bourret 1937M. parallela Inger & Iskandar, 2005 Inger and Iskandar 2005 M. parva (Boulenger, 1893) Boulenger 1893 M. periosa Mahony, Kamei, Teeling & Biju, 2018Mahony et al. 2018 Zhao et al. 2014 M. robusta Boulenger, 1908Boulenger 1908M. ...
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A new species of the genus Megophrys is described from Guizhou Province, China. Molecular phylogenetic analyses supported the new species as an independent clade nested into the Megophrys. The new species could be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size moderate (SVL 49.3-58.2 mm in males); vomerine ridges present distinctly, vomerine teeth present; tongue feebly notched behind; tympanum distinctly visible, oval; two metacarpal tubercles in hand; toes with one-third webbing and wide lateral fringes; heels overlapped when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; tibiotarsal articulation reaching the level between tympanum and eye when leg stretched forward ; an internal single subgular vocal sac present in male; in breeding male, the nuptial pads with large and sparse black nuptial spines present on the dorsal bases of the first two fingers.
... Mass was recorded in life (to the nearest 0.1 g), using Pesola scales. Comparative morphological characters were taken from references: L. alpinis (Fei et al. 1991;Fei et al. 2009), L. applebyi (Rowley & Cao 2009), L. arayai (Matsui 1997), L. bourreti (Dubois 1983), L. dringi (Dubois 1986;Inger & Stuebing 2005), L. fuliginosus (Matsui 2006), L. gracilis (Günther 1872;Malkmus et al. 2002;Inger & Stuebing 2005), L. hamidi (Matsui 1997), L. heteropus (Boulenger 1900), L. kajangensis (Grismer et al. 2004), L. kecil (Matsui et al. 2009), L. khasiorum , L. lateralis (Anderson 1871;Humtsoe et al. 2008), L. liui (Fei et al. 1991;Fei et al. 2009), L. maurus (Inger et al. 1997), L. melanoleucus (Matsui 2006), L. nahangensis (Lathrop et al. 1998), L. oshanensis (Lui 1950;Fei et al. 2009), L. pelodytoides (Boulenger 1893), L. pictus (Malkmus 1992;Malkmus et al. 2002), L. pluvialis (Ohler et al. 2000), L. solus (Matsui 2006), L. sungi (Lathrop et al. 1998), L. tamdil (Sengupta et al. 2010), L. tuberosus (Inger et al.1999), L. ventripunctatus (Fei et al. 1991;Fei et al. 2009). Leptolalax applebyi (AMS R 171703-171707) and L. tuberosus (AMS R 171714-171722) from Song Thanh Proposed Nature Reserve, Phouc Son district, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam, and colour photographs of the holotype of L. pluvialis (MNHN 1999.5675) in preservative were also examined. ...
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