Article

A catalogue of the eggs of some Canadian Noctuidae (Lepidoptera)

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Abstract

Presented, with notes, are 124 plates of SEM illustrations of noctuid eggs representing 14 subfamilies of the Noctuidae: one species of Agaristinae, four species of Pantheinae, six species of Acronictinae, 34 species of Noctuinae, 26 species of Hadeninae, 10 species of Cuculliinae, 14 species of Amphipyrinae, three species of Acontiinae, two species of Euteliinae, two species of Plusiinae, 11 species of Catocalinae, one species of Hypeninae, one species of Rivulinae, and nine species of Herminiinae.

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... However, most of these studies focus on quantifying immature longevity, weight and food consumption (e.g. Wadley 1921;Walkden 1950;Snyder 1954;Finney 1964;Harper 1970;Capinera 1978;Berry & Shields 1980;Oliver & Chapin 1981;Simonet et al. 1981;Ulloa & Hernández 1981;Shields 1983;Shields & Wyman 1984;Shields et al. 1985;Moreno & Serna 2006;Scott-Dupree et al. 2007;Floate 2017), while the morphology of P. saucia remains only superficially described, based on populations from North America (Chittenden 1901;Mosher 1916, Crumb 1929Walkden 1950;Peterson 1962Peterson , 1964Rings 1977a;Capinera 1978;Oliver & Chapin 1981;Salkeld 1984;Lafontaine 2004;Capinera 2008;Floate 2017) and Europe (Döring 1955;Molinari et al. 1995;Amate et al. 1998). The Neotropical studies of P. saucia are from Chile (Angulo & Weigert 1975;Angulo & Jana-Sáenz 1984;Angulo et al. 2008), and Argentina (Rizzo et al. 1992) but none provide detailed ultra-structure of immatures and chaetotaxy. ...
... Here we found some remarkable differences in species morphology, observed from populations of different biogeographic regions. For example, the eggs present differences in the number of micropylar openings, the number and format of the cells of the rosette or around the micropylar area, and in the number of ribs and stria that are found on the chorion (Chittenden 1901;Crumb 1929;Döring 1955;Peterson 1964;Angulo & Weigert 1975;Salkeld 1984;Angulo et al. 2008;Capinera 2008). Considering all characters, the eggs described here are more similar to those of Nearctic, as the eggs from Palearctic populations have less cells on the rosette (11-13), less striae (13-15), and generally a higher number of cells in the micropilar zone (16-18). ...
... The number and distribution of ribs, striae and aeropyles are amongst the most informative characters (e.g. Peterson 1964;Salkeld 1984;Rolim et al. 2013). On contrary, size, format, general coloration, number of eggs deposited are characters shared with many other noctuid species, including several economic importance. ...
Article
Peridroma saucia (Hübner, [1808]) or ‘variegated cutworm’ is a cosmopolitan owlet moth pest resilient and abundant in agroecosystems. However, the morphology of their immatures is only briefly described, and information from distinct life stages is fragmentary. This study describes in detail all immature stages of the species based on a Neotropical population and compares it with populations from other continents and with other cutworm pests found in the Neotropical region. The eggs present useful characters to distinguish P. saucia from other noctuinae pests, such as the number of micropylar openings, and the number and location of aeropyles. The larvae also have unique characters, concentrated on the head capsule (mainly mandibles and spinneret), general color pattern and several aspects on the chaetotaxy. On the other hand, the pupae are remarkably similar to those of cutworms species, although the number of spines on cremaster is potentially a diagnosable character. In general, immature characters can therefore be useful to identify P. saucia regardless of the life stage. These results confirm the relevance of detailed morphological studies on immature of pest species that may be useful to identify and distinguish these individuals without the need of obtaining adults.
... © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2019. Russian Text © The Author(s), 2019, published in Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 2019 The fi ne structure of eggs is an important taxonomic character for lepidopterans because of its species-specifi city (Salkeld, 1984;Dolinskaya, 2016;Eitschberger, 2008, etc.). ...
... The eggs are described using Salkeld's (1984) terminology. The classifi cation of the genus Catocala is given according to the catalogue of the underwing moths (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Catocala) (Sviridov, 2008). ...
... Eggs of species of the genus Catocala:(1,4,7,10, 13) general dorsal view;(2,5,8,11, 14) sculpture of micropylar region;(3,6,9, 12, 15) part of chorion [(1-3) C. dula; (4-6) C. fulminea; (7-9) C. fraxini; (10-12) C. neonympha; (13-15) C. bella]. ...
Article
Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the fine structure of the egg chorion is described and comparatively analyzed in nine species of Catocala underwing moths.
... The taxonomic and phylogenetic importance of egg shell structure has been demonstrated in various families of Lepidoptera-Mnesarchaeidae (Kobayashi & Gibb, 1995), Saturniidae (Regier et al., 2005;Rougerie & Estradel, 2008), Noctuidae (Salkeld, 1984), Danaidae (Kitching, 1985), Pieridae (Llorente-Bousquets & Castro-Gerardino 2007;Llorente-Bousquets et al., 2018;Hernández-Mejía et al., 2013), Lycaenidae (Munguira et al., 2015), Nymphalidae (García-Barros & Martín, 1995;Freitas & Brown, 2004;Nieves-Uribe et al., 2015) and others. ...
... 1). Terminology and description of egg morphology follows Salkeld (1984). The taxonomic arrangement of the genera and species of Notodontidae follows Schintlmeister (2008Schintlmeister ( , 2013 and Kobayashi & Nonaka (2016). ...
... Notodontidae have upright or radially symmetrical eggs, which are typical for Brahmaeidae, Noctuoidea and Rhopalocera (Döring, 1955;Downey & Allyn, 1980;Hinton, 1981;Salkeld, 1984;Pljushch & Dolinskaya, 2001;Dell'Erba et al., 2005;Dolinskaya, 2016a). ...
Article
On the basis of comparative-morphological analysis of 43 genera and 92 species of Palaearctic Notodontidae, as well as the study of the eggs of outgroup species, complexes of characters that are diagnostic, taxonomic or phylogenetic are singled out. It is shown that the egg characteristics are of great taxonomic value at species and generic levels. Some characters are useful for grouping genera. In general, a complex of characters should be used, because different species or genera often share the same characters. Possible apomorphic and plesiomorphic states of the different characters are discussed in relation to the different taxa. The results of this study are discussed with reference to recently published classifications of Notodontidae. As a result of the studies, the keys for identification to the eggs of 43 genera and 92 species of notodontid moths from the Palaearctic region are presented. Reliable diagnostic characters that do not disappear with the injury of eggs or with eggs preserved in alcohol were used. Characters including egg shape, egg and chorion colour, the shape of gnawed holes in eggs when caterpillars hatched, chorionic sculpture, the type of oviposition, foodplants, and geographic distribution of the genera and species were applied. Occasionally, characters that are typical for live eggs, which vary during development, were used. These are characters of egg colour and pattern. The keys are illustrated with photographs made using a digital camera and a scanning electron microscope.
... The surface structure of Lepidopteran eggs has been repeatedly studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to answer taxonomic questions. Egg morphology was used to clarify the taxonomic status of several species (Salkeld 1973(Salkeld , 1975(Salkeld , 1976(Salkeld , 1984Chauvin 1977;Arbogast et al . 1980;Byrd 1981, 1986;Pucci and Forcina 1984;Fehrenbach et al . ...
... 2000). Eggs of members of the Lepidoptera including Lymantriidae have been studied (Salkeld 1973;Downey and Allyn 1980, 1981, 1984Arbogast et al . 1983Arbogast et al . ...
... The terminology used to describe the structural features of the chorion was adopted from Arbogast et al . (1980) and Salkeld (1984). ...
Article
Candan, S., Suludere, Z. and Bayrakdar, F. 2007. Surface morphology of eggs of Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus, 1758). —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 88: 000–000. Filaments covering the egg batches and chorion structure were studied both by light and scanning electron microscopy in the brown-tailed moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus, 1758). Females lay eggs in masses on the underside of apple leaves. The egg batches are covered with brown hairs derived from the bodies of the female. Each female lays about 200–400 eggs. The spherical eggs are about 0.84 mm long and 0.47 mm wide. Newly deposited eggs are golden-yellow and darken after the onset of embryonic development. The micropylar area appears somewhat depressed and has a circular outline. The region is surrounded by a rosette of 10–12 petal-shaped primary cells, which are completely surrounded by a series of secondary and tertiary cells. The remainder of the egg is largely smooth, but shows aeropyles. These are located in the corners of ill-defined polygons.
... The fine structure of eggs is an important taxonomic character for Lepidoptera because of its species-specificity (Arbogast et al. 1980;Salkeld 1984). The most important features are related to the micropylar area (Dolinskaya 2016(Dolinskaya , 2019Kolesnichenko & Sidorov 2021). ...
... The terminology of egg external morphology follows that of Salkeld (1984 ]. The length was measured on 29 eggs; the diameter was measured on 61 eggs; the micropylar area was studied in 12 eggs. ...
Article
The egg chorion morphologies of Dahlica triquetrella (Hübner, 1813) and Dahlica lichenella (Linnaeus, 1761) are described. These two species well differ from each other by diameter of the micropyle, by number of micropyle pores, and by diameter of the micropyle rosette.
... Observations on the behavior of the adult Mythimna (P.) sequax during oviposition, including the way the eggs are placed, in parallel lines, adhered to the leaves and the edges of these joined to protect the mass of the eggs, are consistent with other species (Salkeld 1984, Terra & Zerbino 1986, Merzheevskaya 1988, Zerbino 1991, Capinera 2005. These characteristics, as in other species of the genus, are related to the apomorphy (form) of the anal papillae of the representatives of Leucaniini (= Mythimnini) (Fibiger & Lafontaine 2005). ...
... The shape and color of the eggs also correspond to what has been described for other species of the genus (Salkeld 1984, Merzheevskaya 1988, Zerbino 1991Angulo et al 2006, Dolinskaya 2010, Korycinska 2012. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mythimna (Pseudaletia) sequax Franclemont, 1951 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade) is the most important armyworm in the American tropics and subtropics. In this study, we describe the external morphology of the immatures and adults, based on larvae fed on quicuio grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov - Poaceae). The external morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults is described and illustrated. Important taxonomic structures of the larvae are described, including hypopharynx, spinneret, and mandible. Adult structures that allow the differentiation of the species, such as male genitalia and scent brushes, are also described. The results are compared and discussed based on morph functionality and with publications on the congeneric species.
... The surface ultrastructure of various chorionic modifications has shown morphological , physiological and ootaxonomic significance in various insect orders (Hinton, 1981; Downey and Allyn, 1980, 1981, 1984 Salkeld, 1983 Salkeld, , 1984 Margaritis, 1985; Gaino et al., 1987, Suludere, 1988). In Heteroptera including Pentatomidae, the egg surface structure of species has been reported by many authors, however accurate knowledge of the egg morphology is still lacking in many taxonomic groups (Heymons, 1906; Schumacher, 1917; Esselbaugh, 1946; Puchkova, 1955 Puchkova, , 1956 Puchkova, , 1957 Puchkova, , 1959 Puchkova, , 1966 Shuxhi, 1985; Vennison and Ambrose, 1990; Javahery, 1994; Baker and Brown, 1994; Bundy and McPherson, 1997; Neal and Bentz, 1997; Candan, 1997 Candan, , 1998). ...
... The surface ultrastructure of various chorionic modifications has shown morphological , physiological and ootaxonomic significance in various insect orders (Hinton, 1981; Downey and Allyn, 1980, 1981, 1984 Salkeld, 1983 Salkeld, , 1984 Margaritis, 1985; Gaino et al., 1987, Suludere, 1988). In Heteroptera including Pentatomidae, the egg surface structure of species has been reported by many authors, however accurate knowledge of the egg morphology is still lacking in many taxonomic groups (Heymons, 1906; Schumacher, 1917; Esselbaugh, 1946; Puchkova, 1955 Puchkova, , 1956 Puchkova, , 1957 Puchkova, , 1959 Puchkova, , 1966 Shuxhi, 1985; Vennison and Ambrose, 1990; Javahery, 1994; Baker and Brown, 1994; Bundy and McPherson, 1997; Neal and Bentz, 1997; Candan, 1997 Candan, , 1998). ...
Article
The eggshell structures of Eurydema blandum, E. oleraceum, E. rugulosum, E. ventrale, E. spectabile, E. fieberi were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Although the eggs of each species were more or less typical barrel-shaped and had a T-shaped egg burster, some differences in egg morphology were observed, including slight variations in egg shape and size, different patterns of chorionic sculpturing and a specialized opercular area.
... A number of previous studies described the eggs of a single species (such as for Hyponeuma taltula (Schaus, 1904) (Zenker et al. 2007a); Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) (Zenker et al. 2007b);and S. eridania (Stoll, 1781) (Valverde 2007)). The eggs of multiple noctuid species have been studied in North and South America; these studies range from illustrated descriptions (e.g., Peterson 1964;Salkeld 1984), to more comparative work (such as Hudson 1973;Olivares & Angulo 2004;Olivares et al. 2005;Andaur-Arenas & Olivares 2009). Collectively, the previous work enables the eggs of selected species and genera of Noctuidae from America to be identified, many to species. ...
... Using light microscopy, four species of Spodoptera were described as resembling each other, all with hair strands cover-ing the egg masses (Peterson 1964). For S. frugiperda (Smith & Abbot, 1797), SEM micrographs are available (Salkeld 1984) and the eggs are described as turquoise in colour, with 9-10 micropylar rosette cells which are the same height as the surrounding cells, and 58 ribs. However, using this information, S. frugiperda and S. littoralis were not considered to be separable (Fehrenbach 1987). ...
Article
Eggs of seven economically important noctuids commonly transported in plant trade, three of quarantine plant health significance in Europe, are described and illustrated using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Autographa gamma (Linnaeus), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Lacanobia oleracea (Linnaeus), Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. littoralis (Boisduval) and S. litura (Fabricius) could be separated using external morphological characters on the chorion of the eggs, enabling early identification of quarantine pest species. Keys to distinguish the eggs of the seven species are provided.
... Para describir la micrópila, se siguió el método propuesto por Angulo & Weigert (1975), que consistió en vaciar el contenido de 10 huevos recién puestos con un alfiler entomológico 00. Las micrópilas fueron estudiadas bajo microscopio óptico y para la terminología se siguió a Salkeld (1984). ...
... Tórax-abdomen con cuatro pares de líneas conpiscuas, continuas y blancas: dorsales, addorsales, subdorsales, y laterales (Figs. 20,22). Tórax: espiráculo de T1 con peritrema castaño oscuro e interior castaño claro o del color del cuerpo; escudo protorácico del color del tegumento atravesado medialmente por las líneas dorsales, bordes laterales remarcados por las líneas addorsal y subdorsal que se fusionan en una sola; desde T2 en adelante, las líneas addorsal y subdorsal se mantienen separadas; línea lateral por debajo del grupo-L y el espiráculo; T2-T3 con línea dorsal más fina que las otras y próxima a la línea media dorsal; línea addorsal de ancho similar a la lateral dispuesta al nivel de D1, rodeándola completamente y, además, envuelve parcialmente en su lado dorsal la seta D2; la línea subdorsal es más angosta que la addorsal, ubicada por debajo de D2, envolviéndola por el lado ventral; línea lateral más del doble de ancho que la línea dorsal, ubicada por debajo del área espiracular (Fig. 22). ...
Article
Full-text available
Se redescriben e ilustran todos los estados preimaginales de Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) de acuerdo a estándares actualizados de patrones descriptivos. Los estados inmaduros de R. nu fueron obtenidos a partir de crías de laboratorio, bajo condiciones controladas de 27 ± 2ºC de temperatura, 14:10 (luz/oscuridad) de fotoperíodo artificial y 70-75% de humedad relativa. Por primera vez, se describen todos los estadios larvales previos al de larva madura. Todos los estados inmaduros fueron comparados con aquellos de Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), con los que usualmente pueden ser confundidos a campo. La estimación de la edad larval permitió determinar que la mayor razón de crecimiento se verifica en el cuarto estadio larval y de allí decrece paulatinamente hacia larva madura.The immature stages of Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) are redescribed and illustrated, according to current standards of descriptive patterns. The immature stages of R. nu were obtained from laboratory cultures under controlled conditions of temperature at 27 ± 2ºC, 14:10 (light/darkness) artificial photoperiod and 70-75% of relative humidity. For the first time, the larval instars previous to the larvae mature are described. All immature stages were compared with those of Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), with which they can often be confused in the field. The estimation of the larval age allowed to determine that the highest rate of growth takes place in the fourth larval instar and then decreases gradually to mature larva.
... The main characters of the eggshell such as the chorionic pattern, colour, number and shape of micropylar projections are of a great systematic value at generic and family level (Hinton, 1981;Salkeld, 1983Salkeld, , 1984Dominguez and Cuezzo, 2002). ...
... The shape of micropylar apparatus and the number of orifices has been described in many diverse insect species and are considered of taxonomic importance in Heteroptera (Javahery 1994; Suludere et al., 1999), Diptera (Candan et al., 2004(Candan et al., , 2005b, Lepidoptera (Salkeld, 1983(Salkeld, , 1984Suludere, 1988), Ephemeroptera (Gaino et al., 1987) and in other taxa (Hinton, 1981). In neuropterans, the shape and size of the micropylar apparatus differs depending on the species. ...
Article
The morphology of eggs and first instar larvae of Dielocroce baudii (Griffini 1895) are described and illustrated for the first time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The eggs are elongate and cylindrical with rounded ends and bear a small terminal micropylar knob. The chorion has two types of small protrusions. Newly emerged larva of D. baudii are characterized by an elongated tapering head, long pale prothorax, and prominent pale dark orange marks on the metatergites. The body is covered with short setae and dolichasters.
... We use the terminology of Kuznetsov (1915), Hinton (1946), Gerasimov (1952), Niculescu (1965), and Beck (1960) to describe the morphology of caterpillars, and the terminology of Salkeld (1984) was used to describe the eggs. The terminology of the genital structures is given according to Higgins (1941) and of the wing pattern according to Nekrutenko (1985) and Kolesnichenko (1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
This review considers a fascinating, from a zoogeographical viewpoint, group of closely related species: Melitaea lutko Evans, 1932, M. timandra Coutsis & van Oorschot, 2014, M. mimetica Higgins, 1940 stat. rev. and M. shahvarica sp. nov. It is a taxonomical and geographical review of these species, and data on the biology of M. shahvarica sp. nov. and nominate subspecies of M. timandra are discussed. A new species, M. shahvarica sp. nov. from Shahvar Mt. (Iran), and a new subspecies, M. timandra binaludica subsp. nov. from Kuh-e-Binalud Mts (Iran), are described. The specific structure of the group given in previous publications is critically evaluated. Hypotheses about a possible phylogenesis of the study group are provided.
... Although there are many studies on the morphology and surface structure of eggs of various Heteroptera species, many taxonomic groups still need research [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... The terminology used for the general morphology follows Miller (1991). The terminology for the genitalia was taken from Koda (1987) and for eggs from Salkeld (1984). ...
Article
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Maculonaclia florida (de Joannis, 1906) has been one of the most mysterious moths of Mauritius, a small volcanic island located some 900 km east from Madagascar. Here, we reviewed its generic placement, phylogenetic relationships and the potential evolutionary scenarios leading to the current distribution of this unique Mauritian member of Syntomini. The species, known previously only from a few old museum specimens, is redescribed based on newly collected material including both sexes and eggs. The generic affiliation to the Palaearctic Dysauxes is confirmed based on morphological and molecular data. A hypothesis is presented on the colonization of Mauritius by the ancestor of D. florida from Madagascar through the now submerged stepping stone islands of the Mascarene ridge. Behavioural data and environment preferences of D. florida are assessed for the first time. The species prefers shrubby vegetation with a humid understory, and presence of endemic shrub Ixora parviflora seems to play a role in selecting the suitable microhabitat. Additionally, based on IUCN criteria, a CR threat category is proposed, highlighting the major risk factors affecting the species. The significant variation in wing venation of D. florida is noted and provisionally correlated with environmental stress, which is the consequence of human‐caused habitat degradation. Finally, the study provides further evidence for the significant role of Madagascar in the diversification of continental biota, indicating a Malagasy origin of the African syntomine Pseudonaclia puella.
... The larval morphological description follows the terminology of Kuznetsov (1915), Gerasimov (1952), and Niculescu (1965); that of the eggs complies to the terminology of Salkeld (1984). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents characteristics of the habitats and flying period of Melitaea timandra Coutsis et Oorschot, 2014 and describes the behavior of the adults under natural conditions, their food plant, egg chorion morphology, and caterpillars of the first and senior instars. In addition, a larval parasitoid is identified as Cotesia sp., and the possible development cycle of M. timandra is described.
... The description of the larva follows the terminology of Kuznetsov (1915), Gerasimov (1952), and Niculescu (1965); that of the egg, the terminology of Salkeld (1984). ...
Article
The external morphology of the egg (including the chorion), the last instar larva, and the pupa of Melitaea robertsi Butler, 1880 from East Iran is described; data on the host plant of the species are given.
... Bu tip çalışmalar bazen tek türün, bazen birkaç türün yumurta yapısının karşılaştırılarak incelendiği araştırmalardır (Barbier & Chauvin, 1974;Arbogast & Byrd, 1982;Shuzi, 1985;Sahlen, 1995;Bundy & McPherson, 2005;Candan, 1998a, b;Candan & Suludere, 1999a, b, 2000, 2006, 2010Suludere et al., 1999Suludere et al., , 2000Suludere et al., , 2009Buckner et al., 2002;Candan et al., 2004, Hasbenli et al., 2008. Bir kısım araştırmalar ise yumurta kabuğundaki ince yapı özelliklerinin taksonomik amaçlı kullanımına yönelik olarak yapılmıştır (Salkeld, 1983(Salkeld, , 1984Gaino et al., 1987;Clark Sellick, 1988, 1997Fausto et al., 1991Fausto et al., , 1992Fausto et al., , 2001Marini & Campadelli, 1994;Carcupino & Lucchi, 1995;Fehrenbach, 1995;Matesco et al., 2009). ...
Conference Paper
Bu çalışmada bir Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) türü olan Poecilimon cervus Karabag, 1950 yumurta yapısı ışık mikroskobu, taramalı elektron mikroskobu (SEM) ve geçirmeli elektron mikroskobu (TEM) ile incelenmiştir. Böcek sınıflandırmasında anten, ağız parçaları ve kanat yapılarının yanı sıra, böcek yumurtaları da ayırıcı karakter olarak kullanılmaktadır. Ayrıca son yıllarda böcek yumurtaları adli entomoloji ve zirai mücadele gibi alanlarda da önem kazanmıştır. Özellikle zirai mücadelede kullanılan pestisidlerin sadece böcek üzerinde değil, aynı zamanda yumurtası üzerinde etkili olması populasyonun çoğalmadan kontrol altına alınmasını sağlar. Bu amaçla üretilecek pestisidlerin yumurtaya etki etmesi ancak yumurta koryonunun yapısının detaylı incelenmesiyle mümkün olmaktadır. Materyal olarak, araziden toplanmış ve teşhisi yapılmış dişilerin yumurtaları kullanılmıştır. Örnekler dişi abdomeninden disekte edilerek alınmıştır. Örneklerden bir kısmı ışık mikroskobu incelemeleri için hazırlanmıştır. Bir kısmı ise gluteraldehit tespitinin ardından dehidrasyon ve kritik noktada kurutma işlemi sonrasında bütün halde ya da kırılarak çift taraflı yapışkan bantlarla staplara yapıştırılmış ve altınla kaplandıktan sonra JEOL JSM 6060 SEM’de incelenmiştir. Yumurtaların bir kısmı ise Araldit gömme ortamında bloklanmış, ultramikrotomda kesitler alınmış ve Zeiss EVO LS10 marka elektron mikroskobunun TEM kısmında incelenmiştir. Poecilimon cervus yumurtaları ortalama 3.4 x 1.3 mm boyutunda, bilateral simetri gösteren uzamış oval yapıdadır. Yumurtanın üzerinde yer yer hafifçe belirgin koryonik çokgen deseni bulunur. Yumurtanın posteriyor kutbu yakınında bulunan mikropil bölgesinde 9–18 mikropil açıklığı yer alır. Yumurta kabuğu dıştan içe doğru belirgin bir ekzokoryon ve endokoryondan oluşur. Bu çalışmada bir Orthoptera türü olan Poecilimon cervus’un yumurta dış morfolojisi ve koryon yapısı incelenerek hem bu takıma ait çalışılan diğer türlerin hem de diğer böcek takımlarındaki çalışılan türlerin yumurtalarıyla karşılaştırmaları yapılmıştır. Yumurta şekli, büyüklüğü, koryon desenlenmeleri, mikropil ve aeropil yapısı, sayısı, lokasyonu gibi benzer ve farklı özellikleri türlerin teşhisinde kullanılabilmektedir.
... (A) Ocorrência (média ± desvio padrão) de Oospila pallidaria e (B) temperatura e pluviosidade durante o período de estudo. A área cinza representa a estação seca.DiscussãoEm geral, a morfologia dos estágios imaturos de O. pallidaria é muito similar à de outros geometrídeos(SALKELD, 1983). Ovos são achatados e comprimidos, apresentando formato "pill-box", como encontrado em outras espécies da subfamília Geometrinae. ...
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vi RESUMO SOUSA-LOPES, B. História natural e performance larval de Oospila pallidaria (Schaus, 1897) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae): uma mariposa esmeralda do Cerrado. 2016. 62 f. Dissertação (Mestrado) - Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto-SP, 2016. São estimadas 90 mil espécies de insetos para o Cerrado, o segundo maior bioma brasileiro, com enorme heterogeneidade de habitats e rica fauna. Dentre esses insetos, os Lepidoptera representam cerca de 10% do total de espécies. Entretanto, estudos sobre seus imaturos (ovo, larva e pupa) ainda são incipientes para o bioma, principalmente sobre as mariposas, cujas histórias naturais de muitas espécies ainda são desconhecidas. A falta desses estudos faz com que sejam ignoradas as interações multitróficas em que esses organismos estão envolvidos e, portanto, inviabiliza futuros estudos relacionados ao seu papel em comunidades e redes ecológicas. Esse é o caso de muitas espécies da família Geometridae, incluindo Oospila pallidaria, que é uma mariposa esmeralda (devido à coloração verde esmeralda das suas asas). Oospila pallidaria é uma espécie herbívora que não possuía até o momento nenhuma informação publicada sobre a sua biologia e fatores que condicionam sua ocorrência, tais como: a fenologia da planta hospedeira, que pode determinar o período de melhores condições para crescimento e reprodução; a qualidade nutricional dos recursos alimentares (e. g. quantidade de água e nitrogênio), que pode determinar quais recursos conferem melhor desenvolvimento/performance a um herbívoro; os inimigos naturais, que podem restringir a ocorrência dos herbívoros e a temperatura e pluviosidade, que podem alterar a qualidade e a distribuição geográfica dos recursos alimentares utilizados pelos herbívoros. Nesse sentido, o objetivo principal deste estudo foi descrever, pela primeira vez, aspectos da biologia e história natural de O. pallidaria (Capítulo 1) e avaliar a sua performance larval, a partir de diferentes dietas (Capítulo 2). Os resultados apresentados no Capítulo 1 mostraram que os ovos de O. pallidaria, verdes e com duração média de sete dias, foram solitários e ovipostos principalmente nos tricomas das folhas maduras. As larvas se alimentaram de folhas maduras predominantemente, mas utilizaram folhas jovens e botões florais oportunisticamente. As larvas tiveram coloração críptica, se camuflaram em meio às folhas de Mimosa setosa (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), sua única hospedeira, e desenvolveram o comportamento de auto-limpeza. Há cinco ínstares larvais, com coloração que variou de amarelo a verde. As larvas apresentaram também um par de projeções no protórax e linha mediana marrom na região dorsal. O comprimento máximo do corpo das larvas foi de 28 mm. As pupas foram predominantemente verdes, com no máximo 10 mm de comprimento. O desenvolvimento do ovo ao adulto durou cerca de 50 dias ( = 42; S = 6; n = 11). Seu único inimigo natural registrado foi o microhimenóptero Cotesia sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae). Fêmeas de O. pallidaria produziram 65 ovos em média (S = 7,07; n = 2). A ocorrência de O. pallidaria foi sazonal e sobreposta ao pico de presença de folhas maduras. Larvas foram negativamente relacionadas à temperatura e pluviosidade, com significância estatística somente para a primeira (r = - 0.5889, P < 0.05). No Capítulo 2, foi mostrado que as folhas maduras de M. setosa foram o único recurso alimentar disponível durante todo o ano. Os botões florais foram o recurso com maior qualidade nutricional (conteúdo relativo de água e nitrogênio total), seguidos por folhas jovens e maduras respectivamente. Entretanto, a sobrevivência de O. pallidaria foi maior com folhas maduras. Os resultados indicam que para o herbívoro especialista O. pallidaria, a fenologia da planta hospedeira é crucial para sua sobrevivência, em especial a presença de folhas maduras de M. setosa. Por outro lado, os botões florais são recursos efêmeros, porém importantes para a sobrevivência das larvas de últimos ínstares no final da estação seca, quando as folhas maduras estão ressecadas e/ou senescentes.
... Macrolepidoptera eggs are of two types. Th ese lying or bilateral symmetric eggs are typical for Geometridae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Lasiocampidae etc. and upright or radial symmetric eggs are typical for Notodontidae, Noctuidae, Erebidae, Nolidae, Rhopalocera and other (Döring, 1955;Hinton, 1981;Salkeld, 1984;Dolinskaya, 1990Dolinskaya, , 2014Dolinskaya, , 2016Young, 2006;Nieves-Uribe et al., 2015, 2016 andothers). ...
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Key to the Species of Ukrainian Notodontid Moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae) on the Egg Characters. Dolinskaya, I. V. — A key for identifi cation of 39 species from 20 genera of Ukrainian notodontid moths based on the the eggs is provided. Reliable diagnostic characters, which do not disappear with the injury of eggs or eggs preserved for a long time in alcohol were used. Th e characters as egg shape, egg and chorion colour, shape of gnawed holes in eggs before setting out of caterpillars, the type of oviposition and the chorionic sculpture are applied. Clear characters that are typical for the live eggs, which vary in the process of egg development are revealed. Th ese are characters of egg colour and pattern. In the key such characters are kept by stable signs that do not disappear aft er eggs traumatizing. Th e key is illustrated in details with photographs made using a digital camera and scanning electron microscope.
... Terminology and description of the egg morphology follows Salkeld (1984) and the systematic arrangement is given according to Fibiger et al. (2011). This study is based on material collected by the author in Ukraine. ...
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A comparative morphological analysis is provided for 70 species belonging to 59 genera of 13 subfamilies of Noctuidae from Ukraine. Diagnostic characters of the eggs for some species are identified. A comparison with representatives from other families of Noctuoidea is conducted. Some characters typical for separate species and general characters typical for most species are discussed.
... Bu tip çalışmalar bazen tek türün, bazen birkaç türün yumurta yapısının karşılaştırılarak incelendiği araştırmalardır (Barbier & Chauvin, 1974;Arbogast & Byrd, 1982;Shuzi, 1985;Sahlen, 1995;Bundy & McPherson, 2005;Candan, 1998a, b;Candan & Suludere, 1999a, b, 2000, 2006, 2010Suludere et al., 1999Suludere et al., , 2000Suludere et al., , 2009Buckner et al., 2002;Candan et al., 2004, Hasbenli et al., 2008. Bir kısım araştırmalar ise yumurta kabuğundaki ince yapı özelliklerinin taksonomik amaçlı kullanımına yönelik olarak yapılmıştır (Salkeld, 1983(Salkeld, , 1984Gaino et al., 1987;Clark Sellick, 1988, 1997Fausto et al., 1991Fausto et al., , 1992Fausto et al., , 2001Marini & Campadelli, 1994;Carcupino & Lucchi, 1995;Fehrenbach, 1995;Matesco et al., 2009). ...
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In this study, the egg structure of Poecilimon cervus Karaba, a species of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) was examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). P. cervus individuals were collected from oak forests in Kargasekmez, Kízílcahamam, Ankara in 2009 and eggs were dissected. The eggs of P. cervus are about 3,4 × 1,3 mm in size, bilateral symmetrical and elongated ovoid in shape. There are some clear chorionic polygonal patterns in patches on the egg. At the micropylar area near the posterior pole, there are 9-18 micropyle openings. A rib recumbent from anterior pole to posterior pole surrounds the whole egg except micropylar area. The egg shell is composed of clear exochorion and endochorion layers from outermost to innermost. Exochorion has many chorionic columns and air chambers. In columns there are fine canals that ensure connection between exochorion and endochorion. Endochorion is more compact layer that has numerous por canals. The underside of endochorion has a single row fine layer.
... Ten eggs were used to evaluate height and diameter. For micropilar area description, a stereoscopic microscope was used and Angulo andWeigert (1975) method andSalkeld (1984) nomenclature were followed. ...
Article
Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) is a characteristic Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species from the Western Hemisphere. The larva have already been found feeding on several different plant families, including economic value crops such as soybeans. This species coexists and can be confused with Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in soybean crops. Furthermore, some studies indicate that C . includens shows tolerance to various insecticides, leading to differentiation among these two species to be most important in relation to control procedures to be undertaken. To contribute to the correct identification of C . includens we made detailed redescriptions of all preimaginal stages (egg, larva, and pupa). Immature stages of C . includens were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions of 27±2 °C, 70–75% relative humidity, and 14:10 (light/dark) photoperiod. We consider opportune detection of preimaginal stages of Chrysodeixis includens will help to control this pest species, especially at admissible economical levels.
... This paper is a continuation of a series of reports on egg morphology and structure of the spermatheca of species of Hemiptera. Morphology and surface structure of eggs of a variety of Hemiptera species have been reported by many authors, however accurate knowledge is still lacking in many taxonomic groups (Hinton, 1981;Salkeld, 1983Salkeld, , 1984Margaritis, 1985;Grigorov, 1988;Suludere et al., 1999;Bundy & McPherson, 2000;Baker & Chandrapatya, 2001;Wolf & Reid, 2000, 2001, 2004, Ubero-Pascal et al., 2005Candan & Suludere, 1999a, b, 2003Doğanlar et al., 2007;Matesco et al., 2009;Vilímová,& Rohanová, 2010;Sandoval et al., 2011). The eggs of Plataspidae, including some Coptosoma species, have been investigated by many authors (Southwood, 1956;Puchkova, 1961;Cobben, 1968;Shuzhi, 1985;Davidová-Vilímová, 1987;Shuzhi et al., 1990), but more work needs to be done. ...
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Spermatheca and eggs of Coptosoma putoni Montandon, 1898 were viewed with both light and scanning electron microscopes. The egg batch characteristically has two rows of spike-shaped eggs attached to substrate, with an anterior pole bearing aero-micropylar processes always turned outward. In an egg cluster there are 13-14 eggs that average 0.81 mm in length and 0:48 mm in width. Each side of the surface of the eggs is a slight falling away.The egg surface is covered with irregular chorionic protrusions as revealed by the scanning electron microscope. Micropyles (26-29) are arranged in a circle around the operculum. The spermatheca of C. putoni is characterized by a spherical spermathecal bulb, a pumping region, pump flanges, spermathecal duct and a genital chamber with associated sclerites.
... The surface structure of insect eggshells with various chorionic modifications has morphological, physiological, and taxonomic significance (Salkeld, 1983(Salkeld, , 1984Downey and Allyn, 1984;Gaino et al., 1987;Sahlen, 1996;Suludere et al., 1999;Wolf and Reid, 2004). Scanning electron microscopy is an ideal tool for detailed description of surface morphology and ultrastructure of the eggs (Hinton, 1981;Margaritis, 1985;Suludere et al., 2000aSuludere et al., , 2000b Candan and . ...
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The eggs of Megistopus flavicornis (Rossi, 1790) and Macronemurus bilineatus Brauer, 1868 were studied by light and scanning electron microscope and are described in detail in this paper. Both species have roughly elongate and cylindrical eggs with rounded ends and have 2 flattened disc-like micropylar processes at the opposite poles. The chorionic surface is tuberculated and differs between the 2 species. The eggs of M. flavicornis additionally have some rows containing polygonal pattern of exochorion near the micropyles. Moreover, a number of morphological differences between the 2 species are noted.
... Th e eggs were examined with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Terminology of the eggs is according to Salkeld (1984). Th e systematic arrangement follows Fibiger and Hacker (2004). ...
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Egg Morphology of Some Nolidae and Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea). Dolinskaya, I. V. — Th e eggs of one species from family Nolidae (subfamily Chloephorinae) and seven species from family Erebi-dae (subfamilies Hermeniinae, Hypeninae, Phytometrinae and Catocalinae) occurring in Ukraine are ex-amined, described, and illustrated with SEM. Th e diagnostic characters of examined species are proposed. K e y w o r d s: Nolidae, Erebidae, Lepidoptera, egg, morphology, diagnostic characters, scanning electron microscopy, Ukraine. Морфология яиц некоторых Nolidae и Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea). Долинская И. В. — С помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа изучены, описаны и проиллюстрированы яйца одного вида из семейства Nolidae (подсемейство Chloephorinae) и семи видов из семейства Erebidae (подсемейства Hermeniinae, Hypeninae, Phytometrinae и Catocalinae), встречающихся в Украине. Выделены диагностические признаки для исследованных видов. К л ю ч е в ы е с л о в а: Nolidae, Erebidae, Lepidoptera, яйцо, морфология, диагностические призна-ки, сканирующая электронная микроскопия, Украина.
... Th e eggs were examined with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Terminology of the egg morphology follows Salkeld (1984), and systematic arrangement is given according to Fibiger, Hacker (2004). Fig. 1-6. ...
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Egg Morphology of Some Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Dolinskaya, I.V.— Th e eggs of 10 species Noc-tuidae from 6 subfamilies (Acronictinae, Metoponiinae, Cuculliinae, Heliothinae, Condicinae and Bryophilinae) occurring in Ukraine are examined, described, and illustrated with SEM. Th e diagnostic characters of examined species are carried out. K e y w o r d s: Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, egg, description, diagnostic characters, scanning electron micros-copy, Ukraine. Морфология яиц некоторых совок (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Долинская И. В. — С помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа изучены, описаны и проиллюстрированы яйца 10видов совок из 6 подсемейств (Acronictinae, Metoponiinae, Cuculliinae, Heliothinae, Condicinae и Bryophilinae), встречающихся в Украине. Выделены диагностические признаки для исследованных видов. К л ю ч е в ы е с л о в а: Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, яйцо, описание, диагностические признаки, скани-рующая электронная микроскопия, Украина.
... Sannino & Espinosa (1999) examined eggs of Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus from Italy. Salkeld (1984) described and illustrated the eggs of 26 Canadian Hadeninae species. The eggs of 4 Chilean species of Hadeninae were described and illustrated by Angulo & Olivares (1991) and Rodriguez & Angulo (2007). ...
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Dolinskaya I. V. The chorionic sculpture in eggs of some Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine. Summary. The eggs of 17 species from 12 genera of some Hadeninae from Ukraine (Noctuidae) are described and illustrated with using scanning electron microscopy. The diagnostic characters of genera and species are selected. Долинская И. В. Cкульптура хориона яиц некоторых совок подсемейства Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) фауны Украины. Резюме. С помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа изучены и проиллюстрированы яйца 17 видов из 12 родов Hadeninae (Noctuidae) фауны Украины. Выделены диагностические признаки для родов и видов. Ключевые слова: Hadeninae, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, яйцо, хорион, описание, диагностические признаки, сканирующая электронная микроскопия. Долинська І. В. Скульптура хоріону яєць деяких совок підродини Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) фауни України. Резюме. За допомогою скануючого електронного мікроскопу вперше вивчено та проілюстровано яйця 17 видів з 12 родів Hadeninae (Noctuidae) фауни України. Висвітлено діагностичні ознаки для родів і видів.
... The main characters of the eggshell, such as chorionic pattern, colour, number and shape of micropylar projections are of great systematic value at the generic and family level (Hinton 1981;Salkeld 1983Salkeld , 1984Dominguez and Cuezzo 2002). Egg colour changes during insect embryogenesis (Javahery 1994;Suludere et al. 1999;2006, Satar and Özbay 2004and Candan et al. 2005; the newly laid white eggs of D. tetragrammicus darkened significantly during embryogenesis while unfertilized eggs remain white. ...
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Eggs of the ant-lion Distoleon tetragrammicus (Fabricius, 1798) were obtained from gravid females for the first time. Larvae were reared to the adult stage from eggs. The eggs and the different parts of the larva such as head, mandibles and antennae, are described and illustrated and larval behavior in each stage was monitored.
... Th e pattern and sculpturing of the surface of insect eggs are useful taxonomic characters for identifying species. Th e taxonomic and phylogenetic importance of eggshell structure in pterygote insects has been demonstrated in various orders at diff erent levels (Hinton, 1981;Salkeld, 1983Salkeld, , 1984Margaritis, 1985). In some groups the egg characteristics are of great taxonomic value at species level, but not so much at generic level (Studemann and Landolt, 1997;Ubero-Pascal and Puig, 2009). ...
Article
Spermatheca and egg morphology of Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank, 1778) were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Th e spermatheca of E. austriaca is characterized by a spermathecal bulb, a pumping region, distal and proximal fl anges and ducts, and a genital chamber. Each female was shown to deposit 14 green eggs on average in mass. Th e spherical eggs averaged 1.05 ± 0.05 mm in diameter. Th e fi rst external evidence of embryonic development was the appearance of 2 red eye spots opposite each other beneath operculum followed by the appearance of a blackish T-shaped egg-burster between the eye spots. Th e thickened highly sclerotized egg-burster has sucker-shaped structures on the both sides of the tail. Egg surfaces are covered with clearly marked polygon patterns with tubercles. Th ere were 17-19 aero-micropylar processes shaped like truncated cones scattered among the polygons. Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank, 1778) yumurta ve spermatekasının ışık ve taramalı elektron mikroskobuyla tanımı (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) Özet: Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank, 1778) yumurta ve spermateka morfolojisi ışık ve taramalı elektron mikroskobuyla incelendi. E. austriaca'nın spermatekası spermateka haznesi, pompalama bölgesi, distal ve proksimal yaka ve kanallar ve genital oda ile karakterize edilir. Her bir dişi bir yumurta kümesinde genellikle yeşil renkli 14 yumurta bırakır. Yuvarlak şekilli yumurtalar ortalama 1,05 ± 0,05 mm çapındadır. Embriyonik gelişimin ilk belirtisi operkulumun altında karşılıklı yer alan iki kırmızı leke ve bunu takiben bu lekelerin arasında görünen T şeklindeki siyahımsı yumurta kırıcısının görünüşüdür. Kalın ve oldukça sklerotize olan yumurta kırıcısı kuyruk kısmının her iki tarafında vantuz şeklinde yapılara sahiptir. Yumurta yüzeyi kolaylıkla fark edilen tüberküllü poligonal yapıyla kaplıdır. Koryonik poligonların arasında kesik koni şeklinde 17-19 aero-mikropil bulunur.
... The taxonomic and phylogenetic importance of eggshell structure in pterygote insects has been demonstrated in different orders at different taxonomic levels (Hinton 1981;Salkeld 1983Salkeld , 1984Margaritis 1985). Research on eggs of Heteroptera was reviewed by Southwood (1956) and Cobben (1968). ...
Article
The morphology of the spermatheca and eggs of Odontotarsus purpureolineatus were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The spherical eggs were about 1.35 mm long and 1.09 mm wide. The egg batches generally consist of 13–14 eggs. The egg surface is covered by polygonal (hexagonal and pentagonal shapes prevail) ridges and tiny chorionic tubercles. There were 8–10 aero-micropylar processes between the polygons. The spermatheca of O. purpureolineatus is characterized by a spherical spermathecal bulb, a pumping region, a flange of pump and dilation of spermathecal duct. Spermathecal processes and a median spermathecal dilation with sclerotized rod are missing. The spermathecal bulb and the pumping region possess many pores.
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The chorionic structure of the eggs of five Laphriinae species [Andrenosoma serratum Hermann, 1906, Choerades fuliginosa (Panzer, [1798]), Choerades fulva (Meigen, 1804), Choerades loewi Lehr, 1991, Laphria aurea (Fabricius, 1794)] were examined utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the eggs which are examined species are dull brown in color. The egg shape is changed from ovoid (C. fuliginosa, C. fulva, and L. aurea) to cylindrical (in A. serratum and C. loewi). The chorion is composed of numerous polygonal cells except the eggs of L. aurea. The borders of the polygons are slightly elevated ridges of uneven lengths and more or less distinct in the species. The polygonal pattern is weak and ridges tend to become flattened in the micropylar area. Two micropylar openings exist in the all species and some of the male sperm tails can be seen in them. Aeropyles also are seen on the chorionic surface.
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SOUZA, Gabriely Köerich, M.Sc., Universidade Federal de Viçosa, July, 2012. Morphology of eggs, salivar glands and digestive and reproductive systems of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Adviser: José Cola Zanuncio. Co-Advisers: Germano Leão Demolin Leite, José Eduardo Serrão and Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) is a pest of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species and there are no effective strategies for its control in commercial plantations. Biological data of insects of the family Thaumastocoridae are scarce, mainly with species of the subfamily Xylastodorinae. Morphological studies of eggs and digestive and reproductive systems can provide important information to control T. peregrinus. This study described the morphology of eggs, salivary glands, alimentary canal and reproductive systems of males and females T. peregrinus. Thirty females and fifteen males of T. peregrinus with different ages were obtained from a mass rearing facility in a room with temperature at 25 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase and prepared for analysis in a light microscopy. Eggs of T. peregrinus were obtained from the mass rearing facility, coated with gold and analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. Thaumastocoris peregrinus has a pair of bilobed principal salivary glands located between the segments of the meso- and metathorax. The wall of the lobes is formed by a single layer of cubic cells with some of them binucleate. Each gland has a main duct formed by a single layer of flattened cells. The alimentary canal of T. peregrinus has a short faringe followed by a long and thin esophagus that ends in a simple proventriculus and a short estomodeal valve. The midgut of T. peregrinus comprises an anterior dilated region without gastric cecae, a long and narrow middle region and a short and dilated posterior one. The hindgut is composed by a transition region with the midgut where the insertion of two pairs of Malpighian tubules occurs, a short ileum and a rectum with a folded epithelial wall, thick cuticle and flattened cells. The male reproductive system of T. peregrinus is formed by a pair of testa with three large and globular follicles isolated by a peritoneal sheath and two pairs of tubular mesadenian accessory glands well developed. The female reproductive system of T. peregrinus is formed by a pair of ovaries with two meroistic telotrophic ovarioles each. The ovarioles open into two long lateral oviducts that join into a short common oviduct. The common oviduct ends in a large bursa copulatrix with many folds and both are lined by a thick cuticle. Eggs with embryos at the stages of anatrepsis, katatrepsis and also after the dorsal closure were observed in the reproductive tract of T. Peregrinus females. Eggs of T. peregrinus are oval-shaped and flattened dorso-ventrally with a strong depression in the center and black colored.The chorion of the egg is divided into exochorion, endochorion, air layer and an inner chorionic layer. The outer surface of the exochorion lacks perforations or pores and showed shallow and elongated depressions that were more circular in the posterior region of the egg. The opercular opening is located laterally in the eggs of T. peregrinus with the neck region showing around 27 circular and concave projections that appear to be aeromicropyles, reduced chorionic rim and a narrow sealing bar internally. The operculum is elliptical and flattened and has the same texture as the rest of the corium,except for the smooth texture of the outer opercular region. Thaumastocoris peregrinus has digestive and reproductive systems similar to other species of Thaumastocoridae, but the external characteristics of the eggs of this species differ from others of the same family. Studies of a larger number of species can contribute to the knowledge and importance of the structures evaluated for identifications at the level of subfamily, genus or species and to understand the phylogenetic relationships of Thaumastocoridae..
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The eggshell of the eri moth, Samia ricini (Donovan) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the egg chorion of eri moth, revealed the structural elements viz., the micropylar rosette surrounding the micropyle, micropylar canals, shell imprints, aeropyles and the regional differentiation at the different poles. The oval shaped eggs were measured 820-990 (878.72±21.23) μm in length. The highly decorated chorion of S. ricini had a micropylar rosette of 45-51 (48.0±1.02) μm diameter with a centrally located micropylar pit of 2.08-2.31 (2.21±0.036) μm diameter. The micropylar pit consists of seven micropylar openings, each micropylar opening ranged from 0.26-0.28 (0.27±0.003) μm in diameter. Each micropylar opening opens into the seven distinct micropylar canals. The micropylar apparatus encircled by 11-14 petal-shaped primary unequal cells. These cells ranged from 12.0-12.9 (12.48±0.13) μm in length forming an asymmetrical rosette. The secondary petal-shaped cells were short in length and measured 8.4-9.1 (8.72±0.12) μm surrounded the primary petal cells. The entire surface of the chorion had a reticulate pattern of pentagonal and hexagonal cells, each boarded by 4-6 aeropyles of diameter 0.22-0.25 (0.23±0.05) μm. Further, the sunken aeropyles were also observed for the first time in second hemisphere of the egg and measured 0.22-0.24 (0.23±0.003) μm in diameter.
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Since its discovery and description, the oriental moth Pseudobiston pinratanai Inoue, 1994, could not be placed in any of the recognized families of Macroheterocera (Lepidoptera). Here, we used molecular and morphological data to infer the phylogenetic position of the species. These analyses indicate that Pseudobiston pinratanai is closely related to Epicopeiidae. Our analyses of morphological characters further show that Pseudobiston pinratanai+Epicopeiidae share synapomorphies with Sematuridae, Uraniidae and Geometridae. These observations lead us to redefine the superfamily Geometroidea and discuss its internal phylogenetic relationships. The isolated position of Pseudobiston pinratanai within Geometroidea supports a family status (Pseudobistonidae fam. n.) that we formally establish in this work.
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The eggs of 18 species of cutworms of the subgenus Euxoa Hübner are described and a key for separating some of them has been constructed. Only in rare instances can species be identified from egg morphology alone, but the egg stage can usually be identified to the subgeneric level.
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Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (M.S.)--University of Saskatchewan. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 57-58).
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