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Effects of Bay Leaves on the Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine if bay leaves maybe important in the prevention and/or alleviation of type2 diabetes. Sixty five people with type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups, 50 given capsules containing 2 g of bay leaves per day for 30 days and 15 given a placebo capsules. All the patients consumed bay leaves shows reduced plasma glucose with significant decreases 30% after 30 days. Total cholesterol decreased, 22%, after 30 days with larger decreases in Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 24%. High-Density lipoprotein (HDL) increased 18% and Triglycerides also decreased 25%. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that consumption of bay leaves, 2 g d-1 for 30 days, decreases risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and suggests that bay leaves may be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes.

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... L. nobilis ground leaves ingestion (1-3 g/day; 30 days) was reported to improve insulin function, decrease serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in humans with type II diabetes (Khan et al., 2009). Same treatment administered to type I diabetic patients resulted in similar beneficial effects (Aljamal, 2011). Cookies containing bay leaf powder (not less than 6% w/w) exhibited significant benefit on postprandial glucose level in healthy human subjects (Khan et al., 2017). ...
... Both extracts significantly improved fasting serum glucose. Previous report indicated that bay leaves consumption in type 2 diabetic patients for 4 weeks caused a reduction in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides (Aljamal, 2011). In another study, administration of capsules containing powdered bay leaves to patients with type 2 diabetes caused a marked decrease in the blood glucose content (Khan et al., 2009). ...
... Khan et al. (2009) have reported a marked decrease in serum triglyceride levels and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes after daily consumption of 2 g of dried bay leaves. Also, Aljamal (2011) suggested that bay leaves reduced triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol and increased HDL levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, feeding male rabbits with meals supplemented with dried bay leaves resulted in a marked decrease in blood lipid and glycemic profiles (Casamassima et al., 2017). ...
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Laurus nobilis, commonly known as bay, is used in folk medicine as a remedy for many ailments. The present study investigates the protective effect of L. nobilis leaves extract against high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Animals were divided into group 1 (control), groups 2, 3, and 4 (bay leaves aqueous (AQ) extracts; 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, respectively), and groups 5, 6, and 7 (bay leaves methanol/acetone (MeAc) extract; 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Animals were fed an isocaloric high fat diet for four weeks. The intake of bay leaves extracts was associated with a significant decrease in serum levels of glucose (AQ, 100 and 250 mg/kg; MeAc, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg) and serum triglyceride (AQ, 250 mg/kg; MeAc, 100, and 250 mg/kg) as well as lower abdominal fat (all AQ and MeAc groups) and body weight gain (MeAc groups only). In conclusion, L. nobilis leaves extract intake provides a protective remedy against high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes.
... Laurus nobilis leaves are commonly used in culinary purposes as spice. The anti-diabetic potential [40,41] and in vitro antiglycation potential of L. nobilis is reported [42]. In our studies, we have also found that L. nobilis has in vivo antiglycation potential. ...
... Khan et al. (2009) demonstrated that daily consumption for 30 days (1-3 g/day), decreases the risk for diabetes and is beneficial for type 2 diabetes. Abdulrahim Aljamal (2011) showed that 4 weeks of bay leaves supplementation improves plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetics. The extract also exhibits potential anti-α-amylase activity in combination with soursop leaves (Berawi et al., 2017). ...
... The primary in vivo model identified for studying the anti-diabetic activity of these plant extracts was either streptozotocin-induced or alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aniseed [32], bay leaves [44,45,210], cardamom [211], cinnamon [66,211], cumin [212,213], dill [214], ginger [211], hops [118], rosemary [215], saffron [211,216], sage [217,218], and turmeric [219] have also been evaluated in type 2 diabetic patients. The major in vivo effects observed for the herbs and spices are a reduction in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. ...
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Culinary herbs and spices are widely used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes and its complications, and there are several scientific studies in the literature supporting the use of these medicinal plants. However, there is often a lack of knowledge on the bioactive compounds of these herbs and spices and their mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to use inverse virtual screening to provide insights into the bioactive compounds of common herbs and spices, and their potential molecular mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, a library of over 2300 compounds derived from 30 common herbs and spices were screened in silico with the DIA-DB web server against 18 known diabetes drug targets. Over 900 compounds from the herbs and spices library were observed to have potential anti-diabetic activity and liquorice, hops, fennel, rosemary, and fenugreek were observed to be particularly enriched with potential anti-diabetic compounds. A large percentage of the compounds were observed to be potential polypharmacological agents regulating three or more anti-diabetic drug targets and included compounds such as achillin B from yarrow, asparasaponin I from fenugreek, bisdemethoxycurcumin from turmeric, carlinoside from lemongrass, cinnamtannin B1 from cinnamon, crocin from saffron and glabridin from liquorice. The major targets identified for the herbs and spices compounds were dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5A2), pancreatic alpha-amylase (AM2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (PTPN9), and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) with over 250 compounds observed to be potential inhibitors of these particular protein targets. Only bay leaves, liquorice and thyme were found to contain compounds that could potentially regulate all 18 protein targets followed by black pepper, cumin, dill, hops and marjoram with 17 protein targets. In most cases more than one compound within a given plant could potentially regulate a particular protein target. It was observed that through this multi-compound-multi target regulation of these specific protein targets that the major anti-diabetic effects of reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia of the herbs and spices could be explained. The results of this study, taken together with the known scientific literature, indicated that the anti-diabetic potential of common culinary herbs and spices was the result of the collective action of more than one bioactive compound regulating and restoring several dysregulated and interconnected diabetic biological processes.
... Bay leaf contains many types of flavonoids and glycosides, such as kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin 3-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-βglucopyranoside, quercetin-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βglucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βgalactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-Orutinoside and isorhamnetin [1,5] . Bay leaf has a broad range of biological properties including, antimicrobial [6] , anti-inflammatory [2] , anti-fungal [7] , improves blood lipids profile [8] , improves liver function [9] and having antioxidant properties [10] . The aim of the present study is to characterize the effect of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides on the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in the local Iraqi female rabbits. ...
... Salam leaf has a polyphenol compounds which have an effect on insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake and antioxidants so that it is thought to reduce blood sugar levels. This compound is found in vegetables, fruits and most herbs [8]. ...
... Bay leaf contains many types of flavonoids and glycosides, such as kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin 3-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-βglucopyranoside, quercetin-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βglucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βgalactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-Orutinoside and isorhamnetin [1,5] . Bay leaf has a broad range of biological properties including, antimicrobial [6] , anti-inflammatory [2] , anti-fungal [7] , improves blood lipids profile [8] , improves liver function [9] and having antioxidant properties [10] . The aim of the present study is to characterize the effect of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides on the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in the local Iraqi female rabbits. ...
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The present study aimed to explain the effect of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides on the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C in the local Iraqi female rabbits. The study design included four groups (n=6): Control group-C fed with standard pellet diet; group1-G1 orally administrated daily dose 100 mg/ml/kg of Bay leaf crude for 30 days; group2-G2 orally administrated daily dose 50 mg/ml/kg of isolated flavonoids for 30 days; group3-G3 orally administrated daily dose 12.5 mg/ml/kg of isolated glycosides for 30 days. The results showed that oral administration of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides reduced levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C compared to control, therefore Bay leaf useful agent in reducing hyperlipidemia.
... In traditional medicine, bay leaves have been used to treat bronchitis, dermatological disorders, inappetency, and alleviation of rheumatism pain. As an alternative pharmaceutical, bay leaves were effective in reducing blood glucose and total cholesterol in people with type-2 diabetes [1, 2], and improvement and prevention of insulin resistance [3]. Chloroform fraction of these leaves is a potential drug candidate by protection of cerebral ischemia neuronal damage [4]. ...
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The thin layer oven drying behaviour of bay leaves at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C in conventional built-in oven and 180W power level in microwave oven was investigated. Eight different thin layer drying models namely Lewis, Henderson and Pabis, Page, two-term, two-term exponential, parabolic, logarithmic and Midilli et al. were fitted to experimental drying data. The highest adjusted R-square with the lowest reduced chi-square and root mean square error were selected as statistical criteria to evaluate how well the tested models fit the drying data. Midilli et al. model was considered to be satisfactory to represent the thin layer oven drying of bay leaves. Effective diffusion coefficient (D eff) was found between 1.52x10 -9 -8.08x10 -9 m 2 /s for conventional oven. The temperature dependent activation energy (E a) was determined as 40.10 kJ/mol for conventional oven. Defne yaprağının (Laurus nobilis L.) Konvansiyonel ve Mikrodalga Fırında İnce Tabaka Kurutulması ÖZET Defne yaprağının konvansiyonel fırında 50, 60 ve 70°C'de ve mikrodalga fırında 180W güç seviyesinde ince tabaka kuruma davranışı incelenmiştir. Lewis, Henderson ve Pabis, Page, two-term, two-term exponential, parabolic, logarithmic ve Midilli et al. olarak literatürde tanımlanan sekiz farklı ince tabaka kuruma modeli deneysel verilere uygulanmıştır. En yüksek düzeltilmiş belirleme katsayısı ile en düşük indirgenmiş ki-kare ve en düşük kök ortalama kare hatası deneysel verilerin hangi modele daha uygun olduğunu belirleme ölçütü olarak seçilmiştir. Midilli et al. modeli defne yaprağının fırında kurutulmasını temsil edecek düzeyde yeterli bulunmuştur. Konvansiyonel fırın için etkin difüzyon katsayısı (D eff) değerleri 1.52x10 -9 -8.08x10 -9 m 2 /s arasında bulunmuştur. Ayrıca sıcaklığa bağımlı aktivasyon enerjisi konvansiyonel fırın için 40.10 kJ/mol olarak bulunmuştur.
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, not all patients are fully satisfied with the current available treatments. Medicinal plants have been globally investigated regarding their effect in CVD, yet the field is far from getting exhausted. The current paper aims to provide an evidence-based review on the clinically evaluated medicinal plants and their main therapeutic targets for the management of CVD in T2DM. Electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from 2000 until November 2019, and related clinical studies were included. Lipid metabolism, glycemic status, systemic inflammation, blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and anthropometric parameters are the key points regulated by medicinal plants in T2DM. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are the two most important mechanisms since inflammation and oxidative stress are the first steps triggering a domino of molecular pathological pathways leading to T2DM and, subsequently, CVD. Polyphenols with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, essential oil-derived compounds with vasorelaxant properties, and fibers with demonstrated effects on obesity are the main categories of phytochemicals beneficial for CVD of T2DM. Some medicinal plants such as garlic (Allium sativum) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) have strong evidences regarding their beneficial effects; however, others have low level of evidence which reveals the need for further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods to confirm the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants for the management of CVD in T2DM.
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Laurus nobilis is an herb that has historically been used not only for cooking by many cultures, but also for its proposed medicinal benefits, including aiding digestion and alleviating nausea. It has been studied for its antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects, which may suggest future areas of research for application in medicine. A summary of the potential benefits and safety is presented in this article.
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