Article

Effects of Bay Leaves on the Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine if bay leaves maybe important in the prevention and/or alleviation of type2 diabetes. Sixty five people with type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups, 50 given capsules containing 2 g of bay leaves per day for 30 days and 15 given a placebo capsules. All the patients consumed bay leaves shows reduced plasma glucose with significant decreases 30% after 30 days. Total cholesterol decreased, 22%, after 30 days with larger decreases in Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 24%. High-Density lipoprotein (HDL) increased 18% and Triglycerides also decreased 25%. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that consumption of bay leaves, 2 g d-1 for 30 days, decreases risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and suggests that bay leaves may be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... L. nobilis ground leaves ingestion (1-3 g/day; 30 days) was reported to improve insulin function, decrease serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in humans with type II diabetes (Khan et al., 2009). Same treatment administered to type I diabetic patients resulted in similar beneficial effects (Aljamal, 2011). Cookies containing bay leaf powder (not less than 6% w/w) exhibited significant benefit on postprandial glucose level in healthy human subjects (Khan et al., 2017). ...
... Both extracts significantly improved fasting serum glucose. Previous report indicated that bay leaves consumption in type 2 diabetic patients for 4 weeks caused a reduction in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides (Aljamal, 2011). In another study, administration of capsules containing powdered bay leaves to patients with type 2 diabetes caused a marked decrease in the blood glucose content (Khan et al., 2009). ...
... Khan et al. (2009) have reported a marked decrease in serum triglyceride levels and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes after daily consumption of 2 g of dried bay leaves. Also, Aljamal (2011) suggested that bay leaves reduced triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol and increased HDL levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, feeding male rabbits with meals supplemented with dried bay leaves resulted in a marked decrease in blood lipid and glycemic profiles (Casamassima et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Laurus nobilis, commonly known as bay, is used in folk medicine as a remedy for many ailments. The present study investigates the protective effect of L. nobilis leaves extract against high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Animals were divided into group 1 (control), groups 2, 3, and 4 (bay leaves aqueous (AQ) extracts; 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, respectively), and groups 5, 6, and 7 (bay leaves methanol/acetone (MeAc) extract; 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Animals were fed an isocaloric high fat diet for four weeks. The intake of bay leaves extracts was associated with a significant decrease in serum levels of glucose (AQ, 100 and 250 mg/kg; MeAc, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg) and serum triglyceride (AQ, 250 mg/kg; MeAc, 100, and 250 mg/kg) as well as lower abdominal fat (all AQ and MeAc groups) and body weight gain (MeAc groups only). In conclusion, L. nobilis leaves extract intake provides a protective remedy against high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes.
... The hydroxyproline concentration, weight of granulation tissue, and velocity of wound contraction were all found to be considerably higher in animals treated with bay leaves. In comparison to animals treated with Allamanda cathartica, those treated with bay leaves exhibited a higher presence of inflammatory cells and lower amounts of collagen (Aljamal et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bay leaf, also known as laurel leaf, is produced by the sweet bay tree (Laurus nobilis), an evergreen member of the Lauraceae family that is indigenous to areas bordering the Mediterranean. Bay leaves have been shown to increase insulin activity. It is used to treat or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. The term "bay leaf" describes a variety of aromatic plant leaves that are used in cooking. Its chemical composition of it mainly consists of tanning agents, 2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one, Flavones with additional hydroxyl groups such as quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin, organic compounds containing nitrogen and often with pharmacological effects, such as caffeine, morphine, and nicotine, 2-methoxy-4-(prop-2-en-1-yl)phenol, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene and water-soluble pigments responsible for the red, purple, and blue colors in fruits, vegetables, and flowers, such as cyanidin, delphinidin, and pelargonidin. Bay leaves have numerous biological properties that make them useful for various purposes. They have wound-healing abilities, act as antioxidants, and have antibacterial, antiviral, and immunostimulant properties. Additionally, they possess anticholinergic, antifungal, and insect-repellent properties, making them versatile for different applications. They also have anticonvulsant and antimutagenic effects and can act as analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents. The bay leaf found in India, also referred to as malabathrum, tej patta, Malabar leaf, Indian bark, or Indian cassia, shares a similar appearance with the bay laurel leaf. However, it differs significantly in terms of its flavor and aroma. This abstract presents information on the botanical and chemical characteristics of Laurus nobilis (Bay Laurel), along with their traditional and modern medicinal uses. Indian bay leaves are found in the Himalayas and are a common ingredient in Indian cuisine. In addition to being used as a spice, they contain various nutrients, such as iron, manganese, and vitamins. The essential oil extracted from the bay leaves, specifically myrcene, is used in perfumery and as a pest deterrent. For centuries, Bay Laurel has been employed in traditional medicine to provide relief for a range of health conditions, including respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal discomfort, and gynecological issues, among others. Furthermore, bay leaves contain minerals like calcium, iron, and zinc, and they exhibit powerful antioxidant properties. The chemical constituents of both species include a range of essential oils, flavonoids, terpenes, and esters, which contribute to their medicinal properties. This information may be useful for researchers and practitioners interested in exploring the potential health benefits of these plant species. The objective of this research was to examine the pharmacological properties of Laurus nobilis, which is popularly known as bay leaf. The findings demonstrated that bay leaf's methanolic extracts had a more significant impact on preventing the growth of different strains of bacteria and fungi. Additionally, bay leaf's essential oils displayed effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the researchers also evaluated the antioxidant and anticancer activity of bay leaf. Bay leaf also exhibited antioxidant properties, and its extracts had a moderate to strong DPPH radical scavenging effect. In addition, the fresh essential oil of bay leaf showed more growth inhibitory effects against five different human cancer cell lines compared to stored essential oil. The results indicate that bay leaf possesses promising qualities as a natural agent for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer purposes.
... Diabetes mellitus is a leading non-communicable disease with multiple etiologists. It is a variable disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a combination of hereditary &environmental factors, characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization or insulin, by excessive urine production, &amounts of sugar in blood & urine [1,2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus can manifest due to resistance of peripheral receptors to insulin or increased indigenous glucose production by liver (hyperglycaemia).It is caused by inherited or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by pancreaseokra abelmoschusesclentus L (moench) is an important vegetable crop this plant has been acclaimed to have various health benefits which include to have various health benefits which include anti-diabetic properties. The present study proved that Okra is a naturalproduct and it has anti-diabetic activity so the usage of the soaked l. Okra water is not harmful to human health. An alpha glucosidase and alpha -amylase enzyme effects in aqueous extract’s of Abelmoscusesculentus, to provide an evidence for anti- diabetic activity through potential inhibition of alpha glucosidase and slpha amylase enzyme using the aqueous extract, peel and seed. Other extraction method like, the powdered peel and seed were used for the preparation of aqueous extract. And found that peel and seed showed appreciable alpha glucosidase [IC50= (124.96± 0.32) mg/dl and (142.47±0.28) mg/dl] and alpha amylase [(IC50= (123.36±0.16) mg/dl and (136.23±0.21) mg/dl].And inhibitory effect in a concentration dependent and soaking in water methods are confirmed and shows hypoglycemic effect in A. Esculentus ( lady's finger).
... Bay leaf it,s widely spread and grown in different countries (5) ,this plant is common species and known English as Bay leaf is locally called Rand (6). Of the wide uses of leaf flavoring for cooking food since long time ago for various foods (7) ,it contains chemical compounds so it,s used in the pharmaceutical industry (8) its an antidote to various diseases like microbial (9) fungal(10) inflammatory(6)its also has antioxidant properties (11) improves liver function (12) .anti-diabetes (13) (14 ) , and it helps treat many diseases like rheumatic, skin , gastrointestinal ,respiratory (15)(16 ) ,or various neurological disorders like epilepsy, neuralgia, parkinsonism(17) (18). ...
Conference Paper
The Laurus nobilis (bay leaf) is a nutrient-rich powder and its improving effect on healthy long been studied. This study investigated the impact of Laurus nobilis leaves powder extract on some lipids against Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in rabbits. In this study, 18 rabbit male rabbits were used in the laboratory Lepus arcticus Adults aged between six to twelve months, and their average weight ranged between (1.80 - 1.55) kilograms, divide the rabbits as follows the G1 was considered control group orally administered 1 mL of normal saline,the group G2 was orally 15 milligram/kilogram of toxic substance (MSG), the group G3 treated 15 milligram/kilogram MSG after 4 hours of receiving 600 milligram/kilogram of the bay leaf daily for 30 days. The physiological parameters were measured. It was found through the research: *Rats high moral HDL for G3 compared with the G2. * Rats lower moral for lipid profile TC, TG, LDL for G3 compared with the G2. * Rats high moral TC, TG, LDL while lower moral HDL for G2 compared with the G1.
... Another clinical study confirms these results. It emphasized that consumption of leaves (2 g/d) for 30 days improves glucose and lipid profile, which ultimately reduces the cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients [68]. ...
... 33% untuk nasi yang ditambah dengan ekstrak serai dan 13,52% untuk nasi yang ditambah dengan kombinasi antara ekstrak serai dan daun salam. PenelitianAljamal (2011) terhadap pasien DM tipe 2 yang mengkonsumsi makanan dan obat anti DM dengan suplementasi bubuk daun salam menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan kadar gula darah pada pasien. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the non-communicable diseases that could be prevented by consumption of foods capable of maintaining blood glucose at a safe level. Phenolic compounds are components in food that affect blood glucose levels. Lemongrass and bay leaf are Indonesian spices commonly used for cooking and contain phenolic compounds that have potential as antidiabetic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding lemongrass and bay leaves water extracts on the GI value of cooked white rice. Lemongrass and bay leaves containing phenolic compounds were extracted with water and added to white rice during the cooking process or sprayed on cooked rice. The glycemic index of the tested food measured using the ISO 26642 method showed that the addition of lemongrass extract and a combination of lemongrass and bay leaf extract with total phenolic content (TPC) of 570 mg GAE/100 g and 565 mg GAE/100 g, respectively, on cooked white rice IR 64 resulted in the GI reduction in the cooked rice by 23 and 27%, respectively. These reduction was higher than those resulted from the addition of lemon grass or the combination of lemon grass and bay leaf extract during the cooking process, i.e. 9 and 13%, respectively.
... Responden menyatakan mengonsumsi beberapa rebusan daun salam, jahe dan habatussauda. Kadar asam urat, gula darah, dan tekanan darah berkolerasi dengan bahan yang terkandung dengan jahe, daun salam pada bahan herbal [23][24][25][26][27] . Bahan herbal yang dikonsumsi responden mempengaruhi status kesehatannya. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main problem in the health sector lately is Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). NCD causes death due to complications they experience. NCD in the form of hypertension, hyperuresemia and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2), and others. Consumption of herbal ingredients contributes non-pharmacologically to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases. Initial screening of this non-communicable disease and consumption of herbal ingredients is one of the prevention of further complications from this non-communicable disease. The purpose of community service in the form of refreshing non-communicable disease screens is very useful for the community in the context of preventive and promative NCD. This refreshment was carried out in conjunction with community activities who underwent healthy walks in order to enliven the 77th Indonesian Independence Day, there were 57 contestants registered for health checks. The method, which is carried out with a problem approach to the community, is carried out from 07.30 to 10.30 WIB. The results of the abdimas found that there were 16.2% of the population experienced hypertension, 42% had hyperuresemia and 19% experienced hyperglycemia, and 2.9% of the population consumed herbal ingredients. The next abdimas recommendation is to educate PTM and herbal ingredients based on local wisdom.
... Besides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides levels decreased with rates of 22%, 24%, 18%, and 25% after 30 days, respectively (Aljamal 2011). ...
Chapter
Laurus nobilis L. is evergreen aromatic shrubs or trees, belongs to Lauraceae family, and is cultivated because of its aromatic leaves and ornamental interest. This chapter first summarized the description and distribution of the plant. Its chemical composition and traditional use were demonstrated in detail. The biological activities of its extracts, fractions, and pure compounds have been highlighted for further studies of the researchers. Besides, its toxicity and allergenicity properties were indicated.Keywords Laurus nobilis Traditional useChemical compositionBiological activities
... Laurus nobilis leaves are commonly used in culinary purposes as spice. The anti-diabetic potential [40,41] and in vitro antiglycation potential of L. nobilis is reported [42]. In our studies, we have also found that L. nobilis has in vivo antiglycation potential. ...
... Khan et al. (2009) demonstrated that daily consumption for 30 days (1-3 g/day), decreases the risk for diabetes and is beneficial for type 2 diabetes. Abdulrahim Aljamal (2011) showed that 4 weeks of bay leaves supplementation improves plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetics. The extract also exhibits potential anti-α-amylase activity in combination with soursop leaves (Berawi et al., 2017). ...
... The primary in vivo model identified for studying the anti-diabetic activity of these plant extracts was either streptozotocin-induced or alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aniseed [32], bay leaves [44,45,210], cardamom [211], cinnamon [66,211], cumin [212,213], dill [214], ginger [211], hops [118], rosemary [215], saffron [211,216], sage [217,218], and turmeric [219] have also been evaluated in type 2 diabetic patients. The major in vivo effects observed for the herbs and spices are a reduction in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Culinary herbs and spices are widely used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes and its complications, and there are several scientific studies in the literature supporting the use of these medicinal plants. However, there is often a lack of knowledge on the bioactive compounds of these herbs and spices and their mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to use inverse virtual screening to provide insights into the bioactive compounds of common herbs and spices, and their potential molecular mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, a library of over 2300 compounds derived from 30 common herbs and spices were screened in silico with the DIA-DB web server against 18 known diabetes drug targets. Over 900 compounds from the herbs and spices library were observed to have potential anti-diabetic activity and liquorice, hops, fennel, rosemary, and fenugreek were observed to be particularly enriched with potential anti-diabetic compounds. A large percentage of the compounds were observed to be potential polypharmacological agents regulating three or more anti-diabetic drug targets and included compounds such as achillin B from yarrow, asparasaponin I from fenugreek, bisdemethoxycurcumin from turmeric, carlinoside from lemongrass, cinnamtannin B1 from cinnamon, crocin from saffron and glabridin from liquorice. The major targets identified for the herbs and spices compounds were dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5A2), pancreatic alpha-amylase (AM2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (PTPN9), and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) with over 250 compounds observed to be potential inhibitors of these particular protein targets. Only bay leaves, liquorice and thyme were found to contain compounds that could potentially regulate all 18 protein targets followed by black pepper, cumin, dill, hops and marjoram with 17 protein targets. In most cases more than one compound within a given plant could potentially regulate a particular protein target. It was observed that through this multi-compound-multi target regulation of these specific protein targets that the major anti-diabetic effects of reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia of the herbs and spices could be explained. The results of this study, taken together with the known scientific literature, indicated that the anti-diabetic potential of common culinary herbs and spices was the result of the collective action of more than one bioactive compound regulating and restoring several dysregulated and interconnected diabetic biological processes.
... Bay leaf contains many types of flavonoids and glycosides, such as kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin 3-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-βglucopyranoside, quercetin-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βglucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βgalactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-Orutinoside and isorhamnetin [1,5] . Bay leaf has a broad range of biological properties including, antimicrobial [6] , anti-inflammatory [2] , anti-fungal [7] , improves blood lipids profile [8] , improves liver function [9] and having antioxidant properties [10] . The aim of the present study is to characterize the effect of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides on the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in the local Iraqi female rabbits. ...
... Salam leaf has a polyphenol compounds which have an effect on insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake and antioxidants so that it is thought to reduce blood sugar levels. This compound is found in vegetables, fruits and most herbs [8]. ...
... Bay leaf contains many types of flavonoids and glycosides, such as kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin 3-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-βglucopyranoside, quercetin-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βglucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-βgalactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-Orutinoside and isorhamnetin [1,5] . Bay leaf has a broad range of biological properties including, antimicrobial [6] , anti-inflammatory [2] , anti-fungal [7] , improves blood lipids profile [8] , improves liver function [9] and having antioxidant properties [10] . The aim of the present study is to characterize the effect of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides on the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in the local Iraqi female rabbits. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to explain the effect of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides on the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C in the local Iraqi female rabbits. The study design included four groups (n=6): Control group-C fed with standard pellet diet; group1-G1 orally administrated daily dose 100 mg/ml/kg of Bay leaf crude for 30 days; group2-G2 orally administrated daily dose 50 mg/ml/kg of isolated flavonoids for 30 days; group3-G3 orally administrated daily dose 12.5 mg/ml/kg of isolated glycosides for 30 days. The results showed that oral administration of Bay leaf and its isolated flavonoids and glycosides reduced levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C compared to control, therefore Bay leaf useful agent in reducing hyperlipidemia.
... In traditional medicine, bay leaves have been used to treat bronchitis, dermatological disorders, inappetency, and alleviation of rheumatism pain. As an alternative pharmaceutical, bay leaves were effective in reducing blood glucose and total cholesterol in people with type-2 diabetes [1, 2], and improvement and prevention of insulin resistance [3]. Chloroform fraction of these leaves is a potential drug candidate by protection of cerebral ischemia neuronal damage [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The thin layer oven drying behaviour of bay leaves at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C in conventional built-in oven and 180W power level in microwave oven was investigated. Eight different thin layer drying models namely Lewis, Henderson and Pabis, Page, two-term, two-term exponential, parabolic, logarithmic and Midilli et al. were fitted to experimental drying data. The highest adjusted R-square with the lowest reduced chi-square and root mean square error were selected as statistical criteria to evaluate how well the tested models fit the drying data. Midilli et al. model was considered to be satisfactory to represent the thin layer oven drying of bay leaves. Effective diffusion coefficient (D eff) was found between 1.52x10 -9 -8.08x10 -9 m 2 /s for conventional oven. The temperature dependent activation energy (E a) was determined as 40.10 kJ/mol for conventional oven. Defne yaprağının (Laurus nobilis L.) Konvansiyonel ve Mikrodalga Fırında İnce Tabaka Kurutulması ÖZET Defne yaprağının konvansiyonel fırında 50, 60 ve 70°C'de ve mikrodalga fırında 180W güç seviyesinde ince tabaka kuruma davranışı incelenmiştir. Lewis, Henderson ve Pabis, Page, two-term, two-term exponential, parabolic, logarithmic ve Midilli et al. olarak literatürde tanımlanan sekiz farklı ince tabaka kuruma modeli deneysel verilere uygulanmıştır. En yüksek düzeltilmiş belirleme katsayısı ile en düşük indirgenmiş ki-kare ve en düşük kök ortalama kare hatası deneysel verilerin hangi modele daha uygun olduğunu belirleme ölçütü olarak seçilmiştir. Midilli et al. modeli defne yaprağının fırında kurutulmasını temsil edecek düzeyde yeterli bulunmuştur. Konvansiyonel fırın için etkin difüzyon katsayısı (D eff) değerleri 1.52x10 -9 -8.08x10 -9 m 2 /s arasında bulunmuştur. Ayrıca sıcaklığa bağımlı aktivasyon enerjisi konvansiyonel fırın için 40.10 kJ/mol olarak bulunmuştur.
Article
Full-text available
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, not all patients are fully satisfied with the current available treatments. Medicinal plants have been globally investigated regarding their effect in CVD, yet the field is far from getting exhausted. The current paper aims to provide an evidence-based review on the clinically evaluated medicinal plants and their main therapeutic targets for the management of CVD in T2DM. Electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from 2000 until November 2019, and related clinical studies were included. Lipid metabolism, glycemic status, systemic inflammation, blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and anthropometric parameters are the key points regulated by medicinal plants in T2DM. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are the two most important mechanisms since inflammation and oxidative stress are the first steps triggering a domino of molecular pathological pathways leading to T2DM and, subsequently, CVD. Polyphenols with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, essential oil-derived compounds with vasorelaxant properties, and fibers with demonstrated effects on obesity are the main categories of phytochemicals beneficial for CVD of T2DM. Some medicinal plants such as garlic (Allium sativum) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) have strong evidences regarding their beneficial effects; however, others have low level of evidence which reveals the need for further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods to confirm the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants for the management of CVD in T2DM.
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus is an acute metabolic disarray and in traditional medicine many plants were used in abundance for treating diabetes. Because they have no harmful impacts and mostly available drugs are obtained through these medicinal plants. Purpose of the review is to select and highlight the importance of medicinal plants traditionally used against diabetics. Also checking physical properties and counting ADMIT compounds. Studies on plants with diabetic resistance mainly due to the existence of a secondary metabolite. .Medicinal plants are not only productive in treating diabetes, but in lot of cases have wide range of impacts on more ill conditions, together with DM discrepancies. Those plants could be suitable alternative or supplement as convenient anti-diabetic drugs. Therefore, the data presented in this review will help researchers to develop alternative approaches to the cure diabetes rather than oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, thereby reducing diabetes and related disorder.
Article
Laurus nobilis is an herb that has historically been used not only for cooking by many cultures, but also for its proposed medicinal benefits, including aiding digestion and alleviating nausea. It has been studied for its antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects, which may suggest future areas of research for application in medicine. A summary of the potential benefits and safety is presented in this article.
Article
The present study reports the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Laurus nobilis (Ln-ZnO NPs) by co-precipitation method. The synthesized Ln-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM and EDX. Ln-ZnO NPs were crystalline in nature, flower like and have hexagonal wurtzite structure with a mean particle size of 47.27 nm. The antibacterial activity of Ln-ZnO NPs was greater against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria than Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The zone of inhibition against S. aureus was 11.4, 12.6 and 14.2 mm at 25, 50 and 75 μg mL−1. The zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa was 9.8, 10.2 and 11.3 mm at 25, 50 and 75 μg mL−1. The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic images evidenced that Ln-ZnO NPs effectively inhibited the biofilm growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at 75 μg mL−1. The cytotoxicity studies revealed that Ln-ZnO NPs showed no effect on normal murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. On the other hand, Ln-ZnO NPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 80 μg mL−1. The morphological changes in the Ln-ZnO NPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were observed under phase contrast microscope.
Article
In India the care of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus could be with western system of medicine or an Indian system of medicine called Ayurveda. This study is concerned with the modelling for the care of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus through Ayurveda. In Ayurveda diabetes mellitus is termed as ' prameha' which is has become a serious health problem in many countries. We describe the use of an individual level systems modelling approach for the progression of prameha that has been used for cost-effectiveness evaluations of various prevention and patient care options. The adopted framework incorporates prameha risk groupings, formulated using the expert opinion which are then fed into a developed simulation model, at the level of individual patients. A multidisciplinary task group, comprising of clinicians and health care modellers, guided the necessary modular development involving the definition of risk groups in the community, natural history of prameha and options for early detection and treatment.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the leaves of the Laurus nobilis plant (from the Northern Cyprus Mountains) by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of the 81 compounds representing 98.74% of total oil, monocyclic monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole (58.59%), �-terpinyl acetate (8.82%), and terpinene-4-ol (4.25%) were the main components. Bicyclic monoterpenes such as �- and �-pinene (3.39–3.25%) and sabinene (3.32%) were also identified. The acyclic monoterpenes linalool (0.19%) and myrcenol (0.10%) were present in smaller amounts, and so were the sesquiterpenes. o-Cymene (1.30%) and p-cymene (1.83%) were the main, while cumin aldehyde (0.24%), dimethylstyrene (0.08%), eugenol (0.16%), methyl eugenol (0.05%), and carvacrol (0.05%) were found as minor, aromatic compounds of laurel oil.
Article
Full-text available
Bay leaf belongs to the family Lauraceae, and it is one of the most popular culinary spices in all Western countries. Bay leaf has been used as herbal medicine and has pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetes and anti-inflammatory effects. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis), which are responsible for inducing apoptosis using bioassay-directed isolation. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in three steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using semi-preparative HPLC. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry data, and electron ionization mass spectrometry. Six compounds were identified; all of them are sesquiterpene lactones.
Article
Full-text available
Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the perturbation of oxidant-antioxidant balance in brain synaptosomes of diabetic rats and determined the antioxidant and free radical-scavenging property of the Indian bay leaf. Brain synaptosomes were isolated from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and oxidative stress parameters were assayed. A methanolic extract of bay leaf (BLE) was tested for the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity by in vitro assays. A significant increase in the levels of lipids and lipid peroxidation products and a decline in antioxidant potential were observed in diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. The total polyphenolic content of BLE was found to be 6.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g. BLE displayed scavenging activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, BLE showed inhibition of Fe(2+)-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in both control and diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. Maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation, radical scavenging action and reducing power of BLE were observed at a concentration of 220 microg GAE. These effects of BLE in vitro were comparable with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant. It can be concluded that synaptosomes from diabetic rats are susceptible to oxidative damage and the positive effects of bay leaf in vitro, could be attributed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals.
Article
International statistics indicate that there is a close correlation between the consumption of saturated fats (dairy fats and meat fats) and the mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), and this conception has been confirmed by many epidemiological studies. Such studies alone, however, cannot prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between these two variables; dietary intervention trials are needed. The Finnish Mental Hospital Study was such a trial, conducted in two hospitals near Helsinki in 1959--1971. Practically total replacement of dairy fats by vegetable oils in the diets of these hospitals was followed by a substantial reduction in the mortality of men from CHD. Total mortality also appeared to be reduced. As to the causes of death other than CHD, none was significantly influenced by dietary change. This was also true for malignant neoplasms. To alleviate the burden of CHD on public health, many investigators have recommended important changes in the quantity and quality of dietary fats.
Article
It is not known if the diabetes-related reduction in blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of glucose is due to a change in the functional capacity of transporters or to an as yet unidentified mechanism occurring at the plasma membrane or cytoplasm. To increase our understanding of this problem, the cerebral blood flow, the brain uptake index (BUI) of 3-0-methyl glucose and the concentration of ³H-cytochalasin B binding sites were determined in diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin. The BUI of 3-0-methyl glucose was significantly reduced (< 0.001) in diabetic rats (32.7 ± 1.2%) compared to control rats (41.9 ± 1.0%). This change could not be attributed to an alteration in cerebral blood flow or to a non-specific change in BBB permeability. Normalization of blood glucose with insulin therapy corrected the BUI measurements in diabetic rats (42.2 ± 1.4%). The level of measurable glucose transporters measured with ³H-cytochalasin B binding assay did not appear to be reduced in the diabetic brain microvessels. The data indicate that the reduced brain uptake of glucose in chronic hyperglycemia can occur in the absence of a change in glucose transporter concentration. KEY INDEXING TERMS Blood-Brain Barrier Glucose Transporter Diabetes Mellitus Cytochalasin B
Article
To review recent trials and reassess cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. Recent clinical trials have tended to focus on lower-risk participants with diabetes who have had event rates considerably lower than participants in the early lipid trials. Statin studies have generally shown benefit in those without cardiovascular disease and at lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results of fibrate and glitazone studies have been mixed; the question of benefit among statin-treated patients remains unanswered. Investigators failed to confirm the benefits of glucose control observed in the original Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction study possibly due to study design issues. Epidemiologic follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial showed sustained benefit of glucose control. A number of studies have shown the benefit of inpatient control of blood glucose. We await the results of ongoing blood pressure trials and other ongoing trials, which should provide much new information. A conceptual model of cardiovascular risk for people with diabetes mellitus based on the UK Prospective Diabetes Study outcomes model is discussed. The majority of adults with diabetes have a substantially greater risk compared with those without diabetes and a small percentage has very high risk. A minority of individuals may have considerably lower 10-year risk.
Article
Naturally-occurring compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenols found in cinnamon (Cinnamomon cassia). These compounds also have similar effects on insulin signalling and glucose control. The signs of Cr deficiency are similar to those for the metabolic syndrome and supplemental Cr has been shown to improve all these signs in human subjects. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study it has been demonstrated that glucose, insulin, cholesterol and HbA1c are all improved in patients with type 2 diabetes following Cr supplementation. It has also been shown that cinnamon polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in in vitro, animal and human studies. Cinnamon reduces mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), TAG (23-30%), total cholesterol (12-26%) and LDL-cholesterol (7-27%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes after 40 d of daily consumption of 1-6 g cinnamon. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome who consume an aqueous extract of cinnamon have been shown to have improved fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, percentage body fat and increased lean body mass compared with the placebo group. Studies utilizing an aqueous extract of cinnamon, high in type A polyphenols, have also demonstrated improvements in fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in women with insulin resistance associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. For both supplemental Cr and cinnamon not all studies have reported beneficial effects and the responses are related to the duration of the study, form of Cr or cinnamon used and the extent of obesity and glucose intolerance of the subjects.