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The dark side of social networking sites: An exploration of the relational and psychological stressors associated with Facebook use and affordances

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... The term "FOMO" (fear of missing out) -which refers to the anxiety stemming from the belief that one might miss social events and experiences -has been tied to technology use, and might account for why users feel compelled to check their social media accounts multiple times per day. Indeed, Fox and Moreland (2015) observed that participants often felt pressured to continue using Facebook because of FOMO, and conclude that anxiety can arise from a lack of access to social media. Teens also report losing sleep because they feel a constant need to use and check social media, reportedly keeping their phones by their beds and under their pillows to avoid missing messages at night (Lenhart et al., 2010). ...
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Given the preponderance of social media in our increasingly saturated media environments , there is a need for greater understanding of how personality traits and states can influence problematic social media use. This study examines whether contextual age indicators (life satisfaction, interpersonal interaction, social activity), the fear of missing out, and the Big Five personality traits are significant predictors of Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat addictions. A survey of 337 college students reveals that greater social activity is a positive predictor of addiction to Snapchat. Another significant finding is a positive relationship between social media addiction and the fear of missing out, which explained the most variance in addiction scores for Snapchat (16%). An inductive analysis of open-ended responses indicated strong similarities between those who claimed that they were addicted to these social media apps and those said that they were not addicted. Both groups described largely similar usage patterns and media dependency, yet several users did not
... Taylan Bu araştırmada gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ölçeği puanı ile akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçeği puanları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Günümüzde özellikle genç bireylerin zamanlarının çok büyük bir kısmını sosyal ağlarda paylaşım yaparak, arkadaşlarını takip ederek ve hesaplarını sürekli güncelleyerek geçirdiği bilinen bir gerçektir (13,31). Bu durum bireylerin "acaba şu an kim, nereden, ne paylaştı?", ...
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Hayatımıza birtakım kolaylıklar getiren akıllı telefonların birçok zararlarının olduğu bilinmektedir. Akıllı telefonların bakma takıntısına, problemli kullanıma, anksiyete düzeyinde artmaya ve bağımlılığa neden olduğu bildirilmektedir. Akıllı telefonlar yetişkinlerin özellikle de gençlerin vazgeçilmezi olmuştur. Gençlerin bu cihazların zararları açısından en büyük risk grubunu oluşturduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı bir üniversitenin tıp fakültesi birinci sınıf öğrencilerinde akıllı telefon bağımlılığına etki eden faktörleri belirlemek ve buradan hareketle akıllı telefon bağımlılığı konusunda farkındalık oluşturmaktır. Kesitsel-analitik tipteki bu araştırmada evrenin %81,0’ına (n=175) ulaşılmış, öğrencilerin sosyodemografik özelliklerini ve akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ile ilgili olabileceği öngörülen özellikleri sorgulayan anket, “Akıllı Telefon Bağımlılık Ölçeği”, “Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu Ölçeği”, “Utangaçlık Ölçeği” kullanılarak veriler toplanmıştır. Tek değişkenli analizlerde sağlık algısı, başarı algısı, en uzun süre yaşadığı yer, aile gelir durumu algısı, baba eğitim durumu, aile bireyleriyle ilişki durumu, arkadaşlarıyla ilişki durumu, cep telefonu kullanım amacı, günlük cep telefonu kullanım süresi, günlük cep telefonu kullanım süresi algısı, günlük internet kullanım süresi, akıllı telefon bağımlısı olduğu algısı, günlük işlerini aksattığı algısı, uyku düzeninin bozulduğu algısı, günlük sosyal paylaşım siteleri kullanım süresi, Facebook hesabı olması durumu, Twitter hesabı olması durumu, Instagram hesabı olması durumu, arkadaşlık kurma sitelerinde hesabı olması durumu, gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ölçek puanı ve utangaçlık ölçek puanı akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçek puanı ile ilişkili değişkenler olarak belirlenmiştir. Çoklu regresyon modelinde en uzun süreyle köy-kasaba-ilçede yaşamanın, aile bireyleriyle ilişkinin orta-kötü düzeyde olmasının, günlük 3 saat ve üstünde internet kullanımının, uyku düzeninin bozulduğu algısının, arkadaşlık kurma sitelerinde hesabı olması durumunun, gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ölçek puanı artışının, utangaçlık ölçek puanı artışının akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçek puanını artıran risk faktörleri olabileceği belirlenmiştir. Özellikle genç bireyler yoğun bir şekilde akıllı telefon bağımlılığı riskiyle karşı karşıya kalmaktadır. Yüz yüze iletişimin yerini artık sosyal ağ hesaplarından yapılan paylaşımlar almıştır. Bireylerin akıllı telefonlarını aşırı şekilde kullanımına neden olabilecek faktörler belirlenip düzeltilmelidir. Risk gruplarına yönelik farkındalık çalışmaları düzenlenmelidir. Anahtar Sözcükler: Akıllı telefon, Bağımlılık, Tıp fakültesi öğrencileri
... Socially and psychologically, the quest for social capital is not necessarily problematic, but, as a competitive process, it can trigger negative emotions and affect psychological well-being (e.g. Fox & Moreland, 2015). ...
... Researchers state that SMU exacerbates an individual's perceived FoMO [4,29], suggesting stronger evidence for a cause and effect relationship whereby SMU increases FoMO. Moreover, the perceived obligation to maintain connections and stay updated on SM has been described as "technostress", and can negatively affect one's wellbeing [30,31]. ...
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Smartphones aid the constant accessibility of social media (SM) applications, and these devices and platforms have become a key part of our everyday lives and needs. Previous research has focused on the psychological impact of social media use (SMU) and SM abstinence has only received limited attention. Therefore, employing a combination of an experimental within-subjects mixed methodology using surveys to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data, this study aimed to compare psychosocial factors of fear of missing out (FoMO), mental wellbeing (MWB), and social connectedness (SC) before and after seven days of SM abstinence. Results revealed that participants (N = 61) experienced a significant increase in MWB and SC, and a significant decrease in FoMO and smartphone use following SM abstinence. There was a significant positive relationship between MWB and SC change scores and a significant negative relationship between SC and FoMO change scores. There were no significant differences in levels of SMU before abstinence or across genders in FoMO, MWB, and SC change scores. Thematic analysis revealed coping, habit, and boredom as motivations for SMU, and notification distractions presenting a challenge for successful abstinence from SM. Participants indicated that abstinence resulted in the perceived need to fill their time with non-SM applications. Finally, thematic analysis revealed mixed experiences of perceived connectivity in the absence of SMU. Findings present implications for the importance of unplugging from SM for temporary periods because scrolling through SM to fill time is a key motivator of SMU, and notifications encourage SMU and trigger FoMO.
... One potential effect of the constant availability of social media is amplified expectations and demands within friendships, such as increased expectations of constant accessibility. For example, young adults have reported feeling intense pressure to be accessible to friends, at all times (Fox & Moreland, 2015), and that social media requires an intensive investment in their availability and communication with friends (Niland Lyons, Goodwin, & Hutton, 2015). Similar or even stronger pressure to be always available on social media might exist among adolescents. ...
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Introduction: Being constantly connected on social media is a “way of being” among adolescents. However, social media use can become “problematic” for some users and only a few studies have explored the concurrent contribution of social context and emotion regulation to problematic social media use. The current study aimed to test: (i) the influence of friends (i.e., their social media use and group norms about social media use); and (ii) the effects of difficulties in emotion regulation and so-called “e-motions” on adolescents’ problematic social media use. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Italian secondary schools. An online questionnaire was administered to 761 adolescents (44.5% females; Mage = 15.49 years; SDage = 1.03). Results: Path analysis showed that social norms were directly associated with problematic social media use and friends’ social media use was associated with the frequency of social media use, which, in turn, was associated with problematic use. Difficulties in emotion regulation were directly and indirectly linked to problematic social media use via frequency of use and facilitating use of e-motions. Conclusions: These findings provide support for the importance of both peer influence and emotion regulation in this context. Social norms and emotion regulation should be considered in prevention programs addressing problematic social media use in adolescents.
... Privacy has been one of the most researched topics in social media research in the last decade Stoycheff, Liu, Wibowo, & Nanni, 2017). Privacy concerns are one of the more common and influental stress triggers for social media users (Fox & Moreland, 2015). Also, privacy issues and their statements are one of the main deficiencies in social media companies' corporate social responsibility (Bauer, 2014). ...
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Nowadays, there is a growing debate on the impact of social media on society, particularly on its potential negative effects. Therefore, this research is focused on three intersections of social media and fundamental freedoms: free speech, freedom of information and privacy. We begin analyzing social networking sites and social media role and evolution since their birth at the beginning of 21st century and remarking their positive aspects. Our objective is to identify malpractices related to social media and fundamental freedoms. A review of the literature is presented which outlines those malpractices. This review highlights some issues, such as arbitrary censorship, boundaries of free speech, misinformation, diversity of sources, visions and views, user content and privacy settings, and data profiling. Finally, we propose some solutions for each one of those issues.
... The psychological impact of Facebook is well documented. Facebook addicts often experience negative emotions, such as anxiety, and feel consistent pressure to access the site frequently (Fox & Moreland, 2015). In addition, Facebook users often have lower self-esteem and life satisfaction (Błachnio, Przepiorka, & Pantic, 2016;Satici, 2018). ...
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Within academics, social media has developed a stronger and stronger presence in the lives of students and educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Facebook addiction and academic anxiety. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study using Likert scales was used with a sample of 148. Descriptive results indicated that participants were neutral toward statements about academic anxiety while disagreeing with statements about Facebook addiction. The multiple regression analysis found a positive relationship between Facebook addiction and academic anxiety while controlling for gender, class level, major, program, credits, club participation, and GPA. Club participation, class level, and program were found to also have a significant relationship with academic anxiety. The final model explained 32% of the variance of academic anxiety.
... For example, the study of negative psychological and relational experiences on Facebook through focus groups reveals further interesting trends. In their work, Fox and Moreland (2015) uncover five themes as SNSs stressors: managing inappropriate or annoying content, being tethered, lack of privacy and control, social comparison and jealousy and relationship tension and conflict. Yet, despite the spectrum of negative emotions experienced in SNSs, users return to these platforms because of their fear of missing out, keeping up with content and peer pressure. ...
Article
This essay deconstructs the ultra-dark side of social media and explores the variety of ‘bad’ behaviour online by looking at a wide spectrum of exploitative practices. Through the use of primary data from an online platform, we posit the question ‘What’s the worst thing you’ve done online’? We collect, code and synthesise the fully anonymised discussions and develop a classification model for bad online behaviour. We combine the categories that emerge from our empirical data with those proposed by Baccarella, Wagner, Kietzmann, and McCarthy (2018) and develop a new combined (meta-) classification model that captures both the dark side of social networking and the ultra-dark. A framework is proposed for conceptualising the spectrum of exploitative practices and the essay concludes by providing a series of management considerations.
... Hart et al [43] used the method to categorize public health professionals' tweets to evaluate how public health professionals are using Twitter as a platform to further the mission of public health. Fox and Moreland [44] used constant comparison to explore users' negative emotional experiences within Facebook. In another study, Fox et al [45] examined the effects of Facebook on romantic relationships using the constant comparative method for analysis. ...
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Background: Snapchat has seen one of the most rapid, and unprecedented, growths in the history of social networking sites and social media with 3 billion Snapchats sent daily. In 2015, Snapchat introduced a new feature, Snapchat Discover, providing a unique way for publishers, such as magazines, to connect their content to Snapchat users. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate qualitatively the health-related content distributed among male-focused and female-focused Discover channels and to determine whether differences exist between the content posted to these channels. Methods: Magazine Discover channels with male and female target audiences were identified based on the magazine's claimed audience and a search of Snapchat Discover's magazine publishers, resulting in the selection of two male-focused and two female-focused channels. Stories were collected daily from each of the selected channels during a 4-week period. Using the constant comparative method, 406 Discover stories were collected and analyzed. Results: Differences in health content coverage existed between male- and female-focused channels. General health stories from male channels comprised 7.5% (10/134) of total stories compared with 22.8% (62/272) for female channels. Sexual health stories from male channels comprised 3.0% (4/134) of total stories compared with 18.8% (51/272) for female channels. Moreover, female-focused channels' content was more comprehensive. Female audiences were portrayed as being health information seekers, concerned with sexual health and male satisfaction, primarily responsible for contraception and pregnancy prevention, and less informed about sex. Male audiences were portrayed as being less likely to seek health information, obsessed with and driven by sex, and less concerned with sexual health. Conclusions: Understanding the content shared to social media is important, especially when considering the implications content may have for behavior. In terms of content, these findings suggest Discover channels appear to promote gender stereotypes and norms for health and sexual health through the information posted.
... Short, Gradisar, Lack, and Wright (2013) found that students' sleep problems and struggles with depression were correlated with poor academic performance. Some studies have identified the side effects of social media use (e.g., Błachnio & Przepiorka, 2016;Fox & Moreland, 2015;Lee, Chang, Lin, & Cheng, 2014), specifically the psychological effect of social media use on academic performance (see Figure 1). In addition, some recent studies of media multitasking, a specific type of media use behavior (Luo, Sun, Yeung, & Li, 2018), have provided further evidence of the negative impact of media use on learning, psychology, and cognition Outside school social media behavior Academic performance ...
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The divergent roles of social media in adolescents’ academic performance have not been confirmed, as previous studies failed to address social media use in different contexts. This study thus aims to explore the relationship between outside and inside social media behavior and academic performance in Chinese adolescents. Altogether, 560 Hong Kong adolescents (47.0% girls) were recruited and surveyed with Outside School Social Media Behavior (OSSMB) and Inside School Social Media Behavior (ISSMB). Their impulsivity and academic performances were also evaluated. Linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) results jointly indicated that: (1) OSSMB negatively predicted the adolescents’ academic performance, whereas ISSMB positively predicted their performance; (2) the two subdimensions of ISSMB – the consuming and sharing behaviors – positively predicted academic performance; and (3) ISSMB and impulsivity played multiple mediation roles in the relationship between OSSMB and academic achievement. The results also suggested that the relationship between outside school social media behavior and academic performance may be undermined by the opposing mediation effects of inside school social media behavior and impulsivity.
... Заключението на изследователите е, че социалните мрежи осигуряват ползи и положителни емоции (Lin & Utz, 2015), но в зависимост от индивидуалната конкретна ситуация, могат да имат негативни последствия (Brooks, 2015) и да доведат до пристрастяване (Rosen et al., 2013;Fox & Moreland, 2015). Негативните последствия се наблюдават при лица с лични дефицити като ниска самооценка, неудовлетвореност от живота и др., което може да доведе до използване на Мрежата до степен на зависимост (Turel & Serenko, 2012;Brand et al., 2014;Turel et al., 2014). ...
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THE MANY FACES OF THE SELF (THE SELF-CONCEPT IN THE CONTEMORARY REALITY) The monograph outlines the results from several projects, trying to answer three research questions: 1) What are the worries, excitements and interests of young people in Bulgaria today? 2) Are there changes in the rate of objectives, values, and identity formation and attainment? 3) What are the suggested integrative guidelines for effective interaction with adolescents and youths? Projects study the Real, Ideal and Ought Self; derealization – physical, psychic and from the reality; coping strategies; presence of meaning and search for meaning; attachment style; life attitudes of adolescents and young adults; and realized projects, integrating online and offline interactions, promoting prosocial behavior, facilitated by the virtual self and social networks. The projects have been realized in the period 2016-2019, with mixed qualitative and quantative research design. 442 participants in total - 283, aged 15-25 and 159, aged 15-50, took part in the research. We can summarize the results in few directions: • For this sample derealization can be described as conscious coping strategy – compensation of deficits without causing direct problems and leading to physical or psychic derealization. • Life meaning has negative relation to derealization. Search for meaning on its part is not related to derealization. Presence of meaning has negative correlation with search of meaning. Lack of life meaning promotes intentional conscious derealization from the environment. • For this sample Real Self is the most known, generating most free associations. Ideal and Ought Self generated much less associations. Furthermore, Real self generated a lot of categories of associations in all life domains, demonstrating adequate self-reflection skills. On the contrary, both the Ideal and Ought Self generated mainly self-assertive associations. This is indicative for the social pressure and perceived model for ideal and experienced expectations of the others and the society as a whole. On the other hand, very positive is that people tend to know and describe their Real self not only in respect to the norms, but depending on their personal values and preferences. • Daily use of social networks has effect of physical and physic derealization. The more is the time spend online, the higher is the risk of derealization. • The higher is the emotion-focused and problem-focused engagement, the lower are attachment anxiety and avoidance. The more problem-focused are the adolescents, the more emotional support seekers they are. High avoidance and anxiety in attachment on their hand lead to passive coping – decreased cognitive reorganization and emotion-focused coping. • Cognitive reorganization is the coping strategy, preferred by the outstanding students. In the other end – students with criminal behavior - prefer self-criticism, suppress their emotions and are passive at all. In general, for young people most intensive is the effect of the global society, discrepancy of the social needs and the environment, offered by the institutions. The attitudes and opinions of the young people on the hot topics of the day are polar – they either support or reject phenomena, without giving personal sense and going deep into the topics. Nowadays we face the challenge of the new age and the need of clear short messages, which youths to be able to find well archived in the virtual environment. These interactions aim to influence on the norm – the social norms approach suggests that the lesser the actual norm is presented, the higher are the misperceptions of the shared contents and concepts. In future the socialization will take place in the virtual form of institutionalization, so we have to employ both online and offline environment opportunities in interaction with youth.
... Taylan Bu araştırmada gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ölçeği puanı ile akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçeği puanları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Günümüzde özellikle genç bireylerin zamanlarının çok büyük bir kısmını sosyal ağlarda paylaşım yaparak, arkadaşlarını takip ederek ve hesaplarını sürekli güncelleyerek geçirdiği bilinen bir gerçektir (13,31). Bu durum bireylerin "acaba şu an kim, nereden, ne paylaştı?", ...
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Özet Hayatımıza birtakım kolaylıklar getiren akıllı telefonların birçok zararlarının olduğu bilinmektedir. Akıllı telefonların bakma takıntısına, problemli kullanıma, anksiyete düzeyinde artmaya ve bağımlılığa neden olduğu bildirilmektedir. Akıllı telefonlar yetişkinlerin özellikle de gençlerin vazgeçilmezi olmuştur. Gençlerin bu cihazların zararları açısından en büyük risk grubunu oluşturduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı bir üniversitenin tıp fakültesi birinci sınıf öğrencilerinde akıllı telefon bağımlılığına etki eden faktörleri belirlemek ve buradan hareketle akıllı telefon bağımlılığı konusunda farkındalık oluşturmaktır. Kesitsel-analitik tipteki bu araştırmada evrenin %81,0’ına (n=175) ulaşılmış, öğrencilerin sosyodemografik özelliklerini ve akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ile ilgili olabileceği öngörülen özellikleri sorgulayan anket, “Akıllı Telefon Bağımlılık Ölçeği”, “Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu Ölçeği”, “Utangaçlık Ölçeği” kullanılarak veriler toplanmıştır. Çoklu regresyon modelinde en uzun süreyle köy-kasaba- ilçede yaşamanın, aile bireyleriyle ilişkinin orta- kötü düzeyde olmasının, günlük 3 saat ve üstünde internet kullanımının, uyku düzeninin bozulduğu algısının, arkadaşlık kurma sitelerinde hesabı olması durumunun, gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ölçek puanı artışının, utangaçlık ölçek puanı artışının akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçek puanını artıran risk faktörleri olabileceği belirlenmiştir. Özellikle genç bireyler yoğun bir şekilde akıllı telefon bağımlılığı riskiyle karşı karşıya kalmaktadır. Yüz yüze iletişimin yerini artık sosyal ağ hesaplarından yapılan paylaşımlar almıştır. Bireylerin akıllı telefonlarını aşırı şekilde kullanımına neden olabilecek faktörler belirlenip düzeltilmelidir. Risk gruplarına yönelik farkındalık çalışmaları düzenlenmelidir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Akıllı telefon, bağımlılık, tıp öğrencisi, utangaçlık Abstract It is known that smartphones, which bring some convenience to our lives, have also many harms. Smart phones are reported to cause obsession, problematic use, increased anxiety level and addiction. Smartphones become indispensable for adults, especially for young people. It is thought that young people constitute the greatest risk group in terms of the harms of these devices. The purpose of this research is to determine factors affecting the smart phone addiction in first class dtudents of a university faculty of medicine and from that point, to raise awareness about smartphone addiction. In this cross-sectional and analytical type study; 81.0% (n = 175) of the universe was reached and data were collected by using a questionnaire that questions the sociodemographic characteristics of students and the characteristics predicted to be related with smartphone addiction, “Smart Phone Addiction Scale”, “Fear of Missing Improvements in Social Media Scale” and “Shyness Scale”. In a multiple regression model; living in the village- town-district for the longest time, moderate-poor relationship with family members, internet use of 3 hours and more per day, perception of sleep disorder, having an account on friendship sites, increase for fear of missing improvements in social media scale points, increase of shyness scale points were found to be risk factors which increase smartphone addiction scale score. Especially younger individuals are heavily exposed to the risk of smartphone addiction. Sharing from social network accounts take place of face to face communication. Factors that may cause excessive use of individuals’ smartphones should be identified and be corrected. Awareness studies should be organized for risk groups. Keywords: Smartphone, addiction, medical student, shyness
... Instagram is a photo-sharing social network site (SNS) that is particularly popular with adolescents. 1 Since Instagram enables its users to engage with vast amounts of visual content and social information, it has provided young people with a convenient channel for social comparisons of ability. 2 Whilst much of the scholarly attention regarding SNS social comparisons has focused upon their negative psycho-emotional implications, 2,3,4,5,6,7 comparing one's abilities to those of others can also engender positive motivational outcomes, such as inspiration. 8,9,10 As inspiration sparks intrinsically motivated behaviour, it has been repeatedly related to increased well-being 11 and may thus be a beneficial experience for SNS users. ...
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Research on the negative psycho-emotional implications of social comparisons on social network sites such as Instagram has rapidly accumulated in recent years. However, little research has considered the extent to which such comparisons can elicit positive motivational outcomes for adolescent users, specifically inspiration. Furthermore, little is known about whether it matters whom young people compare themselves to on Instagram (i.e., network composition) and how this may modulate the emotional outcomes of Instagram social comparisons. The present study thus sought to determine how adolescents' Instagram comparisons of ability associate with inspiration through the mechanism of benign and malicious envy. We further examined whether two key aspects of network composition-perceived similarity and the amount of strangers followed-moderated these relationships. Results from a paper survey among n = 266 British adolescents confirm the hypothesis that those adolescents who compare more strongly on Instagram also report more inspiration from Instagram use. While benign envy positively mediated this relationship, malicious envy worked in the opposite direction, indicating the need to distinguish these two types of envy in future research. In addition, while the amount of strangers followed did not significantly affect the relationships between social comparison, envy, and inspiration, higher perceived network homophily positively moderated the relationship between social comparison and inspiration by eliciting more benign and less malicious envy. Results overall suggest that social comparisons on Instagram may be more inspiring when adolescents compare themselves to similar others and avoid unachievable false role models in their online networks.
... While anonymity may benefit information sharing, there is an argument that it may negatively affect sharing behavior (Yoon and Rolland, 2012). The negative effects of online anonymity are reflected in the effects of personalization, misconduct, and false information, which are related to the dark side of the Internet (Fox and Moreland, 2015). In Internet-based interpersonal communication, such as social networking sites, anonymity can also play a negative role in information exchanges (Yoon and Rolland, 2012;Chen et al., 2016Chen et al., , 2019. ...
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Information-sharing behavior is affected by identity recognition perception. The current study aims to delve into the impact of familiarity and anonymity on information-sharing behavior, and the mediating role of intrinsic motivations on WeChat Moments. We hypothesized a mediator role of intrinsic motivations in the relationship between an individual’s perceptions and information sharing. Based on the self-determination theory, a model was created and tested using a sample of 531 frequent users. In this study, these users were asked to use WeChat Moments, the most popular mobile private social networking site in China. The results demonstrate the significance of familiarity and identifiability in an interpersonal relationship, when using social networking sites. Moreover, the influence of perceived anonymity on information-sharing behavior, which is entirely mediated by intrinsic motivation has been validated from an empirical perspective. Our findings extend previous studies by showing the totally mediated effect of perceived anonymity on information-sharing behavior on WeChat Moments and the influential mechanism of intrinsic motivation. The results will inform researchers about the importance of incorporating the interpersonal structural features and intrinsic motivation of social networking sites into future studies on online information-sharing behavior. Important ways to promote attention and share information involve building a familiar relationship with communities and equipping oneself with off-line relations. Final indications for future developments are provided, with a special emphasis on the development of these findings in various social networking sites contexts.
... Consequently, these impressions can lead to a tendency to compare oneself with others. Due to this constant comparison, people can experience jealousy and anxiety (Fox & Moreland, 2015). They start comparing their lives with other people's and feeling inadequate about their own lives as the grass is always greener on the other side. ...
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Politeness is a big theme in the studies of pragmatics. It has been discussed for the last seventy years and yet certain depth can still be added into the body of works. This book is written to connect the classical theories of politeness and the practical applications of politeness in the digital age. Today, we are faced with two kinds of interactions due to technological advancements: face-to-face interaction and cyber interaction. Both interactions seem to use the same mechanism of semantics and pragmatics. However, in reality, they have gaps. With this in mind, I feel the urge to make those gaps explicit. Those discrepancies between face-to-face and cyber interaction may not be intuitive. Even in some cases, they are counter-intuitive. We, human beings, have been utilizing face-to-face interaction for at least forty thousand years, yet in the last twenty years, cyber communication has been infiltrating our life. The infiltration started with small and limited application like email and short messages but now the infiltration has been securing some hours of our daily communications among human beings. Humans from all ages plunge in the arena of cyber communication. We may have had the assumption of face-to-face interaction politeness principles and features transferred to its cyber counterpart and vice versa. Some of those politeness principles and features work well in both worlds. Those are human-made principles and used in the human world anyway. However, it is so often some principles, which work well in a medium, fail to convert comfortably in the other medium. The chapters in this book are organized based on the need to connect between the available theories of politeness and modern applications of politeness in the cyber world. Most of the politeness theories were established in periods where cyber interaction was not existent. It is safe to assume that most of those works are based on face-to-face interaction. Based on that fact, almost all politeness theories can be called classic. Establishing a general understanding of politeness based on prominent classic politeness theories is the goal of chapter one of this book. Chapter two focuses on the difference between face-to-face communication and cyber communication. Based on the available studies, I attempt to establish the linguistic and non-linguistic markers of online interaction and offline interactions. Those markers are very important to explain the nature of both types of interactions. By identifying and elaborating the markers, I develop an early attempt to generate politeness principles in cyber communication. Chapter three to five revolve around the findings from the field studies. Chapter three covers the most asynchronous online communication: emails. In this chapter, politeness in email interaction is dissected with care based on the current studies. Chapter four is about politeness in social media. Although social media is as asynchronous as emails but social media involves a high level of multimodality. Besides, emails are private and social media justify its names by being public. The difference between private communication and communication has been long sought and established. Chapter five reviews the politeness in synchronous online communication such as ones in chatting apps. Chapter 6 is a closing chapter consisting of the direction of future research in online politeness and academic prediction of the future of human online interaction. In the closing chapter, I review the viable courses of online human interaction based on the current trends and future trajectory of human technology. I would like to thank my colleagues who have instilled the basics of pragmatics in my early years of research: Dr. Rustono of Universitas Negeri Semarang, and Dr. Djatmika, Dr. Sri Marmanto also Dr. Sumarlam of Universitas Sebelas Maret. I also thank Dr. Djoko Nurkamto of Universitas Sebelas Maret who always pushes me to use different arrays and types of research methods. My latest meeting with Dr. Agus Wijayanto of Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta was also very crucial for me to build a better literature review of my latest works. I hope that this work is beneficial for those who have a sincere and deep interest in modern pragmatics. Criticism and inputs are welcome to make my future works better.
... En general el colectivo tiende a utilizar el teléfono móvil para satisfacer sus necesidades, establecer y mantener relaciones sociales para alcanzar su bienestar (Bae, 2019). De hecho el uso de Redes Sociales (RRSS) se asocia en adolescentes con una autoestima reducida, sobrecarga cognitiva, sentimientos de angustia y experiencias relacionales negativas (Fox & Moreland, 2015). ...
Article
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En la actualidad existe una preocupación social generalizada sobre el uso que realizan los/as adolescentes de las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación, y concretamente de dispositivos como el Smartphone. La utilización del teléfono móvil se ha popularizado entre este colectivo, repercutiendo de diferente forma en su vida. Por ello, a la vista de la fascinación que le produce es pertinente realizar un estudio sobre su empleo. El objetivo central de este trabajo es conocer los patrones que se desprenden del uso informal del Smartphone como punto de partida en el diseño e implementación de la intervención socioeducativa, en particular con adolescentes que se integran en el Sistema de Protección de Menores considerando su elevada vulnerabilidad y la complejidad que envuelve a este colectivo. Esta investigación es de tipo cualitativo y se enmarca en el enfoque narrativo, a partir de la recogida de datos con la técnica del relato y de la entrevista. Los resultados y conclusiones ponen de manifiesto que el Smartphone responde a diversos patrones de uso en los/as adolescentes. Cabe indicar que supeditan el dispositivo al empleo constante de ciertas App por su popularidad, fácil manejo y gratuidad. Es notoria la utilización de aplicaciones de los sistemas de mensajería instantánea, destacando WhatsApp y Snapchat en cualquier tramo de edad de la etapa de la adolescencia. De las redes sociales que utilizan sobresale Instagram. En general las App las emplean con finalidad recreativa. No obstante, acogiendo un cometido esencialmente lúdico, los videojuegos no presentan una afluencia relevante en el colectivo. Por último, señalar que realizan un uso notorio del Smartphone con un propósito comunicativo, para mantenerse en contacto principalmente con sus coetáneos y la pareja sentimental.
... Given the broad scope of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, sleep and social media use were measured using individual questions rather than validated multi-item questionnaires. This limits the current analyses to a single measure of social media usedefined as the amount of time spent using social media on a typical day-which does not capture the different experiences of individual users, 51 for example, in terms of content, context, timing and emotional engagement. Future research should carefully consider a range of measures to provide a more holistic view of adolescents' experiences of using social media, particularly since evidence highlights the importance of emotional and cognitive aspects of social media use for sleep. ...
Article
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Objectives This study examines associations between social media use and multiple sleep parameters in a large representative adolescent sample, controlling for a wide range of covariates. Design The authors used cross-sectional data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative UK birth cohort study. Participants Data from 11 872 adolescents (aged 13–15 years) were used in analyses. Methods Six self-reported sleep parameters captured sleep timing and quality: sleep onset and wake times (on school days and free days), sleep onset latency (time taken to fall asleep) and trouble falling back asleep after nighttime awakening. Binomial logistic regressions investigated associations between daily social media use and each sleep parameter, controlling for a range of relevant covariates. Results Average social media use was 1 to <3 hours per day (31.6%, n=3720). 33.7% were classed as low users (<1 hour; n=3986); 13.9% were high users (3 to <5 hours; n=1602) and 20.8% were very high users (5+ hours; n=2203). Girls reported spending more time on social media than boys. Overall, heavier social media use was associated with poorer sleep patterns, controlling for covariates. For example, very high social media users were more likely than comparable average users to report late sleep onset (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.83 to 2.50) and wake times (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.93) on school days and trouble falling back asleep after nighttime awakening (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.66). Conclusions This study provides a normative profile of UK adolescent social media use and sleep. Results indicate statistically and practically significant associations between social media use and sleep patterns, particularly late sleep onset. Sleep education and interventions can focus on supporting young people to balance online interactions with an appropriate sleep schedule that allows sufficient sleep on school nights.
... Estimates suggest social media users around the world reached 3.5 billion in April 2019 [16], and the extensive use of social media technology worldwide has a tremendous impact on individuals and society. Research on the dark side of social media use have studied social media addiction [51,65], stress [23], and cyberbullying and harassment [7,21]. ...
... High levels of narcissism and low level of self-esteem predicted Facebook use. Narcissistic individuals tend to self-objectify and spent more time on Facebook in editing their photos (Fox and Moreland, 2015). High levels of narcissism and loneliness are associated with Facebook users than nonusers (Ryan and Xenos, 2011). ...
Article
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This study explored the associations between Facebook addiction and personality factors. A total of 114 participants (age range of participants is 18-30 and males were 68.4% and females were 31.6 %) have participated through an online survey. The results showed that 14.91 % of the participants had reached the critical polythetic cutoff score, and 1.75 % has reached the monothetic cutoff score. The personality traits, such as extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and narcissism, are not related to Facebook addiction and Facebook intensity. Loneliness was positively related to Facebook addiction, and it significantly predicted Facebook addiction by accounting to 14% of the variation in Facebook addiction. The limitations and suggestions for further research have been discussed.
... In documenting these trends, many have noted that social media itself seems to be a driving factor in the experience of polarization and conflict-ridden dialogue [21]. That is, the always-on nature of social media provides opportunities for social conflict in a quantity and consistency that did not exist before the internet [25], and may be responsible for documented trends in polarization and discord. ...
Article
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Public discourse is often caustic and conflict-filled. This trend seems to be particularly evident when the content of such discourse is around moral issues (broadly defined) and when the discourse occurs on social media. Several explanatory mechanisms for such conflict have been explored in recent psychological and social-science literatures. The present work sought to examine a potentially novel explanatory mechanism defined in philosophical literature: Moral Grandstanding. According to philosophical accounts, Moral Grandstanding is the use of moral talk to seek social status. For the present work, we conducted six studies, using two undergraduate samples (Study 1, N = 361; Study 2, N = 356); a sample matched to U.S. norms for age, gender, race, income, Census region (Study 3, N = 1,063); a YouGov sample matched to U.S. demographic norms (Study 4, N = 2,000); and a brief, one-month longitudinal study of Mechanical Turk workers in the U.S. (Study 5, Baseline N = 499, follow-up n = 296), and a large, one-week YouGov sample matched to U.S. demographic norms (Baseline N = 2,519, follow-up n = 1,776). Across studies, we found initial support for the validity of Moral Grandstanding as a construct. Specifically, moral grandstanding motivation was associated with status-seeking personality traits, as well as greater political and moral conflict in daily life.
... Significantly, although upward comparisons can engender positive motivational outcomes, comparisons with superior others can also engender feelings of inadequacy and dissatisfaction (Buunk et al., 1990). It is cause for concern, then, that research has largely found upward comparisons on SNSs to be associated with negative psycho-emotional consequences, including feelings of jealously, envy, and anxiety (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Lim & Yang, 2015), increased depressive symptoms (Feinstein et al., 2013), low self-esteem (Vogel et al., 2014), high negative affect (Vogel et al., 2015), and low positive affect (de Vries et al., 2018). An explicit example of this 'compare and despair' phenomenon in an identity-relevant domain was highlighted by Morry et al. (2018), who in their study regarding romantic relationship social comparisons on Facebook found that negative emotions following upward comparisons predicted lower life satisfaction, lower relationship satisfaction, lower relationship commitment, and lower feelings of interpersonal closeness with their partner. ...
Article
Whilst there is an emerging literature concerning social comparisons on social networking sites (SNSs), very little is known about the extent to which such behaviours inform adolescent identity. Drawing upon the three-factor model of identity development (Crocetti, Rubini & Meeus, 2008), this study seeks to determine the relationship between Instagram comparisons of ability and opinion and three identity processes: commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. 177 British adolescents responded to a paper survey (Mage = 15.45; Female, 54.8%) between December 2018 and February 2019. Instagram social comparisons of ability were positively associated with commitment and in-depth exploration, whilst their relationship with reconsideration of commitment was moderated by gender. In contrast, Instagram social comparisons of opinion were positively related with in-depth exploration and reconsideration of commitment. Findings suggest that although both forms of social comparison behaviour may evoke adolescents to explore their identity, Instagram social comparisons of ability may have less maladaptive identity implications for adolescent males.
... Research has found that social media may play the role of either the noisy channel or a smart one that can affect individuals and organisations (Hu et al., 2018;Kauffman et al., 2017;Wohn and LaRose, 2014;Mattanah et al., 2010;Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010). However, the excessive use of social media may result in negative outcomes, such as low performance, addiction and poor health (Fox and Moreland, 2015;Turel, 2015;He et al., 2019). Social media addiction is defined as a psychological status depending on the usage of social media (Moqbel and Kock, 2018). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to investigate the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage on expatriates' cultural identity change in cross-cultural settings. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire survey was conducted in two public universities in China. Among the questionnaires distributed, 333 useful responses were obtained from international students for data analysis. Findings Regression results show addiction to social media usage exerts adverse effects by negatively moderating the relationship between associations with locals and the three dimensions of cultural intelligence. Addiction to social media usage impairs expatriates from developing cultural intelligence from associations with locals, which in turn affects their cultural identity change. Research limitations/implications Research findings suggest that expatriates, administrators and educators should be highly aware of the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage in complex cross-cultural settings wherein expatriates are more dependent on information technology. The important role of cultural intelligence should also be highlighted for its bridging role in managing cultural identity change for acculturation purpose. No causal relationships between variables can be established considering the cross-sectional design of the research. Longitudinal or experimental design could be a promising methodology for future efforts. Originality/value The current research contributes to the knowledge on information management applied to cross-cultural settings. The present study combines an IT contingent view with cross-cultural study to explore the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage on the development of expatriates' cultural intelligence from associations with locals, thereby influencing cultural identity change. The research provides new perspectives to expand the nomological framework of cross-cultural studies by combining the enabling roles of information technology.
... Importantly in the context of this article, scholars have also demonstrated that mobile and instant communication reinforce and reshape in complex ways mutual expectations of availability, reciprocity and relationship maintenance (Chambers, 2013;Chayko, 2017;Hall and Baym, 2012;Ling, 2016). This in turn impacts on relationships as well as can become a source of anxiety and feelings of being overwhelmed (Baym, 2010;Chambers, 2013;Chayko, 2017;Fox and Moreland, 2015;Hall and Baym, 2012). Another strand of work has demonstrated that the infrastructures of social media platforms as well as Big Tech companies' ideology and commercial strategies set to systematically extract and commodify personal data, play a significant role in shaping user's engagement with and understandings of the platforms (Gangneux, 2019;Bucher and Helmond, 2018;Fuchs, 2014;Hintz et al., 2018;Pangrazio, 2019; van Dijck, 2013). ...
Article
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Drawing on empirical data, this article examines the ways in which young people negotiated messaging apps such as Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp in their everyday lives, focusing in particular on the read-receipt feature embedded in the applications. While it is important to continue exposing and critically examining the power structures and socio-technological relations in which young people’s everyday engagement with social media platforms and messaging applications are entangled, the article argues that it is also crucial not to overlook the possibilities and forms of agency that can exist in this complex environment. Combining insights from Foucault and de Certeau, the article seeks to shed new light on the ways in which tactical agency can be enacted and cultivated by young people. This article contributes to current debates about agency, resistance and power in contemporary digital society as well as makes recommendations to foster more responsive digital literacies.
... Another concept defined in this context along with social media is "fear of missing out" (FOMO), which is a phenomenon that strengthens social media addiction in individuals. This concept is defined as the fear of being unaware of the constantly fol-lowed social media updates and fear of missing out (Fox and Moreland 2015). Indivi-duals who have this fear constantly check their tablets and phones due to concerns whether they have missed anything happening or circulating on social media at that moment (Aydın 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, technology addiction and its types are one of the biggest problem areas of today's people. These types of issues have primarily gained a new dimension with the development of the smartphone while internet and gaming addiction and social media addiction. Individuals have become able to access all technological services at any time thanks to their smartphones. In the following period, a new problem area, called smartphone addiction, has been created with the improvements in smartphone technology and the intensity of usage of individuals. After these developments, it has been seen that smartphone addiction affects the social communication of people negatively and individuals focus on their smartphones instead of communicating in social environments. For this situation, which is difficult to explain by smartphone addiction, the concept of phubbing, which consists of the words phone and the word snubbing, has been developed. In this study, it is aimed to contribute to the related literature by explaining the components and dynamics of phubbing concept, internet addiction, game addiction, social media addiction, smartphone addiction, fear of abductions, nomophobia and netlessphobia.
... The explosive growth of social networking sites has dramatically altered the praxis of social interactions and behaviors. Some media scholars have discussed the negative psychological and relational effects reported by social networking sites' users (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Primack et al., 2017;Turkle, 2011). The majority of scholars, though, cite this change as positive because it allows individuals to connect with one another regardless of time and space limitations (Kuss & Griffiths, 2017;Ledbetter, 2017). ...
Article
Extensive research has focused on social anxiety in various contexts of human relationships. However, only a small number of studies have aimed to understand social anxiety in the context of online dating. Therefore, the current study examined factors related to social anxiety among online daters and used Janoff-Bulman's Shattered Assumptions theory (1992) as a theoretical framework. A total of 494 users of online dating sites and applications completed a questionnaire that assessed social anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and three general assumptions regarding: the world (world appraisals); the self (self-efficacy); and, others (recognition concerns). Multiple regression analysis was applied in order to identify predictors of social anxiety. Findings revealed that social anxiety among online daters was predicted by negative world appraisals, low self-efficacy and high recognition concerns. The current study underscores the importance of cognitive structures in a vague and vulnerable situation such as online dating. Specifically, taking into account basic appraisals of the world, the self, and others, emerge as important factors when trying to explain social anxiety in the online-dating context. Our findings may assist health care professionals treat individuals searching to find a partner, specifically in directing the therapeutic sessions to rebuild shattered assumptions.
... Just like in-game behavior, moral transgressions performed via online communication, such as cyberbullying, have also been linked to guilt reactions (Conway, Gomez-Garibello, & Talwar, 2014). Finally, guilt may also arise when the individual perceives a failure to show a certain behavior within the media context as inconsistent with personal standards or goals: Users of social media who experience social pressure to be constantly available to their online friends report feelings of guilt if they fail to meet these availability expectations (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Hall, 2017). At the third level, self-conscious emotions may be linked to evaluations of media use as an activity per se. ...
Chapter
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Media use is often referred to as a “guilty pleasure”. In fact, a growing number of studies provide empirical evidence of a high prevalence of guilt reactions to media use. Negative self-conscious emotions such as guilt are elicited by actions or events that are incongruent with the individual’s personal standards or identity goals. In the context of media use, guilt reactions can be triggered by perceived incongruence with personal standards on three different levels of evaluation: (1) Media users may perceive that specific media content (e.g., pornography or graphic violence) conflicts with personal or external standards. (2) Guilt can also be the result of user actions performed within interactive media (e.g., immoral behavior in a computer game or on social media). (3) Finally, guilt may also be triggered by negative appraisal of media use as an activity per se. This is particularly likely if media use is perceived as meaningless or if it conflicts with other situational goals and obligations. Extant research has linked guilt reactions to decreased media enjoyment and media-induced recovery as well as impaired situational well-being.
... The adverse effects of social media addiction on individuals have grown to such an extent that "the fear of missing out" concept has emerged. The term Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) in English is defined as the state of anxiety and fear that individuals feel when they miss news and updates on social media and sharing sites they follow, and they do not hear about them (Fox & Moreland, 2015). As can be seen from the aforementioned explanations, the introduction of the smartphone into daily life does not only lead to smartphone addiction but also causes various problems in different fields. ...
Article
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Main Points ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1) The smartphone addiction variable has a very strong explanation effect on phubbing addiction. 2) The General Phubbing Scale, which is adapted to Turkish, is found to be a valid and reliable. 3) The level of phubbing addiction of individuals is increased as the level of smartphone addiction, FOMO, and boredom tendency 4) Positive correlation is found between phubbing levels of university students, daily Internet usage time, and Internet usage time on phone. 5) FOMO, and boredom tendency are significant predictors of phubbing addiction. ___________________________________________________________________________ Abstract:This study aimed to adapt the Generic Phubbing Scale (GPS) to Turkish culture and to examine the phub-bing levels of university students concerning various variables. Acceptable goodness-of-fit indices were found in the first-order confirmatory factor analysis (x 2 /df=2.47, GFI=0.92, IFI=0.92, CFI=0.95, NFI=0.92 AGFI=0.89, TLI=0.94, and RMSEA=0.067) and the second-order confirmatory factor analysis (x 2 /df=2.61, GFI=0.92, IFI=0.95, CFI=0.95, NFI=0.92 AGFI=0.89, TLI=0.93, and RMSEA=0.070) performed to test the construct validity of the GPS. Later, the significance of the upper and lower 27% groups was analyzed using an independent t-test. The analysis results showed that the scale has the power to measure the desired characteristics. Chronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient was found to be a=89. The study examined university students' phubbing levels in terms of various variables and performed a hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether the variables of smartphone addiction, fear of missing out, and boredom prone-ness were predictive variables for university students' phubbing addiction levels. According to the results, these three variables were found to be significant predictor variables for the phubbing levels of university students.
... Significantly, although upward comparisons can engender positive motivational outcomes, comparisons with superior others can also engender feelings of inadequacy and dissatisfaction (Buunk et al., 1990). It is cause for concern, then, that research has largely found upward comparisons on SNSs to be associated with negative psycho-emotional consequences, including feelings of jealously, envy, and anxiety (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Lim & Yang, 2015), increased depressive symptoms (Feinstein et al., 2013), low self-esteem (Vogel et al., 2014), high negative affect (Vogel et al., 2015), and low positive affect (de Vries et al., 2018). An explicit example of this 'compare and despair' phenomenon in an identity-relevant domain was highlighted by Morry et al. (2018), who in their study regarding romantic relationship social comparisons on Facebook found that negative emotions following upward comparisons predicted lower life satisfaction, lower relationship satisfaction, lower relationship commitment, and lower feelings of interpersonal closeness with their partner. ...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst there is an emerging literature concerning social comparisons on social networking sites (SNSs), very little is known about the extent to which such behaviours inform adolescent identity. Drawing upon the three-factor model of identity development (Crocetti, Rubini & Meeus, 2008), this study seeks to determine the relationship between Instagram comparisons of ability and opinion and three identity processes: commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. 177 British adolescents responded to a paper survey (Mage = 15.45; Female, 54.8%) between December 2018 and February 2019. Instagram social comparisons of ability were positively associated with commitment and in-depth exploration, whilst their relationship with reconsideration of commitment was moderated by gender. In contrast, Instagram social comparisons of opinion were positively related with in-depth exploration and reconsideration of commitment. Findings suggest that although both forms of social comparison behaviour may evoke adolescents to explore their identity, Instagram social comparisons of ability may have less maladaptive identity implications for adolescent males.
... In other words, simply building affordances does not necessarily enact technology stickiness unless psychological needs are satisfied. Therefore, the construction of a direct link between affordances and technology stickiness (such as in Hsu and Liao, 2014;Fox and Moreland, 2015) will be better informed if the intermediate psychological consequence is also modeled between the two constructs. In our model, this psychological consequence is satisfaction. ...
Article
Purpose The aim of this study is to explore, identify and understand the impact of technology affordance in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). Moreover, this study incorporates user experience as a moderator, in order to explore behavioral differences between veterans (high-experience users) and newbies (low-experience users). Design/methodology/approach A research model was developed to examine the influences of three technology affordances: interactivity, information and navigation on user satisfaction and SNS stickiness. Totally 266 data were collected from a famous college in China using an online survey, and structural equation modeling technique was used to examine the proposed research model. Findings The empirical research findings indicated that the three technology affordance attributes exhibited different degrees of influence on user satisfaction, which in turn facilitated SNS stickiness. Particularly, high-experience users were more likely influenced by interactivity and information affordances, while low-experience users are more susceptible to navigation affordance. Practical implications This study can provide guidelines to the platform administrators to design SNSs from the aspects of interactivity, information and navigation attributes and pay attention to the preference differences between high-experience users and low-experience users. Originality/value This study uncovers the significant antecedents of SNS stickiness from a technology affordance lens and reveals the moderating effect of user experience on the relationship between three technology affordance attributes and satisfaction.
... Another concept defined in this context along with social media is "fear of missing out" (FOMO), which is a phenomenon that strengthens social media addiction in individuals. This concept is defined as the fear of being unaware of the constantly fol-lowed social media updates and fear of missing out (Fox and Moreland 2015). Indivi-duals who have this fear constantly check their tablets and phones due to concerns whether they have missed anything happening or circulating on social media at that moment (Aydın 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, technology addiction and its types are one of the biggest problem areas of today's people. These types of issues have primarily gained a new dimension with the development of the smartphone while internet and gaming addiction and social media addiction. Individuals have become able to access all technological services at any time thanks to their smartphones. In the following period, a new problem area, called smartphone addiction, has been created with the improvements in smart phone technology and the intensity of usage of individuals. After these developments, it has been seen that smartphone addiction affects the social communication of people negatively and individuals focus on their smartphones instead of communicating in social environments. For this situation, which is difficult to explain by smartphone addiction, the concept of phub-bing, which consists of the words phone and the word snubbing, has been developed. In this study, it is aimed to contribute to the related literature by explaining the components and dynamics of phubbing concept, internet addiction, game addiction, social media addiction, smartphone addiction, fear of abductions, nomophobia and netlessphobia.
... For instance, Facebook affords its users the indication of their preferences through likes, Twitter does this through retweets. Various studies demonstrate how social media affordances influence how individuals express themselves (see Halpern and Gibbs 2013;Morrison 2014;Fox and Moreland 2015). Relatedly, the influence of affordances of social media on political expression has gained traction (see Christensen 2011;Hapern and Gibbs 2013;Kreiss et al. 2017; Motivated by the importance of affordances, our study focusses on the digital media platform, known as Reddit, as a legitimate data source. ...
Article
This paper examines the affordances of Reddit, a digital media platform where Users share and discuss content. The aim of the study was to understand the affordances of Reddit, and how the affordances of Reddit through various features of the platform lead to outcomes, specifically those relating to political loyalty and the creation of political narratives. The study contributes an insight into the evolution and understanding of affordances as a result of examining the ways in which individuals who were previously members of another political group constructed narratives around switching their support to the Trump campaign in the 2016 US presidential elections. The study specifically focusses on an exclusive membership community called r/The_Donald. As a result of analysing posts on common themes using Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA), we conclude that the features enable membership of a community to be rewarded, switched or denied. As a result, this study has identified five affordances of Reddit, which include credibility, expressing oneself freely, echoing beliefs, creating membership and the meta-affordance ‘Redpilling’. The outcomes of these affordances are that ingroups are created, support can be switched, extreme or hateful views are legitimised and a new brand of conservatism is given credibility. This in turn is concluded to have realised impacts outside of the virtual environment in this case on the self-reported behaviours of voters.
Article
Purpose: To determine the relationship between social media usage characteristics and alexithymia in nursing students. Design and methods: The study was conducted with 272 nursing students between November and December 2018 in Turkey. Data were collected using an information form to determine the sociodemographic and social media usage characteristics of the students, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Findings: According to the results of this study, nursing students use Instagram the most. As time spent on social media increases, the alexithymia score increases and students have difficulty recognizing their feelings. Practice implications: As the use of social media by nursing students affects their mental process and behavior patterns, the results of social media applications, which witness a wide range of feelings, thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors, should be included in the nursing curriculum.
Article
Using an additional device (i.e., smartphone) while viewing TV is becoming one of the most popular forms of media multitasking, and the motivations of the TV–smartphone multitasking are worthwhile to investigate. Extant studies on gratifications derived from media consumption mainly examined the consumption of a single medium and few studies evaluated gratifications from concurrent media combinations. But the gratifications of media multitasking vary greatly among different forms of multitasking. This study addresses the typology and impacts of gratifications in simultaneous TV–smartphone use through an online national survey in China in 2016 (N = 682), based on the affordance-based framework. The study identifies four kinds of gratifications in TV–smartphone multitasking: emotional, social, habitual, and contextual interaction gratifications. It also finds positive impacts of fear of missing out and social media use on all gratifications. The results finally show that habitual gratifications negatively predict the propensity that the audience select TV as the primary screen.
Article
Social networking sites (SNSs) confer countless benefits to mankind through increased communication and connection between and among millions of people on the globe. Do the detrimental effects of SNSs outweigh its benefits? We have tried to answer this question through reviewing the relevant literature on the repercussions of use of SNSs on sleep quality, psychosocial behavior, academic performance and circadian rhythm in humans. Literature on the subject underscores the adverse effects of SNSs usage on sleep resulting in poor sleep quality, delayed sleep onset, shortening of sleep length, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), insomnia, apnea and nightmare. The students addicted to social media suffer from psychiatric distress, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation, procrastination and poor academic attainment. There is, however, a paucity of literature on the effects of overuse of SNSs on the functioning of circadian clocks in humans. It emerged that the adolescents and young adults are the most vulnerable to the ill effects of excessive use of the SNSs. We recommend that more researches on the effects of SNSs on human health should be carried out and effective awareness campaigns should be launched to educate the people about the darker side of the excessive use of SNSs.
Article
People routinely regulate their emotions in order to function more effectively at work, to behave more appropriately in social situations, or simply to feel better. Recently, researchers have begun to examine how people shape their affective states using digital technologies, such as smartphones. In this article, we discuss the emergence of digital emotion regulation, both as a widespread behavioral phenomenon and a new cross-disciplinary field of research. This field bridges two largely distinct areas of enquiry: (a) psychological research into how and why people regulate their emotions, which has yet to systematically explore the role of digital technology, and (b) computing research into how digital technologies impact users’ emotions, which has yet to integrate psychological theories of emotion regulation. We argue that bringing these two areas into better contact will benefit both and will facilitate a deeper understanding of the nature and significance of digital emotion regulation.
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Social media and Social Networking Sites (SNS) represent an area of rapid advancement in digital communication, with direct impact on the lives and communication strategies of athletes. SNS allow for a high degree of connectivity with relative ease. Frequency of social media use and preferred applications tend to differ by age. Younger athletes are more likely to engage in social networks and are specifically at risk for negative effects of social media use. While social networking improves interconnectivity, activity enhancement, and exercise encouragement, it can also lead to issues of cyberbullying, harassment, and depression. Direct access afforded to athletes puts them at risk for being targeted by the public. Harassment and associated emotional distress are amplified due to the ease of publicly available through social media communication. This chapter reviews the present information available on rates of cyberbullying and resulting mental and emotional distress and the impact on athlete’s mental health and well-being. The benefits of social media are also explored with a focus on how collegiate athletic departments can help student-athletes use social media safely and effectively.
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The main objective of this literature review is to provide empirical and conceptual insight into SNS addiction by exploring potential SNS addiction, examining the personalities of SNS addicted users, and exploring SNS addiction's negative consequences on well-being, social and academic life. The results revealed that there was no concordance among previous studies on which gender is the most likely to be addicted to SNS. Moreover, the addiction symptoms linked with SNS addiction were cognitive and behavioral salience, conflict with other activities, euphoria, loss of control, withdrawal, and relapse/reinstatement. Previous SNS's studies determined a high prevalence rate of addiction to SNS among university students. The review revealed that 18.4% of the reviewed studies agreed that SNS addiction is significantly and positively related to depression and Neuroticism. Although 78% of the reviewed previous studies have highlighted several potential negative correlations of extensive SNS usage and addiction on university student well-being, social, and academic life, however, these studies gave more attention to the negative impact on students' academic performance.
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Young women aged between 16–24 are often severely affected by social media, causing them to become depressed, anxious and stressful. The current procedural and technological responses to depression, anxiety and stress (DAS) are not directly targeting young women, even though one in four experience symptoms of common mental health conditions. Furthermore, there are limited studies on DAS among women of this age group. Following the design science research methodology, conceptual and system artefacts are created and explored to improve current responses to ameliorate DAS caused by social media for young women in this paper. We propose the Happiness App as a solution that caters to young women negatively affected by social media. These artefacts are evaluated using the V-model framework. Our findings reinforce that social media is an environment which could create DAS among young women. Difficulties emerge when individuals attempt to break their habit of using social media. Individuals, organizations and governments are all accountable in ensuring that social media is a safe space for all.
Article
Daily social media use has been previously linked to worse everyday memory functioning in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms that drive these associations are unclear. One pathway in which social media use may negatively influence memory functioning is through a decrease in emotional well-being. Therefore, using a daily diary study from the Midlife in the United States Refresher cohort (MIDUS; n = 782, 25–75 years old), the current study conducted a multilevel structural equation model to examine whether social media use influenced memory failures indirectly through positive and negative affect. Analyses revealed that daily negative affect, but not positive affect, was a significant mediator at the within-person level. On days when social media use was high, individuals reported greater negative affect and in turn, more memory failures. The potential underlying socio-evaluative effects that may drive the association between social media use, negative affect, and memory failures are discussed.
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Social networking sites offer opportunities for users to express themselves and receive immediate feedback in the form of virtual likes. Adolescents place a great deal of value on the number of likes, regarding them as indicators of peer acceptance and support. Since peer feedback and social comparison are integral to adolescents' self-evaluations, the aim of the current chapter is to determine whether self-esteem is sensitive to the number of likes associated with their own (peer feedback) and others' posts (social comparison). The synthesis of literature indicates that self-esteem is responsive to indicators of one's value to others as well as the value of others, supporting the sociometer and social comparison theories. Indications of liking online serve to enhance self-esteem, whereas rejection deflates it. In addition, seeing others get many likes negatively impacts viewers' self-esteem. The gaps in the literature are discussed and future research is suggested.
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With the increased popularity of social media, social networking sites (SNSs) have received the attention of many scholars. In particular, researchers have focused on the impact of SNSs on interpersonal relationships. Accordingly, this chapter provides an overview of the extant literature concerning associations between the use of SNSs and romantic relationships. It provides empirical evidence on how social networking behaviors are influenced by adult attachment styles, and how social networking influences relationship constructs such as satisfaction, commitment, jealousy, and relationship dissolution. Furthermore, it presents previous research that emphasizes gender as a moderator in these relations. This chapter overall contributes to researchers and professionals in providing information on online social networking and emphasizing key romantic relationship constructs related to the use of SNSs. It also provides suggestions for future research.
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In this study, it is aimed to adapt the two scales, the outside school social media behavior (OSSMB) and inside school social media behavior scale (ISSMB) into Turkish, which were developed by Lu et.al (2018). OSSMB includes 21 items, and ISSMB includes 10 items. OSSMB Scale has four sub-dimensions: Consuming, Communicating, Creating, and Sharing. The OSSMB scale has three sub-dimensions: Consuming, Creating, and Sharing. The first part of the study data was collected with the participation of 806 university students attending a public university in the Aegean Region. Further data were collected from 365 students for confirmatory factor analysis of the scales. Data were collected from 1171 students in total. The Turkish version of the scale was started with a language validity study. The translation and back-translation stages of the Turkish version of the scale were performed by three language experts and three field experts. After language validity, Kaiser-Meyer_Olkin, Bartlett’s, Exploratory Factor Analysis (AFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Cronbach’s Alpha reliability and validity analyses were performed. In the results, the factor loads of all items were good (above .61), and the total variances explained for both scales were high (ISSMB: 67.64% OSSMB: 56.71). The internal consistency values of both scales are acceptable for all factors. The factor structures obtained from the exploratory factor analysis have been confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis with valid and reliable measurement scales measuring the difference between the social media use of young people in Turkey within and outside the school.
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In this paper we explore the use of four metaphors as a means to illuminate particular dimensions of social media logic—the norms, strategies, and economics underpinning its dynamics. Our objective is to utilise metaphor to instigate critical reflection about the nature of social media use behaviour and the role of habitual social media use in our experiences of reality. The first metaphor, social media as a town square, draws attention to the centrality of social media platforms in their users’ lives, fear of missing out, augmented reality and digital dualism. Through the second metaphor, social media as a beauty pageant, we explore self-presentation or image crafting, social comparison and self-evaluation. The third metaphor, social media as a parliament, emphasises the role of social media platforms as spaces for online deliberation and we consider social media capital, homophily and polarisation as themes. Finally, we explore anonymity, deindividuation and deceptive self-presentation through our fourth metaphor, social media as a masquerade ball. We argue that social media scholars can use these and other metaphors to enhance communication of their research findings. Additionally, we believe that social media metaphors can be powerful pedagogical and communication tools, particularly when working with students for whom high levels of social media use is the norm.
Article
Purpose While the positive health benefits of fitness apps, which motivate and track physical exercise, are widely acknowledged, the adverse connection between these technologies and wellbeing has received little attention. The purpose of this paper is to determine how the social dimensions of fitness apps predict the type of passion (harmonious and obsessive) one has for physical exercise, and what the resulting positive and negative implications are for wellbeing. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from the theoretical frameworks of social influence and the dual model of passion (DMP), this study develops a model depicting how fitness apps relate to the causes and consequences of harmonious and obsessive passion for exercise. Survey data were collected from 272 fitness app using cyclists and analysed with partial least squares structural equation modelling techniques. Findings Different social influence aspects of fitness apps appeal to different types of exercisers. A harmonious passion for physical exercise is predicted by the positive reciprocal benefits attained from one’s fitness app community, while an obsessive passion is predicted by positive recognition. In turn, a harmonious passion for exercise is negatively associated with life burnout, while an obsessive passion strongly affirms that relationship. In addition, the relationship between social influence and life burnout is fully mediated by the type of passion a fitness app user possesses. Originality/value Underpinned by the DMP, the study provides a theoretical framework explaining how the use of fitness apps can result in opposing wellness outcomes.
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Günümüzde mobil teknolojiler, internet hayatımızın vazgeçilmez bir parçası olmuştur. Gelişen teknoloji hayatımızı kolaylaştırırken bir yandan da bağımlılık, huzursuzluk gibi istenmeyen durumlar ortaya çıkarmaktadır Bireyin sosyal ağlarda düşüncelerini, edinimlerini paylaşabilmeleri bireylerin sosyal platformları kullanmasını artırmaktadır. Sosyal ağlarda gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu (FOMO) bireyin cep telefonundan yoksun kalma korkusu olarak adlandırılan nomofobiye yol açmaktadır. Bu çalışmada Selçuk Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi'nde öğrenim gören sağlık yönetimi öğrencilerinin sosyal gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu (FOMO) ve sosyal ağ kullanım amacının nomofobi düzeyine etkisi incelenmiştir. Çalışmada kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ve nicel araştırma deseni kullanılmıştır. Verileri toplamak amacıyla kişisel bilgi formu, sosyal ağ kullanım ölçeği, sosyal ortamlarda gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ölçeği ve nomofobi ölçeği yer alan anket formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre bireylerin sosyal ağ kullanımını daha çok sosyal iletişimde bulunmak amacıyla gerçekleştirdikleri sonucuna varılmıştır. Araştırmada öğrencilerin cinsiyetleri, sınıf düzeyleri ile değişkenlerin arasında t testi yapılmış ve anlamlı farklılık bulunamamıştır. Ayrıca sosyal gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu (FOMO) ve sosyal ağ kullanım amacı ve nomofobi arasında korelasyon analizi yapılmış ve pozitif yönlü düşük düzeyde anlamlı ilişki saptanmıştır. Bu ilişkiye göre nomofobi arttıkça sosyal ağ kullanımı ve sosyal gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu arttığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Abstract Nowadays, mobile technologies have been an indispensable part of our lives in the Internet. Developing technology makes our lives easier, as well as addiction, unrest, undesirable situations, such as the individual's social networks to share their thoughts, their acquisition of individuals to use the social platforms Increases. In this study, the relationship between FOMO, aim of using social network and
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Romantic, dyadic relationships arise, in part, from communication, disclosure, and boundaries. Information communication technology (ICT), such as smartphones, has rapidly integrated into our personal lives and affected relationship initiation, maintenance, and dissolution. To this point, models attempting to account for this emerging dynamic center on past theories about relationships. However, counselors and researchers would benefit from understanding contemporary couple dynamics that reflect the ICT-mediated changes to coupling that occurred during the last decade. To address this need, researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore relationship dynamics, mediated by ICT, based on stories and descriptions provided by 16 participants. Findings showed technology influenced relationships in four domains: access, intimacy, boundaries, and presence.
Article
Purpose The increasing use of social media after work hours for work purposes, termed social media connectivity (SMC), is an emerging phenomenon in supply chain management. Although SMC can have debilitating effects on supply chain professionals and their organizations, research on its effects on work-related attitudes, especially turnover intentions, remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of SMC on voluntary turnover of supply chain professionals and the resulting implications for them and their organizations. Design/methodology/approach The study draws from the conservation of resources theory and the concept of information overload to explain how SMC leads to emotional exhaustion and impacts turnover intentions of supply chain professionals, contingent on work–life balance. The model is tested using survey data ( n =325) collected at multiple times from a large Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturer and distributor with spatially dispersed workforce and distribution facilities. Findings The results confirm that emotional exhaustion mediates the association between SMC and turnover intentions and that SMC exacerbates the intentions of supply chain professionals to quit their jobs. However, work–life balance is found to dampen the exhausting effects of SMC on emotional exhaustion thereby reducing its debilitating effects on turnover intentions of supply chain professionals. Originality/value The focus on SMC highlights the need for greater understanding of the dark side of social media on supply chain professionals and their organizations and how SMC can be better managed in an age of social media ubiquity.
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Using a novel approach to consider the available literature and research, this book focused on the psychology of social media based on the assumption that the experience of being in a social media has an impact on both our identity and social relationships. In order to ‘be online’, an individual has to create an online presence – they have to share information about themselves online. This online self is presented in different ways, with diverse goals and aims in order to engage in different social media activities and to achieve desired outcomes. Whilst this may not be a real physical presence, that physicality is becoming increasingly replicated through photos, video, and ever-evolving ways of defining and describing the self online. Moreover, individuals are using both PC-based and mobile-based social media as well as increasingly making use of photo and video editing tools to carefully craft and manipulate their online self. This book therefore explored current debates in Cyberpsychology, drawing on the most up-to-date theories and research to explore four main aspects of the social media experience (communication, identity, presence and relationships). In doing so, it considered the interplay of different areas of psychological research with current technological and security insight into how individuals create, manipulate and maintain their online identity and relationships. The social media were therefore at the core of every chapter, with the common thread throughout being the very unique approach to considering diverse and varied online behaviours that may not have been thus far considered from this perspective. It covered a broad range of both positive and negative behaviours that have now become integrated into the daily lives of many westernised country’s Internet users, giving it an appeal to both scholarly and industry readers alike.
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Social networking sites (SNSs) enrich many aspects of our relationships, yet they also have the potential for harm. Although considerable research has focused on the benefits of SNSs, there is a “dark side” to online social networks, particularly in romantic relationships. Distinctive affordances of SNSs (e.g., visibility and connectivity) enable new types of negative communication outcomes in romantic relationships as news about the couple is made visible to both partners’ networks, including friends, family, and ex-partners. Thus, SNSs can be a source of stress and relational turbulence for romantic partners from the early stages of dating to the post-breakup phase. When dating, users may sense disinterest based on a lack of SNS interaction or perceive competition among other network “friends” observed interacting on the romantic partner’s page. Once the romantic relationship becomes exclusive, partners may experience pressure from the partner or the network to establish the relationship as “Facebook official” and advertise it on his/her page. In the relationship, techno-incompatibility may be source of conflict as partners have different patterns of use (e.g., one partner is constantly on and the other rarely is). Partners may also maintain different perceptions of appropriateness and privacy for communication within and about the relationship on SNSs, leading to conflict about what is shared publicly on the site. Partner monitoring on SNSs (i.e., “Facebook stalking”), a common practice influenced by attachment style, can be deleterious during and after romantic relationships. SNSs also provide unique sources of distress in the process and wake of relationship dissolution.
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Due to their prevalence and unique affordances, social networking sites such as Facebook have the potential to influence offline relationships. This study employed Baxter's (2011) refinement of relational dialectics theory to explore Facebook's role in emerging adults' romantic relationships. Data from ten focus groups revealed that Facebook contributes to and provides a forum for discursive struggles related to the integration-separation, expression-privacy, and stability-change dialectics. Romantic partners are able to connect with each other and integrate their social networks on Facebook, but some struggle to maintain privacy and independence. As such, SNSs can be a site of and trigger for romantic conflict. Participants' responses indicated that Facebook is interwoven with the experience of these dialectics due to its affordances, specifically the semi-public nature of relationship activities on Facebook and the shift in control over relational information from individuals to network members.
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Social networking sites can facilitate self-expression, but for some, that freedom is constrained. This study investigated factors that influence LGBT+ individuals' identity management and political expression on social media. We interviewed 52 participants aged 18 to 53 around the 2012 U.S. election. Using co-cultural theory, we investigated communicative practices employed by queer-identified individuals on Facebook. Participants whose LGBT+ identity was not known by the social network (i.e., those who were still in the closet) revealed a spiral of silence, wherein they were silenced by the perceived heteronormative majority. Participants whose identity was known (i.e., those who were out) revealed a spiral of silencing as they used the site's affordances to empower their vocal minority and silence the dominant group.
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Abstract Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.
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Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated profiles on an experimental SNS. Profiles varied in a 2x2 within-subjects design along two dimensions, ratings of career success and attractiveness, allowing for upward comparisons (high ratings) and downward comparisons (low ratings). Selective exposure was measured in seconds spent viewing profiles. Negative mood led to less exposure to upward comparisons and more to downward comparisons than positive mood. The comparison dimension did not influence selective exposure. Thus, in a negative mood, SNS users prefer self- enhancing social comparisons to manage their mood.
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Social networking sites have demonstrated considerable utility to Internet users who wish to form or maintain interpersonal relationships online, but the qualities of these Internet platforms can also give rise to negative interactions between contacts. Perceptible relational problems, such as strain and changes to relational rules, originate from three commonly experienced transgressions on social networking sites: having a friend request declined or ignored, having a public message or identification tag deleted, and issues related to Top Friends applications. This investigation examines factors that contribute to the experience of relational problems following the three most common relational transgressions over social networking sites. The findings reveal that self-esteem, relational satisfaction, and publicness of the event, moderated by network esteem, affect the magnitude of the relational problems.
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The current study examined the relationship between general perceived levels of stress, quality of life, social networking usage, and disclosing important life events on Facebook in order to better understand the complex relationship between online disclosure and individual well-being. An online survey was completed by adult Facebook users aged 18–70. Results indicate that the more time spent on and the more social network memberships, the higher stress and lower quality of life; Facebook-specific usage was unrelated to either well-being variable. Together, these findings suggest that the current increase in social media variety and usage may be detrimental to user well-being. Users who shared important, bad health news on Facebook had higher stress and lower quality of life than those who did not, with no significant differences for sharing good health news. The more that users did not share important news on Facebook for self-protection and friend unresponsiveness reasons, the greater their stress. The self-protection reason was also negatively related to quality of life. These inconsistent findings can likely be partially explained by the nature of the information that is shared. These findings are discussed in light of disclosure and relationship patterns on social networks.
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Meaningful social interactions are positively associated with improvements in self-esteem, but this phenomenon has largely been unexplored in digital media despite the prevalence of new, text-based communication (e.g. Facebook, texting, email, etc.). To address this gap in the literature the frequency and quality, or meaningfulness, of communication was measured in mediated and non-mediated channels across a random sample of 3649 social interactions using Experience Sampling Methods. Results revealed that most communication took place face-to-face (62%), with less text-based (about 22%) and cell phone voice (14%) communication. Meaningful face-to-face and text-based communication were associated with changes in self-esteem according to a marginally significant and significant finding, respectively. Text-based communication was more important for self-esteem than face-to-face or phone communication, which is consistent with research on the magnifying effect of text-based communication on interpersonal processes. According to the Internet enhanced self-disclosure hypothesis, the psychological benefits of text-based communication stems from enhanced self-disclosure, which is also supported in the data. Additional work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the positive relationship between meaningful text-based interactions and self-esteem, but findings point to the important role of digital communication for psychological health.
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The present study reveals the results of a content analysis of the descriptive, textual communication, and photo content found in 208 college student Facebook profiles. An a priori coding scheme was developed for this investigation based on (1) news reports and stories on controversies surrounding online social network use, (2) research on social uses of the Internet, and (3) insights from the author, a longtime Facebook user. Results show that all categories of controversial content were more frequent than any of the prosocial content categories, suggesting that there is an overrepresentation of negative content on Facebook, even though many of the specific frequencies are low. In addition, the vast majority of students did not disclose personal contact information on their profiles, and males and females differed in the amount of personal contact information and controversial content disclosed. The study results document the nature of online social network content and point to possible effects of displaying and/or being exposed to controversial content online.
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Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, the study investigated high school students’ affordances for social media, their attitudes and beliefs about these new technologies, and related obstacles and issues. The affordance findings indicate that students depend on social media in their daily lives for leisure and social connections. Educational uses by teachers for classroom teaching and learning are sporadic, while uses by students on their own for learning purposes seem to be abundant but also incidental and informal. Quantitative results suggest that in general, students show positive attitudes and beliefs about social media use in education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three components that explained a total of 65.4% of the variance: (a) benefits of social media use, (b) disadvantages of social media use, and (c) current social media use in education. Three issues emerged from the interview data: Conceptual understanding of social media for learning; close-minded, acquired uses versus open-minded, innate uses of social media; and changed concepts of learning. The study results suggest that for social media to be used as effective learning tools and to adjust students’ prior affordances with these tools, complicated efforts in designing, scaffolding, and interacting with students during the process are necessary.
Article
This study considered being unfriended on Facebook as an expectancy violation that could vary in valence, importance, and expectedness according to a number of relationship and Facebook involvement characteristics. Facebook users who had been unfriended responded to a variety of quantitative scales via an online survey. Being unfriended constituted a moderately expected and negative, and moderately-to-highly important, expectancy violation. Whether ties with the unfriender were close versus weak best predicted valence and importance and the extent to which the unfriended individual used Facebook to connect with existing contacts best explained violation expectedness. Violation importance also predicted whether or not the unfriended individual contacted the former friend about being unfriended. Results supported Expectancy Violation Theory and extended knowledge about Facebook unfriending.
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Recent research demonstrates that it is the quality rather than the frequency of social networking experiences that places individuals at risk for negative mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms that account for this association have yet to be examined. Accordingly, this study examined whether the tendency to negatively compare oneself with others while using Facebook leads to increases in depressive symptoms, and whether this association is mediated by increases in rumination. A sample of 268 college-age young adults completed an initial online survey and a 3-week follow-up. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model, wherein negative social comparison on Facebook was predicted to be associated with increases in rumination, which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with depressive symptoms. The model controlled for general social comparison to test the specific effect of social comparison on Facebook over and above the tendency to engage in social comparison in general. Results indicated that the hypothesized mediation effect was significant. In sum, in the context of social networking, negatively comparing oneself with others may place individuals at risk for rumination and, in turn, depressive symptoms. Findings increase understanding of the mechanisms that link social networking use to negative mental health outcomes and suggest a continued emphasis on examining the specific processes that take place in the context of social networking that may be pathogenic.
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This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. Full text is not available on IEEE Xplore for these articles.
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This study examines the implications of social networking web sites (SNSs) within romantic relationships. Specifically, Knapp’s (1978) stage model of relationships is examined through a new lens wherein the role of SNSs, specifically Facebook, is explored in the escalation stages of romantic relationships (i.e., initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding). Furthermore, this study sought to discern the interpersonal and social implications of publicly declaring oneself as “In a Relationship” with another person on Facebook (i.e., going “Facebook official” or “FBO”). Ten mixed-sex focus groups were conducted. Analysis revealed that Facebook is one of the primary means of uncertainty reduction in the initial stages of relationship formation. College students consider FBO to be indicative of an increased level of commitment in relationships. Typically, relationship exclusivity precedes a discussion on becoming FBO, which occurs when the relationship is considered stable. Going FBO has implications for the public proclamation of one’s relationship status as described in Knapp’s model, and these results differ for men and women. Theoretical implications for the role of SNSs in romantic relationships are discussed.
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This study examines the phenomenon of cyberbullying on Facebook and how it is related to school bullying among secondary school students in Singapore, aged 13–17. We also focus on generic use of Facebook and risky Facebook behaviors as the predictors of cyberbullying and victimization on Facebook. 1676 secondary students, from two secondary schools, participated in a pen and paper survey. The findings show that the intensity of Facebook use and engagement in risky Facebook behaviors were related to Facebook victimization and Facebook bullying, respectively. Moderately strong positive relationships between school bullying and Facebook bullying, as well as between school victimization and Facebook victimization, were also uncovered.
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Why and how people choose to use a particular computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology is a major concern. This study seeks to address the issues by applying the uses and gratifications theory, and attempts to explore the general and specific gratifications sought from the use of three CMC technologies. Three separate empirical surveys were conducted to investigate the gratifications sought from social networking sites, instant messaging, and e-mail. Then factor analysis was undertaken to extract the gratifications sought from each CMC technology. The extracted gratifications sought were then compared among the three technologies for concluding the general and specific gratifications. Four general gratifications were extracted among the three CMC technologies, including relationship maintenance, information seeking, amusement, and style. Two gratifications were specific: the sociability gratification sought from using instant messaging and social networking sites; and the gratification of kill time sought from using instant messaging. Moreover, the important levels of gratifications sought from the three CMC technologies were found to be different. Our findings provide evidence to explain why not all traditional CMC technologies are replaced by innovative and advanced ones. The results of this study may be applied to CMC technology design and provide implications for future research.
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Millions of people use social networking sites (SNSs), but it is unclear how these sites shape personality traits and identity. In Experiment 1, college students were randomly assigned to either edit their MySpace page or complete a control task online (interacting with Google Maps). Those who focused on their MySpace page scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) than a control group. In Experiment 2, those who focused on their Facebook page scored significantly higher in general self-esteem, but not narcissism, than a control group. Thus, spending time on SNSs profiles causes young people to endorse more positive self-views, although the specific form this takes depends on the site. Consistent with previous research, narcissism was associated with a larger number of SNSs “friends” in both experiments.
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Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.
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Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.
Article
The use of social media technologies - such as blogs, wikis, social networking sites, social tagging, and microblogging - is proliferating at an incredible pace. One area of increasing adoption is organizational settings where managers hope that these new technologies will help improve important organizational processes. However, scholarship has largely failed to explain if and how uses of social media in organizations differ from existing forms of computer-mediated communication. In this chapter, we argue that social media are of important consequence to organizational communication processes because they afford behaviors that were difficult or impossible to achieve in combination before these new technologies entered the workplace. Our review of previous studies of social media use in organizations uncovered four relatively consistent affordances enabled by these new technologies: Visibility, persistence, editability, and association. We suggest that the activation of some combination of these affordances could influence many of the processes commonly studied by organizational communication theorists. To illustrate this point, we theorize several ways through which these four social media affordances may alter socialization, information sharing, and power processes in organizations.
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Abstract Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.
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Abstract Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.
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Attribution theory is concerned with the attempts of ordinary people to understand the causes and implications of the events they witness. It deals with the “naive psychology” of the “man in the street” as he interprets his own behaviors and the actions of others. For man—in the perspective of attribution theory—is an intuitive psychologist who seeks to explain behavior and draw inferences about actors and their environments. To better understand the perceptions and actions of this intuitive scientist, his methods must be explored. The sources of oversight, error, or bias in his assumptions and procedures may have serious consequences, both for the lay psychologist himself and for the society that he builds and perpetuates. These shortcomings, explored from the vantage point of contemporary attribution theory, are the focus of the chapter. The logical or rational schemata employed by intuitive psychologists and the sources of bias in their attempts at understanding, predicting, and controlling the events that unfold around them are considered. Attributional biases in the psychology of prediction, perseverance of social inferences and social theories, and the intuitive psychologist's illusions and insights are described.
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Contrasts the naturalistic research paradigm with the scientific model, noting that the naturalistic paradigm assumes multiple reality, subject-object interrelatedness, and contextuality. Skills required for the pursuit of naturalistic inquiry are described. (JEG)
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A framework for analyzing computer-mediated communication is presented, based on Clark's theory of common ground. Four technologies are reviewed: Facebook, Wikipedia, Blacksburg Electronic Village, and World of Warcraft, to assess their “social affordances,” that is, how communication is supported and how the technologies provide facilities to promote social relationships, groups, and communities. The technology affordances are related to motivations for use and socio-psychological theories of group behaviour and social relationships. The review provides new insights into the nature of long-lasting conversations in social relationships, as well as how representations of individuals and social networks augment interaction.
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Abstract Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.
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Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship.
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This article presents a theoretical approach that may be used to understand the way individuals regulate disclosure of private information. The communication boundary management perspective, while more generally applicable, in this presentation focuses on the way marital couples manage talking about private matters with each other. This theoretical perspective presents a boundary coordination process representing couples’management of communication boundaries in balancing a need for difclosure with the need for privacy. The theory identifies the prerequisite conditions for disclosure and the message strategies a disclosing spouse may use to tell private information, as well as the strategic messages the marital partner may use to reply. In addition, a proposal for the way the disclosing spouse and receiving partner manage the coordination of their communication boundaries is presented.
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This study examines if Facebook, one of the most popular social network sites among college students in the U.S., is related to attitudes and behaviors that enhance individuals' social capital. Using data from a random web survey of college students across Texas (n = 2,603), we find positive relationships between intensity of Facebook use and students' life satisfaction, social trust, civic engagement, and political participation. While these findings should ease the concerns of those who fear that Facebook has mostly negative effects on young adults, the positive and significant associations between Facebook variables and social capital were small, suggesting that online social networks are not the most effective solution for youth disengagement from civic duty and democracy.
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Early research on online self-presentation mostly focused on identity constructions in anonymous online environments. Such studies found that individuals tended to engage in role-play games and anti-normative behaviors in the online world. More recent studies have examined identity performance in less anonymous online settings such as Internet dating sites and reported different findings. The present study investigates identity construction on Facebook, a newly emerged nonymous online environment. Based on content analysis of 63 Facebook accounts, we find that the identities produced in this nonymous environment differ from those constructed in the anonymous online environments previously reported. Facebook users predominantly claim their identities implicitly rather than explicitly; they “show rather than tell” and stress group and consumer identities over personally narrated ones. The characteristics of such identities are described and the implications of this finding are discussed.
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Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships.
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This study examines the relationship between use of Facebook, a popular online social network site, and the formation and maintenance of social capital. In addition to assessing bonding and bridging social capital, we explore a dimension of social capital that assesses one's ability to stay connected with members of a previously inhabited community, which we call maintained social capital. Regression analyses conducted on results from a survey of undergraduate students (N=286) suggest a strong association between use of Facebook and the three types of social capital, with the strongest relationship being to bridging social capital. In addition, Facebook usage was found to interact with measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it might provide greater benefits for users experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction.
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On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship satisfaction, trait jealousy, SNS use and need for popularity predicted these emotional consequences of SNS use and tested the moderating role of self-esteem. For low self-esteem individuals, need for popularity predicted jealousy and relationship happiness. For high-self-esteem individuals, SNS use for grooming was the main predictor. Low-self-esteem individuals try to compensate their low self-esteem by creating an idealized picture. Undesirable information threatens this picture, and especially individuals with a high need for popularity react with SNS jealousy.
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Abstract Social network,sites,(SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic,and,industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach.,This special theme section of the,Journal,of Computer-Mediated,Communicationbrings ,together scholarship on these emergent phenomena.,In this introductory article, we describe features of SNSs and propose a comprehensive definition. We then present one perspective on the history of such sites, discussing key changes and developments. After briefly summarizing existing scholarship concerning SNSs, we discuss the articles,in this special section and conclude with considerations for future,research.
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A person exposed to a persuasive communication in the mass media sees this as having a greater effect on others than on himself or herself. Each individual reasons: “I will not be influenced, but they (the third persons) may well be persuaded.” In some cases, a communication leads to action not because of its impact on those to whom it is ostensibly directed, but because others (third persons) think that it will have an impact on its audience. Four small experiments that tend to support this hypothesis are presented, and its complementary relationship to a number of concepts in the social sciences is noted. The third-person effect may help to explain various aspects of social behavior, including the fear of heretical propaganda by religious leaders and the fear of dissent by political rulers. It appears to be related to the phenomenon of censorship in general: the censor never admits to being influenced; it is others with “more impressionable minds” who will be affected.
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Facebook, as one of the most popular social networking sites among college students, provides a platform for people to manage others' impressions of them. People tend to present themselves in a favorable way on their Facebook profile. This research examines the impact of using Facebook on people's perceptions of others' lives. It is argued that those with deeper involvement with Facebook will have different perceptions of others than those less involved due to two reasons. First, Facebook users tend to base judgment on examples easily recalled (the availability heuristic). Second, Facebook users tend to attribute the positive content presented on Facebook to others' personality, rather than situational factors (correspondence bias), especially for those they do not know personally. Questionnaires, including items measuring years of using Facebook, time spent on Facebook each week, number of people listed as their Facebook "friends," and perceptions about others' lives, were completed by 425 undergraduate students taking classes across various academic disciplines at a state university in Utah. Surveys were collected during regular class period, except for two online classes where surveys were submitted online. The multivariate analysis indicated that those who have used Facebook longer agreed more that others were happier, and agreed less that life is fair, and those spending more time on Facebook each week agreed more that others were happier and had better lives. Furthermore, those that included more people whom they did not personally know as their Facebook "friends" agreed more that others had better lives.
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Obra que estudia cómo las nuevas tecnologías de comunicación y las redes sociales que a través de ellas se han generado dan soporte a una nueva forma de establecer relaciones entre las personas y, por lo tanto, de nuevas formas de soledad.