Article

The dark side of social networking sites: An exploration of the relational and psychological stressors associated with Facebook use and affordances

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... FOMO" (Fear of Missing Out) is defined as "fear of missing out on an interesting or exciting event happening elsewhere" (Oxford, 2013). It is an emotional state associated with the fear of missing out on an important and exciting experience or opportunity (Fox, 2015;Öztürk & Uluşahin, 2015;Przybylskiet et al., 2013). Dan Herman first described FOMO in a 2005 article entitled "FOMO is the discomfort of our cultural movement." ...
... FOMO raises concerns among researchers as it can damage individuals' health. Previous researchers stated that FOMO is associated with media-related mechanisms such as multi-tasking (Reinecke et al., 2014), information noise, smog and pressure (Barber & Santuzzi, 2017), mental health problems (Wiederhold, 2017), and changes in behavior caused by social media platforms (Fox & Moreland, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the relationship between university students' perceptions of 'fear of missing out (FOMO) and their spiritual well-being. It tries to determine whether students' perceptions of FOMO and spiritual well-being differ by demographic indicators as a form of relational research employing a cross-sectional survey model. Surveys were conducted with 414 university students in Malaysia and Turkey. The FOMO Scale and Spiritual Well-being Scale were deployed for data collection. This article determined that students' perceptions of FOMO were higher than their spiritual well-being level and the perception of FOMO significantly and moderately affects perceptions of spiritual well-being. Students' FOMO significantly predicted their spiritual well-being levels. This shows that bad habits negatively affect human psychology, but this effect cannot be handled independently of people's characteristics. Keywords: Fear of missing out, lack of sense of belonging, Spiritual well-being, Social behavior, Social media forms
... Nevertheless, they are still susceptible to threats from information individually disclosed by other individuals. SNS users often avoid coordinating boundaries with others (e.g., friends) to avoid conflicts (Fox & Moreland, 2015). Because users exercise various levels of norms, it is somewhat challenging to develop regulated norms and values for sharing appropriate content (Koohikamali et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Users share content on Social Networking Sites (SNS) on a daily basis and for various purposes. While users intend to demonstrate their personal experiences of events in their lives, they often discuss and expose the presence of others in those activities or take group photos from the events. In this research, we aim to discover the reflective and impulsive paths people might take while making decisions to post or share contents that includes others on SNS. Drawing from Dual Process Theory, our research model investigates the effect of a sense of belonging, incentive seeking, and immediate gratification as impulsive factors, collective privacy norms, trust in the platform, and co-ownership perception as reflective factors on the intention to share group content on SNS. To test and validate the research model, we aim to adopt a mixed-method approach to test for the proposed research model and hypotheses.
... Increased interactions can signal public interest in or support for a particular message, and interactions can serve as an indicator for popularity (Fox & Moreland, 2015). Publicly available data were collected from more than 300,000 accounts on Instagram by using NewsWhip (www.newswhip.com), ...
Article
Full-text available
This research explores representation of the massive but peaceful demonstrations for women’s rights in 2017 on Instagram. Employing the framework provided by the protest paradigm in a content analysis of Instagram posts, results indicate coverage was most often framed with positive emotional behaviors and movement demands and agendas, by mainstream media producers, influencers, and other news curators on the site. Findings indicate media account
... Bireylerin kendi sanal gerçekliklerini yaratıp yaşadıkları ve biraz da zorlayıcı platformlar olan sosyal ağ siteleri, internetin ve bilişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelerin de etkisiyle, insanları kolayca bu sanal dünyanın bağımlısı haline getirmektedir. İnsanların sosyal medya platformlarına erişiminin kolaylaşmasıyla bu platformlara sık sık girmek için üzerlerinde baskı hissetmelerine kadar varan bir bağımlılığa vardığı görülmeye başlanmıştır (Fox & Moreland, 2015). Günümüz özellikle genç bireyleri, zamanlarının büyük bir kısmını bu sosyal ağlarda bilgi paylaşmakla, arkadaşlarının ve kendilerinin durumlarını güncellemekle ve gündemi izlemekle geçirebilmektedirler. Sosyal medya ortamlarında süreklilik arz eden bu izleme ve güncelleme davranışları Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) olarak nitelendirilen yeni bir olgunun doğmasına neden olmuştur (İnce & Kadıoğlu, 2020: 49). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Fear of Missing Out (Kaçırma Korkusu)
... Social media usage is found to be addictive (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Kross et al., 2013), and yet very prevalent. This study endeavored to identify the various consequences of image-based and image-and-textbased SNS usage. ...
Chapter
Online social presence has become a necessity for social interaction. Resulting lack of face-to-face communication has diminished self-consciousness and enhanced online friendship behavior. Attractive features of social media platforms fascinate users resulting in active participation. Availability of high-speed internet connectivity has further boosted online social interaction opportunities for Indian adolescents. In the backdrop of such paradigm shifts in Indian adolescents’ social interaction behavior, the current research explores the relationship between usage of social network sites (SNSs), feeling of happiness and loneliness, and users’ life satisfaction. The sample comprises of adolescent SNS users. Considering image-based and image- and text-based SNS users, the study offers the following insights: (1) SNS usage is positively related to happiness but negatively related to loneliness; (2) increasing happiness contributes towards enhanced life satisfaction; and (3) decreasing loneliness boosts life satisfaction.
... Social media usage is found to be addictive (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Kross et al., 2013), and yet very prevalent. This study endeavored to identify the various consequences of image-based and image-and-textbased SNS usage. ...
Chapter
Companies utilized manufacturing prowess, scale, innovation, R&D and partnerships to defend their unique selling proposition. Earlier, competitive advantage once created lasted longer. However, in the present days context companies are finding it difficult to defend a position for long because of aggressive competition from players who are often able to match the features or benefits of the product or services. Global nature of competition, access to financial capital and human resources from other countries have also ensured that differentiations are imitated quickly and don’t last long. Nevertheless, few companies like Intel, Marriott International and Disney have used marketing capabilities to sustain competitive advantage over decades and continue to be category leaders in their respective industry sector. This paper presents insights from the successful marketing strategies adopted by Intel, Marriott and Disney that will inspire practitioners across industry sectors to consider marketing as a tool to build sustainable competitive advantage for their companies.
... Social media comprises a series of software-based technologies with the help of which the users can send and receive digital messages over the social network. Social media provides the facility for forming networks (Ongsakul et al., 2021;Fox and Moreland, 2015). Social media has completely changed sharing and consumption of information (Baccarella et al., 2018;Bires and Raj, 2021). ...
Article
Purpose “Fake news” or misinformation sharing using social media sites into public discourse or politics has increased dramatically, over the last few years, especially in the current COVID-19 pandemic causing concern. However, this phenomenon is inadequately researched. This study examines fake news sharing with the lens of stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory, uses and gratification theory (UGT) and big five personality traits (BFPT) theory to understand the motivations for sharing fake news and the personality traits that do so. The stimuli in the model comprise gratifications (pass time, entertainment, socialization, information sharing and information seeking) and personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness and neuroticism). The feeling of authenticating or instantly sharing news is the organism leading to sharing fake news, which forms the response in the study. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual model was tested by the data collected from a sample of 221 social media users in India. The data were analyzed with partial least squares structural equation modeling to determine the effects of UGT and personality traits on fake news sharing. The moderating role of the platform WhatsApp or Facebook was studied. Findings The results suggest that pass time, information sharing and socialization gratifications lead to instant sharing news on social media platforms. Individuals who exhibit extraversion, neuroticism and openness share news on social media platforms instantly. In contrast, agreeableness and conscientiousness personality traits lead to authentication news before sharing on the social media platform. Originality/value This study contributes to social media literature by identifying the user gratifications and personality traits that lead to sharing fake news on social media platforms. Furthermore, the study also sheds light on the moderating influence of the choice of the social media platform for fake news sharing.
... 'Social media fatigue' or stress-feelings of tiredness and being overwhelmed by social media's pull-has been well-documented by researchers over the past couple of years (Bright et al., 2015;Maier et al., 2015;Beyens et al., 2016;Dhir et al., 2018Dhir et al., , 2019. Fox and Moreland (2015) for instance found that adults in their study reported feeling stressed as a result of Facebook use due to a lack of privacy, having to manage content they did not wish to see and its potential for relational tension and conflicts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Literature concerning the relationship between social media use and wellbeing is inconsistent in its findings, and most research has focused on time spent on social media rather than on what emerging adults do there, with whom and why. Here, we investigated whether momentary social stress affects emerging adults’ social media use, and whether this social media use relates to subsequent changes in wellbeing. We implemented a multi-method paradigm utilising objective and self-report data to investigate how social stress relates to how (much) and why emerging adults use social media. We report on findings based on 114 17–25-year-old emerging adults recruited on university campus. Our findings suggest that social stress does not affect adolescents’ subsequent social media use and that there is no relationship between social media use after stress and changes in momentary wellbeing. Our work illustrates the need for detailed approaches in social media and psychological wellbeing research.
... The research has shown that the prevalence of Problematic SNSs and Internet Use among the young population in Cyprus are a cause for concern and that this fact poses a real problem for public health. Beyond the positive aspects, there is a "dark" side associated with SNS and the Internet (Fox et al., 2015) especially with their components (Shelton, 2013). It is absolutely imperative that both the public and the state recognize the problem. ...
Research
Full-text available
This quantitative study has investigated the engagement of young people (N=1059) in Cyprus with Social Networking Sites and the Internet. The sample consisted of high school students (N=465) and university students (N=594), both female (N=622) and male (N=437), in four schools and five universities (Higher Educational Institutions). The aim was to review, on the one hand, the level of potential addiction among youth in Cyprus to Social Networking Sites and, on the other hand, to assess the risk for generalized problematic Internet use; then make the findings available to stakeholders, society and the government in order to discuss and eventually shape a more comprehensive approach with regards to research, prevention, awareness and treatment of problematic use of the Social Media and the Internet. Acknowledgements The researchers are particularly grateful to the Cyprus National Addictions Authority, the Youth Board of Cyprus and the Hellenic Bank for their full support and funding of this project. We are especially thankful for this collaboration and for our shared aspiration to add greater quality to life, particularly among young people in need. The following text expresses the opinions of the researchers.
... Social media, particularly among the young, enables convenient and rapid access to real-time activities such as diverse events, image sharing, and conversing. Youth spend most of their time on social media, where they keep their contacts and status updated (Fox & Moreland, 2015). The growth in popularity of social media and our growing reliance on the virtual structure of these social networks has resulted in an increase in the number of people whose lives have been badly impacted by their Individuals who dread being disconnected from social media report feeling lonely when they are unable to use social media (Dossey, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Human existence and behavior are continually changing, resulting in various difficulties. Addiction is one of these issues. The association between social anxiety, happiness, loneliness, and social media addiction is examined in this study among 438 Filipino college students. The Social Media Addiction Scale, a Social Anxiety Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire were used to collect data. The findings indicated a correlation between students' degrees of social media addiction and their social anxiety and loneliness levels. On the other side, there was a negative correlation between students' degrees of social media addiction and their level of happiness.
... Several studies have demonstrated the merits of using SNS in social relationships [30,31], leading to good health. Conversely, other studies have indicated that SNS induced stressful experiences, with users showing poor well-being [32,33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to identify the independent influence of face-to-face contact (FFC) and non-face-to-face contact (NFFC) on the subsequent decline in self-rated health and mental health status by age. A total of 12,000 participants were randomly selected among residents in the study area, and 1751 of them responded to both the 2016 and 2018 mail surveys. The participants were subsequently classified into three age groups (25–49: Young adults; 50–64: Mid-aged adults; and 65–84: Older adults). Social contact was assessed by computing the frequencies of FFC and NFFC. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the risk of social contact on the decline in self-rated health and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Both FFC and NFFC were significantly associated with maintaining mental health; however, the impacts of FFC on mental health were more significant than that of NFFC among older adults and young adults. Compared with the no contact group, FFC was significantly associated with maintaining self-rated health in mid-aged adults. The influence of FFC and NFFC on health differed by age group.
... Upward social comparisons are directed at other individuals performing better; downward social comparisons are directed at individuals performing less well (Bogart & Helgeson, 2000;Helgeson & Mickelson, 1995;Taylor & Lobel, 1989). During the comparison process, people may focus on differences or similarities with targets: Focusing on differences leads to upward or downward contrast (Blanton, 2001; whereas focusing on similarities leads to upward or downward identification (Buunk et al., 2001;Fox & Moreland, 2015). Thus, the four types of comparisons are upward contrast, downward contrast, upward identification, and downward identification. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the theory of social comparison and intergenerational learning, parents’ social comparison, occurring frequently in families during the process of education, may play a critical role in determining their children’s academic adjustment. Few researchers have explored this issue, let alone the multiple types of parent social comparison and their interactive effects. The aim of this research was to identify profiles of parent social comparisons and their links with child social comparisons, academic self-efficacy, and academic self-handicapping, thus addressing the gap and presenting a simplified comprehensive picture of the collaborative effects of parents’ social comparison from a person-centered perspective. A total of 368 adolescents were surveyed. Latent profile analysis identified four distinct profiles in terms of perceived parent social comparisons: indifferent (low all), overwhelmed (high all), positive (high upward identification and downward contrast), and negative (high upward contrast and downward identification). A Bolck–Croon–Hagenaars analysis revealed that adolescents whose parents’ social comparison patterns were perceived as positive reported higher self-efficacy and less self-handicapping, whereas those whose perceptions of parent social comparison patterns were classified as negative reported the reverse. Moreover, adolescents tended to exhibit social comparison types similar to those of their parents. Findings serve as a reminder for parents and educators of the downsides and benefits of various types of social comparison and provide insight into how social comparison transmits via social interaction from an intergenerational perspective.
... This perspective also apprehends better the opportunities and challenges associated with the engagement with social media as called for by, for example, Fox and Moreland (2015). This study adds to scholarship by elaborating upon how people deal with these opportunities and challenges as called for by Maier et al. (2015a). ...
Article
Practice and Policy Oriented Abstract This article views social media for work not only as technologies that enable people to do certain things, but also as contexts with emerging norms and roles in which people participated. As they do so, people are confronted with opportunities and challenges that are inherent to social media polycontextuality, that is, with multiple social media–based contexts of relevance to work. This study offers guidance for people on how their participation in multiple social media contexts affects their work positively and negatively and how they can manage the associated opportunities and challenges. It also reveals how people’s engagement with social media polycontextuality may change as their employment status and work experiences evolve. Moreover, this study holds managerial implications by bringing awareness to how employees’ participation in social media contexts bypasses the organization and, thus, their typical purview but is still associated with work rather than leisure. Managers can understand better their employees’ situations and examine how social media contexts affect them within and beyond organizational boundaries and shape what they can or cannot do in their work. A better understanding of social media polycontextuality also brings managers new insights to communicate with employees.
... Sosyal medyanın hızla yaygınlaşması ile yeni bir olgu olarak ortaya çıkan FoMO, bireyin çevresindeki gelişmelere katılamama ve onlardan eksik kalma endişesini ifade etmektedir (Casale ve Gordon, 2020). FoMO, psikoloji başta olmak üzere (Fox ve Moreland, 2015), iletişim (Conlin ve ark., 2016), pazarlama (Kang ve ark., 2019), spor (Larkin ve Fink, 2016), eğitim (Alt, 2015) gibi alanlarda araştırılan bir olgu haline gelmiştir. Google Akademik veri tabanında 17 Şubat 2022 tarihi itibariyle yapılan taramaya göre, sadece 2021 yılında dahi yaklaşık 2.500 çalışmanın FoMO üzerine yapıldığı görülmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu (FoMO) kavramının ortaya çıkması ile bu konudaki akademik yayın sayısı önemli ölçüde artmaya devam etmektedir. Bireyler FoMO duygusunu genellikle sosyal medya bağlamında yaşıyor olsa da FoMO’yu değerlendirmek için kullanılan ölçeklerin sosyal medya bağlamını doğrudan odağa almadığı görülmektedir. Ayrıca Türkçeye uyarlanmış FoMO ölçeklerinin psikometrik özelliklerinin yeterince sınanmadığı söylenebilir. Bundan dolayı, psikometrik özellikleri açısından güçlü ve sosyal medya bağlamında olan bir FoMO ölçeğinin Türkçe alanyazına kazandırılması bu eksiliği giderebilir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, uluslararası alanyazında geliştirilen Güncel Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu (FoMO) ölçeğini (Zhang ve ark., 2020) sosyal medya bağlamında Türkçeye uyarlamaktır. Bu amacı gerçekleştirmek için Türkiye genelinde 18 yaş üstü sosyal medya kullanan kişilerden oluşan iki ayrı örneklemden çevrimiçi anket yöntemiyle veri toplanmıştır. Birinci örneklemden (N = 251), elde edilen verilerile FoMO ölçeğinin açımlayıcı faktör analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu analiz sonucunda, ölçeğin orijinalindeki gibi kişisel FoMO ve sosyal FoMO olmak üzere iki faktörlü bir yapı gösterdiği bulunmuştur. Bunun yanında, ikinci örneklem (N = 353) ile doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. Bu analiz sonucuna göre, ölçeğin yer aldığı modelin uyum indeksi değerlerinin yeterli seviyede olduğu ve bu şekliyle ölçeğin ve iki faktörlü yapısının doğrulandığı görülmüştür. Ayrıca ölçeğin birleşim ve ayrışım geçerliğine sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Öte yandan, FoMO’nun üst yapı olduğu ikinci düzey DFA sonucunda da modelin uyum indeksi değerlerinin yeterli seviyede olduğu görülmüştür. Bunun yanı sıra, FoMO’nun öncül değişken rolünü test etmek için gerçekleştirilen yol analizine göre, FoMO akıllı telefon bağımlığı, günlük ortalama sosyal medya kullanım süresi ve günlük ortalama sosyal medya kontrol etme sıklığını pozitif olarak yordamaktadır. Öte yandan, her iki örneklemden toplanan verilerle yapılan analizler sonucunda içsel tutarlılık ve birleşik güvenirlik açısından ölçümün güvenilir ve madde analizleri neticesinde ölçekte yer alan tüm maddelerin ayırt edici olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışma sosyal medya bağlamında FoMO’yu incelemede geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olarak ilgili ölçeğin kullanılabileceğine yönelik anlamlı katkılar sunmaktadır.
... James et al., 2017;Reinecke et al., 2017;Alt, 2017;Sanalan et al., 2017;Tomczyk & Selmanagic-Lizde, 2018;Yin, Liu & Lin, 2015;Bankoglu & Cerkez, 2019;Pivetta et al., 2019). Szczególnym zainteresowaniem badaczy cieszą się wspomniane negatywne skutki użytkowania mediów społecznościowych, głównie: stres, obniżona samoocena (Beyens, Frison & Eggermont, 2016;Fox & Moreland, 2015;Reinecke et al., 2017), nieustanna potrzeba poszukiwania nowych wpisów czy nieumiejętność rezygnacji z posiadania profilu, ciągłego jego sprawdzania i odświeżania informacji (np. James et al., 2017;Auverset, Billings & Conlin, 2016;Elhai et al., 2016), phubbing, czyli zwyczaj lekceważenia rozmówcy na rzecz poświęcenia uwagi swojemu smartfonowi (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2016;Davey et al., 2018;Franchina et al., 2018;Gil et al., 2015) i zaburzenia komunikacji interpersonalnej (Barber & Santuzzi, 2017). ...
... Elgan (34) also stated that social network addiction became a serious problem. When interacting excessively on social networks, users may experience depression and anxiety (35), because constant social comparisons and invasion of privacy leaded to negative emotions (36). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effect of using the Internet on depression symptoms of older Chinese, based on 7,801 adults aged over 60 years from the 2018 China Family Panel Studies. Results showed that the elderly who used the Internet reported lower depression scores, and the more frequent they use Internet, the lower their depression scores. Moreover, using the Internet for social contact and entertainment decreased the depression scores of the older adults, but when using Internet for learn, work, and commercial activity, the relief of depressive symptoms disappeared. Therelief of depression symptoms through Internet use were heterogeneous among different groups: the elderly aged 60–70, women, rural residents, and those with lower education attainment. Moreover, Internet use decreased the depression scores by increasing the frequency of contact with their children and increasing the importance of their enjoyment of life. According to the relief of depression by using Internet reasonably, policies should be designed to ensure that all ages could have easy access to the Internet.
... Teknolojinin hızlı gelişimiyle birlikte insanların kullandıkları iletişim yöntemleri de büyük bir değişim göstermiştir. Günümüzde en çok kullanılan iletişim yöntemlerinden biri de sosyal medyadır [1]. İnsanlar sosyal medyayı; takip ettiği insanların hayatından haberdar olmak, seslerini geniş kitlelere duyurabilmek, aile ve arkadaşlarıyla iletişimlerini sürekli kılabilmek ve kendilerini ifade etmek için kullanırlar. ...
Article
Full-text available
Giriş ve Amaç: Sosyal medya, bireylere sağladığı kolaylıkların yanı sıra ‘Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu’ gibi ciddi bir sorunu da beraberinde getirmiştir. Teknoloji çağının yaşanılan ciddi bir Halk Sağlığı konusu olan sosyal ortamlarda gelişmeleri takip etmek ve bu gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu tıp öğrencileri için de oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı dönem 3 öğrencilerinde “Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu” ve ilgili faktörleri belirlemektir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışma kesitsel nitelikte olup Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi (AUTF) 3. Sınıf öğrencilerinde Mart 2020 tarihinde gerçekleştirilmiş, 405 öğrenciden ulaşılan ve verileri tam olan 336 öğrenci ile tamamlanmıştır. Veriler 21 sorudan oluşan anket formu ve Przybylski tarafından geliştirilmiş (2013); Türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği yapılmış olan “Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu Ölçeği” (GKKÖ) uygulanarak toplanmıştır. Analizlerde tanımlayıcı istatistikler yanısıra Pearson ki-kare, t-testi, tek yönlü Anova, Pearson korelasyonu kullanılmıştır. AÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dekanlığı ve Öğrenci Araştırmaları Etik Kurulu izni ve öğrencilerin yazılı onamlarıyla çalışma uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Öğrencilerin ortalama yaşı 20.9±1.5 yıl ve %52.4’ü kadındır. Gün içinde internette geçirilen süre ortalama 4.0±1.9 saattir ve derste telefonlarını kontrol etme sayısı ortalama 10.8±13.8, en çok kullandıkları üç sosyal medya WhatsApp (%82.7), Youtube (%79.5) ve İnstagram (%53.9)’dır. Öğrencilerin GKKÖ puan ortalamaları 24.0±6.6’dır. Ölçek puanı ile cinsiyet, uyruk, ebeveynlerinin öğrenim düzeyi ve gelir durumu arasında bir ilişki yokken, yaşamından memnun olanlarda ölçek puanları düşüktür. WhatsApp, Youtube, İnstagram, Twitter ve Snapchat uygulamalarını kullananlarda ve bildirim geldiğinde hemen bakanlarda GKKÖ puanları anlamlı olarak yüksek bulunmuştur. Sonuç: Öğrenciler günde ortalama 4 saati internette geçirmekte, derslerde sıklıkla telefonlarını kontrol etmekte olup GKK; yaşamından memnun olanlarda düşük, çeşitli sosyal medya araçlarını kullananlarda, bildirimlerine fazla bakanlarda yüksek bulunmuştur. Eğitim programları içerisinde sosyal medya bağımlılığı hakkında farkındalık sağlanmalı, yaşam memnuniyetlerini arttırıcı sosyal destek verilmelidir.
... Affordances have also been linked with addiction in on-line gaming (Lee, Cheung, & Chan, 2021) and social media addiction (Dwyer & Fraser, 2016). Next, affordances have also been associated with more negative aspects of persuasive technologies, such as addictive behaviour and other psychological stressors (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Hamari, Koivisto, & Pakkanen, 2014). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Data sharing and data harvesting practices not only infringe the privacy rights of individuals but cause significant harms to others as well. Emissions of personally sensitive behavioural data are leaked into the digital economy causing damage to social practices and destabilizing political and informational ecosystems. Data pollution is like industrial pollution, and environmental law suggestions can offer solutions to the problem. Will a Pigouvian tax on data extraction limit or constrain the negative externalities of data pollution? This explorative research aims to investigate whether a data pollution tax can operate as a regulatory instrument to curb data pollution and whether citizens support this measure. Do citizens support a data pollution tax designed so that harms to others, affecting their core human capabilities, will be taxed as a matter of principle? Suppose excessive (corporate) data sharing and extraction practices that cause harm to others will be taxed. Do individuals expect that persons and corporations will change their data transmission practices? Our survey findings show that (United States) citizens consider that harms caused by data pollution should be taxed. Respondents will also substantially decrease their data pollution behaviour once a tax is imposed. However, and to our surprise, our research findings also lay bare a possible ‘bad behaviour paradox’: the more significant the harm caused by some instances of data pollution, the less willing people are to change behaviour relative to the tax imposed.
... In addition, the spread of smartphones promotes the growth in SNS use and addiction, whose detrimental outcomes attract growing scholarly attention . For instance, Facebook is one of the most popular SNS and has thus been the subject of much research; some researchers have empirically identified the adverse consequences of Facebook addiction, such as decreasing life satisfaction (Błachnio et al., 2016) and increasing anxiety (Fox and Moreland, 2015). WeChat is the most popular SNS in China, whose global monthly active users has been increasing steadily to over 1.26 billion in the third quarter of 2021 (Statista, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The adverse effects of life stress on social networking sites addiction are increasingly recognized, but so far there is little evidence on how and which specific types of life stress are conducive to the addictive behavior. Interpersonal relationship stress being the main source of stress for undergraduates, the purpose of the current paper is thus to delve into whether perceived stress in interpersonal relationships significantly leads to WeChat addiction and, if so, how this type of stress drives the excessive use of WeChat. The data was collected from self-report questionnaires completed by 463 Chinese undergraduate students and then analyzed with structural equation modeling. The results revealed that the positive association between WeChat users’ interpersonal relationship stress and addictive behavior is fully and sequentially mediated by WeChat use intensity and social interaction. More specifically, accumulation of stress in interpersonal relationships gives rise to the intensity of WeChat use, which in turn fuels rising addiction to WeChat both directly and indirectly via social interaction on WeChat. These findings contribute to a more refined understanding of the pathological use of WeChat.
... FoMO has been defined as "a pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" [5]. In modern society, young people spend a lot of time posting things on social media, following current trends with their friends, and constantly updating their status [6,7]. It has been reported that increased use of social media can lead to anxiety among some users with regards to missing out on new experiences and opportunities [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background In online environments, fear of missing out (FoMO) is where individuals become constantly preoccupied with what others are doing online and feel unable to log off in case they miss something. FoMO is a concept associated with the use of online social media (OSM; e.g., Facebook use, Instagram use) and various scales have been developed to assess the concept. One such scale is the Online Fear of Missing Out (On-FoMO) Inventory. The present study translated the On-FoMO Inventory into Turkish and its main aim was to test the validity and reliability of the scale. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationships between FoMO, social media addiction, smartphone addiction, and life satisfaction. Methods A total of 419 participants (289 females and 130 males, mean age = 25.43 years, SD = 6.37) completed a self-report questionnaire including the On-FoMO Inventory, Fear of Missing Out Scale, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. In the adaptation process of the On-FoMO Inventory, confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent validity, and reliability analyses were performed. Results The four-factor structure of the On-FoMO Inventory was confirmed and the Turkish version of the scale demonstrated good reliability. Online FoMO was positively related to social media addiction and smartphone addiction, and negatively related to life satisfaction. Conclusion The results showed that the Turkish version of the On-FoMO Inventory has strong psychometric properties.
... Specifically, social media is mostly asynchronous (i.e., there is time lapse due to the time taken to construct messages, though videoconferencing is an exception), permanent (i.e., texts and other content is stored or can be recorded), public (i.e., usually accessible by large audiences), almost universally available (i.e., can be shared regardless of physical location), lacks certain cues (i.e., physical cues such as gesture may be absent), quantifiable (i.e., use of social metrics, such as likes), and visual (i.e., use of photographs and videos). According to proponents of the transformation framework, these aspects of social media communication can have an impact in five key ways: changing the frequency and/or immediacy of experiences (e.g., frequency may be higher, leading to increased friendship quality and well-being; e.g., Burke & Kraut, 2016); amplifying experiences and demands (e.g., being available all the time elicits feelings of pressure or guilt to be available online and to respond to communication; Fox & Moreland, 2015); altering the qualitative nature of interactions (e.g., misinterpretation of information in online conversations leading to higher levels of social anxiety; Kingsbury & Coplan, 2016); facilitating new opportunities for compensatory behaviours (e.g., higher self-esteem in shy or introverted adolescents interacting with exclusively online friends; van Zalk et al., 2014), and; creating entirely novel behaviours (e. g., adolescents adjusting their offline behaviours to avoid a negative self-image presentation to their online audience through statements, pictures, or videos; Marder et al., 2016). ...
... Les études traitant des relations amoureuses chez les jeunes adultes ont également mis en évidence que : les jeunes adultes peuvent surveiller les activités en ligne de leur partenaire en lien avec l'augmentation du sentiment de jalousie (Muise et al., 2009) ; l'utilisation active d'un réseau social (Twitter) peut conduire à l'infidélité, à la rupture ou au divorce (Clayton, 2014) ; ou encore que les jeunes peuvent se sentir poussés à utiliser un réseau social (Facebook) pour maintenir/entretenir des relations (Fox & Moreland, 2015). D'un point de vue moins négatif, d'autres résultats ont indiqué d'une part, qu'ils utilisent les réseaux sociaux pour établir des liens positifs avec leur partenaire, ce qui peut accroître la satisfaction dans la relation (Papp et al., 2012) et d'autre part, que les mises à jour des publications, les mises à jour de photos avec leur partenaire ainsi que l'officialisation en ligne de la relation permet d'améliorer la qualité de la relation (Steers et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
De nos jours, les configurations socio-technologiques modernes conduisent les communautés scientifiques, médicales et éducatives à de nombreux débats concernant les usages numériques des jeunes. Les périodes d’adolescence et d’émergence de l’âge adulte correspondent toutes deux à une phase d’exploration identitaire, qui consiste à tester des rôles dans différents contextes et à les intégrer dans une identité personnelle cohérente. Des recherches traitant du bien-être des jeunes au travers de leurs usages numériques suggèrent qu’une utilisation forte peut mener les jeunes à des issues défavorables sur le plan socio-émotionnel tandis que d’autres indiquent que ces espaces peuvent permettre de développer des compétences psychosociales, de se sentir soutenus émotionnellement. Ce travail de recherche vise à proposer un cadre conceptuel et méthodologique qui permet d’étudier les relations entre les expériences en ligne des jeunes et leur développement psychosocial au travers de la construction de leur identité et de leur niveau d’ajustement psychologique, tout en prenant en compte les caractéristiques spécifiques des jeunes (ie., période d’âge et sexe). Notre population se compose d’adolescents scolarisés en lycée et de jeunes adultes étudiants de l’enseignement supérieur. Ce travail de recherche comportait 3 temps de mesure : un premier temps en Décembre 2018 (N=1970), un second temps en Mars 2019 (N=970), et un troisième temps en Mai/Juin 2019 (N=819). Les participants ont répondu à un ensemble de questionnaires évaluant les usages numériques, les processus de la construction identitaire et les indices d’ajustement psychologique. Les données ont été traitées selon une double approche, à la fois centrée sur les personnes et centrée sur les variables. En complément, des entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés quatre mois après le recueil de données quantitatives. Nos résultats soulignent une grande diversité chez les jeunes et ont permis d’identifier des profils contrastés : 6 profils d’usages numériques et 7 statuts identitaires. Des analyses en tri-croisés indiquent des liens cohérents et stables entre les profils d’usages numériques et les statuts identitaires. Concernant l’ajustement psychologique, nos résultats indiquent que les profils d’usages numériques caractérisés par une présentation de soi authentique en ligne, et les statuts identitaires caractérisés par des engagements forts, présentent les meilleurs niveaux d’ajustement psychologique. A l’inverse, les profils d’usages numériques caractérisés par une présentation de soi en ligne falsifiée, et les statuts identitaires associés à de faibles engagements s’accompagnent des niveaux d’ajustement psychologique les plus faibles. L’étude des liens croisés-décalés entre le processus identitaire mal-adaptatif d’exploration ruminative et les variables d’usages numériques, en considérant les variabilités intra et inter-individuelles au fil du temps (ie., RI-CLPM), révèle de nombreuses associations spécifiques selon la période d’âge et le sexe des jeunes. Les entretiens semi-directifs ont permis de préciser le vécu psychologique d’une adolescente et d’une jeune adulte, et soulignent quelques différences d’usages liées à leurs motivations et à leurs niveaux de développement. Ces résultats permettent de compléter la littérature et de développer un nouveau regard sur les usages numériques des jeunes français. Des usages numériques semblent être problématiques pour le développement psychosocial de certains jeunes, tandis que pour d’autres, ils peuvent être plus favorables en termes de construction de l’identité et d’ajustement psychologique. Cette étude souligne l’importance de caractériser les usages numériques en prenant en compte la période d’âge et le sexe des jeunes de façon à apprécier leur incidence sur le développement psychosocial. Enfin, cette étude conduit à dégager des perspectives de recherche et des recommandations appliquées en matière d’éducation et de santé.
... Considering that social media offers a lot of information, students stated in an interview that they often compare themselves to others on social media (Fox & Moreland, 2015). It has been found that women are more likely than men to use social media to compare themselves with others (Haferkamp et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of social media by adolescents, who spend about 3 hours a day on social media, is dominated by visual communication. Nowadays, appearance ideals are presented through social media platforms. Exposure to these popular ideals of appearance could cause appearance-based anxiety and adolescents to develop binge-eating behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine social appearance anxiety, social media addictions, and emotional eating behaviors of adolescents. 1363 adolescents, living in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey, were included in the study. Data were collected with a Questionnaire form, the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS), and Emotional Eating Scale (EES-C). 24.4% of adolescents are social media addicts. No relationship was found between adolescents’ social appearance anxiety, social media addictions, and emotional eating behaviors. However, social appearance anxiety and social media addictions of girls, those who perceive their family income as low and who think that they are influenced by social media influencers have higher anxiety. The value of this study is that it shows that gender, low income perception, time spent on social media, being influenced by influencers, following influencers who share diet and nutrition content, and social media addiction are associated with social appearance anxiety. As a result, it is thought that social media addiction and being affected by social media influencers increase social appearance anxiety in adolescents and pose a risk in terms of adolescents’ mental health.
... For instance, Karim et al. (2020) argue that adolescents use social media due to the fear of missing out. However, Fox and Moreland (2015) state that more time spent on social media may in fact cause individuals to feel more fear and anxiety because individuals are exposed to the experiences their friends are having without them. This statement explains that there is a cycle where individuals use social media with the purpose of feeling positive outcomes but end up feeling negative ones instead. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media is a constantly growing part of adolescents' lives and is becoming more widely used as technological advancement has grown over the years. It has been shown to be driven by positive and negative gratifying experiences. However, a clear understanding regarding the effects social media has on adolescents' mental health, as well as the reasons social media is so widely used is still uncertain. This study explored the social media usage amongst Malaysian adolescents in terms of the factors affecting social media usage and the effects it has on their mental health. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to gather data, by interviewing 10 Malaysian adolescents from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Data analysis was conducted by analysing common themes and coding the data accordingly. The results showed that Malaysian adolescents use social media for both positive and negative purposes. Positive purposes included to seek information, to communicate with others, as well as decrease negative mood and boredom. Negative purposes included to seek online validation, due to the fear of missing out, addiction, and the anticipation of positive effects in the future. This is of concern as these purposes caused some to experience more negative than positive effects on their mental health, such as an increase in negative mood and a decrease in self-esteem.
... On top of these, the "like" button provides further information about a person's popularity and social capital (Kim and Lee, 2011;Vitak and Ellison, 2013). Collectively, these serve as social information that people take in and compare themselves against (Fox and Moreland, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Existing meta-analyses have shown that the relationship between social media use and self-esteem is negative, but at very small effect sizes, suggesting the presence of moderators that change the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. Employing principles from social comparison and evolutionary mismatch theories, we propose that the social network sizes one has on social media play a key role in the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. In our study (N = 123), we showed that social media use was negatively related to self-esteem, but only when their social network size was within an evolutionarily familiar level. Social media use was not related to self-esteem when people’s social networks were at evolutionarily novel sizes. The data supported both social comparison and evolutionary mismatch theories and elucidated the small effect size found for the relationship between social media use and self-esteem in current literature. More critically, the findings of this study highlight the need to consider evolutionarily novel stimuli that are present on social media to better understand the behaviors of people in this social environment.
... We assume that users' behavior is affected by social stress (Bevan, Gomez, & Sparks, 2014;Fox & Moreland, 2015) and individuals attempt to minimize their social stress during online short-term interactions (See Equation 1). We hypothesize that any attempt to minimize social stress shifts users' behavior towards social consensus (dominant behavior among peers, e.g. ...
Article
Online aggression is an increasingly significant problem in Internet-based communication systems (e.g., commenting platforms) with potentially negative effects on online participation and quality of online discourse. Similar to offline aggression, online aggression has been shown to be contagious and to spread through online platforms as a result of exposure to aggressive content. Among other demographics, young adults report experiencing online aggression at alarming rates. In this paper, we examine the short-term effects of exposure to different levels of online aggressive behavior, and investigate whether it leads to an increase in online aggression among 118 young adults. Using an emulated commenting environment, we found evidence for the contagious nature of aggressive commenting. Even when individuals knew comments were synthetic (and not generated by actual peers), exposure to higher levels of aggressive comments resulted in a statistically significant increase in user aggression. Surprisingly, our results show that anonymity neither increased nor decreased the aggression response, which could indicate a change in user behavior since the advent of Internet 2.0 technologies or qualms related to experimenter-subject anonymity. Consequently, the results in this paper support the hypothesis that even in transient online interactions, young adult participants mimic their peers in an attempt to minimize social stress. Moreover, this mimicking occurs even when the participants know they are participating in an artificial social system.
... Indeed, research with emerging adult samples has consistently evidenced that such comparisons on SNSs associate with a range of negative outcomes for young people, including low self-esteem (Vogel, Rose, Roberts, & Eckles, 2014) and self-worth (Burnell, George, Vollet, Ehrenreich, & Underwood, 2019); feelings of jealously, envy, and anxiety (Fox & Moreland, 2015;Lim & Yang, 2015); increased depressive symptoms (Feinstein et al., 2013), high negative affect (Vogel, Rose, Okdie, Eckles, & Franz, 2015), and low positive affect (de Vries et al., 2018). Although much of this research has been conducted with emerging adults residing in individualistic cultural contexts, studies have evidenced how results also replicate in more collectivist societies. ...
Article
Introduction Social networking sites such as Instagram have provided young people with unprecedented opportunities for social comparison, and such behaviour can have implications for identity development. Although initial evidence suggests that there may be developmental differences in terms of how such behaviour informs identity development during adolescence and emerging adulthood, all previous research has been conducted in highly individualistic cultural contexts (i.e., the UK and the US). Method To shed further light on these possible developmental differences and to determine whether results replicate amongst young people from more collectivist cultural contexts, cross-sectional survey data were collected from 1,085 (M age = 18.87, SD = 2.57; Female = 77.8%) adolescents and emerging adults in Romania and Serbia between December 2019 and March 2020. The relationships between social comparisons of ability and opinion on Instagram and three key identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) were then examined. Result Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified significant age differences in terms of how social comparisons of ability and opinion on Instagram associated with identity commitment and in-depth exploration. Furthermore, possible cultural differences were identified in terms of how social comparisons of opinion on Instagram associated with the identity processes. Conclusion Overall, results suggest that whilst social comparisons on Instagram can elicit self-focus and prompt further exploration, developmental and cultural factors may influence how such behaviour informs identity development during adolescence and emerging adulthood.
Article
Full-text available
While studies have identified associations between cyber and in-person dating abuse, most research has relied on cross-sectional data, limiting the ability to determine temporality. This study tested the longitudinal associations between cyber and physical and psychological forms of in-person dating abuse. Data were from an ongoing longitudinal study following a group of high school students originally recruited in Southeast Texas, US, into their young adulthood. Three waves of data (Waves 4–6) were used, with each wave collected one year apart. At Wave 4, participants’ age ranged from 16 years to 20 years (mean = 18.1, median = 18.0, SD = .78). The analytical sample consisted of 879 adolescents/young adults (59% female, 41% male; 32% Hispanics, 28% Black, 29% White, and 11% other) who completed the dating abuse questions. Cross-lagged panel analysis showed that dating abuse victimization and perpetration were predictive of subsequent dating abuse of the same type. Cyber dating abuse perpetration was found to predict subsequent physical dating abuse perpetration as well as physical dating abuse victimization, but not vice versa. Further, cyber dating abuse perpetration predicted psychological dating abuse victimization, but not vice versa. Cyber dating abuse victimization was not significantly associated with either physical or psychological dating abuse temporally. Overall, findings suggest that cyber dating abuse perpetration may be a risk marker for both physical and psychological forms of in-person dating abuse. Interventions may benefit from targeting cyber dating abuse perpetration as means to prevent in-person dating abuse.
Conference Paper
İnsanların inançları, yaşamlarını sürdürdükleri coğrafya, kurmuş oldukları toplumsal düzen, diğer topluluklarla kurmuş oldukları ilişkiler, teknolojik gelişmeler toplumların hayatlarını doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak etkilemiştir. Doğal olarak da toplumların çocuklara bakış açıları da değişime uğramıştır. Tarihe bakıldığında çocukluk kavramının yetişkinlik kavramından farkının olmadığı, sonraki süreçlerde ise bu kavramın toplumların yaşamış oldukları değişim süreciyle başkalaşıma uğradığı göze çarpmaktadır. İlk toplumlarda fiziksel, duygusal ve davranışsal açıdan yetişkinlerden farklılıkları olmasına rağmen çocuklar çocuk olarak kabul edilmemiş, her bakımdan minyatür birer yetişkin olarak görülmüşlerdir. Çocuklar ne kadar seviliyor olsalar da bütün toplumlarda çocukluk bilincinin geçmişte de günümüzde de eksik olduğu göze çarpmaktadır. Dünyadaki toplumlar çocuk hakkında tarihsel süreç içinde yeterli bilgiye sahip olamamış ve bu bilgi eksikliği ne yazık ki günümüzde de devam etmektedir. Dünya genelinde yapılan ve yapılmakta olan başarılı uygulamaların çok az sayıdaki çocuklara ulaştığı ve çocuk eğitim programlarının da bunun etkisiyle istenen seviyelere gelmediği söylenebilir. Bu nedenle çocukların eğitimi söz konusu olduğunda birçok problemin tarih boyunca çocukların karşısına çıktığı görülmektedir. Bir toplumun çocuğa olan bakış açısı o toplumda var olan çocuk eğitim programına yansımaktadır. Çocukluk kavramı birçok araştırmaya konu olmasına rağmen çocuk eğitim programlarının bu araştırmalardan nasibini alamadığı önemli bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada da bu problem göz önünde bulundurularak Dünyada ve Türkiye’de çocukluk kavramının tarihsel gelişimi ve bunun eğitim programlarına nasıl yansıdığı tartışılacaktır.
Article
Social media users post an endless stream of life updates, commentary, and other content. This online self-presentation constitutes a narrative that can be examined as a shared account. In this study, we tested the applicability of Duck’s model of relational dissolution (Duck, 1982; Rollie & Duck, 2006) to participants’ personal and public accounts of their romantic breakups on social networking sites (also referred to as social network sites). We adopted mixed methods (content analysis, survey, and interview) to examine emerging adults’ ( N = 97) account-making during romantic relationship dissolution and the role of social media, specifically Facebook, in the process. Over 3500 posts and comments from before and after users’ breakups were quantitatively and qualitatively content analyzed. Synthesizing these three data sources revealed patterns regarding users’ selective self-presentation in masspersonal channels. Their dissolution accounts were shaped by perceptions of Facebook’s social affordances, such as the visibility and persistence of posts, comments, and relational artifacts; social feedback (e.g., comments and “likes” from the online social network, usually for social support); conversational control (e.g., blocking and defriending); and network association, which created a diverse imagined audience and context collapse. Findings suggest that some of Duck’s relational dissolution model manifests on social media, particularly social, gravedressing, and resurrection processes. Users consider and capitalize on perceived affordances of computer-mediated communication channels to construct, curate, or avoid public accounts of their breakups. Our study also provides a methodological framework for investigating user experiences and selective self-presentation on social media over time synthesizing quantitative and qualitative methods.
Article
The impact of information technologies has radically transformed the classroom in less than a generation. One potentially not so welcome technology into the classroom has been social networking sites. While social networking sites can help foster relationships among students, too much of a good thing can negatively impact course performance. This study surveys 219 college aged students and investigates the impact of problematic social network use on final course performance. Drawing from Social Cognitive Theory this paper develops a set of testable hypotheses and the data demonstrates that a negative relationship exists between problematic social network use and course performance (as measured by final letter grade). Classroom strategies that professors implement, and other remedies universities can employ to address this finding are discussed.
Article
This study investigates the factors that are associated with subjective class identification by using Australian national survey data. Results show that social networks play a significant role in respondents’ subjective evaluation of where they fit in the social hierarchy, with those individuals who have a reference group for social comparison being more likely to identify as middle class. Participating in social clubs, having a sense of neighborhood belonging and being able to access social resources from network members are positively associated with perceived social class. The hypothetical negative effect of social exclusion on subjective class identification is not statistically significant.
Article
Full-text available
Instagram is a popular social networking site (SNS) among adolescents that allows them to share visual content about their lives quickly and easily, increasing social connection, acceptation, and entertainment among others. Nevertheless, SNS exposure can also lead to negative counterparts such as judgments, envy, social comparison, or cyberbullying perpetration. This research aimed to analyze the possible psychosocial factors associated with Instagram use (i.e., social comparison and envy) that could lead to the perpetration of cyberbullying towards peers. The sample consisted of 254 adolescent students aged between 15 and 18 years-old (Mage = 15.77, SD = 0.74). The results indicated that high connection time to Instagram, high levels of social comparison and malicious envy were associated with an increased tendency to carry out cyberbullying perpetration’s behaviors. Likewise, the main finding showed that a high connection time to Instagram was associated with increased social comparison, which in turn was associated with malicious envy, and consequently with an increased tendency to carry out cyberbullying perpetration’s behaviors. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychosocial processes that might precede to perpetrate cyberbullying’s behaviors -among peers, as well as to promote the development of educational programs intend to encourage the responsible use of SNSs during adolescence.
Article
Purpose Nowadays, technostress is a common problem for many organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate the underlying mechanisms under which enterprise social networks (ESNs) leads to technostress and their consequences. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 242 employees working in research and development (R&D) centres in India and analysed the data using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Findings The findings of the study contribute to the growing body of knowledge in “dark side of social media research” by researching the phenomenon of higher use of ESNs in organisations and the consequences while theoretically delineating the effect of social, hedonic and cognitive use of ESNs in organisations on technostress, thus extending prior research on adverse impact of social media and technostress research. The results revealed that both ESNs’ need and technostress is adversely related to mental health, performance and greater turnover intention, and perceived organisation support (POS) played a moderating role in this relationship such that with higher POS, employee turnover intention reduces. By uncovering the role of POS as a potential moderator, the findings provide empirical evidence for POS and technostress in organisations, thus offering practical implications for the ESNs strategists, managers and practitioners to develop ESNs’ usage policies to avoid adverse outcomes of technostress in organisations. Research limitations/implications This research advances theoretical understanding of the relationship between ESNs, technostress, mental health, performance and turnover” intention while contributing extensively to the technostress literature and to the scholarship of ESNs. In addition, by uncovering the role of perceived organisational support as a potential moderator, this study contributes to the existing literature on POS. Practical implications The empirically tested model delivered by this research will enable organisations to understand different excessive usage patterns of ESNs at work, which contribute to negative outcomes for organisations and employees. The findings support the maintenance of social life at work affecting better employee mental health, and the application of cognitive use of ESNs can reduce technostress. Hence, organisational strategies should implement employee policies and interventions that facilitate better work–social life and well-being, simultaneously encouraging usage of ESNs largely for work-related information transmission and sharing within the organisations. Originality/value This study constructed a moderated-mediation model by introducing the potential mediating effect of technostress, mental health and performance and the moderating effect of POS to reveal the mechanism through which ESNs related to technostress, mental health, performance and turnover intention in the Indian context.
Chapter
Basic capabilities and human interests that are directed towards the ideal of human flourishing now seem at odds with the concept of Homo economicus as once defined by John Stuart Mill – a rational being pursuing wealth only for his own self-interest. This popular paradigm still dominates economic theory and practice, but a growing group of academics consider its underlying model of human behavior to be inaccurate. As a result, scholars across various disciplines have expressed the need for a more refined anthropology in relation to contemporary economics. In response, the holistic concept of Homo amans as phenomenologically constituted by the virtues of faith, hope, and love is introduced, since multidisciplinary yet complementary study suggests that human persons are questing, expecting, and relational beings. Whether or not Homo amans could serve in the future as a complementary model to Homo economicus remains to be seen, because several aspects of human relationality that are relevant to contemporary economics are in need of future study.
Chapter
Full-text available
This study investigates the relationships among social appearance anxiety, the fear of missing out (FOMO), and cyberloafing. The study further investigates the impact of social appearance anxiety and FOMO on cyberloafing. The research model is tested by employing a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach based on data collected from 396 higher education students. The results suggest that social appearance anxiety has a significant impact on FOMO and that FOMO has a significant impact on cyberloafing. However, the mediation analysis results suggest that FOMO full mediates the relationship between social appearance anxiety and cyberloafing.
Chapter
Full-text available
Each person projects behavioral patterns through actions. Even in a virtual environment we express our way of seeing, feeling, and reacting to the world. The analysis of the data generated allows the identification of pattern behaviors associated with users. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the user, the image he/she decided to express, and how he/she behaves in social media, which we name here the virtual persona. Machine learning techniques make it possible to develop a framework that allows to infer psychological and behavioral aspects of the virtual persona. The goal of this chapter is to introduce the virtual persona concept as a mechanism to understand social media users. Emphasis is given to the self-presentation of virtual persona, the perception of physical persona over virtual persona, and the description of three computational frameworks to study virtual persona, what we call here the virtual persona triad.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research investigated the role of social media use and perceived socio-cultural pressure as predictors of the endorsement of ideal body stereotypes. However, not much has been explored concerning cognitive fusion and its role within this framework. The current study investigated social media use as a predictor of ideal body stereotypes and how this relationship is mediated by perceived social pressure. Additionally, we explored the potential moderating roles of cognitive fusion within these relationships. Our sample consisted of 489 participants aged 18 to 53 (73.2% females). The findings suggested that the participants' reported social media use level significantly predicted both the ideal body stereotypes and the perceived social pressure. The overall effect of perceived social pressure on ideal body stereotypes was not significant. However, at low levels of cognitive fusion, the perceived social pressure significantly mediated the relationship between social media use and ideal body stereotype. We consider the current findings significant for their contribution to potential educational programs designed to address the adverse consequences of social media use on psychological and physical well-being.
Article
Objective: The present study examined the association between passive FB use and academic stress, as well as the moderating role of users' dispositional levels of authenticity. Participants and Methods: A total of 188 college students responded to questionnaires regarding their FB use, trait authenticity, and academic stress. Results: The amount of time users reported they routinely engaged in passive FB use significantly correlated with academic stress. Further, users' levels of trait authenticity moderated this relationship. Time spent passively using FB was positively associated with academic stress only when user authenticity was high. However, how often students passively use FB was not significantly associated with academic stress regardless of their authenticity levels. Conclusions: These findings suggest that using FB passively for longer time periods might be a way to avoid academic tasks, which in turn might be associated with greater academic stress for those students who report higher levels of authenticity.
Article
Since last six months, there has been an increase in foreign currency buying behaviors of individuals to protect the value of their assets due to dramatic increase in the value of foreign currencies against Turkish liras. However, besides the increase in the value of foreign currency against Turkish liras, the interactions among individuals stimulate them to purchase foreign currencies. In this context, the objective of the research is to explore the interplay between fear of missing out, unplanned buying behavior and post-purchase regret with respect to foreign currency buying behavior. Herein, fear of missing out is set as an independent variable; whereas unplanned buying behavior is determined as a variable that mediates the linkage between fear of missing out and post-purchase regret. The data are gained from 392 participants by employing convenience sampling. In an attempt to explore the proposed links between the variables, structural equation modelling is utilized. The findings report that fear of missing out significantly and positively influences unplanned foreign currency buying behavior of individuals and their post-purchase regret; while unplanned foreign currency buying behavior significantly and positively influences their post-purchase regret towards buying foreign currency. Besides, the findings indicate that unplanned foreign currency buying behavior partially mediates the link between fear of missing out and post-purchase regret. Overall, by shedding a light on understanding foreign currency buying behavior of individuals in last six months, the results of the study also contribute to individuals to realize their future foreign exchange buying behavior in a more planned way.
Chapter
With the growing prevalence of wireless communication technologies, social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. have become an important venues for interpersonal communication. This chapter provides a detailed overview of the current literature on online social networking with respect to its beneficial and detrimental effects on psychological wellbeing. In particular, it provides empirical evidence for the associations of SNS use with depression, self-esteem, loneliness, subjective wellbeing, social anxiety, attachment, personality traits, and addiction. Furthermore, it identifies the characteristics of individuals who are more prone to social networking, and presents possible mediators and moderators playing a role in the relationship between social networking and mental health. The chapter overall provides a comprehensive guideline to parents, researchers, educators, healthcare, and communication professionals to the issue of online social networking from a psychological perspective.
Article
Purpose Rapid technological advancements and the ever-increasing demand for Internet and social networking sites worldwide have increased the opportunity for extensive use and misuse of these platforms. Research and practice have typically focused on the brighter side of social networking sites due to the adoption of EHRM (Electronic Human Resource Management). However, less is known about the dark side of EHRM, especially the drawbacks associated with the use of social networking (SNs) platforms in organisations. In addition, most of such studies have primarily involved the western country context, and in an emerging country scenario, these kinds of studies are limited. Hence, the study aims to investigate the complexities of the use of SNs as an e-HRM strategy in organisations in an emerging country context. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on 26 in-depth interviews of HR practitioners and analysing their narratives surrounding employees' use of social networking (both enterprise social networks [ESNs] and social networking sites [SNSs]), this study illuminates the dark or the adverse side of EHRM. Specifically, it focuses on the link between employees' deviant workplace behaviour and their usage of social networking (SN) platforms in organisations (i.e. SNs at workplaces influencing employee's unethical behaviour at work). Findings The empirical findings reveal the subtle intentional and unintentional indulgence of employees via SNs in various types of deviant behaviours such as sharing confidential information, bullying, harassment, breaching colleagues' privacy, etc., at the workplace in the emerging market context of India. Utilising the social networking perspective and the 4Ps of deviant theory, this article describes deviance behaviours in detail and explains the inadvertent complexities of leveraging SNs as an EHRM tool at the workplace. These insights then provide a starting point for discussing the theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings. Research limitations/implications Derived from the current research, this model offers an integrative frame-work for understanding DWBs in SNs platforms in general. This also shows that use of SNs at workplace often leads the employee engaging in non-productive activity. Hence future studies can explore the application of this framework in organizations in detail, thus further highlighting the usefulness of EHRM to understand the employee behaviours at the workplace by the organisations. Practical implications The research offers several managerial implications concerning the use of SNs as EHRM strategy at the workplace, which is perceived as a global challenge nowadays. Primarily it offers suggestions for the social media professionals and HR practitioners regarding the use of SNs in organisations. Originality/value The study's findings highlight the complex process that explains how SNs as an EHRM strategy affect employee deviance behaviours in the workplace. Till date, no known study has considered the possible effect of SNs on deviance behavior at the workplace in an emerging country context.
Book
Full-text available
Using a novel approach to consider the available literature and research, this book focused on the psychology of social media based on the assumption that the experience of being in a social media has an impact on both our identity and social relationships. In order to ‘be online’, an individual has to create an online presence – they have to share information about themselves online. This online self is presented in different ways, with diverse goals and aims in order to engage in different social media activities and to achieve desired outcomes. Whilst this may not be a real physical presence, that physicality is becoming increasingly replicated through photos, video, and ever-evolving ways of defining and describing the self online. Moreover, individuals are using both PC-based and mobile-based social media as well as increasingly making use of photo and video editing tools to carefully craft and manipulate their online self. This book therefore explored current debates in Cyberpsychology, drawing on the most up-to-date theories and research to explore four main aspects of the social media experience (communication, identity, presence and relationships). In doing so, it considered the interplay of different areas of psychological research with current technological and security insight into how individuals create, manipulate and maintain their online identity and relationships. The social media were therefore at the core of every chapter, with the common thread throughout being the very unique approach to considering diverse and varied online behaviours that may not have been thus far considered from this perspective. It covered a broad range of both positive and negative behaviours that have now become integrated into the daily lives of many westernised country’s Internet users, giving it an appeal to both scholarly and industry readers alike.
Chapter
Full-text available
Social networking sites (SNSs) enrich many aspects of our relationships, yet they also have the potential for harm. Although considerable research has focused on the benefits of SNSs, there is a “dark side” to online social networks, particularly in romantic relationships. Distinctive affordances of SNSs (e.g., visibility and connectivity) enable new types of negative communication outcomes in romantic relationships as news about the couple is made visible to both partners’ networks, including friends, family, and ex-partners. Thus, SNSs can be a source of stress and relational turbulence for romantic partners from the early stages of dating to the post-breakup phase. When dating, users may sense disinterest based on a lack of SNS interaction or perceive competition among other network “friends” observed interacting on the romantic partner’s page. Once the romantic relationship becomes exclusive, partners may experience pressure from the partner or the network to establish the relationship as “Facebook official” and advertise it on his/her page. In the relationship, techno-incompatibility may be source of conflict as partners have different patterns of use (e.g., one partner is constantly on and the other rarely is). Partners may also maintain different perceptions of appropriateness and privacy for communication within and about the relationship on SNSs, leading to conflict about what is shared publicly on the site. Partner monitoring on SNSs (i.e., “Facebook stalking”), a common practice influenced by attachment style, can be deleterious during and after romantic relationships. SNSs also provide unique sources of distress in the process and wake of relationship dissolution.
Article
Full-text available
Social networking sites can facilitate self-expression, but for some, that freedom is constrained. This study investigated factors that influence LGBT+ individuals' identity management and political expression on social media. We interviewed 52 participants aged 18 to 53 around the 2012 U.S. election. Using co-cultural theory, we investigated communicative practices employed by queer-identified individuals on Facebook. Participants whose LGBT+ identity was not known by the social network (i.e., those who were still in the closet) revealed a spiral of silence, wherein they were silenced by the perceived heteronormative majority. Participants whose identity was known (i.e., those who were out) revealed a spiral of silencing as they used the site's affordances to empower their vocal minority and silence the dominant group.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.
Article
Full-text available
Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated profiles on an experimental SNS. Profiles varied in a 2x2 within-subjects design along two dimensions, ratings of career success and attractiveness, allowing for upward comparisons (high ratings) and downward comparisons (low ratings). Selective exposure was measured in seconds spent viewing profiles. Negative mood led to less exposure to upward comparisons and more to downward comparisons than positive mood. The comparison dimension did not influence selective exposure. Thus, in a negative mood, SNS users prefer self- enhancing social comparisons to manage their mood.
Article
Full-text available
This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. Full text is not available on IEEE Xplore for these articles.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the implications of social networking web sites (SNSs) within romantic relationships. Specifically, Knapp’s (1978) stage model of relationships is examined through a new lens wherein the role of SNSs, specifically Facebook, is explored in the escalation stages of romantic relationships (i.e., initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding). Furthermore, this study sought to discern the interpersonal and social implications of publicly declaring oneself as “In a Relationship” with another person on Facebook (i.e., going “Facebook official” or “FBO”). Ten mixed-sex focus groups were conducted. Analysis revealed that Facebook is one of the primary means of uncertainty reduction in the initial stages of relationship formation. College students consider FBO to be indicative of an increased level of commitment in relationships. Typically, relationship exclusivity precedes a discussion on becoming FBO, which occurs when the relationship is considered stable. Going FBO has implications for the public proclamation of one’s relationship status as described in Knapp’s model, and these results differ for men and women. Theoretical implications for the role of SNSs in romantic relationships are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the phenomenon of cyberbullying on Facebook and how it is related to school bullying among secondary school students in Singapore, aged 13–17. We also focus on generic use of Facebook and risky Facebook behaviors as the predictors of cyberbullying and victimization on Facebook. 1676 secondary students, from two secondary schools, participated in a pen and paper survey. The findings show that the intensity of Facebook use and engagement in risky Facebook behaviors were related to Facebook victimization and Facebook bullying, respectively. Moderately strong positive relationships between school bullying and Facebook bullying, as well as between school victimization and Facebook victimization, were also uncovered.
Article
Full-text available
Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.
Article
Full-text available
While computer-mediated communication use and research are proliferating rapidly, findings offer contrasting images regarding the interpersonal character of this technology. Research trends over the history of these media are reviewed with observations across trends suggested so as to provide integrative principles with which to apply media to different circumstances. First, the notion that the media reduce personal influences—their impersonal effects—is reviewed. Newer theories and research are noted explaining normative “interpersonal” uses of the media. From this vantage point, recognizing that impersonal communication is sometimes advantageous, strategies for the intentional depersonalization of media use are inferred, with implications for Group Decision Support Systems effects. Additionally, recognizing that media sometimes facilitate communication that surpasses normal interpersonal levels, a new perspective on “hyperpersonal” communication is introduced. Subprocesses are discussed pertaining to receivers, senders, channels, and feedback elements in computer-mediated communication that may enhance impressions and interpersonal relations.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.
Article
Full-text available
Social network sites, such as Facebook, have acquired an unprecedented following, yet it is unknown what makes them so attractive to users. Here we propose that these sites' popularity can be understood through the fulfillment of ego needs. We use self-affirmation theory to hypothesize why and when people spend time on their online profiles. Study 1 shows that Facebook profiles are self-affirming in the sense of satisfying users' need for self-worth and self-integrity. Study 2 shows that Facebook users gravitate toward their online profiles after receiving a blow to the ego, in an unconscious effort to repair their perceptions of self-worth. In addition to illuminating some of the psychological factors that underlie Facebook use, the results provide an important extension to self-affirmation theory by clarifying how self-affirmation operates in people's everyday environments.
Article
Full-text available
A framework for analyzing computer-mediated communication is presented, based on Clark's theory of common ground. Four technologies are reviewed: Facebook, Wikipedia, Blacksburg Electronic Village, and World of Warcraft, to assess their “social affordances,” that is, how communication is supported and how the technologies provide facilities to promote social relationships, groups, and communities. The technology affordances are related to motivations for use and socio-psychological theories of group behaviour and social relationships. The review provides new insights into the nature of long-lasting conversations in social relationships, as well as how representations of individuals and social networks augment interaction.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines if Facebook, one of the most popular social network sites among college students in the U.S., is related to attitudes and behaviors that enhance individuals' social capital. Using data from a random web survey of college students across Texas (n = 2,603), we find positive relationships between intensity of Facebook use and students' life satisfaction, social trust, civic engagement, and political participation. While these findings should ease the concerns of those who fear that Facebook has mostly negative effects on young adults, the positive and significant associations between Facebook variables and social capital were small, suggesting that online social networks are not the most effective solution for youth disengagement from civic duty and democracy.
Article
Full-text available
Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship between use of Facebook, a popular online social network site, and the formation and maintenance of social capital. In addition to assessing bonding and bridging social capital, we explore a dimension of social capital that assesses one's ability to stay connected with members of a previously inhabited community, which we call maintained social capital. Regression analyses conducted on results from a survey of undergraduate students (N=286) suggest a strong association between use of Facebook and the three types of social capital, with the strongest relationship being to bridging social capital. In addition, Facebook usage was found to interact with measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it might provide greater benefits for users experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship satisfaction, trait jealousy, SNS use and need for popularity predicted these emotional consequences of SNS use and tested the moderating role of self-esteem. For low self-esteem individuals, need for popularity predicted jealousy and relationship happiness. For high-self-esteem individuals, SNS use for grooming was the main predictor. Low-self-esteem individuals try to compensate their low self-esteem by creating an idealized picture. Undesirable information threatens this picture, and especially individuals with a high need for popularity react with SNS jealousy.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Social network,sites,(SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic,and,industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach.,This special theme section of the,Journal,of Computer-Mediated,Communicationbrings ,together scholarship on these emergent phenomena.,In this introductory article, we describe features of SNSs and propose a comprehensive definition. We then present one perspective on the history of such sites, discussing key changes and developments. After briefly summarizing existing scholarship concerning SNSs, we discuss the articles,in this special section and conclude with considerations for future,research.
Article
Due to their prevalence and unique affordances, social networking sites such as Facebook have the potential to influence offline relationships. This study employed Baxter's (2011) refinement of relational dialectics theory to explore Facebook's role in emerging adults' romantic relationships. Data from ten focus groups revealed that Facebook contributes to and provides a forum for discursive struggles related to the integration-separation, expression-privacy, and stability-change dialectics. Romantic partners are able to connect with each other and integrate their social networks on Facebook, but some struggle to maintain privacy and independence. As such, SNSs can be a site of and trigger for romantic conflict. Participants' responses indicated that Facebook is interwoven with the experience of these dialectics due to its affordances, specifically the semi-public nature of relationship activities on Facebook and the shift in control over relational information from individuals to network members.
Article
Social networking sites have demonstrated considerable utility to Internet users who wish to form or maintain interpersonal relationships online, but the qualities of these Internet platforms can also give rise to negative interactions between contacts. Perceptible relational problems, such as strain and changes to relational rules, originate from three commonly experienced transgressions on social networking sites: having a friend request declined or ignored, having a public message or identification tag deleted, and issues related to Top Friends applications. This investigation examines factors that contribute to the experience of relational problems following the three most common relational transgressions over social networking sites. The findings reveal that self-esteem, relational satisfaction, and publicness of the event, moderated by network esteem, affect the magnitude of the relational problems.
Article
The current study examined the relationship between general perceived levels of stress, quality of life, social networking usage, and disclosing important life events on Facebook in order to better understand the complex relationship between online disclosure and individual well-being. An online survey was completed by adult Facebook users aged 18–70. Results indicate that the more time spent on and the more social network memberships, the higher stress and lower quality of life; Facebook-specific usage was unrelated to either well-being variable. Together, these findings suggest that the current increase in social media variety and usage may be detrimental to user well-being. Users who shared important, bad health news on Facebook had higher stress and lower quality of life than those who did not, with no significant differences for sharing good health news. The more that users did not share important news on Facebook for self-protection and friend unresponsiveness reasons, the greater their stress. The self-protection reason was also negatively related to quality of life. These inconsistent findings can likely be partially explained by the nature of the information that is shared. These findings are discussed in light of disclosure and relationship patterns on social networks.
Article
Meaningful social interactions are positively associated with improvements in self-esteem, but this phenomenon has largely been unexplored in digital media despite the prevalence of new, text-based communication (e.g. Facebook, texting, email, etc.). To address this gap in the literature the frequency and quality, or meaningfulness, of communication was measured in mediated and non-mediated channels across a random sample of 3649 social interactions using Experience Sampling Methods. Results revealed that most communication took place face-to-face (62%), with less text-based (about 22%) and cell phone voice (14%) communication. Meaningful face-to-face and text-based communication were associated with changes in self-esteem according to a marginally significant and significant finding, respectively. Text-based communication was more important for self-esteem than face-to-face or phone communication, which is consistent with research on the magnifying effect of text-based communication on interpersonal processes. According to the Internet enhanced self-disclosure hypothesis, the psychological benefits of text-based communication stems from enhanced self-disclosure, which is also supported in the data. Additional work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the positive relationship between meaningful text-based interactions and self-esteem, but findings point to the important role of digital communication for psychological health.
Article
The present study reveals the results of a content analysis of the descriptive, textual communication, and photo content found in 208 college student Facebook profiles. An a priori coding scheme was developed for this investigation based on (1) news reports and stories on controversies surrounding online social network use, (2) research on social uses of the Internet, and (3) insights from the author, a longtime Facebook user. Results show that all categories of controversial content were more frequent than any of the prosocial content categories, suggesting that there is an overrepresentation of negative content on Facebook, even though many of the specific frequencies are low. In addition, the vast majority of students did not disclose personal contact information on their profiles, and males and females differed in the amount of personal contact information and controversial content disclosed. The study results document the nature of online social network content and point to possible effects of displaying and/or being exposed to controversial content online.
Article
Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, the study investigated high school students’ affordances for social media, their attitudes and beliefs about these new technologies, and related obstacles and issues. The affordance findings indicate that students depend on social media in their daily lives for leisure and social connections. Educational uses by teachers for classroom teaching and learning are sporadic, while uses by students on their own for learning purposes seem to be abundant but also incidental and informal. Quantitative results suggest that in general, students show positive attitudes and beliefs about social media use in education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three components that explained a total of 65.4% of the variance: (a) benefits of social media use, (b) disadvantages of social media use, and (c) current social media use in education. Three issues emerged from the interview data: Conceptual understanding of social media for learning; close-minded, acquired uses versus open-minded, innate uses of social media; and changed concepts of learning. The study results suggest that for social media to be used as effective learning tools and to adjust students’ prior affordances with these tools, complicated efforts in designing, scaffolding, and interacting with students during the process are necessary.
Article
This study considered being unfriended on Facebook as an expectancy violation that could vary in valence, importance, and expectedness according to a number of relationship and Facebook involvement characteristics. Facebook users who had been unfriended responded to a variety of quantitative scales via an online survey. Being unfriended constituted a moderately expected and negative, and moderately-to-highly important, expectancy violation. Whether ties with the unfriender were close versus weak best predicted valence and importance and the extent to which the unfriended individual used Facebook to connect with existing contacts best explained violation expectedness. Violation importance also predicted whether or not the unfriended individual contacted the former friend about being unfriended. Results supported Expectancy Violation Theory and extended knowledge about Facebook unfriending.
Article
Recent research demonstrates that it is the quality rather than the frequency of social networking experiences that places individuals at risk for negative mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms that account for this association have yet to be examined. Accordingly, this study examined whether the tendency to negatively compare oneself with others while using Facebook leads to increases in depressive symptoms, and whether this association is mediated by increases in rumination. A sample of 268 college-age young adults completed an initial online survey and a 3-week follow-up. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model, wherein negative social comparison on Facebook was predicted to be associated with increases in rumination, which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with depressive symptoms. The model controlled for general social comparison to test the specific effect of social comparison on Facebook over and above the tendency to engage in social comparison in general. Results indicated that the hypothesized mediation effect was significant. In sum, in the context of social networking, negatively comparing oneself with others may place individuals at risk for rumination and, in turn, depressive symptoms. Findings increase understanding of the mechanisms that link social networking use to negative mental health outcomes and suggest a continued emphasis on examining the specific processes that take place in the context of social networking that may be pathogenic.
Article
Why and how people choose to use a particular computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology is a major concern. This study seeks to address the issues by applying the uses and gratifications theory, and attempts to explore the general and specific gratifications sought from the use of three CMC technologies. Three separate empirical surveys were conducted to investigate the gratifications sought from social networking sites, instant messaging, and e-mail. Then factor analysis was undertaken to extract the gratifications sought from each CMC technology. The extracted gratifications sought were then compared among the three technologies for concluding the general and specific gratifications. Four general gratifications were extracted among the three CMC technologies, including relationship maintenance, information seeking, amusement, and style. Two gratifications were specific: the sociability gratification sought from using instant messaging and social networking sites; and the gratification of kill time sought from using instant messaging. Moreover, the important levels of gratifications sought from the three CMC technologies were found to be different. Our findings provide evidence to explain why not all traditional CMC technologies are replaced by innovative and advanced ones. The results of this study may be applied to CMC technology design and provide implications for future research.
Article
Millions of people use social networking sites (SNSs), but it is unclear how these sites shape personality traits and identity. In Experiment 1, college students were randomly assigned to either edit their MySpace page or complete a control task online (interacting with Google Maps). Those who focused on their MySpace page scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) than a control group. In Experiment 2, those who focused on their Facebook page scored significantly higher in general self-esteem, but not narcissism, than a control group. Thus, spending time on SNSs profiles causes young people to endorse more positive self-views, although the specific form this takes depends on the site. Consistent with previous research, narcissism was associated with a larger number of SNSs “friends” in both experiments.
Article
Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.
Article
The use of social media technologies - such as blogs, wikis, social networking sites, social tagging, and microblogging - is proliferating at an incredible pace. One area of increasing adoption is organizational settings where managers hope that these new technologies will help improve important organizational processes. However, scholarship has largely failed to explain if and how uses of social media in organizations differ from existing forms of computer-mediated communication. In this chapter, we argue that social media are of important consequence to organizational communication processes because they afford behaviors that were difficult or impossible to achieve in combination before these new technologies entered the workplace. Our review of previous studies of social media use in organizations uncovered four relatively consistent affordances enabled by these new technologies: Visibility, persistence, editability, and association. We suggest that the activation of some combination of these affordances could influence many of the processes commonly studied by organizational communication theorists. To illustrate this point, we theorize several ways through which these four social media affordances may alter socialization, information sharing, and power processes in organizations.
Article
This study investigated how people make sense of self-portrayals in social media that are inconsistent with impressions formed through other interpersonal interactions. The research focused on how inconsistent online information affects interpersonal impressions and how motivation to manage impressions influences the types of attributions that actors and observers make for the misleading online behavior. Results show that the relationship between observer and the target influences evaluations of online/offline inconsistencies: Subjects rated the inconsistencies of acquaintances as more intentionally misleading, more hypocritical, and less trustworthy relative to the inconsistencies of friends. In addition, the types of attributions people made for online behavior depended on the perspective of the person providing the explanation: People explained their own online behavior more favorably than the online behavior of both friends and acquaintances.
Article
Abstract There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.
Chapter
Attribution theory is concerned with the attempts of ordinary people to understand the causes and implications of the events they witness. It deals with the “naive psychology” of the “man in the street” as he interprets his own behaviors and the actions of others. For man—in the perspective of attribution theory—is an intuitive psychologist who seeks to explain behavior and draw inferences about actors and their environments. To better understand the perceptions and actions of this intuitive scientist, his methods must be explored. The sources of oversight, error, or bias in his assumptions and procedures may have serious consequences, both for the lay psychologist himself and for the society that he builds and perpetuates. These shortcomings, explored from the vantage point of contemporary attribution theory, are the focus of the chapter. The logical or rational schemata employed by intuitive psychologists and the sources of bias in their attempts at understanding, predicting, and controlling the events that unfold around them are considered. Attributional biases in the psychology of prediction, perseverance of social inferences and social theories, and the intuitive psychologist's illusions and insights are described.
Article
Contrasts the naturalistic research paradigm with the scientific model, noting that the naturalistic paradigm assumes multiple reality, subject-object interrelatedness, and contextuality. Skills required for the pursuit of naturalistic inquiry are described. (JEG)
Article
This article presents a theoretical approach that may be used to understand the way individuals regulate disclosure of private information. The communication boundary management perspective, while more generally applicable, in this presentation focuses on the way marital couples manage talking about private matters with each other. This theoretical perspective presents a boundary coordination process representing couples’management of communication boundaries in balancing a need for difclosure with the need for privacy. The theory identifies the prerequisite conditions for disclosure and the message strategies a disclosing spouse may use to tell private information, as well as the strategic messages the marital partner may use to reply. In addition, a proposal for the way the disclosing spouse and receiving partner manage the coordination of their communication boundaries is presented.
Article
Early research on online self-presentation mostly focused on identity constructions in anonymous online environments. Such studies found that individuals tended to engage in role-play games and anti-normative behaviors in the online world. More recent studies have examined identity performance in less anonymous online settings such as Internet dating sites and reported different findings. The present study investigates identity construction on Facebook, a newly emerged nonymous online environment. Based on content analysis of 63 Facebook accounts, we find that the identities produced in this nonymous environment differ from those constructed in the anonymous online environments previously reported. Facebook users predominantly claim their identities implicitly rather than explicitly; they “show rather than tell” and stress group and consumer identities over personally narrated ones. The characteristics of such identities are described and the implications of this finding are discussed.
Article
A person exposed to a persuasive communication in the mass media sees this as having a greater effect on others than on himself or herself. Each individual reasons: “I will not be influenced, but they (the third persons) may well be persuaded.” In some cases, a communication leads to action not because of its impact on those to whom it is ostensibly directed, but because others (third persons) think that it will have an impact on its audience. Four small experiments that tend to support this hypothesis are presented, and its complementary relationship to a number of concepts in the social sciences is noted. The third-person effect may help to explain various aspects of social behavior, including the fear of heretical propaganda by religious leaders and the fear of dissent by political rulers. It appears to be related to the phenomenon of censorship in general: the censor never admits to being influenced; it is others with “more impressionable minds” who will be affected.
Article
Facebook, as one of the most popular social networking sites among college students, provides a platform for people to manage others' impressions of them. People tend to present themselves in a favorable way on their Facebook profile. This research examines the impact of using Facebook on people's perceptions of others' lives. It is argued that those with deeper involvement with Facebook will have different perceptions of others than those less involved due to two reasons. First, Facebook users tend to base judgment on examples easily recalled (the availability heuristic). Second, Facebook users tend to attribute the positive content presented on Facebook to others' personality, rather than situational factors (correspondence bias), especially for those they do not know personally. Questionnaires, including items measuring years of using Facebook, time spent on Facebook each week, number of people listed as their Facebook "friends," and perceptions about others' lives, were completed by 425 undergraduate students taking classes across various academic disciplines at a state university in Utah. Surveys were collected during regular class period, except for two online classes where surveys were submitted online. The multivariate analysis indicated that those who have used Facebook longer agreed more that others were happier, and agreed less that life is fair, and those spending more time on Facebook each week agreed more that others were happier and had better lives. Furthermore, those that included more people whom they did not personally know as their Facebook "friends" agreed more that others had better lives.