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Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics

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... To date, more than 15,000 novel compounds of algal origin have been identified [3]. Many bio-based microalgal products are often "multipurposed" and are applied in dermal cosmetics as sunscreens, skin sensitizers and colorants, as well as agents for moisturizing, water-binding, texturizing, thickening, tanning, whitening, etc. [2,[4][5][6][7][8]. In such skin-related applications, the chemically and functionally diverse group of lipids and their derivates comprise a significant gradient [9,10]. ...
... The best-known UV protectors with dermal topical application and rejuvenating function among the algal carotenoids are astaxanthin (ASX), β-carotene and lutein [2,3,6,7,17,197,[205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216][217]. More than a single contribution could be attributed to these important pigments, all of which are able to decrease hyperpigmentation, while β-carotene has also a strong provitamin A activity and is applied in the formulation of suntan products, and ASX is valuable for its ability to inhibit skin cancer and to be effective in ulcer prevention [2,[4][5][6][7]9,10,212]. ...
... The best-known UV protectors with dermal topical application and rejuvenating function among the algal carotenoids are astaxanthin (ASX), β-carotene and lutein [2,3,6,7,17,197,[205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216][217]. More than a single contribution could be attributed to these important pigments, all of which are able to decrease hyperpigmentation, while β-carotene has also a strong provitamin A activity and is applied in the formulation of suntan products, and ASX is valuable for its ability to inhibit skin cancer and to be effective in ulcer prevention [2,[4][5][6][7]9,10,212]. ...
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Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products.
... As humans age, their skin becomes thinner and loses its original elasticity and moisturizing ability. Aged skin is dry, flabby, wrinkled, and increasingly fragile (Wang et al., 2015;Resende et al., 2021). Because skin has prolonged contact with the outside world, external factors, such as UV radiation, dust, and chemical reagents, can reduce skin's antioxidant capacity and accelerate its aging rate (Resende et al., 2021). ...
... fijiensis biovar deepsane, is used in Abyssine ® cosmetics (Martins et al., 2014). Chlorella extracts have been described to promote collagen synthesis and reduce wrinkles and appear to have value for skin-care products (Wang et al., 2015). ...
... This indicated it could possibly be used as a cosmetic preservative. The compounds extracted from microalgae can be used as the main components of cosmetics, but they can also be used as cosmetic stabilizers, dyes, thickeners, and other auxiliary materials depending on their different characteristics (Ryu et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2015). The rich pigments of microalgae can also be used in deodorants, antioxidants, creams, cleansers, and other products. ...
Article
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As the market size of the cosmetics industry increases, the safety and effectiveness of new products face higher requirements. The marine environment selects for species of micro-organisms with metabolic pathways and adaptation mechanisms different from those of terrestrial organisms, resulting in their natural products exhibiting unique structures, high diversity, and significant biological activities. Natural products are usually safe and non-polluting. Therefore, considerable effort has been devoted to searching for cosmetic ingredients that are effective, safe, and natural for marine micro-organisms. However, marine micro-organisms can be difficult, or impossible, to culture because of their special environmental requirements. Metagenomics technology can help to solve this problem. Moreover, using marine species to produce more green and environmentally friendly products through biotransformation has become a new choice for cosmetic manufacturers. In this study, the natural products of marine micro-organisms are reviewed and evaluated with respect to various cosmetic applications.
... As a result of this, the color of the skin, smoothness of the skin surface, water retention and general appearance are determined [7]. The dermis consists of blood vessels, nerves, muscles, hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands [9]. The sebaceous glands secrete the excretion which is called as sebum, which includes ~12-13% squalene (Fig. 2) [1,3]. ...
... The blockage and microbial contamination of these glands can cause acne. The last layer, the hypodermis, contains fat cells [9]. The skin is faced with aging as a result of internal and external effects in time. ...
... Also, external effects can be defined as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the associated irritation. As a result, wrinkles, sagging and color changes are occurred [9,10]. These appearance changes are usually due to the deterioration of the dermis layer. ...
Article
Squalene, [oxidized form squalane] is a terpenoid with biological activity that produced by animals and plants. In the human body, a significant excretion named as sebum includes squalene in 12 percent. This bioactive compound shows anti-inflammatory, detoxifying, moisturizing and antioxidant effects on the human body. In addition to having these properties, it is known that squalene production decreases as less sebum is produced with age. Because of that, the need for supplementation of squalene through products has arisen. As a result, squalene production has been drawn attention due to its many application possibilities by cosmetic, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical fields. At this point, approximately 3,000 of sharks, the major and the most popular source of squalene must be killed to obtain 1 ton of squalene. These animals are on the verge of extinction. This situation has caused to focus on finding microalgae strains, which are sustainable producers of squalene as alternative to sharks. This review paper summarizes the recent progresses in the topic of squalene. For this purpose, it contains information on squalene producers, microalgal squalene production and cosmetic evaluation of squalene.
... The use of microalgae as a tool in bionanotechnology is well known. Microalgae have been used in biofuel production, food enrichment, environmental bioremediation, industrial nanoparticles, cosmetics and pigment production, and biomedical applications (Khanna et al., 2019;Menetrez, 2012;Mulders et al., 2014;Rasala & Mayfield, 2015;Schrö fel et al., 2014;Ścieszka & Klewicka, 2019;Wang et al., 2015). Microalgae have many characteristics that are appealing for use in biotechnologies. ...
... They are easy to manipulate and inexpensive to grow with their growth requirements being primarily water, light, nutrients, and salts. Additionally, they consume what is generally considered "waste" (e.g., CO 2 or CH 4 ) to produce useful products (Khanna et al., 2019;Menetrez, 2012;Mulders et al., 2014;Rasala & Mayfield, 2015;Ścieszka & Klewicka, 2019;Wang et al., 2015). Their productivity is considered to be very high, with generally higher yield than land plants. ...
Chapter
Microalgae are single-celled photosynthetic microorganisms that provide a significant range of potential uses in nanotechnology. The term “algae” is a generic term used to describe the chlorophyll-containing groups, which are derived from multiple phylogenetic lineages, and thus may not be closely related genetically. Algae can be single-celled, clusters of cells, or large multi-cellular organisms (e.g., macroalgae). Microalgae include members of Chlorophyta (green algae), Haptophyta (coccolithophores), Pyrrophyta/Dynophyta (dinoflagellates), Chrysophyta (golden algae), Stramenopiles, Euglenphyta, and Bacillariophyta, Heterokont, and Ochrophyta (diatoms). Microalgae are largely eukaryotic, though many prokaryotic cyanobacteria are often included with eukaryotic microalgae when considering algal nanobiotechnologies and harmful algal blooms. Cyanobacteria is a large phylum of gram-negative bacteria in the Bacteria domain, many members of which also have biotechnological uses. Cyanobacteria are often colloquially called “blue-green algae”, though modern scientific linguists prefer to restrict the term “algae” to eukaryotes. For the purposes of this chapter, we will define microalgae as single-celled eukaryotic photosynthetic algae, and we will focus on microalgae as a source of health-based applications in nanotechnology. The use of microalgae as a tool in nanobiotechnology is well known. Microalgae have been used in biofuel production, food enrichment, environmental bioremediation, industrial nanoparticles, cosmetics and pigment production, and biomedical applications. Microalgae have many characteristics that are appealing for use in biotechnologies. They are easy to manipulate and inexpensive to grow, their growth requirements are primarily water and light, with nutrients and salts, and they consume what is generally considered “waste” (e.g., CO2 or CH4) to produce useful products. Their productivity is considered to be very high, with generally higher yield than land plants. Water use is efficient, with the only loss attributed to evaporation, especially in comparison to land plants. As such, there is considerable potential to the utility of microalgae, in health-based applications of nanotechnology, drug discovery, and development.
... Most of the algal species are aquatic (live in water), autotrophs (i.e., produce their own food as they are photosynthetic, which can capture light energy and convert inorganic matter to organic matter), have non-vascular tissues and can use lipids and oils for floating in water [2]. As well as algae can be grown using different water assets, for example, salty water, and wastewater as potentially they can help in its treatment and purification, while profiting from utilizing the nutrients present [3], regarding their capacities to develop without much care on waste nutrients. Therefore, algae are currently turning into the primary source of biofuel production generation on the planet [4][5][6], as they are considered as the more secure, non-focused and more effective rowing life forms among those could be utilized and manipulated for biodiesel creation. ...
... Algae are particularly interesting because they can be grown rapidly and produce large amounts of fuel relative to the resources used to grow them; does not compete with agriculture, with high yield per acre, contains no sulfur no SO2 emission, besides do not require soil for growth [7][8][9]. As most microalgae grow through photosynthesisby converting sunlight, Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) and a few nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) into biomass [3,10]. The high growth rates, sensible development densities, and high oil contents have all been referred to as motivations to invest significant capital to turn algae into fuels. ...
Article
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Algae are simple plants and most of them are aquatic and can grow in different water assets, for example, fresh water, salty water, and wastewater so they are considered as the more secure, non-focused and more effective plant. They have different pathways to fix dangerous gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO 2), Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) that causing climate change and converting sunlight, nitrogen and phosphorous into biomass. The objective of this article is to review the literature regarding the algae as biological alternative products and renewable energy source to throw light on a broad range of algae applications for provide some information on their related technology and industry that are financially feasible to counter balance in oil, and alleviate CO 2 discharge or not. Algae have been explored for different applications as food; bioactive substances due to their high development rates, sensible developmental densities and high oil contents all that have been referred to as motivations to turn algae into biofuels. However, there are various obstacles including the sourcing of these algae, strain isolation, nutrient source, production management, harvesting, coproduct improvement, fuel extraction, refining and lingering biomass use. The use of algae as fuel might seem of no importance today, but it can gain importance tomorrow as petroleum is getting depleting day after day. The International Energy Agency expects contribution of biofuels by 6% of aggregate fuel use by 2030, yet could extend essentially if undeveloped oil fields are not gotten to or if generous new fields are not distinguished.
... Molecules from seaweeds have been applied as a cosmetic active ingredient such as mycosporine-like amino acids, pigments and phenolic compounds, while primary metabolites such as agar, alginate and carrageenan are used for the products' consistency [18]. Hydrocolloids from seaweeds are used as moisturizing and thickening agents for the formulation of cosmetics [34]. ...
... Moisturization is the first step in protecting the skin from aging. It contributes to the preservation of its appearance and to the elasticity of the skin [34]. ...
Article
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Seaweeds are macroscopic, multicellular, eukaryotic and photosynthetic organisms, and are a source of chemical diversity with powerful biological activities for diversified industrial applications including cosmeceuticals. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are good sources of Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) for photoprotectant and antiphotoaging compounds. In addition, Rhodophyta are also good sources for hydrogel compounds that are used widely in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries as gelling agents, moisturizers or for their antiphotoaging effects. Our survey and ongoing studies revealed that the biodiversity of Indonesian Rhodophyta is rich and is a treasure trove for cosmeceutical agents including MAA and hydrogels. This study delivers valuable information for identifying potential red seaweeds in screening and searching for cosmeceutical agents.
... Phenolic molecule phlorotannin from brown algae are known to be used for skin diseases (H. D.Wang, Chen, Huynh, & Chang, 2015). ...
Thesis
Le diabète est un problème majeur de santé publique. Il est caractérisé par une hyperglycémie, une résistance à l’insuline et est associé à des complications macro et micro vasculaires. En situation de diabètes, la concentration de méthylglyoxal (MGO) est augmentée. Le MGO est un précurseur des produits avancés de glycation (AGE) et il induit un stress oxydatif, une inflammation et un stress du réticulum endoplasmique. Ces stress jouent un rôle important dans les dysfonctions endothéliales et de la barrière hématoencéphalique ainsi que dans le retard de réparation des lésions. L’objectif de ma thèse a été d’améliorer la délivrance de curcumine, une molécule d’origine végétale. La curcumine a plusieurs effets bénéfiques tel que des activités anti oxydantes et anti inflammatoires, mais ces effets sont limités par son hydrophobicité. Des nanovecteurs tel que des protéines de hautes densités (HDL) ou des micelles peuvent améliorer la délivrance de la curcumine. L’effet de la curcumine, vectorisée par des HDL ou par des micelles, a été évaluée dans deux modèles différents : la protection de cellules endothéliales en présence de MGO in vitro et in vivo, la régénération de la nageoire caudale chez le poisson zèbre. Des nanoparticules de rHDL associées avec la curcumine (Cur-rHDLs) ont été préparées par ultracentrifugation après avoir mélangé brièvement les HDL avec la curcumine. Une analyse par LC-MS/MS a permis de quantifier la curcumine associée aux HDL. Les cellules endothéliales cérébrales Bend3 ont été prétraitées 1 heure en présence de rHDL, de curcumine ou de Cur-rHDLs puis incubées en présence de MGO. Sur des cellules traitées par du MGO, la Cur-rHDLs a montré un effet protecteur en réduisant la cytotoxicité, la production d’espèces radicalaires d’oxygène, le stress du réticulum endoplasmique et la condensation de la chromatine. Elle améliore également l’intégrité des cellules endothéliales compromise par le MGO. La Cur-rHDLs a un effet synergique en comparaison des effets de la curcumine ou des rHDLs seuls. Des micelles de polysaccharide d’algues (des carraghénanes) associées avec de la curcumine (Cur-micelles) ont été préparées en copolymérisant des oligocarraghénanes (carraghénanes digérées) avec du polycaprolactone. La curcumine a été associée aux micelles par la méthode d’évaporation de l’acétone. Les Cur-micelles ont été caractérisées par des analyses de spectroscopie de résonance magnétique nucléaire et de diffusion dynamique de la lumière. Dans ce modèle, les Cur-micelles augmentent le recrutement des macrophages et des neutrophiles au site de la lésion ainsi que la taille de la surface de la nageoire régénérée. Les Cur-micelles ont également un effet synergique en comparaison des effets de la curcumine ou des micelles seules. Ces travaux montrent les effets bénéfiques des Cur-rHDLs sur des cellules endothéliales en présence de MGO et des Cur-micelles sur la régénérescence de la nageoire caudale des poissons zèbres. Ils permettent une meilleure compréhension de ces approches et ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives de recherche pour le développement de thérapies dans le cadre de complications vasculaires associées au diabète.
... Hence, microalgae were shown applicable for tertiary treatment of wastewater to increase quality and thus to allow reuse (Abdel-Raouf et al., 2012;Huo et al., 2020). In addition, microalgae are cultivated for their valuable products used as additions to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, feed and food (Tang et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2015). However, industrial biomass production is often not economically viable because of the high cost of nutrients and water (Kothari et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Presently, two Chlorella sorokiniana strains sampled during summer (CS-S) and winter (CS-W) from a maturation pond and isolated by dominance were studied on their behavior on temperature and light extremes in batch experiments. Although both strains showed no differences in their tolerance of temperatures up to 45°C, the growth rates, pigment contents and fatty acid compositions in response to PAR at 700 and 1,500 µmol m⁻² sec⁻¹ differed. CS-W was less affected by photoinhibition and maintained constantly high growth rates. High radiation resulted in both strains in an equivalent decrease of chlorophyll a and accessory pigments indicating that the latter did not function as a light filter. PUFAS (18:3 and 16:3) increased in CS-W at high radiation by > 60% and decreased in CS-S by 8 %. Results indicate that CS-W is highly favorable for mass cultivation particularly in outdoors, in which diurnal variations of solar radiation occur.
... Seaweeds are a commanding component of the marine plant life complex in the structure of coastal environmental biodiversity (Klinger 2015), and they are functioning as renewable living wherewithal to the global coastal communities (Rebours et al. 2014). They are the source materials approximately for 27 health benefits (Qin 2018), and a varied makeup applications (Wang et al. 2015). A range of chemical molecules existing in the seaweeds validate their prospective reach and their crucial biological properties (Rengasamy et al. 2020). ...
Chapter
Seaweeds are a commanding component of the marine plant life complex in the structure of coastal environmental biodiversity, and they are functioning as renewable living wherewithal to the global coastal communities. They are the source materials approximately for 27 health benefits and varied makeup applications. The important applications of seaweed pigments and their future perspectives are detailed herein.
... Algal biomass is an alternate and sustainable feedstock for various process industries. The developments in algal biomass production and their utilization for various value-added products such as biodiesel, methane (Mc Ginn et al., 2012;Chisti, 2013;Petruk et al., 2018;Pan et al., 2018), pigments (Sarada et al., 1999;Belay, 2008), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Chu, 2012;Sathasivam et al., 2019), feed and food (Wang et al., 2015), nutraceuticals (Cheng et al., 2016), pharmaceuticals and cosmetics (Barrow and Shahidi, 2007), bioplastics (Haniewicz et al., 2018) and phycoremediation process (Noel et al., 2014;Ajayan et al., 2015Ajayan et al., , 2018 are well documented. These biomass-associated target products can be obtained by modifying the organism's metabolism under stressful conditions. ...
Article
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The effects of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supplementation in combination with nitrogen limitation on the biomass, biochemical and fatty acid composition of three selenastracean microalgae were studied. In the algae tested, nitrogen deficiency alone resulted in lower biomass output, whereas supplementation with 0.075mM IBA resulted in increased biomass production on Selenastrum capricornutum (679mgL-1), Ankistrodesmus falcatus (521mgL-1) and Kirchneriella obesa (361mgL-1) than their respective controls. The chlorophyll content of the algae showed a negative correlation with IBA dosage. Whilst it could significantly stimulate carotenoid biosynthesis in S. capricornutum and nitrogen limited (NL) alone, it influenced carotene production in both A. falcatus and K. obesa. Among the treatments, NL+0.075mM IBA markedly increased the total lipid content to 1.2-fold in S. capricornutum, 0.81-fold in A. falcatus and 0.35-fold in K. obesa, with higher lipid productivity than control. NL+0.05mM IBA significantly increased the amount of saturated fatty acids and NL+0.075mM IBA significantly increased the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in all members of the Selenastraceae family under study. Thus, the study promises the importance of Selenastraceae members as a valuable feedstock for various process industries.
... Research on the biotechnological usage areas of these microalgae compounds, which were discovered by many studies on microalgae, has been concentrated on these organisms. Nowadays, microalgae are used as raw materials in many areas such as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, health foods, formulation of food and feed, fertilizer, and wastewater treatment due to their high reproduction rate and biochemical structures (Gouveia et al., 2006;Lum et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2015). Eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria are seen as promising organisms for fuel production (Culaba et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Microalgae can be considered an alternative food ingredient thanks to their nutritional composition and bioactive molecules. Microalgae are considered a rich source of sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides, and certain types of polysaccharides vary depending on their taxonomic groups. It is thought that valuable bioactive compounds possessed by algae biomass can increase the vitality of probiotic bacteria by stimulating their growth and being a good source for lactic acid production. Probiotics are defined as living, microbial dietary supplements that beneficially affect the human organism with their effects on the intestinal tract when they are consumed adequately. Prebiotics are indigestible or poorly digested food ingredients that stimulate the growth or activity of probiotic bacteria. Synbiotic is a term that expresses the union of probiotics and prebiotics to exert health benefits on humans. Spirulina and Chlorella are good sources of protein and polysaccharides or oligosaccharides that have been suggested as potential prebiotic candidates. These microalgae are thought to have a stimulating effect on the growth of probiotic bacteria. In this study, synbiotic efficacy and prebiotic activity of microalgae on probiotic microorganisms will be discussed and their potential in this area will be revealed.
... It is favored for its superior appearance, biodegradability, greater durability, and nontoxicity [1][2][3]. It is applied in several ways, including filters, medication delivery, and medical implants [4][5][6][7]. Due to their edible, renewable, and biodegradable qualities, biopolymer-based films have been often used in packaging [8][9][10][11][12]. To increase the functionality of packaging, nanoparticles such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide have been used to create composite functional films [13,14]. ...
Article
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To develop bio-packaging materials, nanocomposite films of cellulose acetate reinforced with titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared, by the casting method at different weight ratios of ZnO nanoparticles (1.5, 2, and 2.5) wt% and a constant weight ratio of 2 wt% TiO2. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were tested using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) were improved at a fixed level of Cellulose Acetate+ 2% TiO2+1.5wt% ZnO loading. Beyond that level of loading, they decreased. The tensile strength was decreased due to some degrees of agglomeration of filler particles above a critical content. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was conducted to reveal the microstructures and chemical composition of as-prepared composite films. The wettability of the films was also determined by the sessile drop method. An increase in contact angle was also observed by the addition of ZnO content from 70.6° to 77.1° compared to pure Cellulose Acetate, which indicated a value of 61.3°. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was enhanced after incorporation of ZnO-TiO2 compared with pure CA. The enhanced wettability and antibacterial activity of the prepared films suggest that they could be used for packaging applications.
... Research has been conducted regarding the potential of porous silica-based particles for drug delivery applications due to their extended drug release profiles and high efficacy in delivering hydrophobic drugs [146]. These silica-based nanoparticles obtained from diatoms are used as drug delivery carriers due to their biodegradability, easy functionalization, low cost to obtain and maintain, and simple features compared to the synthetic ones, which make these agents proper alternatives to synthetic silica nanoparticles [147]. ...
Article
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Microalgae are complex photosynthetic organisms found in marine and freshwater environments that produce valuable metabolites. Microalgae-derived metabolites have gained remarkable attention in different industrial biotechnological processes and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their multiple properties, including antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-cancer, phycoimmunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. These properties are recognized as promising components for state-of-the-art cosmetics and cosmeceutical formulations. Efforts are being made to develop natural, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly products that replace synthetic products. This review summarizes some potential cosmeceutical applications of microalgae-derived biomolecules, their mechanisms of action, and extraction methods.
... Other characteristics include a short life cycle, rapid growth, high productivity, little sensitivity to seasonal changes, low production costs, and an abundance of raw resources (Christakiet al., 2012). They have a distinct advantage over common plants since they don't require arable land or clean water for growth.Their adaptability means that the same method of culture may be used for a variety of purposes, including food and energy production, cosmetics, medicines, and wastewater treatment (Wang et al., 2015). So, the wide range of useful applications they might potentially provide across various production technologies attests to their immense biotechnological potential (Fortes Siqueira et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
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Since you're looking for a renewable fuel source for your vehicle, look no further than biofuels. Biofuels' long-term viability will hinge on the creation of sustainable technologies that are now not financially feasible. The optimal mix of technological innovation in systems and processes, together with economic feasibility in the actual execution and integrated scale-up for commercial production and sale, is required for the successful development of the algae-based biofuels and coproducts business.In response to rising oil prices and a heightened concern for ensuring energy security, biofuels research has received considerable attention. If we're going to make it to sustainability, we need to develop and explore renewable energy sources. Bio-diesel made from microalgae is often cited as a source that doesn't harm the environment. Determining whether or not algal biofuel can be used requires first quantifying the potential for the creation of algae biofuel on a major scale. A deterministic mathematical model was developed to forecast the technological potential of micro-algae biofuels in India. The model's goal is to locate locations with optimal sunshine and temperature for cultivating algal biomass. The model incorporates real-world constraints for things like light distribution, land usage, transmission, photon utilization, photosynthetic efficiency, and oil content based on data from public sources. At the click of a button, the program determines the optimal oil output, biomass production, and growth rates for each given oil % and solar exposure. Based on the existing solar radiation intensity in India, this preliminary resource evaluation predicts an annual algal biomass output of 159-345 metric tonnes per hectare and a lipids yield of 57,000-16,000 liters per hectare. The high numbers come from the abundant solar radiation in India. Algae-based biofuels are discussed in this article along with the many predictions for its future use. Both the benefits and drawbacks of these biofuels are discussed. Global forces that encourage algal development are explained, with a spotlight on Egypt. In this article, we get an overview of algae biorefineries and how they work. It also outlines the five most effective methods for helping algae biodiesel companies cut expenses and speed up the market introduction of their product. The SWOT analysis for micro-algae reveals the internal and external possibilities and threats, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the algae itself. There is an explanation of possible methods to improve algae-based fuels. We briefly examine the role of genetic engineering and other process advancements in the implementation of these new methods. The idea of using algae for wastewater treatment is proposed as a way to boost the profitability of algal biofuels.
... Seaweeds are a commanding component of the marine plant life complex in the structure of coastal environmental biodiversity (Klinger 2015), and they are functioning as renewable living wherewithal to the global coastal communities (Rebours et al. 2014). They are the source materials approximately for 27 health benefits (Qin 2018), and a varied makeup applications (Wang et al. 2015). A range of chemical molecules existing in the seaweeds validate their prospective reach and their crucial biological properties (Rengasamy et al. 2020). ...
Chapter
Seaweeds are considered as usual foods, novel feed ingredients, nutraceutical compounds, and source of pigments (R-phycoerythrin, fucoxanthin, lutein etc.) and proteins. They appear to possess bioactive properties, such as hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and immune-stimulative actions; furthermore, their proteins are considered just as nutritious as terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds of major importance are quite numerous, such as Gracilaria gracilis, Mastocarpus stellatus, Sargassum cristaefolium etc. They provide pigments and colorants from different chemical classes (chlorophylls, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids etc). Working with fresh or dried biomasses is an open question, together with the use of novel techniques for extraction (ultrasonication, green extraction using edible oils). Practical aspects such as cooking of seaweeds before consumption by humans in order to increase pigment bioaccessibility or other nutritional aspects is also presented in this book chapter. Keywords Seaweeds Pigments Food consumption Extraction Applications  Marine algal colorants for the food industry. Venil C.K., Ramesh C., Devi P.R., Dufossé L.. In : “Sustainable Global Resources of Seaweeds, Volume 2: Food, Pharmaceutical and Health Applications (two volumes set), 1st edition, 650 pages, Ranga Rao A. and Ravishankar G. A. (Eds.) Springer-Nature, Berlin, Germany, ISBN 978-3-030-92173-6, Chapter 8, 163-179 (17 pages), 2022 DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-92174-3_8
... Other characteristics include a short life cycle, rapid growth, high productivity, little sensitivity to seasonal changes, low production costs, and an abundance of raw resources (Christakiet al., 2012). They have a distinct advantage over common plants since they don't require arable land or clean water for growth.Their adaptability means that the same method of culture may be used for a variety of purposes, including food and energy production, cosmetics, medicines, and wastewater treatment (Wang et al., 2015). So, the wide range of useful applications they might potentially provide across various production technologies attests to their immense biotechnological potential (Fortes Siqueira et al., 2018). ...
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Since you're looking for a renewable fuel source for your vehicle, look no further than biofuels. Biofuels' long-term viability will hinge on the creation of sustainable technologies that are now not financially feasible. The optimal mix of technological innovation in systems and processes, together with economic feasibility in the actual execution and integrated scale-up for commercial production and sale, is required for the successful development of the algae-based biofuels and coproducts business.In response to rising oil prices and a heightened concern for ensuring energy security, biofuels research has received considerable attention. If we're going to make it to sustainability, we need to develop and explore renewable energy sources. Bio-diesel made from microalgae is often cited as a source that doesn't harm the environment. Determining whether or not algal biofuel can be used requires first quantifying the potential for the creation of algae biofuel on a major scale. A deterministic mathematical model was developed to forecast the technological potential of micro-algae biofuels in India. The model's goal is to locate locations with optimal sunshine and temperature for cultivating algal biomass. The model incorporates real-world constraints for things like light distribution, land usage, transmission, photon utilization, photosynthetic efficiency, and oil content based on data from public sources. At the click of a button, the program determines the optimal oil output, biomass production, and growth rates for each given oil % and solar exposure. Based on the existing solar radiation intensity in India, this preliminary resource evaluation predicts an annual algal biomass output of 159-345 metric tonnes per hectare and a lipids yield of 57,000-16,000 liters per hectare. The high numbers come from the abundant solar radiation in India. Algae-based biofuels are discussed in this article along with the many predictions for its future use. Both the benefits and drawbacks of these biofuels are discussed. Global forces that encourage algal development are explained, with a spotlight on Egypt. In this article, we get an overview of algae biorefineries and how they work. It also outlines the five most effective methods for helping algae biodiesel companies cut expenses and speed up the market introduction of their product. The SWOT analysis for micro-algae reveals the internal and external possibilities and threats, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the algae itself. There is an explanation of possible methods to improve algae-based fuels. We briefly examine the role of genetic engineering and other process advancements in the implementation of these new methods. The idea of using algae for wastewater treatment is proposed as a way to boost the profitability of algal biofuels.
... Many review studies have described the properties of fucoxanthin relative to human health [8,[35][36][37][38][39] and cosmetics [9,40,41]. Table 1 presents the latest studies of functional activities of fucoxanthin (2020-2021). In particular, studies about cancer inhibition are part of the major fucoxanthin research concepts with the most occurrences in the literature [42]. ...
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Fucoxanthin is a brown-colored pigment from algae, with great potential as a bioactive molecule due to its numerous properties. This review aims to present current knowledge on this high added-value pigment. An accurate analysis of the biological function of fucoxanthin explains its wide photon absorption capacities in golden-brown algae. The specific chemical structure of this pigment also leads to many functional activities in human health. They are outlined in this work and are supported by the latest studies in the literature. The scientific and industrial interest in fucoxanthin is correlated with great improvements in the development of algae cultures and downstream processes. The best fucoxanthin producing algae and their associated culture parameters are described. The light intensity is a major influencing factor, as it has to enable both a high biomass growth and a high fucoxanthin content. This review also insists on the most eco-friendly and innovative extraction methods and their perspective within the next years. The use of bio-based solvents, aqueous two-phase systems and the centrifugal partition chromatography are the most promising processes. The analysis of the global market and multiple applications of fucoxanthin revealed that Asian companies are major actors in the market with macroalgae. In addition, fucoxanthin from microalgae are currently produced in Israel and France, and are mostly authorized in the USA.
... Further, M2000 showed higher tolerance and biocompatibility in attenuating rat paw edema and joint destruction in a rat arthritis model compared to diclofenac, piroxicam, and dexamethasone [151]. Being a copolymer in alginates, M2000 aids in preventing skin aging and cutaneous disorders due to its potential antioxidant effects and is used in various cosmetic applications [160]. Further, M2000 from brown algae Padina boryana derived alginate attenuated the skin damage from particulate-matter-induced inflammation in keratinocytes and fibroblasts via inhibiting NF-κB-associated signals and MAPK pathway molecules [161]. ...
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by the dysregulation of cytokines and other immune mediators. JAK/STAT is a classical signal transduction pathway involved in various biological processes, and its dysregulation contributes to the key aspects of AD pathogenesis. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins negatively regulate the immune-related inflammatory responses mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway. JAK/STAT-mediated production of cytokines including IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TSLP inhibits the expression of important skin barrier proteins and triggers pruritus in AD. The expression of SOCS proteins regulates the JAK-mediated cytokines and facilitates maintaining the skin barrier disruptions seen in AD. STATs are crucial in dendritic-cell-activated Th2 cell differentiation in the skin, releasing inflammatory cytokines, indicating that AD is a Th2-mediated skin disorder. SOCS proteins aid in balancing Th1/Th2 cells and, moreover, regulate the onset and maintenance of Th2-mediated allergic responses by reducing the Th2 cell activation and differentiation. SOCS proteins play a pivotal role in inflammatory cytokine-signaling events that act via the JAK/STAT pathway. Therapies relying on natural products and derived biomolecules have proven beneficial in AD when compared with the synthetic regimen. In this review, we focused on the available literature on the potential natural-product-derived biomolecules targeting JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling, mainly emphasizing the SOCS family of proteins (SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5) acting as negative regulators in modulating JAK/STAT-mediated responses in AD pathogenesis and other inflammatory disorders.
... Research on the biotechnological usage areas of these microalgae compounds, which were discovered by many studies on microalgae, has been concentrated on these organisms. Nowadays, microalgae are used as raw materials in many areas such as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, health foods, formulation of food and feed, fertilizer, and wastewater treatment due to their high reproduction rate and biochemical structures (Gouveia et al., 2006;Lum et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2015). Eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria are seen as promising organisms for fuel production (Culaba et al., 2020). ...
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High-throughput sequencing has provided a way to monitor the large diversity of microorganisms in fermented foods that have complex microbiota. Up to date, many kinds of cheese have been characterized with the metataxonomic approach, but the safety of unpacked Turkish white cheeses, which are widely consumed in Turkey, has not been assessed. In this study, fifteen unpacked white cheeses sold in public bazaars in Ankara province have been collected and subjected to microbial enumeration as well as physicochemical analysis. Five white cheeses, which have relatively the highest foodborne pathogens, out of fifteen white cheeses, have been analyzed by next-generation sequencing and metataxonomic analysis. According to the results, abundant families were Lactobacillaceae, Oceanospirillaceae, Enterococcaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae. Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella, which are indicators of bad hygiene and sanitation conditions, were found in cheeses. In conclusion, culture-independent methods such as metataxonomic can be important to evaluate the safety of foods.
... Red algae belong to the most primitive eukaryotic algae (2,3), which are widespread in both marine and freshwater where they play significant ecological roles (4). Red algae also contain unique polysaccharides, proteins, and other organic substances (5,6), which have been widely used in food, pharmaceutical products, and in many other fields of industry (7,8). Because of its distinct evolutionary position and its ecological and commercial importance, the number of studies on red algae is increasing rapidly. ...
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Photosynthetic organisms have evolved light-harvesting antennae over time. In cyanobacteria, external phycobilisomes (PBSs) are the dominant antennae, whereas in green algae and higher plants PBSs have been replaced by proteins of the Lhc family that are integrated in the membrane. Red algae represent an evolutionary intermediate between these two systems, as they employ both PBSs and membrane LHCR proteins as light-harvesting units. Understanding how red algae cope with light is not only interesting for biotechnological applications, but is also of evolutionary interest. For example, energy-dependent quenching (qE) is an essential photoprotective mechanism widely used by species from cyanobacteria to higher plants to avoid light damage; however, the quenching mechanism in red algae remains largely unexplored. Here, we used both pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence to characterize qE kinetics in the red alga Porphyridium purpureum. PAM traces confirmed that qE in P. purpureum is activated by a decrease in the thylakoid lumen pH, whereas time-resolved fluorescence results further revealed the quenching site and ultrafast quenching kinetics. We found quenching exclusively takes place in the photosystem II (PSII) complexes and preferentially occurs at PSII’s core antenna rather than at its reaction center, with an overall quenching rate of 17.6 ± 3.0 ns⁻¹. In conclusion, we propose that qE in red algae is not a reaction center-type of quenching, and that there might be a membrane-bound protein that resembles PsbS of higher plants or LHCSR of green algae that senses low luminal pH and triggers qE in red algae.
... Global production of macroalgal biomass has increased to 24 million tons and is still growing (Zheng et al., 2022). Studies revealed that macroalgal biomass is considered a rich source of biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides and sulfated polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, proteins and bioactive peptides, polyphenols and phlorotannins, and pigments compared to other taxonomic groups with diverse industrial applications (Wang et al., 2015). It has been reported that the active compounds extracted from macroalgal biomass play a significant role in anti-aging, antioxidant, antiphotoaging, skin conditioning, photoprotective, moisturizing, protecting, smoothing, and whitening products, etc. ...
Article
The cosmetics industry is expanding, and the quest for novel ingredients to improve and develop innovative products is crucial. Consumers are increasingly looking for natural-derived ingredients in cosmetic products that have been proven to be effective and safe. Macroalgae-derived compounds has growing popularity in skincare products as they are natural, abundant, biocompatible, and renewable. Due to their high biomass yields, rapid growth rates, and cultivation process, they are gaining widespread recognition as potentially sustainable resources better suited for biorefinery processes. This review demonstrates macroalgae metabolites and its industrial applications in moisturizers, anti-aging, skin whitening, hair, and oral care products. These chemicals can be obtained in combination with energy products to increase the value of macroalgae from an industrial perspective with a zero-waste approach by linking multiple refineries. The key challenges, bottlenecks, and future perspectives in the operation and outlook of macroalgal biorefineries was also discussed.
... In addition, they are precursors of retinol (Vitamin A) and other derivatives that participate in cell regeneration. Therefore, carotenoids are interesting for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries [1][2][3][4][5]. Among the carotenoids with the highest biotechnological potential are phytoene, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and astaxanthin [1,6,7]. ...
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Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with a number of assets useful for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Nowadays, it is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. However, the process leads to an enantiomeric mixture where the biologically assimilable forms (3R, 3′R or 3S, 3′S) are a minority. Microbial production of (3R, 3′R) astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an appealing alternative due to its fast growth rate and easy large-scale production. In order to increase X. dendrorhous astaxanthin yields, random mutant strains able to produce from 6 to 10 mg/g dry mass have been generated; nevertheless, they often are unstable. On the other hand, site-directed mutant strains have also been obtained, but they increase only the yield of non-astaxanthin carotenoids. In this review, we insight-fully analyze the metabolic carbon flow converging in astaxanthin biosynthesis and, by integrating the biological features of X. dendrorhous with available metabolic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data, as well as the knowledge gained with random and site-directed mutants that lead to increased carotenoids yield, we propose new metabolic engineering targets to increase astaxanthin biosynthesis.
... These can also be used to produce beverages such as microalgal health drinks, microalgal sour milk, and microalgal green tea [72]. Some skin disorders such as aging, tanning, and problems related with pigmentation can also be treated by microalgae [72,73]. Chlorella and Spirulina are used for producing cosmetic products such as cream, lotion, shampoo and sunscreen [74]. ...
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The production of biofuels from microalgae has gained considerable attention due to the rapid diminution of fossil fuels. Despite major advantages, microalgal biofuels deployment still faces obstacles associated with the cost of biomass production and waste disposal. The production could become more cost-effective and feasible if the wastes in the production processes are recycled/reused and the biofuels produced are co-produced with high-value co-products. The aim of this review is to discuss and analyze the importance of recycling/reusing wastes and co-producing high-value products to be implemented with biofuels from microalgal-based processes. Recent advances in circular economy/integration and polygeneration, as proper strategies, are discussed. Circular economy and integration entail the reuse of food wastes, waste biomass, and wastewater in microalgal conversion processes for producing biofuels. The main focus of the section of this review on circular economy is food waste reuse for microalgal production. Polygeneration is the production of multiple products, including a biofuel as the main product and multiple co-products to ensure process cost reduction. The results reported in relevant studies have shown that microalgal growth and metabolite accumulation could be favored by mixotrophic cultivation using wastes from the conversion processes or reused food wastes. The co-production of high-value products, including pharmaceuticals, proteins, carbohydrates, pigments, bioplastics, pellets, and biofertilizers may also favor the sustainability of biofuel production from microalgae.
... It is only in recent years that studies have been conducted, confirming the potential beneficial roles of microalgae in aquaculture (Gao et al., 2016;Ansari et al., 2017;Han et al., 2019). Microalgae could efficiently assimilate nutrients providing a good method for wastewater remediation (Wang et al., 2015a;Leng et al., 2018;Han et al., 2019) in aquaculture, having already demonstrated promising performances in the food and agriculture industries, and in municipal wastewater treatment (DeBashan et al., 2004;Lu et al., 2015;Han et al., 2019). Microalgae synthesise high value compounds e.g., proteins, lipids and pigments (Han et al., 2019). ...
Article
Development of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems constitutes a step change in the sustainable production of freshwater fish to meet emerging needs for high-protein foods globally. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift away from harvesting peat as a fuel towards the development of wettable peatland innovation (termed ‘paludiculture’), such as aquaculture. Such eco-innovations support carbon sequestration and align with a balanced environmental approach to protecting biodiversity. This novel peatland-based IMTA process in the Irish midlands relies upon natural microalgae for waste treatment, recirculation and water quality where there is no use of pesticides or antibiotics. This novel IMTA system is powered with a wind turbine and the process has ‘organic status’; moreover, it does not discharge aquaculture effluent to receiving water. However, there is a significant lack of understanding as to diversity of microalgae in this ‘paludiculture’-based IMTA processes. This constitutes the first case study to use conventional microscopy combined with next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics to profile microalgae occurring in this novel IMTA system from pooled samples over a 12 month period in 2020. Conventional microscopy combined with classic identification revealed twenty genera of algae; with Chlorophyta and Charophyta being the most common present. However, algal DNA isolation, 16 s sequencing and bioinformatics revealed a combined total of 982 species from 341 genera across nine phyla from the same IMTA system, which emphasized a significant underestimation in the number and diversity of beneficial or potentially harmful algae in the IMTA-microbiome. These new methods also yield rich data that can be used by digital technologies to transform future monitoring and performance of the IMTA system for sustainability. The findings of this study align with many sustainability development goals of the United Nations including no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, responsible consumption and production, climate change, and life below water.
... Additionally, even in the presence of harsh conditions, secondary metabolites are produced. These metabolites are effective against pathogenic fungi and viruses thanks to their antibiotic and antimicrobial properties [5]. Microalgae are excellent sources of value-added products like proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments, vitamins, and minerals [6]. ...
Article
Algae are photosynthesis-producing organisms that can be found in freshwater, wastewater, and aquatic environments. In order to get around a number of high-tech barriers in the algae biomass sector, it is necessary to improve the various activities and research. Algae have the potential to supply novel chemicals and bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. The abundance of algal diversity must be utilized for various applications. Algal biomass is a source of energy (biofuels), fertilizer, pollution control, stabilization, nutrition, high-value molecules, and various bioactive metabolites that can be investigated for new drugs in terms of their applicability in local and global markets. Microalgae have been widely used for the production of biomass and biofuel. As a result, large-scale experimental setups have been built to produce a lot of biomass and biofuel. Food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries all benefit greatly from microalgae. They also produce numerous biomolecules with added value, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-1,3-glucan, astaxanthin, lutein, phycobiliprotein beta-carotene, and chlorophyll, in addition to the previously mentioned application. The pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and feed, and nutraceutical industries all use these biomolecules extensively commercially. Furthermore, this review focuses specifically on the broad application potential algae based nonenergy applications, such as pharmaceuticals, food ingredients, pigments and cosmetics by marine algae.
... Following the current global trend, there is an increasing interest for the development of sustainable and environmentally friendly cosmetics [177]. Thus, the incorporation of algae-based functional compounds into cosmetics has grown considerably [178,179]. ...
Article
Due to the increase in industrial demand for new biosourced molecules (notably bioactive exopolysaccharides (EPS)), microalgae are gaining popularity because of their potential nutraceutical and health benefits. Such health effects are delivered by specific secondary metabolites, e.g., pigments, exopolysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, and glycolipids. These are suitable for the subsequent uses in cosmetic, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, biofuels, biological waste treatment, animal feed and food fields. In this regard, a special focus has been given in this review to describe the various methods used for extraction and purification of polysaccharides. The second part of the review provides an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of parameters affecting the microalgae growth and insights to maximize the metabolic output by understanding the intricacies of algal development and polysaccharides production. In the ultimate part, the health and nutraceutical claims associated with marine algal bioactive polysaccharides, explaining their noticeable potential for biotechnological applications, are summarized and comprehensively discussed in this review.
... Microalgae have the potential to produce biofuels, food, value-added compounds, and compounds for cosmetics, chemical industries, and feed [77]. Apart from the fuel applications, microalgae can produce various health-benefitting nutrients such as proteins, essential amino acids, omega fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and antioxidants [78]. ...
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Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock. However, the economic feasibility of biofuel production from microalgae does not satisfy capital investors. Apart from the biofuels, it is necessary to produce high-value co-products from microalgae fraction to satisfy the economic aspects of microalgae biorefinery. In addition, microalgae-based wastewater treatment is considered as an alternative for the conventional wastewater treatment in terms of energy consumption, which is suitable for microalgae biorefinery approaches. The energy consumption of a microalgae wastewater treatment system (0.2 kW/h/m3) was reduced 10 times when compared to the conventional wastewater treatment system (to 2 kW/h/m3). Microalgae are rich in various biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, pigments, vitamins, and antioxidants; all these valuable products can be utilized by nutritional, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. There are several bottlenecks associated with microalgae biorefinery. Hence, it is essential to promote the sustainability of microalgal biorefinery with innovative ideas to produce biofuel with high-value products. This review attempted to bring out the trends and promising solutions to realize microalgal production of multiple products at an industrial scale. New perspectives and current challenges are discussed for the development of algal biorefinery concepts.
... Microalgae are increasingly becoming focused on in scientific research due to their widely distributed nature and wide range of potential applications. Already, bioactive substances [13][14][15][16] and other valuable materials [17,18] are produced in microalgae on an industrial scale. For the evaluation of the developed MIFC system we used the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (HP). ...
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In the development and optimization of biotechnological cultivation processes the continuous monitoring through the acquisition and interpretation of spectral and morphological properties of bioparticles are challenging. There is therefore a need for the parallel acquisition and interpretation of spatially and spectrally resolved measurements with which particles can be characterized and classified in-flow with high throughput. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the scientific and technological connectivity of standard imaging flow cytometry (IFC) with filter-on-chip based spatially and spectrally resolving snapshot-mosaic cameras for photonic sensing and control in a smart and innovative microfluidic device. For the investigations presented here we used the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (HP). These microalgae are used commercially to produce the antioxidant keto-carotenoid astaxanthin. Therefore, HP is relevant to practically demonstrate the usability of the developed system for Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry (MIFC) platform. The extension of standard IFC with snapshot-mosaic cameras and multivariate data processing is an innovative approach for the in-flow characterization and derived classification of bioparticles. Finally, the multispectral data acquisition and the therefore developed methodology is generalizable and enables further applications far beyond the here characterized population of HP cells.
... Algae are photosynthetic organisms found on land and in the ocean. Macroalgae (seaweeds) grow in coastal areas, and do not possess organs commonly found in terrestrial plants (19). The marine macroalga Sarcodia suiae is edible and moderately abundant in the coastal areas of Taiwan. ...
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Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a marine fish of high economic value that grows at a fast rate. However, intensive fish farming has led to disease outbreaks in cobia cultures, which is highly costly to the industry. The impact of infectious diseases on cobia production has led to the inappropriate and increased use of chemicals and antibiotics, which negatively affects the environment and human health and promotes the spread of drug-resistant pathogens. Hence, prophylactic measurements, such as the use of immunomodulators, are required to improve the health of cultured animals against pathogens. In this study, we examined the effects of Sarcodia suiae water extract (SSWE) in cobia in vitro and in vivo. We found that treatment with SSWE could significantly increase the expression of cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α) and chemokines (e.g., IL-8) in primary cultured head kidney leukocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of SSWE (20 μg/g body weight) promoted higher expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, chemokines (e.g., CC1), and antibodies (e.g., IgT) in head kidney and spleen tissues of the fish compared with other dose levels. Additionally, we describe for the second time (only after India) of the isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Phdd) from a deadly epizootic in cage-farmed cobia. An intraperitoneal inoculation of SSWE before Phdd challenge showed that SSWE treatment could delay the onset of mortality of cobia. Finally, fish that received SSWE intraperitoneally before infection with Phdd exhibited elevated expression of Th1-type cytokines, namely, IL-8, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. At the same time, the expression of Th2-related factors (such as IL-10 in the head kidney, and IgM and IgT in the spleen) were lower for the fish that received SSWE instead of PBS before the Phdd challenge. The results indicate that SSWE treatment facilitates the induction of Th1-type cytokines in cobia to fight against Phdd infection and has the potential to be used as an immunostimulant and vaccine adjuvant for fish.
... Seaweeds are mainly classified into three main types, namely brown algae, red algae, and green algae belonging to the Phaeophyceae class, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta phyla, respectively. In which, green and red algae belong to the Plantae kingdom, whereas brown algae belong to the Chromista kingdom [13,14]. Marine macroalgae are a plentiful source of chemically diversified biological active components. ...
Article
Background: The utilization of seaweed-based biologically active components in cosmeceutical formulations has been extensively rising due to skin health-promoting effects. Seaweeds have varieties of biologically active components and possess potential benefits in skincare products. Methods: Hence, the present study was done to characterize the bioactive constituents of green seaweed Chaetomorpha aerea by using the gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry technique in ethanolic and methanolic extracts for presenting its cosmetic potential. Results: In analysis, a total of twenty-one different components were found in both the extracts. Their cosmetic potentials have been studied based on previous research studies. In addition, we characterized 9-octadecenoic acid [Z]-, phenylmethyl ester which belongs to benzyloxycarbonyls class. This compound exhibits promising applications in the cosmeceutical sector. This compound has a target peak percentage area (16.64%) with a retention time (39.1 min) in methanolic extract. Conclusion: The incorporation of seaweed-based bioactive components in cosmetics has been extensively growing due to its skin health-promoting effects.
Article
The sebum has important protective functions for the skin, although its overproduction may lead to undesired aesthetic problems and even more serious skin diseases. Sebum overproduction is caused by the androgen hormone testosterone, which is regulated by the enzyme 5-α Reductase, and can be associated with an over-proliferation of parasitic microbes that cause serious infections linked to skin inflammatory reactions. From the extremophile microalga Galdieria sulphuraria, we obtained a water-soluble extract and we found that it was capable of inhibiting the enzyme 5-α Reductase, inducing the expression of the β-defensins, which represents the first defense response mechanism triggered by the skin cells to fight against undesired microbes, and stimulating the wound healing process in skin cell cultures. The microalga extract was finally employed in clinical tests on human volunteers and it was confirmed its capacity to regulate sebum production. The results suggested that the Galdieria extract had interesting potentialities as active ingredient in cosmetic and dermatological formulas, in particular in those addressed to oily and seborrheic skins.
Chapter
Microalgae are mainly aquatic microscopic unicellular and simple multicellular photosynthetic microorganisms having vast array of morphological diversity. The biochemical diversity of microalgae includes the production of various carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins that have extreme commercialization potential. This potential has been successfully utilized in different industrial applications of microalgae that include formulation of food, feed, cosmetics, health products, fertilizers, waste water treatment, bio-fuel production and pharmaceutical antimicrobial products. The present work has tried to establish the nexus between the utilities of microalgae and need of its commercialization based on a review of the existing scientific literatures
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The development and recycling of biomass production can partly solve issues of energy, climate change, population growth, food and feed shortages, and environmental pollution. For instance, the use of seaweeds as feedstocks can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel resources, ensure the synthesis of cost-effective and eco-friendly products and biofuels, and develop sustainable biorefinery processes. Nonetheless, seaweeds use in several biorefineries is still in the infancy stage compared to terrestrial plants-based lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, here we review seaweed biorefineries with focus on seaweed production, economical benefits, and seaweed use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion, biochar, bioplastics, crop health, food, livestock feed, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Globally, seaweeds could sequester between 61 and 268 megatonnes of carbon per year, with an average of 173 megatonnes. Nearly 90% of carbon is sequestered by exporting biomass to deep water, while the remaining 10% is buried in coastal sediments. 500 gigatonnes of seaweeds could replace nearly 40% of the current soy protein production. Seaweeds contain valuable bioactive molecules that could be applied as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer, contraceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulants, and in other cosmetics and skincare products.
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The presence of emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), in aquatic environments has received increasing attention in the last years due to the various possible impacts on the dynamics of the natural environment and human health. In global terms, around 771 active pharmaceutical substances or their transformation products have been detected at levels above their respective detection limit. Additionally, 528 different compounds have been detected in 159 countries. Seeking to overcome potential ecotoxicological problems, several studies have been conducted using different technologies for PPCPs removal. Recently, the use of macro, microalgae, and aquatic macrophytes has been highlighted due to the excellent bioremediation capacity of these organisms and easy acclimatization. Thus, the present review aims to outline a brief and well-oriented scenario concerning the knowledge about the bioremediation alternatives of PPCPs through the use of macro, microalgae, and aquatic macrophytes. The characteristics of PPCPs and the risks of these compounds to the environment and human health are also addressed. Moreover, the review indicates the opportunities and challenges for expanding the use of biotechnologies based on algae and aquatic macrophytes, such as studies dedicated to relate the operational criteria of these biotechnologies with the main PPCPs removal mechanisms. Finally, algae and macrophytes can compose green and ecological biotechnologies for wastewater treatment, having great contribution to PPCPs removal.
Chapter
Marine macroalgae are the source of a wide range of compounds that have demonstrated a myriad of potential uses. Sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides are some of the major compounds found in these organisms, and they could be applied in many industries due to their diverse potentials. Seaweeds are a valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides, which are distinctive characteristics between taxonomic groups. For instance, brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) are known to contain alginate, fucoidan, laminarin, and ascophyllan. Sulfated carbohydrates are raising interest among the scientific community due to their beneficial properties. This chapter discusses these brown seaweed polysaccharides from their discovery, chemical structure, methodologies of extraction to the most important areas in the research, and also possible applications in several industries.
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Two-dimensional (2D) and 3D Raman spectroscopic imaging of Spirulina platensis was carried out to investigate its applicability in studying the chemical distribution and morphology of algal cells. The Spirulina trichome was easily damaged by laser illumination unless the laser parameters were properly adjusted. Raman spectra exhibited an evident sign of fluorescence, which changed during cumulative laser illumination on the same spot. Six peaks were selected from the spectra for chemical mapping, which showed distinct cellular features, including the central and peripheral parts of the cytoplasm, cell wall, sheath, and medium residues. Possible chemicals/organelles in these parts and mechanisms were discussed.
Thesis
L’entreprise SEPROSYS est une société spécialisée dans le développement de solutions d’extraction, de séparation et de purification de molécules d’intérêts. Au cours de l’année 2011, l’entreprise a développé un procédé innovant et éco-compatible de séparation et de purification fractionnée de biomolécules issues de macroalgues marines dont l’objectif est de valoriser une biomasse locale, via un procédé de fractionnement ne faisant pas intervenir de solvant ou d’acide. Ces travaux de thèse ont pour objectif d’identifier des applications potentiellement commercialisables pour les différentes fractions de macroalgues marines extraites selon le procédé développé par la société SEPROSYS, et en particulier, dans deux domaines distincts : en dermocosmétique pour leur activité anti-âge et anti-tâche, et en nutraceutique pour leur activité anti-inflammatoire. La première partie de nos travaux concerne l’amélioration du procédé, la caractérisation des fractions protéiques ainsi que la production de fractions peptidiques et oligosaccharidiques provenant d’Ulva rigida et Ulva intestinalis. La deuxième partie est consacrée à l’évaluation du potentiel « anti-âge » et du potentiel « anti-tâche » des différentes fractions provenant d’Ulva rigida et Ulva intestinalis. Dans ce but, l’impact des différentes fractions sur la biosynthèse de collagène et d’acide hyaluronique de lignées fibroblastiques, puis par la suite l’effet des fractions sur la production in vitro de mélanine par des mélanocytes murins ont été étudié. De plus, l’objectif de ce travail consiste également à mieux comprendre la relation structure-fonction de l'activité anti-âge des fractions protéiques. La troisième partie s’intègre au sein d’un projet dénommé Neuronalg, dont l’objectif est le développement d’actifs nutritionnels algo-sourcés, ciblant l’inflammation et les mécanismes d’altérations du comportement émotionnel liés aux troubles métaboliques. Pour cela, les activités anti-inflammatoires des fractions produites sur des macrophages murins à travers la quantification de monoxyde d’azote produit, associée au niveau transcription de protéines cibles comme iNOS (NO synthase inductible) et de cytokines pro- et anti-inflammatoires.
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Solid wastes from domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors cause acute economic and environmental problems. These issues can be partly solved by anaerobic digestion of wastes, yet this process is incomplete and generates abundant byproducts as digestate. Therefore, cultivating mixotrophic algae on anaerobic digestate appears as a promising solution for nutrient recovery, pollutant removal and biofuel production. Here we review mixotrophic algal cultivation on anaerobic waste digestate with focus on digestate types and characterization, issues of recycling digestate in agriculture, removal of contaminants, and production of biofuels such as biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel and dihydrogen. We also discuss applications in cosmetics and economical aspects. Mixotrophic algal cultivation completely removes ammonium, phosphorus, 17β-estradiol from diluted digestate, and removes 62% of zinc, 84% of manganese, 74% of cadmium and 99% of copper.
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Chapter
It has always been important for men and women to look beautiful, healthy and well-groomed during their lifetime, and they have always made an effort to maintain this image. For this purpose, they use various cosmetic preparations to improve the daily appearance with colored cosmetics, to maintain the permanent health of the external parts of the body by supplementing their needs externally, and to slow down or prevent aging. Almost every individual uses many cosmetic products without the need of a professional for application. The active substances in cosmetic preparations that are daily and continuously used should not have systemic and toxic effects. Because most of the cosmetic products contain synthetic chemicals and some of these chemicals have toxic effects, people are moving over to cosmetics prepared with natural products. This situation has revealed the need for a large amount of natural raw materials. After proving that it is possible to produce pure biological products in large quantities using biotechnological methods depending on the developments in technology, biotechnology has made a rapid entry into the cosmetics sector. Within the scope of this chapter, examples of cosmetic products obtained using biotechnological methods from plants and microorganisms, and cellular treatment approaches are briefly mentioned.
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In the present study, the bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi was isolated and identified by biochemical analysis from marine squid. 30 samples were collected from marine squid where nine isolates were identified as non-luminescent, and a single luminescent bacterium was identified. The isolated bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi was subjected to genomic DNA and restriction site analysis and the results were interpreted.
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Polysaccharides are essential macromolecules for living organisms, they are widely found in plants, animals, microorganisms, and algae. However, marine polysaccharides of microalgal origin have gained prominence over the last few years for their variety of applications in food, cosmetics, and especially health. The versatility of its applications is due to the derived complex chemical structures which come from its types of monosaccharide constituent, conformation, and the presence of substituent groups, especially the sulfate group. These facts contribute to the microalgae are promising for polysaccharides production. Some challenges related to extraction, identification, and purification have yet to be overcome, however, microalgae prove to be a potential source for the production of this class of compounds. In this sense, this review presents a comprehensive description of the production of microalgae polysaccharides, aspects related to chemical structure, rheological and functional characteristics, applications, and strategies for determination, in addition to a brief description of the main challenges for the use of these macromolecules. In summary, the results presented and discussed here can further elucidate the full potential of microalgae polysaccharides for different application purposes, in addition to providing guidance for the main hot spots to be considered in future research in this scientific field.
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Sunscreen use has increased in recent years, as sunscreen products minimize the damaging effects of solar radiation. Active ingredients called ultraviolet (UV) filters or UV agents, either organic or inorganic, responsible for defending skin tissue against harmful UV rays, are incorporated in sunscreen formulations. UV agents have a serious impact on many members of bio communities, and they are transferred to the environment either directly or indirectly. Many organic UV filters are found to be accumulated in marine environments because of high values of the octanol/water partition coefficient. However, due to the fact that UV agents are not stable in water, unwanted by-products may be formed. Experimental studies or field observations have shown that organic UV filters tend to bioaccumulate in various aquatic animals, such as corals, algae, arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, marine vertebrates. This review was conducted in order to understand the effects of UV agents on both the environment and marine biota. In vivo and in vitro studies of UV filters show a wide range of adverse effects on the environment and exposed organisms. Coral bleaching receives considerable attention, but the scientific data identify potential toxicities of endocrine, neurologic, neoplastic and developmental pathways. However, more controlled environmental studies and long-term human use data are limited. Several jurisdictions have prohibited specific UV filters, but this does not adequately address the dichotomy of the benefits of photoprotection vs lack of eco-friendly, safe, and approved alternatives.
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Codium tomentosum is a recently domesticated green macroalga, being currently cultured as an extractive species in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). Optimization of light requirements in outdoor systems must be achieved to increase the market value of cultivated algal biomass. The present study addresses the seasonal effects of light intensity and wavelength on productivity, pigment composition and epiphyte overgrowth in C. tomentosum cultured in a land-based IMTA system. Exposure to high light (non-filtered sun light) lead to higher net productivities in spring. However, non-filtered sun light caused significantly reduced productivities during summer when compared to filtered sun light (~ 4x lower irradiance levels). Furthermore, lower photosynthetic capacity (F v /F m ) was observed in macroalgae cultured under high light during summer, indicating photoinhibition. Treatments with filtered sun light (low and red light) showed intermediate and more stable productivities. Epiphyte biomass was higher under high light and the lowest epiphyte overgrowth was recorded under red light. Concentrations of light-harvesting pigments were lower in summer than in spring, indicating a seasonal photoacclimation of macroalgae. An opposite seasonal trend was observed for accessory xanthophylls, as the main role of these pigments is photoprotection. Higher all- trans -neoxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations were found in high light than in low or red light treatments, confirming the important role of these biomolecules in the photoprotection of C. tomentosum . This study underlines the importance of controlling light to optimize algal growth outdoors and enhance the production of high-value compounds (i.e., pigments). Additionally, this practice can also reduce epiphyte overgrowth, thus enhancing the valorization of macroalgal biomass derived from C. tomentosum aquaculture.
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"Whiteness" or having white skin is considered an important element in constructing female beauty in Asian cultures. A dramatic growth of skin whitening and lightening products has occurred in Asian markets. Contemporary meanings of whiteness are influenced by Western ideologies as well as traditional Asian values and beliefs. In this study, we analyze print advertisements for skin whitening and lightening products in four Asian societies - India, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea. We compare the verbal messages and visual images for both global brands and local brands and across countries. We find that whiteness in these Asian cultures is both empowering and disempowering as well as both global and local in character.
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World consumers are looking for personal care products that supply multiple benefits with minimal efforts. They also expect the latest technology advances to be incorporated into innovative formulations. The trend toward therapeutic cosmetics will lead to a better understanding of modern ingredients and their assessment techniques. To obtain skin care formulations with real consumer-perceivable benefits and to optimize sensory attributes, formulators are resorting to technology that until recently was exclusively used in cosmetic products. Various formulations comes under special delivery systems like Vesicular, Particulate systems, emulsions type Particulate type and other delivery systems along with their applications are shown in this article, as it results in an economic uplift of cosmetic industry in various parts of the world. Little evidence is seen that nanoparticles in cosmetics and sunscreen might be a problem at this time and its need is further explored for a better understanding of these novel technologies. Thus, novel cosmaceutical delivery systems reviewed here possess enormous potential as next-generation smarter carrier systems.
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Transgenesis in algae is a complex and fast-growing technology. Selectable marker genes, promoters, reporter genes, transformation tech-niques, and other genetic tools and methods are already available for various species and currently ~25 species are accessible to genetic transformation. Fortunately, large-scale sequencing projects are also planned, in progress, or completed for several of these species; the most advanced genome projects are those for the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, and the three green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri and Ostreococcus tauri. The vast amount of genomic and EST data coming from these and a number of other algae has the potential to dramatically enlarge not only the algae's molecular toolbox. A powerful driving force in algal transgenics is the prospect of using genetically modified algae as bioreactors. In general, today's non-transgenic, com-mercial algal biotechnology produces food additives, cosmetics, animal feed additives, pigments, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and bio-mass. But recent progress in algal transgenics promises a much broader field of application: molecular farming, the production of proteins or metabolites that are valuable to medicine or industry, seems to be feasible with transgenic algal systems. Indeed, the ability of trans-genic algae to produce recombinant antibodies, vaccines, insecticidal proteins, or bio-hydrogen has already been demonstrated. Genetic modifications that enhance physiological properties of algal strains and optimization of algal production systems should further improve the potential of this auspicious technology in the future.
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A wide variety of pigments, like chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, which exhibit colours ranging from green, yellow, brown to red are present in algae. Increasing awareness of harmful effects of synthetic dyes and inclination of society towards the usage of natural products, such as plant / microbial based colours in food and cosmetics, has led to the exploitation of microalgae as a source of natural colours. Algal pigments have great commercial value as natural colorants in nutraceutical, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, besides their health benefits. Spirulina, Dunaliella capsules are now commonly prescribed health foods for improving vitality and longevity of human beings. This review describes the distribution, structure of these pigments in algae, with emphasis on specific techniques for extraction and purification, along with different methods of biomass production and commercially feasible techniques documented in literature. An overview of the industrial applications of these natural colouring agents in diagnostics, food and cosmetics industry is also provided.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to focus on how new value creation can be driven by value innovation. It aims to study the process of value innovation within the functional foods industry, one of the fastest‐growing segments of the food industry. The paper seeks to highlight value innovation efforts by ingredient suppliers in the functional foods industry and to describe how suppliers seek to break the dominant logic, highlighting drivers of and obstacles to doing so. Design/methodology/approach The paper builds on a qualitative methodology. Two focus groups with participants from different levels in the industry's value chain were organized, combined with in‐depth interviews with managers and industry experts. This interpretive approach allows for the identifications of managerial cognitions, considered a necessity, given the fact that these types of innovations are hard‐to‐detect strategic “embryos” and they must be continuously contrasted against the experienced “industry recipe”. Findings The study pin‐points contrasting business logics at different levels in the chain, which might block value innovation. Value innovation initiatives in this industry are undertaken along two dimensions: breaking the dominant chain logic through new forms of collaboration and/or by crossing existing industry boundaries; and breaking the dominant product focus through introducing original value concepts. This study also revealed that upstream companies increasingly build competencies for value innovation. Research limitations/implications Given the qualitative methodology, the study remains explorative in nature. Nevertheless, it can form the basis for further research by offering an approach to “operationalize” the identification of value innovation initiatives. Practical implications This research provides tools for managers in the food industry to question their value creation processes. For food companies the paper contains interesting thoughts on the industry recipes, methods for value innovation in this industry and suggestions on how to boost the value innovation propensity. Originality/value This is a first application of value innovation in the functional foods industry. The methodological approach used to identify the industry recipe and the dimensions found for categorizing value innovation efforts are also contributing to the “general” value innovation literature.
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Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments.
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The name "cosmeceuticals" is derived from "cosmetics and pharmaceuticals", indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry.
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Carotenoids are isoprenoid molecules which are synthesised de novo by photosynthetic plants, fungi and algae and are responsible for the orange, yellow and some red colours of various fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids are lipophilic compounds, some of which act as provitamins A. These compounds can be divided into xanthophylls and carotenes. Many macroalgae and microalgae are rich in carotenoids, where these compounds aid in the absorption of sunlight. Industrially, these carotenoids are used as food pigments (in dairy products, beverages, etc.), as feed additives, in cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals, especially nowadays when there is an increasing demand by consumers for natural products. Production of carotenoids from algae has many advantages compared to other sources; for example, their production is cheap, easy and environmentally friendly; their extraction is easier, with higher yields, and there is no lack of raw materials or limited seasonal variation. Recently, there has been considerable interest in dietary carotenoids with respect to their antioxidant properties and their ability to reduce the incidence of some chronic diseases where free radicals are involved. Possibly, carotenoids protect cells from oxidative stress by quenching singlet oxygen damage with various mechanisms. Therefore, carotenoids derived from algae could be a leading natural resource in the research for potential functional ingredients.
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Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.
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Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first glance and at longer inspection.
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Anti-ageing products are of a great importance in cosmetic fields. However, even if numerous strategies have been proposed to fight against skin ageing or to minimize its aesthetic impact since the beginning of the 'scientific cosmetology' era, the products basing their efficacy on the observation of pathological situations are rare. The most obvious pathology linked to the ageing of skin (notably) consists in the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a rare disorder characterized by accelerated ageing and early death. In this disease the lamin A, a protein participating (with others lamins) in the formation of the nuclear lamina and implicated in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression, is present in a truncated version called progerin. In this study, we have examined the lactate and the progerin production of human normal cutaneous cells issued from subjects of different ages. Using a sensitive and specific progerin ELISA assay developed in house, we so provide the first quantitative demonstration of an increased progerin expression and lactate production in skin during ageing. Moreover, we have also demonstrated that in the selected experimental conditions, it was possible to down-regulate the progerin production of aged cells by using an algae extract. As this extract, an Alaria esculenta extract, could be used in cosmetic formulations, we suggest that a better understanding of the skin pathologies could be a useful tool in developing efficient active compounds, attractive for but not limited to cosmetic purposes.
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Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B) leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM). These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
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Extracts from 44 species of seaweed from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) were screened for the production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts and fungi. A total of 28 species displayed antibacterial activity, of which six also showed antifungal activity. Asparagopsis taxiformis and Cymopolia barbata were the species with the strongest activities against the broadest spectrum of target microorganisms. All the species with antibacterial activity were active against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas only two species, A. taxiformis and Osmundea hybrida, were active against mycobacteria. The production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activities by the macroalgae was also studied under different conditions, although no common trend for bioactivity was observed.
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The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential of sodium alginate as a biopolymer in the formulation development and its allied applications. There is a growing trend in pharmaceutical in food industry to avoid the harsh condition in the preparation for administration to the body or for the storage purpose as it induce the side effects, instability or loss of therapeutic effect of the medicament. The sodium alginate is a versatile functional biomaterial for viscosity enhancement, stabilizer, matrixing agent, encapsulation polymer, bioadhesive and film former in transdermal and transmucosal drug delivery. The present article reviews sources, preparation, properties, crosslinking methodology, compendial standards, methods utilized for preparation of drug delivery systems using sodium alginate and its potential applications.