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Taxonomic revision of the continental African species of Campylospermum Tiegh. (Ochnaceae).

Authors:
  • Institut de pharmacopée et de médecine traditionelles, Gabon

Abstract

Chapter 3 presents the taxonomic revision of the continental African species of the genus Campylospermum. It comprises 48 species, with C. auriculatum, C. gabonense, C. louisii and C. occidentale being strictly endemic to Gabon. A key to all taxa was constructed. Vegetative characters such as the leaf shape and venation, as well as inflorescence structure proved most useful to distinguish between species. Each taxon treatment comes with a detailed description, synonyms, typification (occasionally a lecto- or neotype had to be designated), distribution (including a map), habitat, uses, vernacular names, the citation of all specimens studied, and key literature. Additionally, the preliminary assessment of the IUCN conservation status of all species led to the assignment of a level of threat to 14 species. The remainder was categorized as Least Concern.
Systematics,•evolution•and•historical•
biogeography•of•the•family•Ochnaceae•with•
emphasis•on•the•genus•Campylospermum
Pulcherie•Bissiengou
Thesis•committee
Promotor
Prof.•Dr•M.S.M.•Sosef
Professor•of•Biosystematics
Wageningen•University
Co-promotors
Dr•L.W.•Chatrou
Assistant•professor,•Biosystematics•Group
Wageningen•University
Dr•L.•Ngok•Banak
Assistant•professor
Institute•de•Recherche•en•Ecologie•Tropicale•(IRET-Gabon)
Othermembers
Prof.•Dr•L.•Poorter,•Wageningen•University
Prof.•Dr•P.C.•van•Welzen,•Naturalis•Biodiversity•Center,•Leiden
Dr•R.H.J.•Erkens,•Maastricht•University
Dr•R.•van•Velzen,•Wageningen•University
This•research•was•conducted•under•the•auspices•of•the•Graduate•School•Production•
Ecology•&•Resource•Conservation
Systematics,•evolution•and•historical•
biogeography•of•the•family•Ochnaceae•with•
emphasis•on•the•genus•Campylospermum
Pulcherie•Bissiengou
Thesis
ϐ
at•Wageningen•University
ϐ
Prof.•Dr•M.J.•Kropff,•
in•the•presence•of•the•
Thesis•Committee•appointed•by•the•Academic•Board•
to•be•defended•in•public•
on•Friday•19•December•2014
•at•4•p.m.•in•the•Aula.
Chapter 3
Taxonomic revision of the
continental African species of
Campylospermum Tiegh. (Ochnaceae)
P. Bissiengou 1,2, L. W. Chatrou 2, L. N. Banak 3 and M. S.M. Sosef 4
1 Herbier National du Gabon (IPHAMETRA-CENAREST), B.P. 1156, Libreville, Gabon.
2 Biosystematics group, Wageningen University, PO Box 647, NL-6708 PB, Wageningen, The
Netherlands.
3 Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropical (IRET-CENAREST), B.P. 13345, Libreville, Gabon.
4 Botanic Garden Meise, Nieuwelaan 38, 1860 Meise, Belgium.
Manuscript in preparation
osy group, Wage gen ty, 47, -67 PB, geningen,
Net
her
lan
ds.
3
Institut de Recherche en Ecol
ogi
e Tropica
IRET-CENARES
T),
B.P. 13345, Libreville, Gabon.
4
Botanic Garden Meise, Nieuwelaan 38, 1860 Meise, Belgium.
Manuscript in preparation
ǤͶͲ
3
͵Ǥͳ Introduction
The•genus•CampylospermumTiegh.•comprises•some•55•species•occurring•in•the•African•
and•Asian•tropics.•Continental•Africa•harbours•48•species•distributed•from•Senegal•to•
Ethiopia•in•the•North•and•from•Angola•to•northern•Zambia•in•the•South.•Madagascar•is•
ϐȋͳͻͶͳǡͳͻͷͳȌ
ones.•Two•species•are•found•in•South•and•South•East•Asia,•one•from•India•to•Sri•Lanka•
and•one•from•Hainan•and•the•Philippines•to•Indonesia.•The•highest•species•diversity•is•
ϐǡ
the•Congo•(White•1979,•1983)•where•more•than•half•of•the•species•occur.•This•situation•
corroborates•the•high•botanical•species-richness•of•that•region•(Linder•2001;•Mutke•et•
al.•2001;•Küper•et•al.•2004;•Sosef•et•al.•2006;•Estrella•de•la•et•al.•2012;•Linder•et•al.•2012)•
which,•contrastingly,•remains•one•of•the•world’s•most•poorly•studied•regions•(Campbell•
and•Hammond•1989).
͵Ǥʹ position of Campylospermum within the
family Ochnaceae
Campylospermum• belongs• to• the• family• Ochnaceae.• Many• authors• who• treated• the•
family•recognised•different•subdivisions.•Candolle•(1811)•had•a•narrow•family•concept•
and• recognized• only• three• genera:• Ochna• L.,• Gomphia• Schreb.• and• Walkera• Schreb.•
Candolle•(1824)•added•the•genera•ElvasiaDC.•and•CastelaTurpin,•previously• placed•
with• doubts• in• Ochnaceae• and• Simaroubaceae• respectively• (Turpin• 1806;• Candolle•
1811).•His• distinction•between•the•genera•was•mainly•based•on•the•characteristics•of•
ϐǤCampylospermum have•initially•been•
placed•in•Gomphia. That•genus• used•to•accomodate•all• Ochnaceae–Ourateeae•species•
ϐOchna(hence•with•carpels•becoming•free•in•
fruit).•But,•Baillon•(1867)•found•out•that•the•older•name•OurateaAubl.•was•applicable•
     Gomphia• were• transferred• to• Ouratea• (e.g.• Engler•
1876).• Later,• some• Old• World• genera• were• segregated•from• Ouratea,• among• which•
Campylospermum•Tiegh.•(Bittrich•and•Amaral•1994).
Planchon•(1846)•subdivided•the•family•into•three•tribes:•Gomphieae,•Euthemideae•and•
Luxemburgieae.•Within•the•genus•Gomphia he•recognised•two•sections:•Eugomphia•in•
the•New•World•and•Gomphiastrum in•the•Old•World.•Those•sections•were•based•on•the•
morphology• of• the• stipules• being• either• intra-axillary• and• fused• (Gomphiastrum)• or•
extra-axillary•and•free•(Eugomphia).
Engler•(1876)•also•recognised•those•sections•and•extensively•studied• the•New•World•
species• of• Ouratea• which• he,• like• Planchon,• included• in• the• section• Eugomphia.• Gilg•
(1893)• in• his• treatment• of• the• family,• continued• using• the• name• Ouratea• instead• of•
3.1•Introduction
ǤͶͳ
3
Gomphiafollowing•Engler•(1876).• He• also• recognized• two•sections,•though•he•called•
these•Neoouratea•(New•World)•and•Palaeoouratea•(Old•World),•which•he•later•on•(Gilg•
1925)•raised•to•subgeneric•level.
The•next•milestone•in•the•delimitation•and•subdivision•of•the•Ochnaceae•was•the•work•
of•Van•Tieghem• (1902b,•1902c,•1902a,• 1903).•He•mostly•focussed•on•anatomical•and•
additional• morphological• characters• that• had• not• been• taken• into• consideration• by•
previous•authors.•His•subdivision•of•the•family•was•based•on•leaf•anatomical•characters,•
       ϐ ǡ    
morphology•(mainly•shape•and•position•of•the•embryo•and•cotyledons).•He•divided•the•
Ochnaceae•into•two•subfamilies:•Ochnoideae•and•Elvasioideae.•He•then•subdivided•the•
subfamily• Ochnoideae• into• two• tribes:• Ourateeae• and• Ochneae.• The• tribe• Ourateeae•
was,• in• turn,• divided• into• two• subtribes• which• he• called• Orthosperminae• (America)•
and•Campylosperminae•(Africa,•Madagascar•and•Asia).•Those•subtribes•are•identical•
with•Gilg’s•(1925)•subgenera•Neoouratea•and•Palaeoouratea•within•the•genus•Ouratea.•
Although•Van•Tieghem’s•contribution•to•the•understanding•of•the•family•was•of•great•
value,• he• introduced• an• exceptionally• narrow• concept• of• genera• and• species.• He•
ϐȋͳͻͲʹȌǡ
ϐǡϐͳͻͲ͹ȋ
1907).•The•present-day•Campylospermum species•were•scattered•across•seven•genera,•
and•those•of•the•genus•Ochna for•example•across•15•(Callmander•and•Phillipson•2012).•
His•views•were•followed•by•only•few•authors.•Gilg•(1925),•although•being•critical•about•
Van•Tieghem’s•species•and•genus•concept,•largely•agreed•with•the• major•subdivisions•
at•higher•levels.
Kanis• (1968),• accepted• Engler’s• main• division• (1874)• into• Exalbuminosae• and•
Albuminosae• as• two• distinct• subfamilies• named• Ochnoideae• and• Sauvagesioideae•
respectively.•Within•the•Ochnoideae•Kanis•recognized•the•tribes•Ochneae•and•Elvasieae•
and•divided•the•tribe•Ochneae•into•the•subtribes•Ochninae•and•Ourateinae.•The•latter•
two•had•previously•been•recognized•by•Van•Tieghem•at•the•level•of•tribes.•
Finally,• Amaral• (1991)• and• Amaral• and• Bittrich• (2014)• agreed• with• the• concept• to•
 
distinguished•three•subfamilies:•the•Luxemburgioideae,•the• Sauvagesioideae• and• the•
Ochnoideae.•They•followed•Kanis•in• the• subdivision• of• the• latter• subfamily• into• two•
tribes,• Ochneae• and• Elvasieae,• and• the• recognition• of• the• subtribes• Ochninae• and•
Ourateinae.•At•present,•the•latter•subtribe•comprises•four•genera•(see•below).
3.2•Delimitation•and•position•of•Campylospermum•within•the•family•Ochnaceae
ǤͶʹ
3
͵Ǥ͵ Taxonomic•history•of•the•genus•Campylospermum
ϐCampylospermum•that•were•discovered•were•described•as•members•
of•the•genus•Gomphia•(Candolle•1811,•1824;•Planchon•1846;•Oliver•1868).•The•number•
of•species•steadily•rose:•De•Candolle•(1811)•mentioned•three•species,•Planchon•(1846)•
ǡȋͳͺ͸ͺȌǡȋͳͺ͹ͶȌȋͳͺͻ͵ȌǤǡ
were•transferred•to•the•genus•Ouratea•subgenus•Palaeoouratea•section•Gomphiastrum
(Engler•1874;•Gilg•1893a).•It•was•notably•Farron•(1963,•1965;•1967;•1968,•1985)•who,•
after•the•extensive•splitting•of•Van•Tieghem•(see•above),•restructured•the•genus•Ouratea
and•created•the•present•situation•with•four•distinct•genera•in•the•subtribe•Ourateinae:•
Ouratea• Aubl.• (±200• species),• Idertia• Farron• (1• species),• Rhabdophyllum• Tiegh.• (8•
species)•and•Campylospermum Tiegh.•(±•55•species)•(Farron•1963;•Kanis•1968;•Farron•
1985;• Sastre• 1988;• Sastre• 2003;• Sosef• 2008,• 2013).• This• subtribe• is• characterized•
  ͳͲ     ϐǡ      
receptacle•that•becomes•reddish•and•swollen•in•fruit.•The•genus•Ourateais•restricted•
to•the•New•World•tropics,•the•genus•Campylospermum,•Idertia,•and•Rhabdophyllum•are•
ǡϐǤOuratea
is•distinct•from•the•rest•by•having•caducous•sepals•(not•persistent•and•accrescent•ones•
as•in• the•other•three•genera)•and•free,•extra-axillary•stipules• (fused•and•intra-axillaty•
in•the•others).•Idertia shares• having•a•straight•embryo•and• cotyledons•with•Ouratea,•
reason•why•Farron•(1968)•considered•Idertia•to•represents•the•most•primitive•African•
genus• of• which• Rhabdophyllum• and• Campylospermum• are• derived.• Rhabdophyllum
 ϐ   Campylospermum• mostly• because• of• its• dense,• straight•
 ϐ
interlock•with•the•margin•of•the•adjacent•sepal•in•bud•(Sosef•2008,•2013).
There•has•been•some•confusion•as•to•the•correct•generic•name•for•the•African•and•Asian•
species•of•Campylospermum,•when•they•are•seen•as•generically•distinct•from•their•New•
World•relatives.•While•some•authors•used•the•name•Ouratea Aubl.•for•all•Old•and•New•
World•species•(Gilg•1893;•De•Wildeman•1920;•Gilg•1925;•Hutchinson•et•al.•1954;•Robson•
1963),•others•placed•the•Old•World•species• in•either•a• distinct•genus•using•the•name•
Gomphia•Schreb.•(Kanis•1967,•1968;•Kanis•1972;•Kanis•1973;•Kanis•1987;•Nicolson•et•
al.•1988;•Verdcourt•2005)•or•Campylospermum•(Farron•1968,•1985;•Sosef•et•al.•2007;•
Bissiengou•and•Sosef•2008;•Bissiengou•et•al.•2013).•These•nomenclatural•issues•were•
 ϐ Ǥ  Ƭ
Amaral•(1994)• rendering•the•name• Gomphia a•full• synonym•of•Ouratea which•has• its•
type•species•in•the•New•World.
Campylospermum• has• about• 55• species• occurring• in• continental• Africa,• Madagascar,•
extending•east•to•China•and• the• Malesian• region• (Bissiengou• et• al.• 2013).• Despite•of•
the•many•individual•contributions,•the•African•species•of• Campylospermum have•not•
3.3•Taxonomic•history•of•the•genus•Campylospermum
ǤͶ͵
3
been•fully•revised•after•Gilg•(1925),•although•notably•Farron•(1963,•1965,•1968,•1985),•
Bamps•&•Farron•(1967),•Robson•(1963),•Verdcourt•(2005)•and•others•published•useful•
parts•for•such•a•revisionary•work•of•the•continental•species.•
Farron•(1968)•kept•some•of•van•Tieghem’s•genera•as•sections•within•Campylospermum.•
He•based•his•arrangement•of•six•sections•mainly•on•the•shape•and•position•of•embryo•
and• cotyledons:• cotyledons• being• either• of• similar• size• and• incumbent• (section•
Notocampylum,• Diphyllopodium)• or• accumbent• (section• Campylospermum• and•
Cercanthemum),• or• being• dissimilar• in• size• and• incumbent• (section• Monelasmum)•
or• accumbent• (section• Campylospermum).• The• more• derived• species• of• the• genus•
Rhabdophyllum• tend• to• have• heterocotyledonous• embryos• while• the• primitive• ones•
have•isocotyledonous•ones•(Farron•1985).• Species•of Idertiahave•cotyledons•that•are•
similar• in• size,• straight• and• accumbent.• Finally,• Farron’s• sixth• section,• Bisetaria,• is•
based•upon•the•distinct• close• leaf• venation• and• linear,•free• stipules• of• the• species• C.
lecomtei ȋǤȌǤϐǡ
distinction•is•generally•based•on•characteristics•of•the•leaf•shape•and•venation•as•well•
  ϐ Ǥ        ǡ 
ϐǦǤ
To•evaluate•Farron’s•sectional•arrangement,• the• cotyledon• type•was•studied•for•each•
species.•The• results• proved•not•to•be• consistent• with• Farron’s•observations•because•
different•types•of•cotyledons•were• present• within• a• section.• For•example,•within• the•
section•Diphyllopodium,•according•to•Farron•characterized•by•accumbent•cotyledons•of•
similar•size,•those•of•C.•subcordatum•proved•to•be•dissimilar•in•size•with•a•small•outer•
cotyledon.•Furthermore,•the•species•pairs•C.•auriculatum•and•C.•schoenleinianum as•well•
as•C. klainei and•C. mannii are•morphologically• highly• similar•but•differ•in•cotyledon•
type,•and•would•hence•have•to•be•grouped•in•different•sections.•Finally,•the• results•of•
molecular•work•undertaken•at•the•moment•(Chapter•5)•shows•a•phylogenetic•tree•with•
low•resolution•at•species•level.•However,•in•the•cases•where•species•of•Campylospermum
are•grouped,•they•do•not•follow•Farron’s•sectional•arrangement,•except•for•the•species•
of•section•Cercanthemum,•which•are•grouped•(0.99•posterior•probabilities)•along•with•
species• occurring• in• Madagascar.• The• above• suggests• that• cotyledon• type• is• a• fairly•
unstable•character,•less•suitable•to•be•used•for•sectional•delimitation.•Because• of•this,•
we•conclude•that•Farron’s•sections•do•not•provide•a•natural•grouping,•and•we•decided•
not•to•retain•any•sectional•arrangement•in•the•current•study.
3.3•Taxonomic•history•of•the•genus•Campylospermum
p.44
3
͵ǤͶ Uses
Plants• of• Campylospermum       ϐǡ  
ϐǡ
(Burkill•1997).•Being•shrubs•or•small•trees,•only•few•are•useful•as•timber•(Burkill•1997),•
but•a•fair•number•have•medicinal•properties•(Neuwinger•2000).•In•Liberia,•the•saplings•
of•C.•squamosum•are•used•to•bind•the•drum-head•onto•hollow•log•drums•while•the•bark•
or•pounded•leaves•are•used•in•poultices•to•relieve•body•pain•(Burkill•1997;•Oyen•2012).
͵Ǥͷ Seed dispersal
The•mericarps•are•green•or•red•when•immature•and•red•to•black•and•shiny•in•mature•
state.•The•black•ones•are•often•contrasting•with•the•red•sepals•and•receptacle•and•as•
such•represent•a•typical•syndrome•suggesting•dispersal•is•by•birds•(Van•der•Pijl•1982),•
although•no•reports•of•direct•observations•are•known•to•us.•
͵Ǥ͸ Conservation
Our• knowledge• of• the• conservation• status• of• many• Campylospermum• species• is• still•
limited.•Some•of• them• are• known• from• only• very• few•scattered•collections,•whereas•
others•are•known•from•only•a•very•restricted•area.•Therefore,•it•was•decided•to•add•a•
preliminary•assessment•of•the•IUCN•conservation•status•of• each•species•based•on•the•
locality•data•of•the•herbarium•specimens•studied.
͵Ǥ͹ Materials and Methods
͵Ǥ͹Ǥͳ Taxonomy
This•revision•is•based• on•herbarium•material•either•received•on• loan•from•or•studied•
during•visits•to•the•following•herbaria:•A,•AAU,•B,•BAS,•BATA,•BENIN,•BR,•BRLU,•BM,•BUC,•
C,•CNSF,•COI,•CSRS,•E,•EA,•EPU,•FBC,•FHO,•FI,•FR,•G,•GENT,•GC,•GH,•HBG,•IAGB,•IEC,•IFAN,•
IG,•K,•KIS,•KRIBI,•L,•LAMTO,•LD,•LBV,•LIB,•LISU,•LISC,•LMA,•LUA,•LY,•M,•MA,•MAKOK,•MHU,•
ǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡ
ǡǡǡǡǡǡ ǡǤ ȋʹͲͳʹȌǤǡϐ
observations•were•made•during•expeditions•in•Gabon•and•Cameroon•(2009–2010).•In•
total,•about•5000•herbarium•specimens•were•studied•for•this•revision.
Furthermore,• targeted• searches• to• locate• type• specimens• were• performed• using•
websites•such•as•the• Aluka• African• Plant• Initiative•Database•(ǣȀȀǤǤȀ
ȀȀǤ),• the• JSTOR• Plant• Science• (ǣȀȀǤǤȀ)• and• the•
GBIF•portal•(ǣȀȀǤǤȀ).•
3.4•Uses
ǤͶͷ
3
All•specimen•data•were•entered•into•the•BRAHMS•(Botanical•Research•and•Herbarium•
Management•System)•database•of•the•National•Herbarium•of•the•Netherlands•(now•part•
of•the• Naturalis•Biodiversity•Center).•From•this•database•specimen•citation•lists•were•
generated•for•each•taxon.
 ǡ 
applied•(Vogel•1987).•Taxa•were•treated• as• being• distinct•at•species•level•when•they•
      Ǥ    
    Ȁ       
 ϐǤǡǤ ǡ
the•terminology•used•in•the•species•description•is•based•on•(Stearn•1992)•and•(Harris•
and•Harris•2001).
͵Ǥ͹Ǥʹ 
Locality•data•of•all•specimens•was•geo-referenced.•To•produce• distribution• maps• for•
each•species,•BRAHMS•was•used•in•combination•with•ArcView•3.3•software•(ESRI•2002).•
Only•specimens•with•accuracy•of•15•arcmin•or•less•were•used•to•produce•the•maps.
To•perform•a•preliminary•assessment•of•the•IUCN•category•of•threat•for•each•species,•the•
BRAHMS•software•in•combination•with•ArcView•3.3•(ESRI•2002)•and•the•IUCN•Red•List•
add-in•script•developed•by•Moat•(2007)•were•used.•The•latter•calculates•the•AOO•(area•
of•occupancy),•EOO•(extent•of•occurrence)•and•number•of•localities•for•each•species.•The•
threat•category•of•each•individual•species•was•assessed•by•evaluating•the•EOO•or•AOO•
 ȋ ʹͲͳ͵Ȍϐ 
following•the•IUCN•guidelines•(Subcommittee•2013).•To•estimate•the•AOO•and•EOO,•an•
appropriate•cell•size•was• generated•for•each•individual•species.• The• IUCN• guidelines•
advise•to•have•a•cell•width•of•2•km,•but•this•is•not•deemed•useful•when•working•with•
herbarium•records•(Moat•2007).•Instead•we•applied•a•sliding•cell•size,•as•advised•by•and•
ǦȋʹͲͲ͹ȌǤǡǮǯϐ
single•grid•cell.•Projected•continuing•decline•of•a•species•either•in•terms•of•geographic•
range•(AOO,•EOO)• or• of•subpopulation•was•assessed•by• determining• the•presence•of•
 Ȁ  Ǧ
activities•or•other•relevant•threats.•The•location•of•protected•areas•was•obtained•using•
the•World•Database•on•Protected•Areas•(ǣȀȀǤǤ).
͵Ǥ͹Ǥ͵ Genus•treatment
CampylospermumTiegh.
J.•Bot.•(Morot)•16:•35-40•(Febr.•1902);•Bull.•Mus.•Hist.•Nat.•(Paris)•8:•215•(Apr.•1902);•J.•
Bot.•(Morot)•16:•196-197•(June•1902);•Ann.•Sci.•Nat.,•sér.•8,•Bot.•16:•193-296•(Dec.•1902);•
Farron,•Bull.•Soc.•Bot.•Suisse•73:•202•(1963);•H.Perrier,•Fl.•Madag.•133•Ochnacees:•2-18•
3.7•Materials•and•Methods
ǤͶ͸
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
(1951);•Farron,•Bull.•Jard.•Bot.•État•Bruxelles•35:•393•(1965);•Bamps•&•Farron,•Fl.•Congo•
Belge,•Ochnaceae:•32•(1967);•Farron,•Candollea•23:•177-228•(1968);•Farron,•Bot.•Helv.•
95:•59-72•(1985).•–•Type•species:•Campylospermumdybovskii•Tiegh.
Gomphia•Schreb.,•Gen.•Pl.•ed.•8,•1:•291•(1789),•pro•parte•(excl.•the• type);•P.Beauv.,•Fl.•
ʹȋͳʹȌǣʹʹǡǤ͹ʹȋͳͺͳͲȌǢǡǤǤǡǣ͵ͻͺȋͳͺͳͳȌǢǡ
London•J.•Bot.•24:•593(1846);•Oliver,•Fl.•trop.•Afr.•1:•319-322•(1868);•Kanis,•Taxon•16:•
420•(1967);•Blumea• 16:• 51•(1968);•Rev.•Fl.•Ceylon•6:• 251•(1988);•Amaral•&• Bittrich,•
Taxon• 43:• 89-93• (1994);• Verdc.,• Fl.• Trop.• E.• Africa,• Ochnac.:• 43-52• (2005).• –• Type•
species:•GomphiazeylanicaȋǤȌǤؠGomphiaserrata•(Gaertn.)•Kanis.
Ouratea•Aubl.,•Hist.•Pl.•Guiane:•397•(1775),•nom.•cons.,•pro•parte•(excl.•the•type);•Engl.•
ƬǤǡǤϐǤǤͳǡǡ͸ǣ͹ͻǦͺͳȋͳͺͻ͵ȌǢǤǡǤǤǤǤǤ
8:•208-218•(Jan.•1902);•Gilg,•Bot.•Jahrb.•Syst.•33:•231-275•(1904);•De•Wild.,•Rev.•Zool.•
Afr.•VII,•Suppl.•Bot.:•B42-B71•(1920);•Farron,•Bull.•Soc.•Bot.•Suisse•73:•196-217;•Amaral•
&•Bittrich,•Taxon•43:•89-93•(1994).•Type•species:•Ourateaguianensis•Aubl.
Bisetaria•Tiegh.,•J.•Bot.•(Morot)•16:•44•(Feb.•1902).•–•Type•species:•Bisetarialecomtei
ǤؠCampylospermum lecomtei (Tiegh.)•Farron.
Cercanthemum• Tiegh.,• J.• Bot.• (Morot)• 16:• 198• (June• 1902).• –• Type• species:
CercanthemumsacleuxiiǤؠCampylospermum sacleuxii (Tiegh.)•Farron.
NotocampylumTiegh.,•J.•Bot.•(Morot)•16:•199•(June•1902).•–•Type•species:•Notocampylum
manniiȋǤȌǤؠCampylospermum mannii (Oliv.)•Tiegh.
Diphyllopodium• Tiegh.,• J.• Bot.• (Morot)• 16:• 200• (June• 1902).• –• Type• species:•
DiphyllopodiumklaineiǤؠCampylospermum klainei (Tiegh.)•Farron.
SpongopyrenaTiegh.,•J.•Bot.•(Morot)•16:•201•(June•1902).•–•Type•species: Spongopyrena
elongataȋǤȌǤؠCampylospermum elongata (Oliv.)•Tiegh.
Monelasmum Tiegh.,•J.•Bot.•(Morot)•16:•202•(June•1902).•–•Type•species: Monelasmum
reticulatumȋǤǤȌǤؠCampylospermum reticulatum (P.Beauv.)•Farron.
Exomicrum Tiegh.,•Ann.•Sci.•Nat.,•sér.•8,•Bot.•16:•338•(Dec.•1902)•&•Bull.•Mus.•Nat.•Hist.•
Nat.•8:•547•(Dec.•1902).•–• Type•species:•Exomicrum glaberrimumȋǤǤȌǤؠ
Campylospermum glaberrimum (P.Beauv.)•Farron.
Trees,• treelets• or• shrubs,• monocaulous• or• with• branched• stem,• glabrous.• Stipules
intrapetiolar,•caducous•or•persistent,•fusedor•rarely•free•(C. lecomtei), triangular•to•
linear.• Leaves sessile•or•petiolate;•petiole• often•wrinkled;•leaf•blade• often•coriaceous,•
with•entire•to•serrate•margin,•often•decurrent•onto•the•petiole;•venation:•main•lateral•
veins• well-spaced• or• rarely• numerous• and• dense• (C. lecomtei),• slightly to strongly
curved up to run subparallel to the marginor•rarely•straight•(C. lecomtei),•secondary•
lateral•veins•not•reaching•the•margin,•tertiary•venation•scalariform,•sometimes•reticulate•
ǤͶ͹
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
towards•the•midrib•or•rarely•reticulate,•distinct•to•indistinct.•ϔterminal
or•rarely•axillary,• generally composed of sessile to subsessile cymules arranged
in racemesǡͳΫʹϐǢ
pairwise•scales•at•the•base•of•peduncle•present•or•absent.•Flower:•bracts•caducous•or•
persistent;•pedicel•articulated• above•the•base,• part• below•the•articulation•persistent;•
 ͷǡ   ǡ     ϐǡ persistent, accrescent
and turning red in fruit;•petals• 5,• contort,• longer• than• the• sepals,• yellow• or• rarely•
whitish•or•orange,•cuneate• or• rarely•shortly•unguiculate• a• base;•  ͳͲ,• in• two•
ǡǡϐǡmuch shorter than the anthers,•generally• less• than• 1•
mm•long,•usually•persistent,• anthers• yellow,•narrowly•to• very•narrowly•pear-shaped,•
transversely•wrinkled,•poricidal,•caducous;•carpels•5,•fused below but eventually free
in fruit,• 1-ovulate;•style•1,•slender,•gynobasic,•bent• outward,•stigma•terminal,•small.•
Fruit:•ϐάϐǦǡ;•1•to•5•well•developed•
drupelets• per• fruit,• reniform• to• ellipsoid• or• almost• globose,• passing• through• green•
or•red•to•black•at•maturity;•cotyledons incumbent or accumbent, curvedǡ 
strongly•dissimilar•in•size.•
A•genus•of•about•55•species,•48•of•which•are•widely•distributed•in•tropical•Africa•(see•
ͳȌǡϐǡʹǦ
from•India•to•Sri•Lanka,•Hainan,•and•the•Philippines•to•Indonesia.
ͳ.•Distribution•of•the•African•Campylospermum
͵Ǥ͹ǤͶ Key to the continental African species of Campylospermum
1.• -•Monocaulous•trees,•hence•with•unbranched•stem;•leaves•crowded•at•the•end•of•
the•stem•(collecting•litter);•leaf•blade•17-70(-90)•cm•long,•narrowly•spathulate•
to• narrowly• elliptic-obovate• or• rarely• narrowly• elliptic;• tertiary• venation•
ǤͶͺ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
perpendicular•to•the•main•laterals••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••2
-• Shrubs• or• trees• with• branched• stem;• leaves• well-spaced• along• the• twigs;• leaf•
blade•generally•4-95•cm•long,•(very)•narrowly•elliptic•to•(very)•narrowly•obovate•
or•elliptic•to•obovate;•tertiary•venation•usually•perpendicular•to•the•midrib••••••••7
ʹǤ Ǧ ϐǡʹǦͷ͵
Ǧ ϐͷ
͵Ǥ Ǧ ϐǡǡʹǦͷ
racemes;•leaf•base•broadly•cuneate•to•cordate••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••4
Ǧ ϐ ǡ  ͳǦͷ     Ǣ  
auriculate•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•amplectens
ͶǤ Ǧ ϐ  ǡ    ǡ   
racemes•of•up•to•1.5•cm•long•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•duparquetianum
Ǧ ϐʹǦͷȋ͵ǦȌͳ͵ǦʹͺȋǦ͵ͷȌǡ
top•of•a•long•peduncle•carrying•two•leafy•bracts•at•the•apex•••••••••••C.•subcordatum
ͷǤ Ǧ ϐǡǦǡʹ͵Ǧ͸ͲȋǦͺ͵ȌC.•elongatum
Ǧ ϐǡͺǦʹͷȋǦ͵ʹȌ͸
͸Ǥ Ǧ ϐ      ǡ ͵ǦͶ  Ǣ   ʹ
subopposite•reduced•leaves•or•leafy•bracts•at•the•base•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•klainei
Ǧ ϐǡC.•mannii
7.• -• Leaf•base•auriculate•to•cordate;•leaf•blade•with•16-30•main•lateral•veins••••••••••••••8
-• Leaf•base•attenuate•to•cuneate•or•slightly•cordate,•rarely•cordate•but•then•leaves•
with•30-50•main•lateral•veins•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••9
ͺǤ Ǧ ͳ͸ǦͳͻǢϐͳʹǦͳͷȋǦͳͺȌǢ
͹ǦͺϐǡͻǦͳͲǢǡ
ȋȌC.•auriculatum
Ǧ ʹͲǦ͵ͲǢϐȋͳͲǦȌͳʹǦʹ͹ȋǦ͵ͻȌǢ
 ͷǦ͹   ϐǡ ͸Ǧ͹    Ǣ    
(West•Africa)••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•schoenleinianum
9.• -• Leaf•margin•spinose-serrate,•at•least•in•the•apical•half•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••10
-• Leaf•margin•entire•to•serrulate•or•serrate•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••11
10.• -• Leaf• blade•(3-)5-8(-9)• cm•wide,• with•11-25• main• lateral•veins•5-25• mm•apart;•
cotyledons•dissimilar•in•size,•with•a•small•outer•cotyledon;•stipules•4-5•mm•long•
p.49
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
(West•and•Central•Africa)••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Ǥϔ
-• Leaf•blade•(1.5-)2-3(-4.5)•cm•wide,•with•3-12•main•lateral•veins•15-30(-70)•mm•
apart;•cotyledons•similar•in• size;• stipules• 2-3• mm•long•(Tanzania,•Zambia•and•
south-eastern•Democratic•Republic•of•the•Congo)••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•lunzuense
ͳͳǤ Ǧ ϐ ǡ Ǣ  ϐ ȋ  
Tanzania)••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••12
Ǧ ϐ ǡ   Ǣ   
ϐϐͳ͵
12.• -• Leaf• blade•(4-)6-10(-13)• cm• wide,• with•an• acute• to•acuminate• apex;• peduncle•
(7-)9-28(-39)•cm•long;•tertiary•venation•scalariform,•perpendicular•to•the•main•
lateral•veins••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•sacleuxii
-• Leaf• blade• (2-)3-5(-7)• cm• wide,• with• an• obtuse• to• rounded• apex;• peduncle•
3-15•cm•long;•tertiary•venation•reticulate,•except•for•a•few•scalariform•veinlets,•
perpendicular•to•the•midrib•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Ǥϔ
ͳ͵Ǥ Ǧ ȋȀεͺȌǡ
low•as•4.5•but•then•midrib•running•through•a•gully••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••14
Ǧ     ȋȀ δ ͹Ȍǡ 
prominent•on•upper•side,•ratio•always•lower•than•7•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••15
14.• -• Leaf• blade• with• curved,• well-spaced• main• lateral• veins;• stipules• narrowly•
ǡǤ͵ǢϐC.•louisii
-• Leaf• blade• with•straight• and• closely•spaced• main• lateral• veins;•stipules• linear,•
ͷǦͳ͵ǢϐC.•lecomtei
15.• -• Leaf•blade•with•0-7•main•lateral•veins,•up•to•10(-14)•x•2(-3)•cm••••••••••••••••••••••••••••16
-• Leaf•blade•with•(7-)9-more•main•lateral•veins,•generally•longer•and•broader••••17
16.• -• Leaf• blade• with• 4-7• main• lateral• veins• and• acute• apex;• racemes• 3-6(-9)• cm•
long••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•glomeratum
-• Leaf•blade•with• 0-2(-5)•main•lateral•veins,•the•very• apex•apiculate;•racemes• 1-3•
cm•long••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•paucinervatum
ͳ͹Ǥ Ǧ  ǡȋʹͶǦȌʹͺǦͶͷȋǦͷ͵Ȍ ȋͺǦȌͳͳǦͳͶȋǦͳ͹ȌǢ ϐͻǦͳͲ
x•6-7•mm,•strongly•enlarged•in•fruit•to•(20-)25-30(-35)•x•(10-)13-20(-25)• mm•
(southern•Cameroun•and•northern•Gabon)•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•umbricola
Ǧ  Ǣ  ϐ Ͷ ǡ  ͸
mm•(tropical•Africa)•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••18
ǤͷͲ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
18.• -• Leaf•blade•distinctly•bullate••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••19
-• Leaf•blade•not•or•sometimes•slightly•bullate••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••25
19.• -• Stipules• 14-17• mm• long;• leaf• blade• with• tertiary• venation• indistinct• on• both•
ǢϐǡʹǦͶǡ ǡͳǦʹ
apart•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•longestipulatum
-• Stipules•2-13(-25)•mm•long;•leaf•blade•with•tertiary•venation•distinct,•at•least•on•
ǢϐǡȋͳǦȌ͵Ǧǡ
η͵ʹͲ
ʹͲǤ Ǧ ϐǡǡϐ
ͳͲǢ͹ǦͳͲʹǦͶϐǡͻǦͳʹ͵Ǧ͸ʹͳ
Ǧ ϐ   ǡ ǡ        
ϐͳͲǦʹͲǡϐ
ͷǦ͹ͳǤͷǦʹϐ͸ǦͺʹǦ͵ʹʹ
21.• -• Leaf• blade• with• distinctly• prominent• midrib• above,• 10-16• main• lateral• veins•
on• either• side• and• scalariform• tertiary• veins• running• perpendicular• to• the•
midrib••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•sulcatum
Ǧ     ϐ ǡ ͳͶǦʹ͹     
side• and• scalariform• tertiary• veins• running• perpendicular• to• the• main•
laterals••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•gabonense•subsp.•australe
ʹʹǤ Ǧ ϐ ͳǦ͵    
ǢϐͶǦͷǢ͵ǦͶϐǡǤͷ
long•in•fruit•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•descoingsii
Ǧ ϐ ǡ    ǡ   
and•sepals•longer•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••23
23.• -• Leaf•blade•with• tertiary•venation•very•distinct•and• prominent•on• both•surfaces;•
ϐC.•excavatum
-• Leaf• blade• with• tertiary• venation• indistinct• to• distinct• but• never• prominent;•
ϐʹͶ
ʹͶǤ Ǧ ϐʹǦ͹Ǣǡ
fairly•distinct•below;•pedicels•articulated•at•2-4•mm• from•the•base;•cotyledons•
accumbent,•similar•in•size••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•calanthum
Ǧ ϐͲǦ͵Ǣ
surfaces;•pedicels• articulated•at•1-2• mm•from•the• base;•cotyledons•incumbent,•
dissimilar•in•size••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•claessensii
Ǥͷͳ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
25.• -• Leaf• blade• with• rounded• to• cordate•base;• each• pedicel• supported• by•c.• 3•tiny•
bracts•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•oliveri
-• Leaf•blade•with•attenuate•to• cuneate•base,•rarely•rounded•but•then•each• pedicel•
supported•by•only•1•tiny•bract•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••26
26.• -• Leaf• glaucous• (greyish)• above• when• dry;• plants• either• with• a• pendulous•
ϐǡȋͶȋǦ͸Ȍ
Ȍϐ͵ǦͶʹ͹
Ǧ ǢϐǦʹͺ
ʹ͹Ǥ Ǧ ϐǡǡȋͻǦȌͳͷǦ͵͵•C.•glaucifolium
Ǧ ϐǦǡǡȋͳǦȌʹǦͶȋǦ͸ȌC.•glaucum
ʹͺǤ Ǧ ϐͳǦʹ ǡ Ͷ ǡ
the•base,•dense••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••29
Ǧ ϐǡͶǡ͵͵
29.• -• Leaf•blade•slightly•bullate•(main•lateral•veins•in•a•shallow•depression)•••••••••••••••30
Ǧ ϐ͵ʹ
͵ͲǤ Ǧ           ϐ
parallel• veinlets;• pedicels• articulating• at• the• very• base;• cotyledons• similar• in•
size•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•congestum
-• Leaf• blade• with• tertiary• venation• with• more• widely• spaced• parallel• veinlets;•
ηʹǢ
size•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••31
31.• -• Leaf• blade• (6-)9-17(-21)• x• (2-)3-6(-7)• cm,• with• tertiary• scalariform• veinlets•
running•perpendicular• to• the• midrib,• 10-16• main• lateral• veins• on• either• side;•
pedicels•articulating•at•2-3•mm•from•the•base••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•sulcatum
-• Leaf•blade•16-30(-35)•x•6-10(-11)•cm,•with•tertiary•scalariform•veinlets•running•
perpendicular• to• the• main• laterals,• 14-27• main• lateral• veins• on• either• side;•
pedicels•articulating•at•3-9•mm•from•the•base•••••••••••••C.•gabonense•subsp.•australe
32.• -• Leaf•blade•(5-)7-14•x•(1.5-)2-4•cm,•with•10-14•main•lateral•veins•on•either•side;•
pedicels•articulating•at•1-2•mm•from•the•base••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•cabrae
-• Leaf•blade•16-30(-35)•x•6-10(-11)•cm,•with•14-27•main•lateral•veins•on•either•side;•
pedicels•articulating•at•3-9•mm•from•the•base••••••••••C.•gabonense•subsp.•gabonense
33.• -• Leaf•blade•with•main•lateral•veins•indistinct•to•at•most•slightly•prominent•above,•
tertiary•venation•indistinct•above••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••34
Ǥͷʹ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
-• Leaf• blade•with• main• lateral•veins• prominent• above,• tertiary•venation• distinct•
above•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••36
34.• -• Leaf•blade•(3-)5-16•x•(1.5-)2-6•cm;•twigs•with•pale•brownish•bark•••••••C.•glaberrimum
-• Leaf•blade•(11-)16-32(-40)•x•(3-)5-9(-12)•cm;•twigs•with•dark•coloured•bark•••••••••35
͵ͷǤ Ǧ Ǣϐ
with•ascending•racemes••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Ǥϔ
Ǧ Ǣϐ
racemes•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•dybowski
36.• -• Petiole• (5-)10-20(-25)• mm• long;• leaf• blade• decurrent• onto• the• petiole• or• leaf•
margin•thickened•and•recurved•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••37
-• Petiole•(0-)2-7(-10)•mm•long;• leaf•blade•not•decurrent•onto•the•petiole•and•leaf•
margin•not•thickened•and•recurved••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••38
37.• -• Leaf• blade• not• decurrent• onto• the• petiole,• margin• thickened• and• recurved;•
racemes•erecto-patent•to•horizontal,•(2-)5-9(-14)•cm•long•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•laeve
-• Leaf• blade• decurrent• onto• the• petiole,• margin• not• thickened• nor• recurved;•
racemes•horizontal,•(3-)8-23(-40)•cm•long•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•engama
38• -• Leaf•margin•sharply•serrate•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••39
-• Leaf•margin•entire•to•serrulate••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••40
39.• -• Leaf•blade•coriaceous,•with•9-12•main•lateral•veins•on•either•side••••••••C.•andongense
-• Leaf•blade•papyraceous,•with•12-17•main•lateral•veins•on•either•side••••••C.•bukobensis
40.• -• Leaf•blade• dark•brown•when•dry,•with•blunt• to•rounded•apex,•tertiary• venation•
distinctly•reticulate•throughout•the•leaf•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•lutambense
-• Leaf•blade• greenish•to• reddish•brown•when• dry,• with•acute• to•acuminate• apex,•
tertiary•venation•scalariform•at•least•in•the•marginal•zone•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••41
41.• -• Pedicels• articulated• at• (4-)6-10• mm• from• the• base;• racemes• slender• and•
wiry•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•nutans
-• Pedicel•articulated•at•1-6•mm•from•the•base;•racemes•fairly•stout•••••••••••••••••••••••••42
ͶʹǤ Ǧ ǡ   ϐ   Ǣ
ϐͶǦͺȋǦͳʹȌC.•occidentale
Ǧ Ǣϐȋ͵ǦȌͷǦͶ͵
Ͷ͵Ǥ Ǧ ϐͶͶ
-• Peduncle•cylindrical•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••45
Ǥͷ͵
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
ͶͶǤ Ǧ ϐ ϐǢ ͵Ǧ͹ǡǡ
articulated•at•1-2•mm•from•the•base••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•costatum
Ǧ ϐ Ǣ ͸Ǧͳ͵ǡ ͵Ǧ͹
mm•from•the•base•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•vogelii
45.• -• Upper•leaf• surface•set•with• tiny•bumps•in• between•the•tertiary• veinlets•(strong•
lens!),•giving•the•surface•a•‘rough’•appearance•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Ǥϔ
-• Upper•leaf•surface•smooth•in•between•the•tertiary•veinlets•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••46
46.• -• Racemes• with• several• bracts• at• the• top;• drupelets• ellipsoid-oblong,• 8-14• mm•
long••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•plicatum
-• Racemes• without•apical• bracts;• drupelets•reniform•or• subglobose• to• ellipsoid,•
5-9•mm•long•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••47
47.• -• Leaf•blade•tertiary•venation•with•a•pattern•of•very•closely•spaced•veinlets•running•
parallel•to•the•scalariform•veins;•cotyledons•similar•in•size•••••••••••••••••••C.•warneckei
-• Leaf• blade• tertiary• venation• without• such• veinlets;• cotyledons• dissimilar• in•
size••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••48
48.• -• Pairwise•scales•at•the•baseof•the•peduncle•and•bracts•below•each•cymule•persistent;•
leaf•blade•with•tertiary•venation•on•lower•surface•more•or•less•unicolourous•with•
the•leaf•mass;•racemes•held•±•horizontall•y••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•squamosum
-• Pairwise• scales• at• the• base• of• the• peduncle• and• bracts• below• each• cymule•
caducous;•leaf•blade•with•tertiary•venation•on•lower•surface• markedly• darker•
than•the•leaf•mass;•racemes•erecteo-patent•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••C.•reticulatum
Campylospermumamplectens•(Stapf)•Farron••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Ǥͳ
Bull.•Jard.•Bot.•État•Bruxelles•35:•393•(1965).•–•Gomphiaamplectens•Stapf,•J.•Linn.•Soc.,•
Bot.•37:•87•(1905).•–•OurateaamplectensȋȌǤǡϐǤǤ͵ǡʹǣͶͺͺȋͳͻʹͳȌǤ
–•Type:•A.• Whytes.n.•(holotype:•K!),•Liberia,• Montserrado,•Kakata,•within•20• miles• of•
Kakatown,•1904.
Tree  ͳʹ  ,• monocaulous;• stem• with• brownish• coloured• bark.• Stipules
caducous,•triangular,•3–5•mm•long.•Leaf:•petiole•0–10•mm•long;•leaf•blade•narrowly
obovateto narrowly spathulate,•ͳ͹͵ͺ•×•49cm,•ratio•͵ǤʹȂͶȋȂͶǤ͵Ȍǡbase auriculate,•
apex acute,•coriaceous,•not•bullate,•margin•serrulate,•upper•side•dull•green,•lower•side•
  Ǣ   ϐ  ǡ    ǡ
main•lateral•veins•ʹͲȂ͵Ͳ,•ͳͲȂʹͲȋȂ͵ͲȌ,•prominent on the
upper leaf surface, more•or•less•at•a•right•angle•with•midrib•but•curved•upward•to•run•
parallel•to•the•margin,•intermediate•lateral•veins•less•prominent•on•both•sides,•ͳʹin•
ǤͷͶ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
between•each•pair•of•main•laterals,•tertiary•venation•scalariform,•perpendiculartothe
mainlateralveins,•indistinct on upper side, distinct on the lower one.•ϔ
terminal•or•rarelyaxillary,• branched,dense,•its•main•axis•͵Ȃͳ͵ȋȂͳͻȌ,•robust,
round in cross section;•racemes•ͳȂͷǡ͵Ȃ͸ȋȂͻȌ;•pairwise•scales•caducous;•bracts•
caducous,•triangular,•c.•2–3•mm•long;•cymules•5–7(–15)•mm•apart,•ͳȂͺȋȂͳ͸ȌǦϐǤ
Flowerǣ͹ȂʹͲǡ͵ȂͷǢǡϐ
5–6•×•3–4•mm,•in•fruit•10–15•×•5–6•mm•and•enclosing•the•drupelets,•base•truncate,•apex•
obtuse;•petals•obovate,•9–13•×•5• mm,•shortlyclawedatbase,•truncate andslightly
emarginateatapex;•stamens: anthers•6–7•mm•long;•ovary•c.•2•mm•long;•style•slender,•6–8•
mm•long.•Fruit:•receptacle•c.•3•mm•thick;•drupelets:•1•to•4•well•developed•per•receptacle,•
ellipsoid,•c.•7•×•5•mm;•cotyledons•incumbent,•similarinsize.
Notes:•This• species•is•closely• related•to•C.•mannii•(Oliv.)•Tiegh.•and• C.• klainei(Tiegh.)•
Ǥϐ
unbranched•one.•It•is•also•distinguished•by•its•distinctly•auriculate•leaf•base•(resp.•cordate•
to•auriculate•and•cordate•in•C. mannii and•C. klainei).•Both•C.mannii•and•C.•klainei•have•
ϐC.•amplectens•has•a•rounded•one.•The•tertiary•
venation•is•distinct•on•both•sides•in•C.mannii•and•C.•klainei•whereas•it•is•indistinct•on•the•
upper•side•in•C.•amplectens.
Still,• knowing• that• habitat• destruction• in• western• Africa• has• been• severe,• a• more•
detailed•assessment•is•desirable.•
Distribution:•West•Africa,•from•Sierra•Leone•to•Ghana•(ʹ).
Ecology:• in• high,• closed,• evergreen,• primary• or• secondary• rain• forest,• also• in• forest•
along•streams;•at•20-350•m•altitude.
Phenologyǣϐ
to•March.
Usesǣ    ϐ  Ǥ  ǡ  ϐ    
together•to•make•brooms•(Burkill•1997).
IUCN conservation statusǣ  ͳȀʹȋȌǤ αͳͺͶǡͶ͸ͺ 2ǡ αͳ͸ͷǡͳ͹ʹ 2,•
αʹͻǡ ȋ αͳͲͻ ȌǤ     Ǣ   
ʹͲͳʹǤϐ
the•category•of•Least•Concern.
Specimens examined:
,•Western RegionǣǡǤ ͷιͲʹǯǡʹιʹ͹ǯǤǣͳͲͲǡͳͻʹͺȋϐǡȌǡVigneFH
1429(FHO);•Simpa.•5°06’N,• 2°06’W.•Alt:• 200m,• February• 1933•(fr),•VigneFH2796•(FHO);• Benso.• 5°09’N,•
1°54’W,•December•1950•(fr),•AndohFH5405•(K);•Ankasa•Forest•Reserve.•5°18’N,•2°36’W,•8•January•1967•(fr),•
Enti GC36304•(K).
IVORY COAST,•Abidjan:•Forêt•Classée• de•la•Yaya.,•80m,•5°40’N,•3°34’W.•Alt:•80m,•27• November•1997• (fr),•
Jongkind4092• (MO,WAG);• Aboisso:• Km• 5• Ayamè•-• Abengourou• Road.• 5°38’N,• 3°07’W,•7• November• 1968•
ȋϐȌǡBreteler5934 (WAG);•±ǣǤ ͹ιʹ͹ǯǡͺιͳ͵ǯǡ ͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡ Nozerans.n.•(P);• Guiglo:•
 ǢDz ͹dz    Ǥ   ͳͺͶǤǤ ͷιʹͺǯǡ
7°10’W,• 23•January•1990•(st),• Albers, P.40 ȋǡȌǢǢ  Dz ͹dz
Bono•River•and• Hana•River.• Picet•185•r.Z.•5°28’N,• 7°10’W,•23• January•1990•(st),• Albers, P.42(WAG);•San-
Ǥͷͷ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
ͳǤ•Campylospermum•amplectens.•A.•Petal.•ͳ.•Flowering•branch.•ʹ.•Fruiting•branch.•Drawings•by•Sabine•Bousani
ʹ.•Distribution•of•Campylospermumamplectensȋ጖ȌCampylospermum•andongensis•()
A
ͳ ʹ
Ǥͷ͸
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
±ǣ͵Ͳ±±ǡǤͶι͵Ͷǯǡ͹ιͳͲǯǡͳͳͳͻ͹͵ȋϐȌǡKoning,•J.•de2363
(BR,E,MO,WAG);•Forêt•Classée• Monogaga,•just• north•of• Sassandra•-• San•Pedro•road.,•4°51.9’N,•6°26.8’W,•24•
March•2000•(st),•Jongkind4718 (WAG);•Sassandra:• c.•18• km•S• of•Guéyo•(between•Gagnoa•and•Sassandra).•
5°34’N,•6°01’W,•8•December•1961•(fr),•Wilde,•J.J.F.E.•de3351•(B,K,WAG);•±:•Soubré,•Parc•National•de•Taï.•
5°50’N,•7°00’W,•24•January•1975•(fr),•Aké•Assi•12651•(G).
LIBERIA,•GbarpoluǣǤǤ͹ιʹʹǤͲǯǡͳͲιʹͲǤͺǯǤǣ͵ͷͲǡͳ͵ʹͲͳͲȋϐȌǡ
Jongkind10119•(BR,COI,FHO,FR,HUJ,K,MA,MO,WAG);•Grand Bassa:•Cestos-Sanguin•area,•Logging•Consession•
of•the•Cooper’s,•Sudan•Section.•5°29.4’N,•9°23.0’W.•Alt:•60m,•6•December•2002•(fr),•Jongkind5628•(BR,WAG);•
Grand Cape Mount:•north•of• Lake•Piso.• 6°48.17’N,•11°17.27’W.•Alt:•20m,•21•July•2004•(st),•Jongkind6043
(WAG);•Lofa:•Kpelle•National• Forest,•58• miles•E•of• Bopolu.•7°40’N,•10°05’W,•18• January•1978• (st),•Gier,•A.•
de204• (MO,WAG);• Gola• Forest.,• 7°27.1’N,•10°41.5’W,• 28• November•2005• (fr),• Jongkind6939• (BR,G,WAG);•
ǡ ǡǤ͹ιͳͺǯǡ ͳͲιͳ͹ǯǡͳͷ ͳͻͶ͹ ȋϐȌǡBaldwin•jr,•J.T.10304
(K);•MontserradoǣʹͲǤ͸ι͵ʹǯǡͳͲιʹͳǯǡͳͻͲͶȋϐȌǡWhyte,•A.s.n.•(K);•Dukwia•River,•
ǡ   Ǥ ͸ιʹ͵ǯǡ ͳͲιʹʹǯǡ ʹ͸  ͳͻʹͺ ȋϐȌǡ Cooper,• G.P.84• (BM,K,US);•
ǡǤ͸ιʹ͵ǯǡͳͲιʹʹǯǡ͹ͳͻʹͻȋϐȌǡCooper,•G.P.155(A,BM,FHO,GH,K•US);•Bomi•
Ǥ   Ǥ ͸ιͷ͸ǯǡ ͳͲιͶͷǯǡ ͳ͸  ͳͻ͸ͷ ȋϐȌǡ Meer,• P.P.C.• van197• (WAG);• Firestone•
ǡ͵͵Ǥ͸ιͳͻǯǡͳͲιʹͳǯǡʹͷͳͻ͹ͲȋϐȌǡStoop•-•v.d.•Kasteele,•F.S.C.237•(LIB,MO,WAG);•
Firestone•Plantation,•Division•33.•S•of•Kakata.•6°29’N,•10°22’W,•3•January•1971•(fr),•Stoop•-•v.d.•Kasteele,•F.S.C.
304•(MO,WAG);•ǣǡǤ͸ιͳͺǯǡͺιͷʹǯǡͳͻ͸ͳȋϐȌǡVoorhoeve•545
(WAG);•Siatown.•6°18’N,•9°41’W,•10•December•1958•(fr),•Adam,•J.-.G.16326•(P);•Sino:•South•of•Sayon•Town.,•
͹Ͳǡͷιʹ͹ǤͳǯǡͻιͳͲǤͳǯǤǣ͹ͲǡͳʹͲͳͲȋϐȌǡJongkind9983•(WAG).•
,•Eastern ProvinceǣǡǤ͹ι͵ͺǯǡͳͳιʹͶǯǡ͵ͳͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡ
Jordan,•H.D.2017(B,K);•Southern Province:•Gola•Forest•Reserve,•Pujehun•District,•makpete•Chiefdom,•1•mile•
ͳͻ͸ͶǤ͹ιͳͻǯǡͳͳιͳͺǯǡͷͳͻ͸ͷȋϐȌǡFox,•J.E.D.20•(K);•Gola•Forest•Reserve,•BIII.•7°16’N,•
ͳͳιͳͺǯǡͳͻͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡSmall,•D.555•(K).
Key literature:•Farron•(1963,•1985),•(Hawthorne•and•Jongkind•2006),•(Hutchinson•et•
al.•1954)•and•(Poorter•2004).
Campylospermumandongense•(Hiern)•Biss.
Campylospermumandongensis•(Hiern)•Biss.,•Blumea•58:•6•(2013).•–•Ourateareticulatum
(P.Beauv.)•Engl.•ex•Gilg•var.•andongensisHiern,•Cat.•Afr.•Pl.•Welw.•1:•122•(1896).•–•Monelasmum
andongensis•(Hiern)•Tiegh.,•Ann.•Sci.•Nat.,•sér.•8,•Bot.•16:•328•(1902).–Ourateaandongensis
(Hiern)•Exell,•J.•Bot.•65:•58•(1927).•–•Type:•Welwitsch4604(holotype:•LISU!;•isotype:•BM!,•C!,•
COI!,•G!,•K!)•Angola,•Pungo•Andongo,•1857.
Tree͹,•with•branched•trunk;•twigs•with•dark•coloured•bark.•Stipulescaducous,•
triangular,•3–5•mm•long.•Leaf:petiole•2–5•mm•long;•leaf•blade•ovate-oblong•or•narrowly•
elliptic•to•narrowly•elliptic-obovate,•ȋͷȂȌͳͲȂʹͳέ ȋͳǤͷȂȌ͵Ȃ͸•cm,•ratio•ȋͳǤͺȂȌʹǤ͸Ȃ͵Ǥ͹ͷȋ
ͶǤ͵ͷȌǡbase•cuneate,•apex•acute•to•slightly•acuminate,•chartaceous•to•coriaceous,•not•bullate,•
margin• serrate, teeth with a dark tip,• upper• side• dark• green,• lower• side• light• green;•
venation:•midrib•prominent•on•both•sides,•main•lateral•veins•ͻȂͳʹ,•ͷȂʹͲ
mm apart, more•or•less•at•right•angle•with•midrib•but•curvedupward•to•run•parallel•to•
the•margin,•prominent•above,•not•prominent•but•distinct•below,•intermediate•lateral•veins•
0–1•in•between•each•pair•of•main•laterals,•less•prominent•on•both•sides,•tertiary•venation•
scalariform,perpendicularto•the•midrib, distinct on both sides.•ϔterminal,•
branched,•lax,•its•main•axis•͵ȂͳͷȋȂʹͲȌ;•racemes•ȋͲȂȌͳȂ͵ȋȂͷȌǡȋͳȂȌ͵ȂͳͲȋȂͳ͵Ȍ
long;•pairwise•scales•at the base of peduncle caducous;•bracts•caducous;•cymules•5–15•
Ǥͷ͹
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
ǡͳȂͺǦϐǤFlower:•pedicel•7–15•mm,•articulated•at•1–4•mm•from•the•base;•
Ǧǡϐ͹ȂͺέʹȂ͵ǡͺȂͻέʹȂ͵Ǥͷǡ
not•enveloping•the•drupelets,•base•truncate,•apex•obtuse;•petals•obovate,•8–10•x•5Ȃ8•mm,•
cuneate•atbase,roundedatapexǢǣϐͳǡͷȂ͸
mm•long;•ovary•c.•2•mm•large;•style•slender,•5–6•mm•long.•Fruit:•receptacle•c.•5•mm•thick;•
drupelets:•1•to•2•well•developed•per•receptacle,•ellipsoid•to•almost•globose,•(6Ȃ)8Ȃ9•×•
(4Ȃ)5Ȃ6•mm;•cotyledons•incumbent,•dissimilarinsize•with•asmall•outer•cotyledon.
Notes:•This•species•is•similar•to•C.•reticulatum•(P.Beauv.)•Farron.•However,•it•has•a•more•
coarsely•serrate•leaf•margin•with•teeth•having•a•dark•tip•and•petals•rounded•at•the•apex,•
whereas•C. reticulatum•has•a•serrulate•margin•with•unicolourous•teeth•and•petals•with•
an•emarginate•apex.•
Distribution:• Democratic• Republic• of• the• Congo• (Katanga),• northern• Angola,• north-
western•Zambia•(Mapʹ).
Ecology:•in•evergreen,•riparian•forests;•at•700Ȃ1500•m•altitude.
Phenologyǣ ϐ         ǡ
December•and•February.
IUCN conservation statusǣ  ͳȀʹȋǡǡȌǤ αʹ͸ͺǡ͵ͷͶ 2ǡ α͹ͺǡʹͶͲ 2,•
αʹʹǡα͵ǡȋαͳͳͶȌǤ
3•subpopulations•with•the•main•one•occurring•in•the•Lavushi•Manda•National•Park•in•
Zambia.•It•is•fairly•well•represented•in• herbaria,• and• therefore•the•category•of•Least•
Concern•seems•most•appropriate.
Specimens examined:
,• :•9°20’•S,•15°00’•E,•(st),•Gossweiler 632(BM,K,P);•(fr),•Gossweiler 763(K,P);•Lunda•
ǣǤ ϐ× ÙǮǯ  ǯǯǯǤǤ
͹ιʹʹǯǡʹͲιͶͻǯǤǣ ͹ͷͲǡͳ ͳͻͶ͸ȋϐȌǡGossweiler 13570•(B,BM,US);• Dundo,•Luachimo.•7°24’S,•
20°50’E.•Alt:•700m,•27•October•1946•(fr),•Gossweiler 13780•(BM,K);•Malanjeǣǣ×
Quale•a•23•km•de•Santa•Maria.,•1100m,•9°32’S,•16°20’E.•Alt:•1100m,•20•December•1970•(fr),•Raimundo, F.570
ȋǡȌǢǡǤͻιͶͲǯǡͳͷι͵ͷǯǡͳͺͷ͹ȋϐȌǡWelwitsch, F.M.J.4604•(BM,C,COI,G,K,LISU).•
ȋȌ,•Katanga•(Shaba):•A•proximité•de•Kolwezi.•10°46’S,•25°19’E.•Alt:•1425m,•4•September•
ͳͻͺͶȋϐȌǡSchaijes 2375•(BR);•30• km•au•SW•de•Kolwezi.•10°50’S,•25°14’E.•Alt:•1425m,•18•January•1986•(fr),•
Bamps 8141•(BR);•Congo,•katanga•Province,•14•mls•N.N.W.•of•Kalene•Mission•on•border.•11°00’S,•24°08’E.•Alt:•
ͳʹͻͲǡͳͳͳͻ͸ʹȋϐȌǡRichards, M.A.E.17158•(K).•
ZAMBIA,• Ǧ:• Nkunyi• Protected• Forest• Area;• 9.04• km• from• Lwawu-Mwinilunga•Junction.• On•
Kabompo-Mwinilunga• Road• (D286).• 11°48’S,• 24°21’E.• Alt:• 1410m,• 23• February•1995• (fr),• Luwiika, B.87
ȋȌǢͶ ǤǤ ͳͳιͳͲǯǡʹͶιͳʹǯǡ ʹͳͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡAngus510 (FHO,K,WAG);•
ǡǤ ͶǤǦǤǡǤ ͳͳιͳͲǯǡʹͶιͳʹǯǡ ʹ͵ͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡAngus 532•(FHO);•
Ikelenge,• Hillwood•farm• S.• 11°14’S,• 24°20’E.• Alt:• 1450m,• 21• May• 1999• (st),• Congdon, T.C.E.559• (K);• near•
  ͳ͸   Ǧ Ǥǡ Ǥ ͳͳιͲͺǯǡ ʹͶιͳ͵ǯǡ ͹  ͳͻͷʹ ȋϐȌǡ Holmes, W.D.H.
975ȋǡȌǢ Ǥǡ ͳͳι͵ͻǯǡʹͶιͲ͵ǯǡ ͵ͳͻ͵Ͳ ȋϐȌǡMilne-Redhead1042 (K);•,•12°00’S,•
ʹͶι͵ͷǯǡʹͺͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡHolmes, W.D.H.1292•(K);•Ikelenge•district;•Zambezi•source•National•heritage•
site;•18.0•km•S•of•Ikelenge•then•4.8•km•E•on•access•road•from•Ikelenge-Mwinilunga•Rd.•11°22.0’•S,•24°18.4’•E.•
Alt:•1500m,•26•February•1995•(fr),•Harder2786•(BR,WAG);•By•R.•luao•between•R.•Matonchi•and•R.Kaoomba.,•
Ǥͳͳι͵ͻǯǡʹͶιͲ͹ǯǡͳͻ͵͹ȋϐȌǡMilne-Redhead3051•(BR,K);•near•Zambia•River,•4•miles•N•of•Kalene•Hill•
ǤǡǤͳͳιͲ͸ǯǡʹͶιͳͳǯǡʹ͵ͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡWhite, F.3339•(BM,BR,FHO,K,WAG);•river,•Mwinilunga.•
ͳͳιͶͶǯǡʹͶιʹͶǯǡͳͻͳͻ͸ͻȋϐȌǡMutimushi3371•(B);•Mwinilunga.•11°06’S,•24°11’E,•27•September•1952•
ȋϐȌǡWhite, F.3392 ȋȌǢͶǤ Ǥǡ ǤͳͳιͶ͹ǯǡʹͶιʹͶǯǡ ͳͻ͵͹ ȋϐȌǡMilne-Redhead
Ǥͷͺ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
3506•(BM,BR,K);•6•km•N•of•Kalene•Hill.,•c.•11°07’S,•24°12’E,•12•December•1963•(fr),•Robinson, E.A.5965•(K);•
Ǥͳͳιʹ͵ǯǡʹͶιʹͲǯǡͳ͵ͳͻ͸͵ȋϐȌǡRobinson, E.A.6132•(K);•Lisombo•R.,•16•km•
ǤǤǤͳͳιͳͺǯǡʹͶιͲʹǯǡͳͳͳͻ͸͵ȋϐȌǡDrummond, R.B.8283•(B,BR,FHO,K);•Source•of•
the•Zambesia.•11°23’•S,•24°20’E.•Alt:•1450m,•21•January•1975•(fr),•Brummitt13917•(BR,K).
KeyliteratureǣƬȋͳͻͷͳȌǡȋͳͻ͸ͷȌȋͳͻ͸͵ȌǤ
Campylospermumauriculatum•Biss.•
Blumea•58:•2•(2013).•–•Type:•Strijk73(holotype:•WAG!;•isotype:•LBV!),•Gabon,•Woleu-
Ntem,• Bordamur• concession• area,• some• 40• km• from• WWF-station,• 1°14’N,• 11°53’E,•
October•10th,•2002.
Treelet up• to• 6• m• tall,• with• branched• trunk;• twigs• with• pale• brown• coloured• bark.•
Stipules•caducous,•3–5•mm•long.•Leaf:•petiole•0–2•mm•long;•leaf•blade•elliptic-obovate•
to•oblanceolate,•ȋͻȂȌͳͶȂʹͶȋȂ͵ͳȌȋͶȂȌ͸ȂͺȋȂͳͳȌǡʹȂͶȋȂͷȌ,•base•auriculate•
to•deeply•cordate,•often•clasping• the•twig,•apex•acute,•coriaceous•to•thick• leathery,•
not•bullate,•margin•serrate,•upper•surface•glossy•green,•lower•surface•dull•paler•green;•
ϐǡǡͳ͸ȂͳͻǡͳͲȂ
20•mm•apart,•curved•upward•to•run•parallel•to•the•margin,•intermediate•lateral•veins•
prominent•on•both•sides,•0•to•2•in•between•each•pair•of•main•laterals,•tertiary•venation•
scalariform,• very• distinct• on• both• sides.• ϔ• terminal• or• rarely• axillary,•
branched,•fairly•dense,•its•main•axis•12–15(–18)•cm•long,•ϐ;•racemes•1–6,•3–9(–
11)•cm•long;•pairwise•scales• absent;• bracts•persistent•at•the•base• of• the• raceme•and•
ǡǡǤ͵ȂͷǢͷȂͻǡʹȂͶȋȂ͸ȌǦϐǤFlower:•
ͷȂ͹ǡʹȂ͵Ǣͷǡǡϐ͹Ȃͺ
x•2–3•mm,•yellowish•green,•in•fruit•9–10•x•3–4•mm,•bright•red;•petals•5,•obovate,•7–12•
x•3–4•mm,•cuneate•at•base,•rounded•at•apex,•bright•yellow;•stamens:•anthers•3–4•mm•
long;•ovary•c.•2•mm•wide;•style•c.•4•mm•long.•Fruit:•receptacle•c.•5•mm•wide,•orange-
red;•drupelets•1•to•3•well•developed•per•receptacle,•reniform,•c.•8•x•5•mm;•cotyledons•
incumbent,•dissimilar•in•size•with•a•small•outer•cotyledon.
Note:•Especially•the• auriculate•to•deeply•cordate•leaf•base•is•highly•reminiscent•of•C.•
schoenleinianumȋȌǡϐȋ
Guinea•to•Ghana).•
DistributionǣȋȌȋǦȌȋMap͵).
Ecology:•in•primary•or•secondary•forest;•on•brown•clay•soil;•at•475–600•m•altitude.
Phenologyǣϐǡϐ
observed•in•April,•which•coincides•with•the•two•rainy•seasons.
IUCN conservation statusǣ  ͳȀʹȋǡǡȌǤ α͸ǡͲͻͺ 2ǡ αͳǡ͸ͷ͵ 2,•
αͳͳȋαͳͷǤ͵͸ȌǤ   
ȋͳͻͺ͵ȌǤ
a•protected•area•(Inselberg•at•Akuom).The•other•ten•collectionsfrom•Gabon•are•from•
a•fairly•restricted•area•where•logging•companies•operate•which•is•supposed•to•lead•to•a•
ȀǮǯ
has•been•assigned.
Ǥͷͻ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
͵.•Distribution•of•Campylospermumauriculatumȋ጖ȌCampylospermumbukobense•()
Specimensexamined:
 ,•ǡ :•Inselberg• d’Akuom,•à•1h30• demarche•(6•km)• du• village• de•
Nzuameyong,•à•25•km•d’Anisoc.•1°50’N,•10°55’E.•Alt:•600m,•13•June•1999•(st),•Parmentier 358•(BRLU).•
,• Ǧ:• Bordamur• consession• area,• some• 40• km• from• WWF-station,• at• logging• road•
ǤͳιͳͶǯǡͳͳιͷ͵ǯǤǣͷ͹ͲǡͳͲʹͲͲʹȋϐȌǡStrijk 73•(BR,K,LBV,MO,WAG);•Oveng,•65•
km•N.•of• road• Benguié•-•Lalara,• forest•exploitation•camp.,• 500m,• 0°42’N,•11°23’E.•Alt:• 500m,• 5• November•
ͳͻͺ͵ȋϐǡȌǡ Louis, A.M.377ȋǡǡȌǢǤ ͺ ǡ ǤͲιͶʹǤͻǯǡ
11°32.0’E.•Alt:• 547m,•6• November•2009• (fr),•Bissiengou667 ȋǡȌǢͺΦǡ
ǤͲιͶʹǤͷǯǡͳͳι͵ͳǤͻǯǤǣͷͲͳǡ͸ʹͲͲͻȋϐȌǡBissiengou707 LBV,WAG);•13•km•SE•
ǡǡǤͲιͶʹǤͶǯǡ
ͳͳι͵ͺǤʹǯǤ ǣ ͶͺͲǡ ͹  ʹͲͲͻ ȋϐȌǡ Bissiengou714 ȋǡȌǢ ͳ͵    ǡ 
 ǡ        Ǥ ͲιͶʹǤͳǯǡ ͳͳι͵ͺǤͺǯǤ ǣ
490m,•7• November•2009• (fr),•Bissiengou730 (LBV,WAG);•35•km• NNE•of•Mitzic,•forestry•road•in•Bordamur•
forest•exploitation,• 2•km• from•Bordamur• forestry•camp.• 1°02.8’N,•11°43.3’E.• Alt:•545m,•8• November•2009•
(st),•Bissiengou769•(LBV,WAG);•Inventory•Oveng;•primary•rain•forest,• ca•25•km•WSW• of• Mintsic.,•0°44’N,•
ͳͳιʹʹǯǡ͸ͳͻͺ͸ ȋϐǡ Ȍǡ Reitsma, J.M.2493(WAG);• About• 30-40• km• NE•of•Saint•Germain,• E.• of•
ǤͲιͶͲǯǡͳͳιͶͲǯǤǣͶ͹ͷǡͳͺͳͻͺͺ ȋϐǡȌǡ Breteler8797•(LBV,WAG);•RN• 2,•S• of•Mitzic,•
ǦǡǤͲιͶʹǤͺǯǡͳͳι͵ͺǤͻǯǤǣͷͲ͵ǡ͵ͲʹͲͳͳȋϐȌǡMaas, P.J.M.10052
(LBV,WAG).
Key literature:•Bissiengou•et•al.•(2013).
Campylospermumbukobense•(Gilg)•Farron
Bull.•Jard.•Bot.•État•35:• 393• (1965).• –•Monelasmum bukobense(Gilg)•Tiegh.,•Ann.• Sci.•
Nat.,• ser.• 8,• Bot.• 18:• 36• (June• 1903).• –• Ourateabukobensis• Gilg,• Bot.• Jahrb.• Syst.• 33:•
271• (1904).• –• Syntypes:• Stuhlmann• 978,• 1023, 1073, 1467, 1521, 3212, 3721, 3990,
3991, 4063 (B,•none•located•and•probably•all•destroyed)•Tanzania,•Bukoba.•–•Neotype•
(designated• here):• Conrads447• (holotype:• B!;• isotype:• BR!,• EA!,• FHO!,• K!)• Tanzania,•
Ǥ͸Ͳ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
Marienhof•Ukerewe,•November•21st,•1911.•
Ourateaϔ• De• Wild.,• Rev.• Zool.• Afr.• VII,• Suppl.• Bot.:• B51• (1920).• –• Gomphia
ϔ•(De•Wild.)•Lye,•Lidia•4(3):•92•(1998)•(non•ϔA.St.-Hil.,•1825).•
–•Type:•Pynaert 522•(holotype:•BR(3x)!;•isotype:•K!,•Z!),•Congo,•Eala,•October•5th,•1906.•
Ouratealikimiensis• De• Wild.,• Rev.• Zool.• Afr.• VII,• Suppl.• Bot.:• B59• (1920).• –• Gomphia
likimiensis (De•Wild.)•Verdc.,•Fl.•trop.•E.•Afr.,•Ochnaceae:•46•(2005).•–•Type:•Malchair271
(holotye:•BR!;•isotype:•BR!),•environ•de•Likimi,•June•10th,•1910.
Treeup•to•10•m•tall,•bole•up•to•30•cm•dbh,•with•branched•trunk;•twigs•with•pale•coloured•
bark.•Stipules•caducous,•triangular,•1–3•mm•long.•Leaf:•petiole•1–5•mm•long;•leaf•blade•
narrowly•elliptic• to•oblanceolate,•ȋ͸ȂȌͺȂͳͺȋȂʹͳȌȋͳȂȌͳǤͷȂͷǤͷ,•͵Ȃͷ,•base•
cuneate,• apex• acute,• papyraceous,• not• bullate,• upper• surface• glossy,• lower• surface•
dull•green,•margin•regularlyserrate to serrulate,•the• teeth• with• a• dark• tip;•midrib•
prominent•above•and•below,•main•lateral•veins•ͳʹȂͳ͹on•either•side,•5–15•mm•apart,•
prominent•above•and•below,•at•a•±•right•angle•with•the•midrib•but•curved•upwards•to•
run•parallel•to•the•margin,•intermediate•lateral•veins•1–2(–5)•in•between•each•pair•of•
main•laterals,•prominent•on•both•sides,•tertiary•venation•scalariform, perpendicular
to the midrib, joined by cross veinlets,• very• distinct• on• both• sides.• ϔ
terminal,•fairly•lax•to•fairly•dense,•its•main•axis•(2–)4–16(–20)•cm•long;•racemes•2–7,•
ȋͳȂȌ͵Ȃͳʹ  ǡ ǡ  ʹȂͳͷ  ǡ ʹȂ͹ȋȂͳͳȌǦϐ. Flower:•
ͺȂͳ͹ȋȂʹͲȌǡ  ͳȂ͸Ǣ  ǡϐ
͸Ȃ͹ʹȂ͵ǡͺȂͻʹȂ͵ǡǡϐ
up;•petals•obovate,•5–9•x•4–6•mm,•base•cuneate,•apex•rounded;•stamens:•anthers•3–5•
mm•long;•ovary•1•x•1•mm; style•4–6•mm•long.•FruitǣǤͳϐǡͷ
x•5•mm•in•fruit;•drupelets•2–4•well•developed•per•receptacle,•ellipsoid,•7–10•x•5–7•mm;•
embryo incumbent, dissimilar in size with a small outer cotyledon.
Notes:• The• syntype• specimens• of• O.• bukobensis,• all• Stuhlmann• collections,• are•
Ǥ             
those•specimens.• Unfortunately•these•could•not•be•traced.•A•Neotype,•Conrads447,•is•
therefore•designated•here.•It•is•has•been•collected•approximately•at•the•same•locality•as•
the•syntype•specimens.•The•year•of•collection•was•1911,•before•the•Berlin•herbarium,•
where•Stuhlmann’s•collections•were•most•likely•kept,•was•largely•destroyed.•It•has•been•
ϐ
ȋȌǤDzdzǯǤǡ
the•serrate•leaf•margin•and•the•leaf•blade•shape•match•perfectly•the•original•description.•
Verdcourt•(2005)•recognizes•G.•likimiensisϐC.•bukobense•material•as•
either•G.•vogeliior•G.•likimiensis.•Actually,•G.•likimiensisis•Ourateaϔ•De•Wild•
but•he•could•not• use• that•name•since•Gomphiaϔ•A.St.-Hil.•exists• already.•He•
listed•characters•that•describe•both•species•such•as•the•leaf•texture,•shape•and•margin.•
Material• that• has• thin,• narrowly• elliptic-lanceolate• leaves• with• usually• spinulose•
Ǥ͸ͳ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
  ϐO.•likimiensis.•I•
totally•agree•with•him•that•two•taxa•are•involved,•but•Verdcourt•failed•to•see•that•his•C.
likimiensis also•perfectly•matches•the•description•of•C.•bukobense.•Verdcourt’s•error•was•
maybe•a•logical•one•because•he•did•not•see•any•type•specimens•of C.•bukobense. Now,•
ϐ
by•previous•botanists•as• either•C.•bukobenseor•O.• ϔ,•to•me•it•is•obvious•they•
belong•to•the•same•taxon,•for•which•the•correct•name•is•C.•bukobense.•
ǡϐǡC.•bukobense•is•close•to•C.•andongensis.•It•differs•by•having•
papyraceous•leaves•and•more•numerous•lateral•veins.
Distribution:•South•Central•African•Republic•to•South-East•Cameroon•and•the•North•of•
the•Republic•of•the•Congo,•extending•to•the•Democratic•Republic•of•the•Congo,•southern•
Ethiopia,•southern•Soudan,•Uganda,•Kenya,•Tanzania•and•Zambia•(Map͵).
Ecology:•in•primary,•secondary•and•gallery•forests,•also•in•swamp•forest;•at•350-1650•
m•altitude.
PhenologyǣϐǤ
IUCN conservation statusǣ  ͳȀʹȋǡȌǤ α͵ͳǡ͵͸ͻʹͲ 2ǡ α ͳͻǡͺʹͶʹͲ
km2ǡαͺʹǡ αʹ͸ǡȋαʹ͸͸ȌǤ
into•many•subpopulations•(26)•from•the•Republic•of•the• Congo•to•eastern•and•north-
eastern•Africa.•Although•its• most• recent•collection•is•from•the• nineteen•eighties,•it•is•
well•represented•in•herbaria•suggesting•it•is•not•uncommon.•Therefore,•the•category•of•
Least•Concern•seems•most•appropriate.
Specimens examined:•
,•GitegaǣϐǦǤ͵ιͳͷǯǡ͵ͲιͲʹǯǡ͵ͳͳͻͷͺȋȌǡBen, D. van der2411•(EA,K).
,•ǣͳͻͳͺȋϐȌǡGocker40•(HUH);•East Province:•près•Ndongo,•à•40•km•WNW•de•
ȋͳȀʹͲͲǤͲͲͲȌǤʹιͳͲǯǡͳͶιͷͲǯǡͳͷͳͻ͹͵ȋϐȌǡLetouzey12081•(BR,K,P).•
,•LobayeǣǤ͵ιͷͶǯǡͳ͹ιͷͷǯǡ͸ͳͻͶͺȋϐȌǡTisserant (Équipe),
C.674 ȋȌǢ Ǥ ͵ιͷͶǯǡ ͳ͹ιͷͷǯǡ ͺ  ͳͻͶͺ ȋϐȌǡ Tisserant (Équipe), C.839• (P);• Boukoko.• 3°54’N,•
17°55’E,• 17• May• 1950• (fr),• Tisserant (Équipe), C.1746 ȋȌǢ Ǥ͵ιͷͶǯǡ ͳ͹ιͷͷǯǡ ͻ  ͳͻͶͺ ȋϐȌǡ
Tisserant (Équipe), C.2061 (P);• Ǧ±±:•Ndakan,•gorilla•study• area•M•1500•to• M• 2000• to•B•600.•
ʹιʹͳǯǡͳ͸ιͳͲǯǤǣ͵ͷͲǡʹ͹ͳͻͺͺȋϐȌǡHarris, D.J.531•(E).
ȋȌ,•Cuvette:•Alima-Likouala,•région•de•M’Bomo,•réserve•de•chasse•d’Odzala•(M’Boko).•
0°13’S,• 14°20’E,• 15• December• 1970• (fr),• Sita2991• (WAG);• Odzala• National• Park,• saline• Moba• A.• 0°49’N,•
ͳͷι͹Ͳǯǡ ʹͷ  ͳͻͻ͸ ȋϐȌǡ Lejoly96/295• (BRLU);• Odzala• National• Park,•Layon• Tombi,• partie• Sud.,• c.•
ͲιͷʹǯǡͳͶιͶ͸ǯǡͳʹͳͻͻͶȋϐȌǡLisowski, S.C1019•(BRLU).•
ȋȌ,• Bas-CongoǣǤͷιͲͺǯǡ ͳͷιͲ͸ǯǡͳͻͲͲȋϐǡ ȌǡGillet, J.s.n.•(BR);• Mvuazi.•5°27’S,•
ͳͶιͷͶǯǡʹͻͳͻͶ͹ȋϐǡȌǡDevred63ȋȌǢǤͷιʹ͹ǯǡͳͶιͷͶǯǡ͵ͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡDubois, J.310
ȋȌǢǤͷιͲͺǯǡͳͷιͲ͸ǯǡ͵Ͳͳͻ͵ͲȋϐȌǡVanderyst, H.J.R.25776•(BR);•Kisantu.•5°08’S,•15°06’E,•
͵Ͳͳͻ͵ͲȋϐȌǡVanderyst, H.J.R.25777•(BR);•Equateur:•environ•de•Likimi.•2°50’N,•20°45’E,•20•April•
ͳͻͳͲȋϐȌǡMalchair271•(BR);•Eala.•0°03’N,•18°19’E,•5•August•1906•(fr),•Pynaert 522•(BR,K,Z);•Eala.,•c.•0°03’N,•
18°19’E,• 5• October• 1906• (fr),• Pynaert 523• (BR);• Eale.• 0°03’N,• 18°19’E,• October• 1930• (fr),• Staner 903
ȋǡǡǡȌǢǤͳιͳͳǯǡʹ͵ιͳ͸ǯǡͳͻ͵ͻȋϐȌǡDubois, L.1007•(BR,EA,G,K,WAG);•Eala.•0°03’N,•18°19’E,•
ʹͲͳͻͲ͹ȋϐȌǡPynaert 1189•(BR);•Eala.•0°03’N,•18°19’E,• 10•May•1932•(fr),•Baland 1250•(BR);•Eala.,•c.•
ͲιͲ͵ǯǡͳͺιͳͻǯǡʹͲͳͻ͵ʹȋϐȌǡBaland 1578ȋȌǢǤͲιͲ͵ǯǡͳͺιͳͻǯǡͳͳͻ͵ʹȋϐǡȌǡBaland 1670
ȋȌǢǡǤ ͲιͲ͵ǯǡͳͺιͳͻǯǡʹ͹  ͳͻ͵͵ȋϐȌǡCorbisier-Baland2052 (EA,G,US,WAG);•
ǤͲιͲ͵ǯǡͳͺιͳͻǯǡʹ͹ͳͻ͵͵ȋϐȌǡBaland 2052•(BR,US,WAG);•Eala.•0°03’N,•18°19’E,•2•May•1919•
ȋϐȌǡVermoesen 2126•(BR);•Befale.•0°28’N,•20°57’E,•30• June•1958•(fr),•Evrard, C.M.4316•(BR,K,WAG);•Kasai-
Ǥ͸ʹ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
Oriental:• Gandajika.• 6°45’S,• 23°57’E,• 20• June• 1951• (fr),• Chalon,• G.346• (BR);• Kanda-kanda.• Galerie• de• la•
ǡ͵ͲǤ͸ιͷ͸ǯǡʹ͵ι͵͹ǯǡ͵ͲͳͻͶͷȋϐȌǡLuxen563(BR);•Kanda-Kanda.•6°56’S,•
ʹ͵ι͵͹ǯǤǣͺͲͲǡ ͹ ͳͻͷ͹ ȋϐȌǡ Risopoulos689(K,WAG);• Katanga (Shaba):•Mutombo-Mukulu.•
7°58’S,• 24°00’E,• 24• August• 1959• (st),• Lukuesa695 ȋȌǢ Ǥ ͺιʹͳǯǡ ʹʹι͵Ͷǯǡ  ͳͻ͵͵ ȋϐȌǡ
Overlaet855ȋȌǢ ǤǡǤ ͺιʹͳǯǡʹʹι͵Ͷǯǡ ͳͻ͵ͶȋϐȌǡOverlaet859(WAG);•Kaniama• -•Haut•Lomani.•
͹ι͵ͳǯǡʹͶιͳͳǯǤǣͺ͸ͲǡͳͻͶ͹ȋϐȌǡMullenders1273•(BR);•Kaniama•-•Haut•Lomani.•7°31’S,•24°11’E.•
Alt:•850m,•28•November•1947•(fr),•Mullenders1563•(BR);•Kaniama•-•Haut•Lomani.•7°31’S,•24°11’E.•Alt:•860m,•
1•December•1947•(fr),•Mullenders1630ȋȌǢǤ͹ι͵ͳǯǡʹͶιͳͳǯǡͳͻ͵ͺȋϐȌǡHerman,•E.F.2282
ȋȌǢ ǦǤ ͹ι͵ͳǯǡʹͶιͳͳǯǤ ǣͻͲͲǡͳ͵ ͳͻͶ͹ȋϐȌǡMullenders14800 (BR);•
ǦǣǡǡǤͲι͵͵ǯǡʹͻιͶͻǯǡʹ͸ͳͻͶͺȋϐȌǡWilde,•JMHJR•
de20ȋǡǡȌǢǦǤͲιʹͺǯǡʹͻιͳʹǯǤǣͳͲͲͲǡͳͻ͵ͺȋϐȌǡGille147•(BR,K,WAG);•
ǤǡǤͲιʹͻǯǡʹͻιʹͺǯǡͳͻ͵ͺȋϐȌǡGille211•(BR,K,WAG);•Rutshuru.•1°11’S,•29°27’E.•Alt:•1100m,•18•August•
ͳͻͷͷ ȋϐȌǡ Christiaensen• 1047 ȋȌǢ  ȋȌǤ ͳιͳʹǯǡ ʹͺιͶͶǯǤ ǣ ͳ͵ͲͲǡ ʹʹ  ͳͻͷ͹ ȋϐȌǡ
Gutzwiller1584•(BR,EA,WAG);•between•Nezelube•and•Kamubene•Rivers.•0°27’N,•29°46’E,•9•September•1952•
ȋϐǡȌǡOsmaston2221ȋȌǢǤ ͳιͳͲǯǡʹͺι͵͹ǯǤǣ ͳͲͲͲǡͳ͸ ͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡLéonard,• A.2581
ȋǡǡǡǡȌǢǡǤǡǤͳιͳͲǯǡʹͺι͵͹ǯǤ ǣͳͲ͹Ͳǡ͵ͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡGutzwiller2717•(BR);•
Ǧǡ͵ʹǡ °°ǤͳιͲʹǯǡʹͻι͵ʹǯǤǣ ͳʹ͸ͲǡͺͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡ
Pierlot3053ȋȌǢǡǤͳιͳͲǯǡʹͺι͵͹ǯǤǣͳͲͷͲǡͳͻͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡGutzwiller3177•(BR);•Beni,•
Kibali-Ituri.,•0°29’N,•29°28’E,•November•1931•(fr),•Lebrun4325•(BR,P);•Beni,•piste•Mwenda•à•Katuka•près•du•
Ǥ Ͳιʹ͹ǯǡʹͻιͶ͸ǯǡ ͻͳͻͷʹ ȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de7976(BR,K,WAG);•Environs•de•la•
°ǡ° ǤǡǤͲιͶͷǯǡʹͻιͷͲǯǡʹͶͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de
8384ȋǡǡȌǢǡǤͳιͳ͵ǯǡ͵Ͳι͵ʹǯǤǣ͸͸Ͳǡʹͳͳͻͷ͵ȋϐȌǡWitte,•
G.F.•de9574ȋǡǡȌǢǤͲιͶͶǯǡʹͻιͶ͹ǯǤǣ͹ͲͲǡʹ͸ͳͻͷ͵ȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de
9614ȋȌǢǤͲιʹ͸ǯǡʹͻιͶ͸ǯǤǣͳʹͲͲǡͳ͸ͳͻͷͶȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de11058•(BR);•Djelube,•
ϐǤͲι͵͸ǯǡʹͻιͶͲǯǤǣͳʹ͵ͲǡͳͲͳͻͷͶȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.• de11184•(BR);•Beniz:•
ϐǢϐǤͲιʹͻǯǡʹͻιʹͺǯǡͳͲͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de11922(BR,K);•
ϐǦǤͲιͶ͵ǯǡʹͻιͶͷǯǡ͹ͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de12035ȋȌǢǡϐ
ǤͲιͶ͵ǯǡʹͻιͶͷǯǤǣͺͳͷǡʹͷͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de12791ȋȌǢǡǡϐ
ǢϐǤͲιʹͻǯǡʹͻιʹͺǯǡʹͳͻͷ͸ȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de12872•(BR,K);•
 ϐ ǤͲι͵Ͳǯǡ ʹͻι͵ͳǯǤǣ ͳͲͷͲǡ ͺ  ͳͻͷ͸ȋϐȌǡ Witte,• G.F.• de12918• (BR);•
ǦǤͲιʹ͸ǯǡʹͻιͶ͸ǯǤǣͳͳ͸Ͳǡʹ͸ͳͻͷͷȋϐȌǡWitte,•G.F.•de13014•(BR);•Orientale:•Epulu•
ǡǤʹͲͲǤǡǤ ͳιʹ͵ǯǡʹͺι͵͸ǯǡͳͻ͵ͷ ȋϐȌǡPutman15•(BR);• Mahagi,•rivière•
Ǥǡͳ͵ͺͲǡǤʹιͲͻǯǡ͵ͲιʹͶǯǤǣͳ͵ͺͲǡʹͷͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡDevillé,•A.149•(BR,UPS);•rivière•Kibali.•2°18’N,•
͵Ͳι͵ͶǯǤǣͳ͵ͺͲǡʹͷͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡBamps•179•(BR);•Zone•de•Mambasa.•Ituri•Forest.•Afarama•bord•de•la•
°Ǥͳι͵͵ǯǡʹͺι͵ʹǯǤǣͺͲͲǡͳ͹ͳͻͻ͵ȋϐȌǡEwango205•(WAG);•près•de•la•rivière•Uélé•(Kibali).•
ʹιͲͻǯǡ͵ͲιʹͶǯǡʹ͵ͳͻͷ͸ȋϐǡȌǡSmeyers•326(BR,K,WAG);•Route•Kampala•(Kibali).•1350m.•2°09’N,•
͵ͲιʹͶǯǤǣͳ͵ͷͲǡʹͺͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡFroment•432•(BR,K,WAG);•Penghe-Irumu.•1°20’N,•28°09’E,•28•February•
ͳͻͳͶȋϐȌǡBequaert2641•(BR);•Entre•gombari•et•Faradje.•3°04’N,•29°30’E,•July•1931•(fr),•Lebrun3344•(BR,C,WAG);•
ǤͲιͶ͸ǯǡʹͶιʹ͹ǯǤǣͶ͹Ͳǡ͵ͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡDonis3508•(BR,C,P);•Ituri,•summit•of•Aketu•Hill,•c.•5•
km•NW•of•abandoned•coffee•plantation•at•Nzaro•(c.•90•km•N•of•Mambasa•on•road•to•Isiro).•2°05’N,•28°48’E.•Alt:•
ͳͳͷͲǡ͵ͳͻͻͶȋϐǡȌǡGereau5418•(MO,WAG);•Yangambi.•0°46’N,•24°27’E,•24•February•1938•(st),•Louis,•
J.L.P.8047ȋȌǢǤͲιͶ͸ǯǡʹͶιʹ͹ǯǡͳͲͳͻͶ͹ȋϐȌǡLouis,•J.L.P.16547•(BR);•Yangambi.•0°46’N,•
24°27’E,•20•November•1947•(fr),•Louis,•J.L.P.16837•(BR);•Sud-Kivu:•Bulira.•2°04’S,•28°55’E,•22•February•1934•
(fr),•Babault•20 ȋȌǢǤʹιͲͶǯǡʹͺιͷͷǯǡʹʹͳͻ͵ͶȋϐȌǡBabault•28(P);•Bulira.•2°04’S,•28°55’E,•
 ͳͻ͵Ͷ ȋϐȌǡ Babault• 36 ȋȌǢ Ǥ ʹιͲͶǯǡ ʹͺιͷͷǯǡ  ͳͻ͵Ͷ ȋϐȌǡ Babault• 87• (P);• Inéac-
ǤʹιʹͲǯǡʹͺιͶͻǯǤǣͳ͸ͷͲǡʹ͹ͳͻͷʹȋϐȌǡPierlot457•(BR);•Makuta.•2°02’S,•28°39’E,•
ͳͻ͵ͶȋϐȌǡBabault•528•(P);•Lac•Kivu,•Idjwi•(Kalambo).•2°10’S,•29°05’E.•Alt:•1500m,•4•September•1953•(st),•Ben,•
D.•van•der769ȋǡȌǢǡȋȌǤʹιͳͲǯǡʹͻιͲͷǯǡͳ͸ͳͻͷ͵ȋϐȌǡBen,•D.•van•der837
ȋǡȌǢǡǡǤǤǯÁǤͳιͷ͹ǯǡʹͻιͲ͸ǯǡʹͷͳͻͷ͵ȋϐǡȌǡBen,•D.•van•der
882ȋǡȌǢǤʹιͳͻǯǡʹͺιͶͷǯǡȋϐȌǡScaëtta1061•(BR);•route•Kavumu-Walikale,•Km•67•Buniakiri.•2°06’S,•
28°34’E.•Alt:• 1100m,•7• November•1956•(fr),•Pierlot1408•(BR);• Mulungu-Lwamabale,•Km•25• route•Bukavu-
Goma.• 2°19’S,• 28°46’E.•Alt:• 1600m,• 18• March• 1959• (fr),Pierlot2795• (BR);• Bunyakiri.• 2°04’S,• 28°34’E.• Alt:•
ͳͲͲͲǡͶͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡLéonard,•A.2859•(BR);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•Km•110.•1°53’S,•28°27’E.•Alt:•
ͻͲͲǡͳͲͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3171•(BR,COI,K,WAG);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•Km•110.•1°53’S,•28°27’E.•
ǣͻͲͲǡͳͲͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin,•G.M.D.J.3174•(BR,K,WAG);•Bunyakiri.•2°04’S,•28°34’E.•Alt:•1400m,•2•March•
Ǥ͸͵
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
ͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡLéonard,•A.3255•(BR);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•le•km•110.•1°53’S,•28°27’E.•Alt:•900m,•14•May•
ͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3419•(BR,K,WAG);•Kalehe,•vers•Km•110•route•kavum-Walikale;•Irangi,•réserve•IRSAC.•1°53’S,•
ʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡͳͶͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3420•(BR,K);•route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•km•110,•Irangi.•1°53’S,•
ʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡ͸ͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3534•(BR);•Kalehe,•vers•Km•110•route•kavum-Walikale;•Irangi,•
±Ǥͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡ͹ͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3541•(BR,K);•route•Kavumu-Walikale•vers•le•
ͲǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡ͹ͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3543•(BR,EA,K);•Kalehe,•vers•Km•110•route•kavum-
Ǣǡ±Ǥͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡ͹ͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin•3544(BR,K);•Bushumba.,•c.•
ʹιʹͲǯǡʹͺιͷͲǯǡͳͻͶͷȋϐǡȌǡHendrickx3576•(BR,EA);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•Km•110.•1°53’S,•
ʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡͻͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3785•(BR,K,WAG);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•le•km•110.•1°53’S,•
ʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣ ͻͲͲǡ ͳ͹  ͳͻͷ͹ ȋϐȌǡTroupin3823•(BR,K,WAG);• Biega.•2°23’S,• 28°40’E,•January• 1946• (fr),•
Hendrickx3859•(BR);•Ngwindja•Kab.,•c.•2°23’S,•28°50’E,•February•1946•(fr),•Hendrickx3914•(BR,EA);•Kabare.•
ʹιʹͻǯǡʹͺιͶͺǯǡͳͻͶ͸ȋϐȌǡHendrickx3920(BR);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•Km•110.•1°53’S,•28°27’E.•
ǣͻͲͲǡ ͷͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin3957ȋǡǡǡȌǢ ǤʹιͲʹǯǡ ʹͺιͷͷǯǡͳͻͶ͸ ȋϐȌǡ
Hendrickx4267•(BR,EA);•Vers•Km•110•route•Kavumu-Walikale;•Irangi,•réserve•IRSAC.•Catena•II.•1060•m.•1°53’S,•
ʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡʹͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin•4298•(B,BR,K);•Kalehe,•vers•Km•110•route•kavum-Walikale;•
ǡ±Ǥͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡʹ͸ͳͻͷ͹ȋϐȌǡTroupin4457•(BR,K);•île•Shime.•2°02’S,•
ʹͺιͷͷǯǡͳͻͶ͹ȋϐȌǡHendrickx5023ȋȌǢÁǤʹιͳͻǯǡʹͺιͷ͸ǯǡͳͻͶͺȋϐȌǡHendrickx5641
ȋǡȌǢǤʹι͵Ͳǯǡʹ͹ι͵Ͳǯǡͳͻ͵ʹȋϐȌǡLebrun5757•(BR,WAG);•Kalehe,•route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•
ͳͳͲǡ±ǤǤǤǤǤǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͻͲͲǡ͵ͲͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡTroupin7767•(BR);•Ile•Idjwi,•dans•
le•Lac•Kivu.•2°10’S,•29°05’E.•Alt:•1600m,•May•1929•(fr),•Humbert•8340•(P);•Kalehe,•route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•
ͳͳͲǡ±ǤǤǤǤǤǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͺ͸ͲǡͳͲͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡTroupin10013•(BR);•Kalehe,•
ǦǡͳͳͲǡǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͺ͸Ͳǡʹ͹ͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡTroupin•
10203ȋȌǢǡǦǡͳͳͲǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͺ͸Ͳǡ͵ͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡTroupin
10283•(BR);•Kalehe,•route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•Km•110,•Irangi•réserve.•I.R.S.A.C.•1°53’S,•28°27’E.•Alt:•860m,•
ͳͻͳͻͷͻȋϐȌǡTroupin•11376•(BR);•Km•110,•route•Kavumu-Walikale,•Irangi,•réserve•IRSAC.•Catena•II.•
ͳͺ͸ͲǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͺ͸Ͳǡʹͳͻ͸ͲȋϐȌǡTroupin12089•(BR);•Route•Kavumu-Walikale,•vers•Km110•
ǡǤͳιͷ͵ǯǡʹͺιʹ͹ǯǤǣͺ͸Ͳǡʹ͹ͳͻ͸ͲȋϐȌǡTroupin12478•(BR).
ETHIOPIA,•Kefa:•Mezan•Tefari.•6°58’N,•35°25’E.•Alt:•1500m,•8•August•1962•(fr),•Mooney,•H.F.9249•(K,S).
,•ǣǤǤͲιͳʹǯǡ͵Ͷιͷ͵ǯǤǣͳͷʹͶǡͳͻ͵ͶȋϐȌǡDale,•I.R.3244•(BR,EA,K,MA).
,•Central EquatoriaǣǤǤͶιͲͷǯǡ͵ͲιͶͳǯǡͳ͵ͳͻ͵ͻȋϐǡȌǡAndrews,•
F.W.1211•(C,K);•Eastern Equatoria:•Lado,•Yei•river.• Jembi.•4°00’N,•30°40’E,•23• August•1919•(fr),•Sillitoe290
ȋȌǢǡǤǤͶιͲͲǯǡ͵ͲιͶͲǯǡʹ͵ͳͻͳͻȋϐǡȌǡSillitoe365ȋȌǢǤǡ
ǡǡǤǤǡǤ͵ιͶͷǯǡ͵Ͳι͵ͺǯǡʹʹͳͻ͵ͻȋϐǡȌǡHoyle812•(FHO);•Anglo-
ǣǡǤͶιʹʹǯǡ͵͵ιͷ͹ǯǡͳ͵ͳͻ͵ͻȋϐȌǡMyers11310•(K).
,• Mwanzaǣǡ ǡʹιͲ͵ǯǡ ͵͵ιͲͲǯǡʹͳ ͳͻͳͳ ȋϐȌǡ Conrads447
(B,BR,EA,FHO,K);• Mdutunda• (Kisukuma),• Buhindi• Forest• Reserve.• 1189m,• 2°25’S,• 32°15’E.• Alt:• 1189m,• 27•
ͳͻ͸ͶȋϐȌǡCarmichael,•W.1080ȋǡȌǢǤʹιͲ͵ǯǡ͵͵ιͲͲǯǡͳͻʹͻȋϐȌǡ
Conrads5960ȋǡǡȌǢǤʹιͲ͵ǯǡ͵͵ιͲͲǯǡͳͻʹͻȋϐȌǡConrads6068•(EA).
,•ǣNovember•1953•(st),•Philip,•M.S.93•(EA);•Buganda:•Minziro•Forest,•south•Nasaka•district.•
ͳιͲͲǯǡ͵ͳιͷͲǯǤǣͳͳͺͻǡȋϐȌǡBrasnett63•(EA,K);•0°44’S,•31°40’E,•November•1913•(fr),•Fyffe•93•(EA,K);•Buku,•
ǡ͵ͺͲͲǤͲιͲͶǯǡ͵ʹιʹ͸ǯǤǣͳͳ͹͵ǡͳͻ͵ʹȋϐǡȌǡEggeling•413•(BR,EA,FHO,K);•Namauve•
ǤͲιʹͷǯǡ͵ʹιͷͲǯǤǣͳͳͷͺǡͳͻ͵ʹȋϐȌǡEggeling•432•(LUA);•Jubiya•C.F.R.•Bukakata.•0°15’S,•31°58’E.•
Alt:•1158m,•May•1953•(fr),•Philip,•M.S.520(EA);•Namanve•forest,•Kiagwe.•0°22’N,•32°41’E.•Alt:•1189m,•April•1932•
ȋϐȌǡEggeling•589ȋȌǢǡǤͲιʹʹǯǡ͵ʹιͶͳǯǡͳͻ͵ʹȋϐȌǡEggeling•707•(EA,FHO,K);•Buku,•
ǤͲιͲͶǯǡ͵ʹιʹ͸ǯǤǣͳͳͷͺǡͳͻ͵ʹȋϐȌǡEggeling•1089•(EA,FHO,K);•Kasansi,•near•Kampala.•
Ͳιͳ͵ǯǡ͵ʹι͵ʹǯǡͳͻ͵ͷȋϐȌǡChandler,•P.1170•(BR);•Kipayo•forest.•0°15’N,•32°46’E.•Alt:•1219m,•2•August•
ͳͻͳͷȋϐȌǡDümmer1395ȋǡȌǢǤͲι͵ͳǯǡ͵͵ιͲ͵ǯǡȋϐǡȌǡDümmer3965•(US,Z);•Kireku•swamp•
ǤͲιʹ͵ǯǡ͵ʹιͶʹǯǤǣͳʹͲͲǡͳͳͻͻ͹ȋϐǡȌǡRwaburindore4103•(C,MA,MO);•Mulange.•
Ͳι͵ͳǯǡ͵͵ιͲ͵ǯǤǣͳʹͳͻǡȋϐǡȌǡDümmer4340•(K,US,Z);•Mulange,•Mahia•forest.•0°31’N,•33°03’E.•
ǣͳʹͳͻǡͳͻʹʹ ȋϐȌǡDümmer5597•(K);•Southern Province:•Maramagambo•forest,•near• Bitereko.•
Ͳι͵ʹǯǡʹͻιͷ͵ǯǤǣͳͳͷͺǡͳͳͳͻ͸ͺȋϐǡ ȌǡHarrington389•(EA);• Western Province:•Siba• forest.•
ͳιͶͳǯǡ͵ͳιʹ͸ǯǡͳͻ͵͸ȋϐȌǡSangster,•R.G.94ȋǡȌǢǤͲι͵ʹǯǡʹͻιͷ͵ǯǡͺͳͻ͸ͺȋϐǡ
fr),•Synnott,•T.J.171•(EA);•Budongo•Forest•NR.•Busingiro.•About•5•miles•N.•of•Nyabyeya•hill•on•track•from•new•
 Ǧǡ ǤͳιͶ͹ǯǡ͵ͳι͵ͷǯǡͷͳͻͷͲȋϐȌǡDawkins548
(BR,EA,K);•Budongo•Forest,•3600ft.•1°39’N,•31°35’E.•Alt:•1097m,•May•1932•(fr),•Harris,•C.M.725•(EA,FHO,K);•
Ǥ͸Ͷ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
ǤǤͶǤǤͲι͵ʹǯǡʹͻιͷ͵ǯǡͳͳͻ͸ͻȋϐǡȌǡLock69/
43•(EA).•
ZAMBIA,•ǣǤͳͲιͲͺǯǡ͵ͲιͷͷǯǡͳͲͳͻͷͺȋϐȌǡFanshawe4787(BR,EA,FHO,K);•
21•miles•from•Mporokoso•towards•Kasama.•9°26’S,•30°22’E,•17•October•1947•(st),•Brenan8135•(FHO,K).
Key literature:•Bamps•&•Farron•(1967),•Farron•(1963,•1985),•Friis•&•Vollesen•(1998)•
and•Verdcourt•(2005).
Campylospermumcabrae•(Gilg)•Farron•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Ǥʹ
Bull.•Jard.•Bot.• État•Bruxelles•35:•393• (1965).•–•Exomicrumcabrae•(Gilg)•Tiegh.,•Ann.•
Sci.•Nat.,•Bot.•sér.•8,•18:•38•(June•1903).•–•Ouratea cabrae Gilg, Bot.•Jahrb.•Syst.•33:•262•
(1904).•–•Type:•Cabra33•(holotype:•BR!)•Congo.
Treelet•up•to•5•m•tall,•with•branched•stem;•twigs•with•a•pale•brownish•coloured•bark.•
Stipulespersistent,•verynarrowlytriangular,•ͳʹȂͳͷlong.•Leaf:•petiole•2–6•mm•long,•
slender;•leaf•blade•narrowly•elliptic,•ȋͷȂȌ͹ȂͳͶȋͳǤͷȂȌʹȂͶ,•ratio•͵Ȃ͸,•base•attenuate,•
sometimes•decurrent•onto•the•petiole,•apex•slightly•acuminate•to•acute,•papyraceous,•not•
bullate,•upper•surface•medium•green,•lower•suface•paler•green,•dull•on•both•sides,•margin•
regularlyserrulate,•teethwith a dark tip;•venation:•midrib•ǡϐ
slightly canaliculate below,• main• lateral• veins• 10–14• on• either• side,•5–10(–15)• mm•
ǡǡϐǡ
but•curved•upward•to•run•parallel•to•the•margin,•intermediate•lateral•veins•0–1•between•
each•pair•of•main•laterals,•distinct•on•both•sides,•tertiary•venation•scalariform,•running•
perpendicular•to•the•midrib,•distinct•on•both•sides.•ϔ•terminal,•unbranched
or•rarely•with•a•short•sidebranch•at•its•base,•dense;•pairwise•scales•persistent•at•the•base•
ǢʹȂͷǢͷȂ͹ǡͳȂͷǦϐǢ
persistent,• triangular-ovate• to• broadly• ovate,• 2–3•mm• long,• excluding• the• sometimes•
caudate•apex.•Flower:•ͷȂͳͲǡͳȂʹfrom the base;•
ǡϐͷȂ͸ʹȂ͵ǡǡǡͷȂͺ͵
becoming•coriaceous,•curved•up•in•fruit;•petals•obovate to elliptic,•6–8•x•2–3•mm,•clawed•
at•base,•rounded to slightly emarginate atapex;•stamens:•anthers•5–6•mm•long;•ovary•
1–2•mm•long;•style•4–5•mm•long.FruitǣǤͳϐǡʹȂ͵ǡ
red;•drupelets•1•to•2•well•developed•per•receptacle,•ellipsoid,•6–7•x•4–5•mm,•immature•
ones• reddish,• mature• ones• black;• cotyledons incumbent, dissimilar in size with a
small outer cotyledon.
Notes:•C. cabrae•is•a•rare•species.•The•above•description•is•based•on•only•8•specimens,•
collected•between•1897•and•1966.•It•is•characterized•by•having•a•serrulate•margin•with•
black•tipped•teeth•and•narrowly•triangular•stipules.•It•seems•close•to• C.•glaucum•with•
ϐǡ
but•which•differs•in•having•much•shorter•stipules•and•the•cymules•being•2-5•mm•apart.
Distribution:•southern•Republic•of•the•Congo,•south-western•Democratic• Republic•of•
the•Congo•(Mayombe)•and•Angola•(Cabinda)•(Map4).
Ǥ͸ͷ
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
ʹǤ•Campylospermum•cabrae.•A.•Incumbent•cotyledons,•with•small•outer•cotyledon.•ͳ•&•ʹ.•stipules.•C.•Flowering•branch.•ǤϐǤͳ•&•ʹ.•
Receptacle•with•persistent•sepals.•Drawings•by•Sabine•Bousani
Map 4.•Distribution•of•Campylospermum•cabraeȋ጖ȌCampylospermum•claessensii•()
A
ͳ
C
ͳ
ʹ
ʹ
Ǥ͸͸
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
Ecology:•in•primary•and•secondary•forest;•at•altitudes•below•500•m.
PhenologyǣϐǡǢǡǤ
Vernacularnames:•:•Luvamba(Luki).
IUCN conservation statusǣ  ͳȀʹȋȌǤ αͳͳǡͷ͹͵ 2ǡ αʹǡͶͲͺ 2,•
α͹ǡαʹȋ αʹʹ ȌǤ      
8• specimens,• collected• between• 1897• and• 1966• and• hence• its• present-day• presence•
ϐǤǡ
ǤǡϐǤ
Specimensexamined:
,•CabindaǣǡǤͶιͶͷǯǡͳʹι͵Ͷǯǡͳͻͳ͸ȋϐȌǡGossweiler•7193•(BM,COI,LISC).
ȋȌ,•Kouilou:•région• de•les•Saras• à•6•et• 30•km•du• carrefour•de•routes• Sounda•et•les•
ǤͶιʹʹǯǡͳʹιʹͲǯǡ͹ͳͻ͸͸ȋϐȌǡSita1353(P);•±:•chantier•forestier•de•la•Mudongo,•24•km•W.•
Sibiti.•3°40’S,•13°20’E,•19•August•1965•(st),•Farron4491•(P).
 ȋȌ,• Bas-Congo:•Unteres• Congogebiet.• 5°08’S,• 12°59’E,• 1897• (fr),• Cabra33• (BR);• Riobo•
(Mayombe).• 5°34’S,• 13°07’E,• 19• January• 1940• (fr),• Donis80• (BM);• Kiobo• (Tshela)• Leopoldville.• 5°38’S,•
ͳ͵ιͲ͹ǯǡʹ͵ͳͻͶͷȋϐȌǡDonis378ȋǡǡȌǢǤͷι͵ͺǯǡͳ͵ιͲͶǯǡʹͶͳͻͷͶȋϐǡȌǡWagemans
784•(WAG);•Luki.•5°38’S,•13°04’E,•19•May•1954•(fr),•Wagemans805•(BR,K).
Keyliterature:•Bamps•&•Farron•(1967),•Farron•(1963,•1985).
Campylospermumcalanthum•(Gilg)•Farron•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Fig.•͵
Bull.•Jard.•Bot.•État•Bruxelles•35:•394•(1965).•–•Ourateacalantha•Gilg,•Bot.•Jahrb.•Syst.•
33:•259•(1904).•–•Type:•Zenker1845•(holotype:•B†;•isotype:•HBG!,•K!,•P(2x)!),•Cameroon,•
Bipindi,•1898.
Monelasmum•zenkeri•Tiegh.,•J.• Bot.•(Morot)•16:•200•(June•1902).•–•Type:•Zenker1845
(holotype:•P(2x)!;•isotype:•HBG!,•K!),•Cameroon,•Bipindi,•1898.•(non•Campylospermum•
zenkeri•(TieghǤȌؠC.•oliveri•(Tiegh.)•Farron)
Monelasmum• sibangense• (Gilg)• Tiegh.,• Ann.• Sci.• Nat.,• sér.• 8,• Bot ,• 18:• 36• (June• 1903).•
Ouratea•sibangensis•Gilg,•Bot.•Jahrb.•Syst.•33:•267•(1904).•–•Type:•Soyaux53•(holotype:•
P!;•isotype:•K!),•Gabon,•Sibange•Farm,•January•22th,•1880.•syn.•nov.
Ouratea•nigroviolacea•Gilg• ex• Bak.• in•Rendle•et•al.,•Cat.•pl.•Oban:•124•(1913).• -.Type:•
Talbot•1282•(holotype:•K!),•Nigeria,•Oban.
Tree•up•to•10•m•tall,•with•branched•stem;•twigs•with•dark•brown•coloured•bark.•Stipules
persistent,• narrowly• to• very• narrowly• triangular,• 4–12(–25)• mm• long.• Leaf:• petiole•
ʹȂͳͲ • long,• stout,• canaliculate• above;• leaf• bladeelliptic• to• elliptic-obovate• or•
rarely•obovate•or•narrowly•elliptic-obovate,•ȋͺȂȌͳ͹ȂʹͲȋȂ͵͹ǤͷȌȋ͵ǤͷȂȌ͸ȂͳͲȋȂͳʹǤͷȌ
cm,•ratio•ȋʹǤʹͷȂȌ͵ȂͶ,•base•generally•cuneate•or•sometimes•attenuate,•rarely•rounded,•
apex• acuminate• or• rarely• acute,• coriaceous,• slightly• to• distinctly• bullate,• upper• side•
green,•glossy,• lower•side•paler•green,• dull,•margin•serrulate,•sometimes•shallowly•so,•
Ǣǣϐǡǡ
main•lateral•veins•ͳ͵Ȃʹʹ•on• either•side,•ȋ͹ȂȌͳͲȂʹͲȋȂ͵ͲȌ,•ϐ 
prominent•on•both•sides,•more•or• less• at• a• right•angle•with•the•midrib•but•curved•
upward•to•run•parallel•to•the• margin,•intermediate•lateral•veins1–3•in•between•each•
Ǥ͸͹
3
3.7 Materials and Methods
pair•of•main•lateral•veins,•slightly•sunken•on•upper•side,•prominent•on•lower•side,•
tertiary•venation•scalariform,•perpendicular•to•the• midrib,indistinct•on• upper•side,•
fairly•distinct• on• lower.•ϔ•terminal,• branched,•lax;•pairwise•scales•at• the•
base•of•peduncle•persistent,•sometimes•leafy,•15–20(–30)•x•4–10•mm,•its•main•axis•
(8–)15–35(–38)•cm•long;•racemes•2–7,•slender,•(5–)8–19(–23)•cm•long,•ascendant•or•
rarely•held•horizontally;•bracts•persistent,•triangular,•3–15(–30)•mm•long;•cymules•
ͲǤͷȂʹǡͳȂ͸ȋȂͳͷȌǦϐǤFlower:•pedicel•5–9•mm,•articulated•at•2–4•mm•from•
Ǣǡϐ͸Ȃͺ͵ȂͶǡ͹ȂͳͲͶȂ͸ǡǡ
apex•acute•to•rounded;•petals•obovate,•3–9•x•3–6•mm,•truncateat•base,•rounded•to•
slightly•emarginate•at•apex;•stamens:•anthers•5–6•mm•long;•ovary•1–2•mm•long;•style•
4–5•mm•long.•FruitǣǤͳϐǡͶȂ͸ͶȂ5•mm;•drupelets•
1–4• well• developed• per• receptacle,• reniform,• slightly• compressed,• 8–11• x• 6-8• mm;•
cotyledons•accumbent,άinsize.
Notes:C.•calanthum  ϐ C.• dybovskii.•The•former•
generally•has•much•broader•leaf•blades•with•lateral•veins•prominent•below,•but•some•
C. calanthum specimens• may• have• fairly• narrow• leaf• blades• while• some• C. dybovskii
specimens•may•have•lateral•veins•that•are•slightly•prominent•below.•In•those•cases,•C.•
calanthum•can•be•recognized•by•its•persistent•stipules•and•slightly•to•distinctly•bullate•
leaves•(caducous•stipules•and•non-bullate•leaves•in•C. dybovskii).
Distribution:• south-eastern• Guinea,• southern• Liberia,• Ivory• Coast• to•Ghana,• Nigeria,•
ǡǡǡǡǡ
Democratic•Republic•of•the•Congo•and•Angola•(Cabinda)•(Mapͷ).
Ecology:• in• primary,• secondary,• high,• dense• gallery• forest,• coastal,• littoral• wet• and•
swamp•forest,•forest•edges,•along•rivers;•on•brown,•sandy•soil•and•brown•reddish•clay;•
at•up•to•1100•m•altitude.
PhenologyǣϐǤ
IUCN conservation statusǣͳȀʹȋǡǡȌǤα͵ǡʹ͸ͷǡͶ͵Ͳ2ǡα͵ǡͶ͹͵ǡͳͶͲ2,•
αʹͶ͹ȋα͵ͺͻȌǤǡ
which•seems•to•indicate•it•in•not•uncommon•in•the•wild,•and•occurs•from•West•Africa•all•
the•way•down•to•Angola•(Cabinda)•and•is•found•in•a•wide•variety•of•habitats.•Therefore,•the•
category•of•Least•Concern•seems•most•appropriate.
Specimensexamined:
,•CabindaǣǤͶι͵Ͷǯǡͳʹι͵͹ǯǡͳͷͳͻͳͻȋϐȌǡGossweiler 7806•(BM,BR,COI,K,LISC).
,•Central• Province:•Nkongkengui,•12•km• NNE•Makak,•à• 50•km•WSW.•de• Yaounde•(feuille• IGN•
ͳȀʹͲͲͲͲͲ ȌǤ͵ι͵ͻǯ ͳͳιͲͷǯǡ ͳ͹  ͳͻ͹ʹ ȋϐȌǡ Letouzey11531• (K,P);• East• Province:• Dja• Fauna•
ǡǤ͵ιͲͻǯͳʹιͶ͹ǯǡʹ͸ʹͲͲ͵ȋϐȌǡNguembou Kamgang 862•(BR,YA);•Réserve•de•
ǡǦǤʹιͷͳǤʹǯͳ͵ιʹͲǤͷǯǡ͹ͳͻͻͷȋϐȌǡSonké1596•(BR);•About•10•km•S.•of•Dimako,•
SW.• of• Bertoua.• 4°19’N• 13°34’E.• Alt:• 630m,• 1• August• 1961• (fr),• Breteler1728• (BR,FI,K,LISC,M,P,WAG,YA);•
Littoral:•Forstexpedition•1908.•3°44’N•11°10’E,•(st),•Büsgen404•(B);•Lake•Tissongo,•16•km•EES•of•Mouanko.•
3°35’N•9°52’E,•12•September•1983•(fr),•Asonganyi651•(P);•Nlonako,•5•km•SSE•Nkongsamba.•4°54’N•9°57’E.•
Alt:•1100m,• 17•March•1976• (st),•Letouzey14458 (P);•South•Province:•Bipindi.•3°05’N•10°25’E,•June• 1899•
(fr),•Zenkers.n.ȋȌǢǤ͵ιͲͷǯͳͲιʹͷǯǡȋϐȌǡZenkers.n.•(FHO);•19•km•S•Lolodorf,•1•SW•Ebom•II,•1•km•on•
transect•9B.•Primary•forest•on•hill•top,•3°03’N•10°42’E.•Alt:•370m,•29•September•1995•(fr),•Winter, A.J. de40
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3
3.7 Materials and Methods
͵Ǥ•Campylospermum•calanthum.•Fruiting•branch.•Drawing•by•Sabine•Bousani
ͷ.•Distribution•of•Campylospermum•calanthum
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3
3.7 Materials and Methods
(WAG);•Ngongonjie•hill,•near•Akonetye•S•of•Ebolowa.•2°30’N•11°08’E.•Alt:•630m,•16•January•1978•(fr),•Koufani
48•(P);•Mvimi.•2°22’N•10°06’E,•8•January•1984•(fr),•Kaji83•(P);•Lolodorf,•Ngowayang.•3°15’N•10°37’E,•14•June•
ͳͻͳͺȋϐȌǡAnnet260ȋȌǢǤʹιͶ͹ǯͳͲι͵ʹǯǡʹͳͺͻͷȋϐȌǡBates, G.L.293ȋȌǢϐǤǡ͵ιͲͶǯͳͲιʹ͵ǯǡ
ͳͻͳ͵ȋϐȌǡZenker382•(B,C,G,HUH,LD,LY,US,WAG);•Block•I2.•3°06’N•10°44’E.•Alt:•550m,•17•November•1995•
(st),•Elad412•(KRIBI,WAG);•Nkol•Bidjouka,•38• km•SW•de• Lolodorf.•3°06’N•10°25’E.• Alt:•250m,•7• February•
1979•(fr),•Satabié423ȋȌǢǤ͵ιʹͻǯͳͲιͲͷǯǡʹͶͳͻͳͺȋϐȌǡAnnet435(P);•environ•
ǯǡͶͲ  Ǥʹι͵ͷǯͻιͷͶǯǡ͹ͳͻ͹ͻȋϐȌǡSatabié464(P);•Kribi.•2°57’N•9°55’E,• 12•
ͳͻͲͶȋϐȌǡWinkler, H.J.P.815•(Z);•near•Bipaga•II,•km•40•Kribi-Edéa•road.,•30m•3°09’N•10°01’E.•Alt:•
͵ͲǡʹͺͳͻͺʹȋϐǡȌǡKruif, A.P.M. de975•(MO,WAG,YA);•Kribi,•piste•menant•au•Mont•élephant,•7•km•
après•village•Bidou•III.•2°48.23’N•10°02.04’E.•Alt:•79m,•27•March•2010•(st),•Bissiengou1206•(LBV,WAG,YA);•
Kribi,•piste•menant•au•Mont•élephant,•7•km•après•village•Bidou•III.•2°48.26’N•10°02.10’E.•Alt:•85m,•27•March•
2010•(fr),•Bisse ien
I hopgou1218 (LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Kribi-Campo,•20•km•de•Kribi.•2°45.13’N•9°52.92’E.•Alt:• 45m,•28• March•
2010•(fr),•Bissiengou1223•(LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Kribi-Campo,•20•km•de•Kribi.•2°45.13’N•9°52.92’E.•Alt:•45m,•
28• March• 2010• (st),• Bissiengou1224• (LBV,WAG,YA);• route• Kribi-Campo,• 20• km• de• Kribi.,• 39m,• 2°45.17’N•
9°52.85’E.•Alt:•39m,•28•March•2010•(st),•Bissiengou1225•(LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Kribi-Campo,•20•km•de•Kribi.•
2°45.17’N•9°52.85’E.• Alt:•39m,•28• March•2010• (st),•Bissiengou1226•(LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Kribi-Bidou• I,•40•
km• de• Kribi.• 3°03.55’N• 10°11.52’E.• Alt:• 44m,• 30• March• 2010• (st),• Bissiengou1236• (LBV,WAG,YA);• route•
Ǧǡ͹Ǥ͵ Ǥ ͵ιͲͶǤͳ͵ǯͳͲιʹͲǤͶͷǯǤ ǣͻ͹ǡ͵ͲʹͲͳͲȋϐǡȌǡ Bissiengou1242
(LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Kribi-Bipindi,•PK7.3•avant•Bipindi.•3°04.13’N•10°20.45’E.•Alt:•97m,•30•March•2010•(fr),•
Bissiengou1244•(LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Bipindi-Bidjouka,•village•Log•Ndiga•environ•2•km•de•Bipindi.•3°05.3’N•
10°25.1’E.• Alt:• 230m,• 31• March• 2010• (fr),• Bissiengou1256• (LBV,WAG,YA);• route• Bipindi-Bidjouka,• village•
Log• Ndiga• environ• 2• km• de• Bipindi.• 3°05.3’N• 10°25.1’E.• Alt:• 230m,• 31• March•2010• (st),• Bissiengou1257
(LBV,WAG,YA);•route•Bipindi-Bidjouka,•village•Log•Ndiga•environ•2•km•de•Bipindi.•3°05’N•10°25’E.•Alt:•230m,•
31• March• 2010• (st),• Bissiengou1263• (LBV,WAG,YA);• Campo-Ma’an• area,• Bibabimvoto,•along• transect• T4.•
ʹιͳͷǤͳǯͳͲιʹͳǤͻǯǤǣͶͲǡͳʹͲͲͲȋϐȌǡElad 1273•(KRIBI,WAG);•Campo-Ma’an•area,•Mvini,•along•
transect•T7.•2°19.3’N•10°08.4’E.•Alt:•60m,•17•February•2000•(fr),•Elad 1288•(KRIBI,WAG);•colline•à•droite•du•
km•28•de•la•route•Kribi-Lolodorf.•3°03’N•10°07’E,•12•April•1949•(fr),•Letouzey1288•(P);•Campo•Ma’an•area,•
Ǥʹιʹ͹Ǥ͸ǯͳͲιͳ͹ǤͺǯǤǣͶ͸ͲǡʹͶʹͲͲʹȋϐȌǡElad 1566•(KRIBI,SCA,WAG);•Kribi-Ebolowa•
km•9.• 2°53’N•9°58’E,•5• January•1968• (fr),•Bamps 1691ȋȌǢǤ ͵ιͳͶǯͳͲιͶ͵ǯǡͺͳͻ͸ͺ ȋϐȌǡ
Bamps 1735ȋȌǢǤ͵ιͲͷǯͳͲιʹͷǯǡͳͺͻͺȋϐȌǡZenker1845•(BM,E,G,K,Z);•Bipindi•Urwaldgebiet.•
3°05’N•10°25’E,•1904•(fr),•Zenker2768•(BM,G,K,LY);•Efoulan,•Ongongo•and•Nkolomekok•hills•in•Akom•II•area.•
ʹιͶͶǤͻǯͳͲι͵ʹǤͷǯǤǣͶͲͲǡʹͶʹͲͲͲȋϐȌǡTchouto Mbatchou2827•(WAG);•Ma’an,•Nvili•Ayet,•Forest•1,5•
hours•walk•North•of•Ma’an•village,•behind•nvili•creek.•2°22’N•10°36’E.•Alt:•540m,•13•February•2001•(fr),•Andel,
T.R. van3146 (KRIBI,SCA,WAG,YA);•E.•of• Bwambe•Cath.• Mission,•6•km•S•of• Kribi,•shady•forest•edge.• 2°53’N•
ͻιͷͶǯǡͺͳͻ͸ͺȋϐȌǡBos, J.J.3238•(BR,C,K,MA,WAG);•Campo•Ma’an•area,•Ebodje,•Likodo•River•bank.,•
2°34’N• 9°50’E.• Alt:• 10m,• 31• March• 2001• (fr),• Andel, T.R. van3257• (KRIBI,SCA,WAG,YA);•Lobé,• Pfourpfoua•
ȋȌǡǤʹιͷͳǯͻιͷͶǯǤǣʹͲǡͳ͸ʹͲͲͳȋϐȌǡAndel, T.R. van3429•(KRIBI,SCA,WAG,YA);•
ͻ    Ǥ ͵ιͲͲǯ ͻιͷ͸ǯǡ ʹ͹  ͳͻ͸ͺ ȋϐǡ Ȍǡ Bos, J.J.3508• (BR,E,K,MA,MO,P,PRE,WAG,YA);•
ǡǡǡǤǡ͵ιͲͶǯ ͳͲιʹͶǯǡͺ ʹͲͲͳȋϐȌǡAndel, T.R. van3537
(KRIBI,WAG);•Campo•Ma’an•area,•Akom•II,•Nkol•Dangueng.•2°48’N•10°32’E.•Alt:• 405m,•19•August•2001•(fr),•
Andel, T.R. van3945•(WAG);•entre•Fenda•(60•km•ESE•de•Kribi)•et•rivière•Kienke.•2°49’N•10°25’E,•22•January•
1962•(fr),•Letouzey4094ȋȌǢ°°ǤͳȀʹͲͲͲͲͲǤ
3°14’N•12°04’E,•13•February•1962•(fr),• Letouzey4204•(P);•Urwaldgebiet.•3°05’N•10°25’E,•1911•(st),•Zenker
4253•(BM,E,G,K,MA,W);• Urwaldgebiet.•3°05’N•10°25’E,•1912•(fr),• Zenker4487•(BM,E,G,K,S,W);• 20•km•from•
Kribi,•3•km•N.• of• Lolodorf• road,•SFIA•forest• exploitation.,• 3°02’N•10°03’E,•18•July• 1969• (st),• Bos, J.J.5091
(BAS,BR,P,WAG,YA);• 30•km•N.•of•Kribi.•3°08’N•10°01’E,•28•November•1969•(st),•Bos, J.J.5736 (WAG);•22•km•
from•Kribi,•3•-•4•km•S.•of•Lolodorf•road.•2°59’N• 10°04’E,•25• February•1970•(st),•Bos, J.J.6411 (BAS,P,WAG);•
28•km• from•Kribi,•Lolodorf•road,•Bidou• I,•summit• of•Calvary•mountain.• 3°01’N•10°07’E.• Alt:•300m,•17•June•
1970•(st),•Bos, J.J.6952(BAS,BR,K,MO,P,PRE,WAG,YA);•11•km•N.•of• Kribi,•Edea•road.,•3°00’N•9°57’E,•24•June•
1970•(st),• Bos, J.J.6964•(BAS,WAG);•60•km•N.• of•Kribi,• 3•km•E.• of•Edea• road.•3°20’N•10°07’E,• 11•July• 1970•
(st),•Bos, J.J.7086•(AAU,B,BR,C,K,MA,MO,P,PRE,SRGH,WAG,YA);•Kribi,•Km•9•sur•la•route•d’Edea,•près•du•village•
Ebouyoie.•3°00’N•9°58’E,•25• April•1970• (st),•Farron 7131•(P);• 25•km•from•Kribi,•2•km•N.• of•Lolodorf• road.•
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3.7 Materials and Methods
3°01’N•10°05’E,•28•