Article

Effects of the Feral Peach (Prunus persica Batsch var. davidiana Max) Extract on the Lipid Compositions and Blood Pressure Level in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of the feeding physiological activity substance in feral peach(Prunus Persica Batsch var. davidiana Max.) extract intake on the improvement of the lipid compositions, apolipoprotein and blood pressure level in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR, Wistar strain, male) fed the experimental diets for 33 days. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride(TG), LDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and atherosclerotic index in serum were significantly lower in the feral peach extract intake groups[groups 5g% Ex.(basal diet+feral peach 5.0g% extract), 10g% Ex.(basal diet+feral peach 10.0g% extract)] than those in the group Control(basal diet+water). In the ratio of HDL-cholesterol concentration to total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentration, feral peach 5.0g%, 10.0g% extract intake groups(group 5g% Ex. and 10g% Ex.) were higher percentage than in the group Control. However, concentrations of total cholesterol and TC in liver and brain were significantly lower in the groups 5g% Ex. and 10g% Ex. than those in the group Control. But the concentrations of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and Apo A-II in serum were significantly higher in the feral peach 5.0g% and 10.0g% extract intake groups(5g% Ex. and 10g% Ex.) than in the control group. However, concentrations of Apo C-II, Apo C-III, Apo E and ratio of Apo B to Apo A-I in serum were fairly reduced in the groups 5g% Ex. and 10g% Ex. than in the control group. The levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower in feral peach 5g% Ex. and 10g% Ex. groups than control group. However, no significance was found in the effect of among the groups(groups 5g% Ex. and 10g% Ex.). From these results, physiological activity substance in feral peach(Prunus persica Batsch var. davidiana Max.) extracts were effective on the improvement of the lipid compositions and cardiovascular heart disease, hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. And particularly, feral peach extracts were more effective as a therapeutic regimen for the control of blood pressure in hypertension.

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... 매실에 관한 연구는 항산화 효능을 중심으로 항균 활성, 항암, 위소화 촉진, 간기능 회복, 항스트레스 및 항히스타민 효과 등에 걸쳐 다양하다 [5,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. 개복숭아의 연구도 과육의 항산화 및 미백, 혈청 지질 개선 효과와 나무 가지의 항산화 및 항염 효과 연구 가 있다 [19][20][21][22] (Fig. 3) 항산화 효과 동물세포주 HaCaT cell에 대한 세 종류 꽃추출물들의 항산화 효과를 살펴 보았다. 개복숭아꽃과 흰매화, 분홍매화는 항산화 효과가 있는 추출물임을 확인할 수 있었다 (Fig. 4) ...
... P. davidiana (Carriere) Franch fruits (PrDF) have been used as folkloristic medicine to treat hemasthenosis, constipation, chronic rhinitis, cough, asthma, dysmenorrhea, arthritis, and diarrhea [1,27,28]. Various studies have shown that PrDF improves blood glucose and lipid compositions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [16], reduces blood pressure level in spontaneously hypertensive rats [17], and possesses antioxidant and whitening activities [18]. Moreover, the tree extracts of this plant have been shown to have antioxidant, lipid peroxide inhibitory, antiinflammatory [5], and anti-hyperlipidemia [7] activities. ...
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We are still uncertain of the way in which environment and heredity interact to produce increased arterial pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Few indisputable abnormalities can be demonstrated. Of these there is universal agreement that structural vessel hypertrophy is present and this acts probably as a maintenance and perhaps amplifying system resulting from an initial increase in arterial pressure. It cannot of course explain an increase in arterial pressure ab initio. Most of the well defined systems of arterial pressure control do not show any marked abnormality, although there is some evidence for a modest degree of sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Although some of the changes in cation fluxes across erythrocyte and leucocyte membranes are still debatable, there is general agreement that cation handling by erythrocytes and leucocytes is abnormal in many patients with essential hypertension and that some of these abnormalities are shared by the normotensive relatives of hypertensive patients. The most promising approach is that there is an abnormality of the cell membrane vascular smooth muscle which is partly genetically determined and perhaps also involves the autonomic nervous system. This produces an increased pressor response to environmental stimuli which becomes perpetuated and perhaps amplified by structural hypertrophy of the resistance vessels.
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Lipoproteins are circulating complexes of lipids and proteins, the transport and metabolism of which are directly controlled by apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, B, C-I, C-II, C-III, D, E, and (a); lipoprotein-processing proteins lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, and cholesteryl ester-transfer protein; and lipoprotein receptors, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, chylomicron remnant receptor, and scavenger receptors. Studies have shown a close association between lipoprotein abnormalities and coronary artery disease susceptibility. Four types of abnormalities are frequently seen: increased LDL cholesterol levels; decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, usually accompanied by increased triglyceride or very low density lipoprotein levels; increased concentrations of chylomicron remnants and intermediate density lipoproteins; and increased concentrations of an abnormal lipoprotein, lipoprotein (a). One or more of these abnormalities is present in 50-80% of myocardial infarction survivors. The exact pathogenic process whereby each of these abnormalities causes coronary artery disease is a subject of active investigation but beyond the scope of this brief presentation. However, the genetic contribution to each of these abnormal lipoprotein phenotypes is coming into focus and is discussed.
Article
Apoptosis or programmed cell death frequently parallels abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation. As hypertrophy/hyperplasia or remodeling occurs in organs affected by hypertension, we evaluated the degree of apoptosis in the heart, kidney, and brain in situ in genetically hypertensive mice and rats as well as in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Apoptosis was characterized by morphological features, DNA fragmentation, and laddering as well as by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase labeling of the 3' OH ends of both extracted DNA and tissue sections. The present report provides the first evidence of increased apoptosis in whole organs of genetically hypertensive rat and mouse strains: in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in the heart (ventricular cardiomyocytes), kidney (inner cortex and medulla), and brain (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus) of spontaneously hypertensive mice, with a higher effect of apoptotic inducers in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells derived from SHR. Both types of known apoptotic processes, oligonucleosomal cleavage and large DNA fragmentation, were observed in vascular smooth muscle cells, but only the former appeared to be increased in SHR. This study underlines the importance of cell death dysregulation in hypertension, reveals a new route for investigation of the pathogenesis of hypertension, and suggests novel targets of therapeutic intervention.
Article
In recent years there have been many studies demonstrating a correlation between increased arterial blood pressure and altered lipid profiles, and there has been an especially positive correlation between high cholesterol levels and blood pressure. There are differences between the various reports that are important. In our study the lipid distribution in 105 hypertensive patients with mild or moderate arterial hypertension according to WHO criteria without clinically or ultrasonographically apparent atherosclerosis was compared to the lipid distribution in 65 age-matched healthy persons. On the epidemiological level a significant, positive association was found between LDL serum levels (P < or = 0.001), Apo B serum levels (P < or = 0.001), serum triglyceride levels (P < or = 0.05) and VLDL serum levels (P < or = 0.01) and arterial hypertension. However, in contrast to recent reports, no significant difference was found between total serum cholesterol levels in normotensives and hypertensives, and there was no difference in HDL serum levels. No evidence could be found for a significant increase in lipoprotein (a) serum levels in hypertensives.
Article
The European Atherosclerosis Research Study was based on the comparison of offspring having a paternal history of premature myocardial infarction with age- and sex-matched control subjects. Case (n = 635) and control (n = 1259) subjects aged 18 through 26 years were recruited from 14 universities of 11 European countries. The allele distributions of apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism differed between populations, with a clear-cut gradient for allele epsilon 4 frequency decreasing from 0.18 in Finland to 0.11 in the south of Europe, following the gradient of coronary heart disease mortality rates. The association of apoE polymorphism with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and apoE levels was consistent with the now well-identified effects of epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 alleles on these traits. Both epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 alleles equally increased the level of triglycerides, and epsilon 2 had a lowering effect on lipoprotein(a) concentration. There were also weak effects of epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoA-I, and apoA-I-containing lipoprotein levels that paralleled those on apoE levels. The main finding of this study was the significant association of the apoE polymorphism with a paternal history of myocardial infarction. The association was consistent across regions, except in the south. When excluding this region, the population-adjusted odds ratios by reference to phenotype E3/3 were estimated as 0.23, 0.61, 0.78, 1.16, and 1.33 for E2/2, E3/2, E4/2, E4/3, and E4/4, respectively. The apoE locus largely explained the case/control difference of apoB level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The effects of soy-protein consumption with and without soy fiber on plasma lipids in 26 mildly hypercholesterolemic men were studied. Four, 4-wk dietary treatments included 50 g protein and 20 g dietary fiber from soy flour (SF), isolated soy protein/soy cotyledon fiber (ISP/SCF), ISP/cellulose (ISP/C), or nonfat dry milk/C (NFDM/C) in conjunction with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) concentrations were lowest for both ISP dietary treatments compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and NFDM/C (P < 0.01). SF also led to lower TC compared with NFDM/C (P < 0.05). LDL-cholesterol values were lowest for both ISP treatments compared with NFDM/C (P < 0.01), but lower compared with baseline only with ISP/SCF (P < 0.05). Apolipoprotein B was lowest when ISP/C was fed, compared with baseline, SF, and NFDM (P < 0.05). HDL-cholesterol and total triglycerides (TG) were not affected. Results indicate that 50 g ISP is effective in lowering TC, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B while maintaining HDL concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic men.
Article
Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in atherogenesis, and elevated levels of LDL are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Studies have now revealed that LDL is structurally heterogeneous, based on its size and density. Patients with combined hyperlipidemia exhibit a lipid profile - the so-called atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype - that is associated with elevated triglyceride levels, low levels of high density lipoprotein and a preponderance of atherogenic, small, dense LDL particles. Such individuals are at an increased risk of CHD events, regardless of their total LDL circulating mass. Evidence suggests that when plasma triglycerides exceed a critical threshold of approximately 133 mg/dl (1.5 mmol/l), this favours the formation of small, dense LDL from larger, less dense species. Lipid-lowering agents that are capable of lowering triglyceride levels below this threshold value will cause a shift to a less dense and, therefore, less atherogenic LDL profile. This effect has been demonstrated for the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin which, in addition to its ability to markedly decrease the total LDL circulating mass, can also shift the LDL profile towards less dense, larger species. This suggests that atorvastatin may also affect the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype found in patients with combined hyperlipidemia.
Article
The objective of the present study was to examine concordance/discordance among 4 atherogenic indexes of cardiovascular risk: plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). Analyses were conducted in a cohort of 2,103 men without coronary artery disease (CAD) at the onset of the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. Although there were strong and highly significant correlations among the 4 risk indexes (0.78 < r < 0.97), only 50% of all subjects had concordant apoB and LDL cholesterol levels (i.e., values that fell into the same quintile of the population distribution). Moreover, concordance/discordance was not the same throughout the range of both variables; it was greater at the extremes of their respective distributions (65%), but significantly less in the midpoints (<40%). ApoB appeared to be more concordant with non-HDL cholesterol than with LDL cholesterol, although >1/3 of all subjects had discordant levels. Kappa analysis confirmed that there was only fair agreement between apoB and total or LDL cholesterol (0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and only moderate agreement between non-HDL cholesterol and apoB (0.47). Finally, a significant proportion of subjects (528 of 2,103) who had disproportionately higher apoB levels than would have been predicted based on their LDL cholesterol concentrations was more obese and manifested several features of the metabolic syndrome. They also had a significantly increased cardiovascular risk. In summary, plasma apoB and the various cholesterol indexes are complementary rather than competitive indexes of atherosclerotic risk and provide further evidence as to why measurement of apoB should be part of a standard lipoprotein assessment of CAD risk.
Article
Epidemiological studies have identified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) as independent risk factors that modulate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.1,2⇓ Over the past decade, clinical trials of LDL-lowering drugs have clearly established that reductions in LDL are associated with a 30% to 45% reduction in clinical events.3–7⇓⇓⇓⇓ However, despite lowered LDL, many patients continue to have cardiac events. Low HDL is often present in high-risk patients with CVD.8 As a result, a great deal of research interest recently has been focused on raising plasma HDL levels by dietary, pharmacological, or genetic manipulations as a potential strategy for the treatment of CVD. In addition to epidemiologic studies, other lines of evidence suggest that raising HDL would reduce the risk of CVD. Infusion of HDL in the form of apoA-I/phospholipids complexes was associated with regression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.9 Moreover, increased plasma HDL concentrations achieved by overexpressing human apoA-I in transgenic animals protects against the development of diet-induced10 and genetically determined atherosclerosis.11 Recently, 5 weekly infusions of apoA-I Milano/phospholipid complexes were shown to regress total atheroma volume by 4.2% in 36 patients compared with 11 controls after an acute coronary event using intravascular ultrasound to quantitate coronary atheroma.12 These combined results provide support for the concept that raising HDL may represent an additional therapeutic target for prevention of CVD. See page 490 Although our understanding of how HDL protects against CVD is still incomplete, there is evidence that supports at least 3 major atheroprotective mechanisms of HDL. HDL-mediated efflux of cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages is a well-established anti-atherogenic function of HDL. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages to HDL can occur by passive diffusion,13 by interaction with the SR-BI receptor,14 or by binding to the ABCA1 transporter15–18 …
Chemical structure and isolation of novel anti-hypertensive ingredient as condensed tannin from the pods of Korean Caesalpinia sepiaria
  • B J An
  • J T Lee
  • J M Park
  • J H Kwak
  • J Y Lee
  • C I Park
  • J H Son
  • H Y Lim
Study on the mutation screening of the apolipoprotein C-II gene in Korean hypertensives and the association with plasma triglyceride level
  • J S Bae
  • B Y Kang
  • K T Kim
  • J H Shin
  • C C Lee
Atlas to canons of primitive-modern oriental medicine
  • K H Ahn
Antioxidant and antiinflammation activities of Prunus persica tree extracts
  • B C Cha
  • E H Lee
Effect of dietary grape seed oil in serum lipids in spontaneously hypertensive rats
  • H J Choi
  • Y H Whang
  • U H Pek
  • H S Shin
Effects of garlic on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR)
  • S G Do
  • P W Choi
  • J G Suh
  • C S Kim
  • H K Shin
  • M H Won
  • M H Lee
  • Y S Oh
The effect of mixing beverage with Aralia continentalis kitagawa root on blood pressure and blood constituents of the diabetic and hypertensive elderly
  • M Choi
  • D H Do
  • D J Choi
A study on the analgesic and anticoagulative effects of Persicae semen and Carthami flos of aqua-acupuncture
  • D H Kim
  • K S Lee
  • B K Song
Inhibition of enzymatic browning of apple juices by benzoic acid isolated from peach(Prunus persica Batsch) seeds
  • J Y Lee
  • S G Hong
  • S W Choi
Effect of hypertension falling of functional GABA green tea
  • J H Park
  • S H Han
  • M K Shin
  • K H Park
  • K C Lim
Periodic changes in levels of lipid peroxide and vitamin E in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed high cholesterol diet
  • W S Ryu
  • U H Ryoo
  • Y S Choi
  • H S Lee
  • S H Cho
The effect of Persicae semen on the atherosclerosis in rabbit
  • I H Yoon
  • B I Seo
  • S H Kim
Resent theory of hypertension in adults
  • S S Kim
Volatile flavor components in various varieties of peach(Prunus persica L.) cultivated in Korea
  • E R Park
  • J O Jo
  • K S Kim
Protective effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes in the comet assay
  • J K Kim
  • T W Park
  • C J Lee
  • Y G Chai