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Re-Envisaging the Eight Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson: The Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM)

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The purpose of this study is to describe the use of Fibonacci numbers to model Erikson's eight developmental stages and to formulate practical clinical implications. Using a new method, called the Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM), all prospective dates based on the Fibonacci sequence between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2100 were identified. This study found the FLCM produced a developmental pattern characterized by eight recognizable stages. This finding constitutes a new classification of Erikson's eight developmental stages. The present research provides support for Erikson's epigenetic view of predetermined, sequential stages to human development based on the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in biological cell division and self-organizing systems. This method may help identify populations at risk for psychological disorder, which would allow early intervention. However, a longitudinal study is required to establish its predictive power.
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Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology; Vol. 3, No. 1; 2013
ISSN 1927-0526 E-ISSN 1927-0534
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Re-Envisaging the Eight Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson: The
Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM)
Robert G. Sacco1
1 School of Behavioral and Health Sciences, Northcentral University, Arizona, USA
Correspondence: Robert G. Sacco, School of Behavioral and Health Sciences, Northcentral University, Prescott
Valley, AZ, 86314, USA. E-mail:
Received: February 9, 2013 Accepted: March 19, 2013 Online Published: March 29, 2013
doi:10.5539/jedp.v3n1p140 URL:
The purpose of this study is to describe the use of Fibonacci numbers to model Erikson’s eight developmental
stages and to formulate practical clinical implications. Using a new method, called the Fibonacci Life-Chart
Method (FLCM), all prospective dates based on the Fibonacci sequence between January 1, 2000 and December
31, 2100 were identified. This study found the FLCM produced a developmental pattern characterized by eight
recognizable stages. This finding constitutes a new classification of Erikson’s eight developmental stages. The
present research provides support for Erikson’s epigenetic view of predetermined, sequential stages to human
development based on the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in biological cell division and self-organizing
systems. This method may help identify populations at risk for psychological disorder, which would allow early
intervention. However, a longitudinal study is required to establish its predictive power.
Keywords: developmental stages, dynamic systems theory, erikson, fibonacci numbers
1. Introduction
Overall, Erikson’s greatest contribution to research on human development is his life-cycle theory and its eight
stages. Erikson (1982) maintained that within the span of a lifetime, individuals advance through a series of eight
developmental stages, each characterized by a unique psychological issue. The degree of resolution (or
unresolution) of each stage forms the characteristics of individual personality and impacts the degree of
resolution (or unresolution) of later stages. Erikson defined the following eight developmental stages: trust vs.
mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. identity
confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and ego integrity vs. despair, which are related to
the following ages: early infancy (1–1 ½), toddler (1 ½–3), early childhood (3–6), middle childhood (6–12),
adolescence (12–18), young adulthood (19–40), middle adulthood (40–65), and older adulthood (65+). These
stages and their associated personality outcomes are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development
Stage Period Personality Attributes Age
1 Early Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust 1–1 ½
2 Toddler Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1 ½ –3
3 Early Childhood Initiative vs. Guilt 3–6
4 Middle Childhood Industry vs. Inferiority 6–12
5 Adolescence Identity vs. Identity Confusion 12–18
6 Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation 19–40
7 Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation 40–65
8 Older Adulthood Integrity vs. Despair 65+
Note. This information is from Erikson (1982). Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology Vol. 3, No. 1; 2013
Each of these stages has a biological foundation in an individual’s physical maturation and cognitive
development. Erikson used the term “epigenesis” to describe the organic quality of this developmental model.
Assimilated from embryology, the word describes how fetal organs normally develop in a careful sequential
priority with one another. Similarly, each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages builds on the other, as a resolution to a
particular psychosocial crisis, and is, consequently, positively balanced. The human body, including skin, eyes,
limbs, internal organs, and central nervous system rest on genetic and proteomic codes. However, genetics
depends on essentially physico-chemical processes, and so must meet further basic non-genetic constraints.
Physical and chemical constraints are the parameters of a physical and biological universe establishing an
inherent epigenetic stage of formativeness on which numerous forms have possibilities for emergence. The
problem is that Erikson’s life-cycle approach, derived from the biological principle of epigenesis, has not
considered physico-chemical parameters.
1.1 A Theoretical Framework: Human Developmental Stages and the Fibonacci Sequence
A priori optimum development in organisms, from single cell to multicellular organisms, or from skeletal cells to
a skeleton or limbs exemplify Fibonacci patterns. These developmental patterns consist of two primary
characteristics: (1) a number of the organisms structural arrangements may fall into the series 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,…or
(2) logarithmic growth based on the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers (1.618033988…, also known as the
golden ratio or φ). The growth patterns observed occur throughout nature in the arrangement of skin pores in
tetrapods, the spiral shape of snails and sea shells, and the overall structure of plants. Fibonacci numbers occur in
atoms and electrons (Huntley, 1969), the DNA molecule (Wahl, 1988), biological cell division (Spears &
Bicknell-Johnson, 1998), models of growth and death (Hoggatt & Lind, 1969), bronchial airway segment
bifurcations (Goldenberger, West, Dresselhaus, & Bhargava, 1985), experimental growth of tumor nodules
(Prokopchuk, 1981), and many other aspects of human biology (e.g., position of facial features, body
Waskom (1972) pointed out that human developmental stages might follow the Fibonacci sequence. To describe
human development with the Fibonacci sequence, Waskom simply imagined Fibonacci numbers as representing
age markers (in years) for cycles or stages of development. Thus it was asserted the numbers that mark human
developmental stages are the same numbers expressed in the Fibonacci sequence. This became the foundation of
Waskom’s model of human development. Rose (1991) expanded on it somewhat for uniformity of demonstration
through the life cycle. Under this scheme, Waskom delineated eight stages of the life cycle associated with the
following ages: early infancy (0–1), toddler (1–5), early childhood (5–8), middle childhood (8–13), adolescence
(13–21), young adulthood (21–34), middle adulthood (34–55), and older adulthood (55+).
One criticism of Waskom’s classification is whether Fibonacci numbers must be regarded as numeric variables in
years. This rule gives each number in the Fibonacci sequence an average multiple of 365 days. The purpose of
the present study is to identify a more analytical classification of the Fibonacci sequence in relation to Erikson’s
eight developmental stages. It was hypothesized the Fibonacci sequence based on a multiple of the 24-hour
day/night cycle could help clarify Erikson’s eight developmental stages. This hypothesis was examined by a new
methodology called the Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM).
2. Methodology
Previous models of human development have regarded Fibonacci numbers as numeric variables in years (Rose,
1991; Waskom, 1972). However, a more precise numeric designation for each number in the Fibonacci sequence
is perhaps the 24-hour day. First, biological cycles are defined by daily changes synchronized or entrained to the
24-hour rotation of the earth (Roenneberg & Foster, 1997). To keep these rhythms in proper alignment with the
day/night cycle, all living organisms have adapted by evolving their internal clockwork tuned to a 24-hour
day/night cycle to adapt their behavior, physiology, and metabolism.
Second, the digital roots of the Fibonacci sequence produce an infinite series of 24 repeating numbers (Meisner,
2012). Further, the 24-repeating pattern follows an approximate sinusoidal pattern (Figure 1). While the
discrete-time system numbers 12, 30, 60, and 360 are all based on the dodecahedron and golden ratio (Stakhov,
2009), only the day relates to the 24-repeating sinusoidal pattern, since one day is equal to 24 (2 x 12) hours. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology Vol. 3, No. 1; 2013
Figure 1. Digital roots of the 24-repeating pattern
Note. The 24 repeating digital roots of the Fibonacci sequence are: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 4, 3, 7, 1, 8, 9, 8, 8, 7, 6, 4, 1,
5, 6, 2, 8, 1, 9 (Meisner, 2012). Numbers 7 and 8 and 2 and 1 are the only numbers not fitting the sinusoidal
Thus, to examine the relationship between the Fibonacci sequence and Erikson’s eight developmental stages, a
new method, called the Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM) was developed. This method is a type of growth
modeling that is used to identify developmental patterns by representing Fibonacci numbers as numeric
multiples of 24-hours.
2.1 The Fibonacci Life-Chart Method
The Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM) is a method for identifying developmental patterns comprising the
steps of: (a) selecting a birthdate which to apply the Fibonacci sequence; (b) calculating primary Fibonacci-based
time projections wherein the Fibonacci-sequence is added to the birthdate with Fibonacci numbers representing
days; and (c) calculating secondary Fibonacci-based retrospective and prospective dates wherein the derived
Fibonacci dates from step two are multiplied by the Fibonacci constants or ratios 0.618, 1.618, 0.786 (square
root of 0.618), and 1.27 (square root of 1.618). For the present study, the model has been kept as simple as
possible by not including step three in the analysis of future time projections. Step three does not alter the
predictive utility of the primary prospective dates in the model.
3. Results
Table 2 shows the results of the FLCM. As can be seen, the FLCM produces a developmental pattern
characterized by eight recognizable stages. This finding constitutes a new classification of Erikson’s eight
developmental stages: early infancy (1–2), toddler (2–4), early childhood (4–7), middle childhood (7–11),
adolescence (11–18), young adulthood (18–29), middle adulthood (29–48), and older adulthood (48–78+) (Table
3). The eight stages closely match the well-known Lucas series (1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, 76, etc.). The Lucas
series has the same characteristic of Fibonacci numbers whereby each integer is the sum of the two previous
integers. The Lucas series of numbers is found in the number of cells in each cycle of cell division (Jovanovic,
Table 2. Fibonacci Life-Chart Method
Fibonacci Numbers Date Age
0 1/1/2000 0
1 1/2/2000 0
1 1/3/2000 0
2 1/5/2000 0
3 1/8/2000 0 Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology Vol. 3, No. 1; 2013
5 1/13/2000 0
8 1/21/2000 0
13 2/3/2000 0
21 2/24/2000 0
34 3/29/2000 0
55 5/23/2000 0
89 8/20/2000 0
144 1/11/2001 1
233 9/1/2001 1
377 9/13/2002 2
610 5/15/2004 4
987 1/27/2007 7
1597 6/12/2011 11
2584 7/9/2018 18
4181 12/19/2029 29
6765 6/27/2048 48
10946 6/16/2078 78
Note. Fibonacci Numbers represent 24-hour days.
Table 3. Erikson’s re-envisaged eight stages of psychosocial development
Stage Period Personality Attributes Age
1 Early Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust 1–2
2 Toddler Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 2–4
3 Early Childhood Initiative vs. Guilt 4–7
4 Middle Childhood Industry vs. Inferiority 7–11
5 Adolescence Identity vs. Identity Confusion 11–18
6 Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation 18–29
7 Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation 29–48
8 Older Adulthood Integrity vs. Despair 48–78+
4. Discussion
The present study investigated the relation between the Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM) and Erikson’s
eight stages of development. The results of this study provide support for the assumption of an eight-stage theory
of development. The FLCM serves several useful functions. These include: (a) substantially improving
understanding of the eight developmental life stages proposed by Erikson, and (b) the use of it as a tool for
timing of interventions. The next logical step would be to begin employing FLCM with treatment programs to
enable clinicians to more effectively utilize processes of change.
4.1 Erikson’s Eight Developmental Life Stages
The present research provides an important biopsychological basis for Erikson’s eight-stage theory of
development. The FLCM improves on existing classification efforts (Rose, 1991; Waskom, 1972) by linking the
Fibonacci sequence to the 24-hour day/night cycle, which all organisms have adapted their behavior, physiology,
and metabolism. Erikson’s perspective on development can be criticized for lacking sufficient complexity to
represent the epigenetic mechanisms involved. The FLCM provides a more complex conceptualization of
development in which emphasis is placed on the interaction between the Fibonacci sequence, shifts in biological Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology Vol. 3, No. 1; 2013
energy, and a series of psychosocial crises.
Despite the fact that Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development have been highly influential in the
understanding of human development, Erikson’s theory has been criticized for taking as axiomatic a Western
cultural context (Kahn, Zimmerman, Csikszentmihalyi, & Getzels, 1985). It is argued the tasks or dilemmas to
be solved at each stage of life are oriented to Western society and non-Western cultures may demonstrate
different developmental trajectories. Focusing on life tasks with evolutionary significance links into the work of
evolutionary psychology (Buss, 1995; Cosmides, Tooby & Barkow, 1992) and has the advantage of resulting in a
definition that is universal rather than culturally bound. Life tasks that were imposed by our ancestral
environment are more universal—problems that affect all humans because they derive from a common human
nature. Life tasks that have evolutionary significance are relevant to a stage theory based on the Fibonacci
sequence because it offers the possibility of developing a theory that is universally applicable.
4.2 Phase Transitions and Interventions
Dynamic systems theory has received increased interest in the past few decades in views of development (van
Geert, 2011, 2012). The fundamental premise is that dynamic systems theory considers attributes of all dynamic
systems. Thus, assuming the human person is also a dynamic system, dynamic systems concepts can also explain
human behavioral patterns. Therefore, dynamic systems theory offers a theoretical model with which to
understand human development. The dynamic systems view of development “considers the origins and functions
of variability as absolutely central for understanding change” (Thelen & Smith, 1994, p. 67).
Dynamic systems transform through structural changes—a reorganization of attractor states referred to as a
phase transition. During a phase transition new attractors emerge to produce new stable behavioral patterns. This
transformation requires the prior stable configuration to break down. This transition period, consequently,
reflects a brief rise in the unpredictability of the system as behavior becomes unstable and more variable.
Numerous developmental transitions display attributes of a phase transition, such as changes in walking behavior
of infants (Thelen & Ulrich, 1991), socioemotional development (Lewis, Zimmerman, Hollenstein, & Lamey,
2004), language (Bassano & van Geert, 2007), and parent-adolescent relations (Granic, Hollenstein, Dishion, &
Patterson, 2003).
Phase transitions make a system more responsive to perturbations because of the temporary instability. Therefore,
during these periods external factors have the greatest impact. This feature has two significant consequences for
development. First, developmental phase transitions are often vulnerable periods. Second, developmental phase
transitions could represent ideal times for treatment because the system (individual) is already in change. Thus,
the most effective time for treatment interventions might be during a developmental phase transition (Granic,
2005). These two implications indicate that determining the occurrence of phase transitions in human
development is essential since they permit researchers and clinicians to more effectively utilize change
Normative stage transitions may represent a time during which, because of biopsychological processes, the
organization among system parts breaks down, prior attractors become unstable, and new patterns of behavior
have the possibility of arising (Granic, 2005). Research shows the quality of a person’s psychological health can
be contingent on the point in the life cycle. For example, in a cross-national study a significant U-shaped effect
was found for age such that happiness levels appeared to diminish from young adulthood to middle age, reaching
a minimum around age 48 ½, and then increasing during older adulthood (Blanchower & Oswald, 2008).
Depression has been described as an attractor, a set toward which a dynamical system evolves over time
(Johnson & Nowak, 2002). Thus, depression can be viewed as an indicator of a phase transition since a shift
from one attractor to another defines a phase transition.
Fibonacci numbers can be used for simulation of self-organizing systems (Stakhov, 2009). Significantly, the
demonstration that the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period doubling
cascade to chaos suggests a correlation between the Fibonacci sequence and the onset of chaos and turbulence in
nonlinear systems (Linage, Montoyaa, Sarmientob, Showalter, & Parmananda, 2006). The FLCM could explain
why well-being bottoms out at age 48 ½ around the world (Blanchower & Oswald, 2008). In terms of
biopsychological development, the FLCM predicts age 48 as a phase transition between middle adulthood
(29–48) and older adulthood (48–78+). Psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms may be aspects of
dynamical instability representing the shift from one developmental stage (or attractor) to the next. The FLCM
can also be used to calculate secondary transitions within the eight primary transition periods. This has immense
potential in its application for designing treatment interventions that aim to more effectively utilize processes of
change. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology Vol. 3, No. 1; 2013
4.3 Summary
The Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM) provides a biopsychological basis for Erikson’s life-cycle theory and
eight stages founded on the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in biological cell division and self-organizing
systems. This paper can contribute to research on identifying the origins of disequilibrium in human
development that is central for understanding change. Within a dynamic systems theory framework, the onset of
disequilibrium is a signal that change is happening, which may allow prevention or improvement of
psychological symptoms through early intervention.
It should be pointed out the FLCM is preliminary and necessarily incomplete. It is acknowledged Fibonacci
numbers may be represented by alternative numeric designations (minutes, seconds, hours, years) in future time
projections. However, it is hoped the FLCM has identified the 24-hour day as a unique factor and, critically, the
biological and mathematical relations of the day/night cycle suggest how additional mechanisms could be
integrated within this method.
One cannot conclude from this study that the FLCM is predictive. The definitive validation would be a
longitudinal study with long-term follow-up. This would allow correlations to be made between the FLCM and
functional outcome. Future projects could include: (a) using the FLCM to identify populations requiring early
intervention, and (b) conducting a longitudinal study to establish the power of the FLCM to improve the efficacy
of clinical treatment programs.
5. Conclusion
This study shows a new method, called the Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM), produces a developmental
pattern characterized by eight recognizable stages. The available empirical and conceptual evidence is consistent
with an eight-stage theory of development. It is hoped this research will contribute to a better understanding of
Erikson’s eight developmental stages and the dynamic systems view of development. Dynamic systems theory
considers disorder, unpredictability, and lack of control as normal parts of phase transitions. Understanding and
determining the occurrence of phase transitions in human development can lead not only to a better
understanding of the etiology of psychological disorders associated with psychosocial stress, but also to a
potential avenue for early intervention and perhaps, ultimately, prevention.
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It is common knowledge that face-to-face counselling is practiced in every country. Conversely, e-counselling is offered in many countries even though some experts disagree with its effectiveness and ethicality. The study, thus, purposed to gain a deeper understanding of students’ values and challenges of face-to-face and e-counselling in Ghanaian universities. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey design was adopted. A standardized instrument: Online and Face-to-face Counselling Attitudes Scales, and a Satisfaction Questionnaire were adapted for the data collection. T-test and multiple linear regression were used to analyse data set from 384 students. Findings revealed that although technological devices are largely accessible, students value face-to-face counselling than e-counselling. However, their inclination to e-counselling cannot be overlooked. Also, there was no significant difference in students’ values to e-counselling for gender. Again, the male students value face-to-face counselling more as compared to female students. The multiple regression revealed that values of face-to-face and e-counselling predicated satisfaction to face-to-face and e-counselling respectively. It is recommended that university counselling practitioners should enhance the use of face-to-face counselling and train in e-counselling so that students will be offered options in counselling services.
... Age-brackets have been used successfully to analyze both behavioral (Fjell et al., 2013) and neuroimaging (Argiris et al., 2021) data. The choice of age-groups was motivated by theories (Sacco, 2013) suggesting the following stages of psychological development: school age (6-12); adolescence (13-18); young adulthood , middle adulthood (40-65), and older adulthood (>65). Levinson's (Levinson, 1986) more refined theory of adult development postulates multiple successive "transitional" and "stable" periods, each lasting about 5 years. ...
Background Widely used psychotropic medications obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may change the volumes of subcortical brain structures, and differently in children vs. adults. We measured subcortical volumes cross-sectionally in patients finely stratified for age taking various common classes of OCD drugs. Methods The ENIGMA-OCD consortium sample (1081 medicated/1159 unmedicated OCD patients and 2057 healthy controls aged 6–65) was divided into six successive 6–10-year age-groups. Individual structural MRIs were parcellated automatically using FreeSurfer into 8 regions-of-interest (ROIs). ROI volumes were compared between unmedicated and medicated patients and controls, and between patients taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), tricyclics (TCs), antipsychotics (APs), or benzodiazepines (BZs) and unmedicated patients. Results Compared to unmedicated patients, volumes of accumbens, caudate, and/or putamen were lower in children aged 6–13 and adults aged 50–65 with OCD taking SRIs (Cohen's d = −0.24 to −0.74). Volumes of putamen, pallidum (d = 0.18–0.40), and ventricles (d = 0.31–0.66) were greater in patients aged 20–29 receiving APs. Hippocampal volumes were smaller in patients aged 20 and older taking TCs and/or BZs (d = −0.27 to −1.31). Conclusions Results suggest that TCs and BZs could potentially aggravate hippocampal atrophy of normal aging in older adults with OCD, whereas SRIs may reduce striatal volumes in young children and older adults. Similar to patients with psychotic disorders, OCD patients aged 20–29 may experience subcortical nuclear and ventricular hypertrophy in relation to APs. Although cross-sectional, present results suggest that commonly prescribed agents exert macroscopic effects on subcortical nuclei of unknown relation to therapeutic response.
... The stages of psychosocial development in Erik Erikson's theory are divided into eight stages of crisis development. Toddlers or children are the second stages of psychosocial development after infants in the age range of 18 months to 3 years, namely the autonomy vs doubt and shame stage (Santrock 2007;Sacco 2013). Important factors that influence the development of psychosocial autonomy in children so that this development can be adequately achieved include genetics and the environment (Wang & Saudino, 2012). ...
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Psychosocial development is a developmental stage that every child will pass. This study aimed to analyze the influence of family and child characteristics, child value, social support, mother's involvement in psychosocial stimulation in boys and girls. The research design that was used in this study was a cross-sectional study. Site selection was chosen purposively, namely in the city of Medan. Research locations were in two villages, namely Kota Maksum, Medan Labuhan Subdistrict and Kota Besar Village, Medan Area District. The sample pulling technique uses simple random sampling with a sample of mothers who have children aged 2-3 years and come from a complete family of 150 people. Respondents interviewed with the questionnaire were mothers. Correlation test results showed a significant positive relationship between maternal age, children's values, dimensions of psychological value and dimensions of economic value, social support, dimensions of information support and dimensions of reward support, and mothers' role in care with psychosocial stimulation.
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Fractals are everywhere in nature, particularly at the interfaces where matter or energy must be transferred, since they maximize surface area while minimizing energy losses. Temporal fractals have been well studied at micro scales in human biology, but have received comparatively little attention at broader macro scales. In this paper, we describe a fractal time series model of human aging from a systems biology perspective. This model examines how intrinsic aging rates are shaped by entropy and Fibonacci fractal dynamics, with implications for the emergence of key life cycle traits. This proposition is supported by research findings. The finding of an intrinsic aging rate rooted in Fibonacci fractal dynamics represents a new predictive paradigm in evolutionary biology.
The present stud y is an attempt to investigate the emotional responses to the eight colors (black, white, yellow, blue, red, green, orange, and violet) in terms of three emotional response systems (physiology, behavior, and psychology) on twenty volunteered young adults, both male and female in Qom –Iran. Experiments are undertaken in three different contexts measuring the participants’ reactions to colors via neuroimaging tests, color-emotion and color-word association questionnaires, and English language vocabulary tests to find out how the individuals react when exposed to different colors, especially in linguistic phase. The total results illustrated that students would benefit from colorful vocabularies over black and white ones; and the three colors blue, orange, and red over the other colors. Totally, color backgrounds and foregrounds function similarly. However, it was discovered that vocabularies were memorized in blue foreground. Recalling vocabularies in yellow and violet is better to be avoided. The findings of this research benefits students and teachers in teaching and learning vocabularies in educational settings. It also contributes to the literature on color psychology and neurology and more specifically, it provides literature on the effect of color on arousal and memory.
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Voluntary childlessness is rarely explored in human development theories. However, it is becoming a common phenomenon in XXI century and it is important to determine how do voluntary childless (childfree) people fit into standards set for people who want to have children. Past research showed, that childfree people have different values, temperamental and personality features and differ in childhood experiences. In analyzed literature there is a vacuum in the subject of psychosocial development of childfree people. Past studies are also imprecise in determining whether childfree people experienced more situations of violence and neglect during childhood. The research goal of the study presented in this paper was to determine whether people who are childfree differ from people who want children in terms of features which are the effects of psychosocial development. The second research goal was to determine whether childfree people had more negative experiences in childhood. Sample analyzed in this study consisted of 383 people (73,60% women) in age 20-29 years (M = 23,53, SD = 2,60). Voluntary childlessness was declared by 179 people (46,73% of the sample). The hypotheses were tested using U Mann-Whitney test, Yule’s Phi test and Bayeses U Mann-Whitney test. Analysis showed that childfree people have lower intensity of some of the psychosocial development features (e.g. basic trust, intimacy) and that they experienced more negative situations in childhood (e.g. mental abuse, emotional neglect, negative experiences with one’s peers). Differences, although statistically significant, had a low effect size. In the end, possible explanations of presented differences and the direction of future research are discussed.
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The generalized Fibonacci numbers arise in models of growth and death [15], with interesting applications in medical sciences and statistics, such as dose escalation strategies in clinical drug trials [21]. Bronchial airway segments follow a Fibonacci pattern of bifurcation [7]. Experimental growth of tumor nodules can follow Fibonacci ratios related to dynamics of intratumoral pressure [20]. The associations of plant phyllotaxis and patterns of invertebrate growth with the Fibonacci series remain charming but puzzling connections to biology. Mechanistically, dislodgement, diffusion, and contact pressure models can be successfully applied to describe macroscopic growth patterns [17,23], but specific cellular rationales for such recursive patternings have been wanting.
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In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to ϕ, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos.
We examined dynamical patterns in the course of bipolar depression. We interviewed 55 individuals with bipolar I disorder using Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (MHRSD) for at least 20 months. Using a recently developed methodology, we categorized the level of instability and the nature of attractor patterns for each individual. Instability was related to the lifetime severity of depression as well as suicidality during the follow-up period. Individuals varied from 0 to 2 in the number of attractors. Relatively few individuals displayed only one attractor that fell within a depressive range; the most common patterns were instability and two attractors. Limitations and implications of these results are discussed.
A longitudinal study with 67 males and 75 females examined the relation between the development of ego identity by young adulthood and the establishment and maintenance of stable and enduring intimate interpersonal relationships by midlife. This relation was investigated further to discover how it might differ between men and women. As undergraduates, Ss completed measures of their demographic and psychometric characteristics, in addition to an identity scale, in 1963; in 1981, these Ss completed a follow-up questionnaire containing questions regarding their marital status (the measure of intimacy) and their personal, family, and professional life. The identity scale was initially cross-validated with other personality measures, such as the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), before being related to subsequent intimacy patterns. The achievement of ego identity was found to be important for the establishment (for men) and stability (for women) of marital relationships. Additional sex differences in happiness and spheres of life satisfaction were also found. These differences suggest differing developmental courses for young men and women as they establish themselves in the adult world. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Abstract— As development is an example of a complex dynamic system (CDS), the theory of CDS can make important contributions to our understanding of the developmental process. However, mainstream research in developmental psychology uses an empirical paradigm that is at odds with what it is purported to explain, namely, that development is a complex dynamic process. Although the number of studies that focus on a process-oriented and dynamic approach of development is growing, this article argues that the field is in need of a theoretical and methodological paradigm shift.