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Abstract

Phytochemical analysis of the MeOH extract of leaves of Diospyros blancoi (Ebenaccae) indicated the presence of Reducing Sugar, Gum, Tannin, Alkaloid and Flavonoid types of compounds. The pharmacological interest of these compounds prompted us to check its antidiarrhoeal and anti-oxidant activities. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The extract showed significant (p<0.001) antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 15.06 +/- 0.49 mu g mL(-1), compared to the IC50 value of the reference standard ascorbic acid which was 8.11 +/- 0.2 1 mu g mL(-1) suggested its potent anti-oxidant activity. The anti-diarrhoeal activity was investigated on the castor oil-induced mice models. The doses displayed significant reduction in faecal output of about 24.49 and 44.89%, respectively at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1), compared to the reference standard loperamide which was 59.18% mu g mL(-1). The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine as an antidiarrhoeal remedy.
... Free radicals can be eliminated by antioxidants, which inhibit the rate of lipid and protein oxidation and protect cells from oxidative damage (Asimi et al., 2013;Mohammed et al., 2020b). Antioxidant drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress related disease such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart stroke and cancer (Devasagayam et al., 2004;Khalipha et al., 2012;Mohammed et al., 2020a). Antioxidant activity in plant extracts is a widely used parameter to characterize the possible beneficial properties of plants (Shahidi and Ambigaipalan, 2015). ...
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Morocco presents numerous plants due its localization between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean and the variability of its mountainous terrain, with a rich range of medicinal plants. Cladanthus mixtus (L.) Oberpr. & Vogt and Matricaria chamomilla L., two Asteraceae (Compositae) from Beni Hassane region in northwestern Morocco are both used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of both species were determined by using the Folin Ciocalteu and the aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity of their aqueous and organic compounds was performed applying the robust and widely used method ABTS radical scavenging assay. C. mixtus had a higher phenolic content (115.25 mg GAE g-1 DW) than M. chamomilla (82.99 mg GAE g-1 DW). However, flavonoid content of both plants was very close (33.53 and 32.45 mg QE g-1 DW in M. chamomilla and C. mixtus, respectively). The total phenolic and flavonoid content was high in flowers of both plants. Generally, for all the studied organs of the chosen plants, hydrophilic antioxidant activity was significantly higher than the lipophilic antioxidant activity. The correlation results show that these bioactive components in both plants are the main factor influencing the antioxidant activity.
... Other species such as D. discolor, D. malabarica and D. hasseltii are known to produce edible persimmons, making it an economically important genus (Kinho 2013;Bakhuizen van Den Brink 1937). More recently, many studies revealed medicinal bioactivities of Diospyros species such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic (Rauf et al. 2017;Howlader et al. 2012), anti-microbial (Nematollahi et al. 2011), and anti-cancer (Pratiwi and Nurlaeli 2020). Diospyros is dioecious, medium-sized tree rarely shrubs with mostly black and hard bole. ...
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Rindyaastuti R, Hapsati L, Wibowo AT. 2021. Analysis of morphological characteristics and phenetic relationship of ebony (Diospyros spp.) in Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 2738-2753. Diospyros L. (Ebenaceae) is an economically important genus that covers over 500 plant species. Members of this group are known to produce hard, dark, high-quality timbers known as ebony trees, while other members are known as persimmon trees. There is limited information on the morphological characters and phenetic relationship of this genus from Indonesian archipelago. In this work, we reported the phenetic clustering of 14 species of Indonesian Diospyros, based on plant habit, stem, leaves, and fruit characters, which was analysed using UPGMA and Jaccard similarity index. The phenetic dendrogram divided the 14 species of Diospyros into two main clusters which separating Subgen. Maba and Eudiospyros. Further, subgen. Maba was clustered into a single cluster while subgen. Eudiospyros was divided into 3 sub-clusters as sister groups. The clustering in Eudiospyros was supported by low SI and bootstrap value, demonstrating the high morphological variation of the subgenus. The sectional separation of Diospyros spp. was considered as paraphyletic. In general, our phenetic clustering exhibited suitability and relevancy with previous classification. Fruit size and trichomes are very important in this phenetic clustering, especially to form Eudiospyros subgenus. Fruit trichomes were also special characters related to biogeographical distribution following the Wallace line theory.
... Unstable free radicals have shown a main role in developing a number of diseases and antioxidants are primarily the source of eliminating these radicals by inhibiting the oxidation rate and protecting the body from damage [46]. Oxidative stress caused by these free radicals in atherosclerosis, stroke, diabetes and a number of other diseases are treated with antioxidants nowadays [47,48]. In order to evaluate in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity, several procedures have been developed recently [49][50][51]. ...
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Synthetic compounds have modernized the globe due to its vast applicable fields. Anthraquinones, as well as pyrimidine derivatives, are used as essential pharmacophores in the field of medicine. Maintenance of a green disease-free environment by using these derivatives is being acknowledged in developed as well as developing countries of the world. Considering the use of active catalysts in the synthesis of anthraquinone based derivatives are the era of concern for researchers due to their distinctive properties. Owing to the remarkable activities of anthraquinone and pyrimidine derivative, we synthesize compounds having both functionalities with the utilization of novel synergically active copper catalysts. This study explores the application of synthesized compounds using fast, ecofriendly and cost-effective approaches.1H and 13C NMR, antioxidant, antidiabetic, molecular docking and QSAR studies were used for characterization and evaluation of newly synthesized anthraquinone based pyrimidine derivatives. The result of these techniques shows that our desired compounds were successfully synthesized and have potent applications. Among all synthesized compounds, G2 and G3 showed a remarkable antioxidant activity with IC50 of 15.09 and 21.88 μg/ml respectively. While the compound G2 and G4 showed a strong inhibitory antidiabetic activity with the IC50 value of 24.23 and 28.94 μg/ml respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking results for both of the proteins assist the experimental data and confirms the different interactions between binding domains and substituent moieties. SAR study also relates to the experimental facts by giving us positive results of synthesized compounds. According to the QSAR study, G4 and G2 emerged as the most stable and most reactive compound among other compounds respectively. While MEP shows moderate to good nucleophilic and electrophilic reactivity of all four compounds.
... Traditional uses of Diospyros blancoi include snakebites, heart problems, hypertension, spider bites, stomach aches, diabetes and eczema [5] . This plant showed antioxidant activity and antidiarrheal property [6] . It has found that Diospyros blancoi possesses antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties [4] . ...
Article
This research work was carried out to evaluate the neuropharmacological and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of Diospyros blancoi leaves by experimenting Swiss albino mice. The neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract were conducted using hole cross, force swimming and tail suspension tests. On the other hand, analgesic activities of the extract were performed using acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. The mice were treated orally at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of leaves extract for neuropharmacological and analgesic tests. The methanolic leaves extract of Diospyros blancoi significantly (p<0.05) showed neuropharmacological and analgesic activity. This confirms the traditional uses and indicates further investigation to isolate the active phytochemical constituents and to understand the pharmacological mechanism of the chemical compounds present in the leave parts of this plant.
... Diospyros discolor Willd. (bisbul) is known for containing triterpenes [7], alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins [8]. The specific compound from those group can be used as reducing agents [9]. ...
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The silver nanoparticles generated by biosynthesis have a quite diverse result, both in size and shape. Structures of silver nanoparticles can be controlled by modifying the parameters of the biosynthesis such as the ratio between the precursors and reducing agents, as well as pH of the solution. In this study, the pH of Diospyros discolor (Bisbul) leaves aqueous extract was varied to 4, 7, 9, and 11. The extract then was added to 1 mM AgNO3 precursor (1:2; v/v ratio). The result of the silver nanoparticles characterized using spectrophotometer UV-Vis to find if there was any absorbance peak formed between 400 nm to 500 nm. TEM characterization was used to determine the size and shape of silver nanoparticles, and PSA was used to see their size distribution and stability. The higher pH tends to produce smaller silver nanoparticles rapidly. The synthesis parameters that were varied in this research have affected the size, size distribution patterns, and stability of silver nanoparticles.
... These unstable free radicals can be eliminated by antioxidants that inhibit the rate of oxidation and protect cells from damage [28]. Antioxidant drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress related disease such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer [29,30]. However, its side effects and high prices force many people to take herbal medicines, which have fewer side effects [31]. ...
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Oxidative stress plays a major role in diabetic physiopathology; hence, the interest of using natural antioxidants as therapeutic tools exists. The aim of this study was the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory potential of organic extracts from Aristolochia longa roots against key enzymes linked to hyperglycemia. Antioxidant activity was performed using 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The α -Glucosidase and β -Galactosidase inhibitory activities were investigated using an in vitro model. Moreover, phytochemical analysis of tested extracts was carried out. The aqueous fraction of this herb exhibited the highest antioxidant activity for both DPPH and ABTS methods, IC 50 =125.40±2.40 μ g/mL and IC 50 =65.23±2.49 μ g/mL, respectively. However, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the strongest inhibitory effect towards α -Glucosidase (IC 50 =1.112±0.026 mg/mL). Furthermore, the result showed high levels of phenolic content. The results showed that this plant could be a significant source of medically important natural compounds.
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The study compares the toxicity of 53 selected medicinal plants commonly used in the Philippines to treat various diseases. It uses as a benchmark Vitex negundo L., which was approved by the Philippine Food and Drug Administration as an herbal drug for cough and asthma after passing clinical trials for safety and efficacy. The methods were chosen for their simplicity and accessibility even for resource-limited laboratories. Extracts (95% ethanol) of the medicinal parts of the plants were (1) chemically profiled using qualitative phytochemical tests that detect the presence of key classes of bioactive compounds; and (2) evaluated for toxicity using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) lethality assay (BSLA). General phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins in 50 plant extracts, alkaloids in 43, glycosides in 33, flavonoids in 31, steroids in 21, triterpenoids in 20, anthraquinones in 10, and saponins in 8. Extracts from eight plants had LC50 values lower than the potassium dichromate control (approximately 12 µg/mL) and were considered highly toxic; extracts from 21 plants had LC50 values between 12 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL and were considered moderately toxic; extracts from 19 plant extracts, including Vitex negundo and some common vegetables, had LC50 values between 100 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, and were considered mildly toxic and likely to have reasonable safety margins; five plant extracts, including common vegetables, had LC50 values above 500 μg/mL and were considered essentially nontoxic. No apparent correlation could be found between toxicity and chemical diversity or a specific class of phytochemicals present. Our findings may serve as a guide for herbal drug and nutraceutical development, especially in prioritizing plants for more detailed safety studies.
Research
Synthetic compounds have modernized the globe due to its vast applicable fields. Anthraquinones, as well as pyrimidine derivatives, are used as essential pharmacophores in the field of medicine. Maintenance of a green disease-free environment by using these derivatives is being acknowledged in developed as well as developing countries of the world. Considering the use of active catalysts in the synthesis of anthraquinone based derivatives are the era of concern for researchers due to their distinctive properties. Owing to the remarkable activities of anthraquinone and pyrimidine derivative, we synthesize compounds having both functionalities with the utilization of novel synergically active copper catalysts. This study explores the application of synthesized compounds using fast, ecofriendly and cost-effective approaches. 1 H and 13 C NMR, antioxidant, antidiabetic, molecular docking and QSAR studies were used for characterization and evaluation of newly synthesized anthraquinone based pyrimidine derivatives. The result of these techniques shows that our desired compounds were successfully synthesized and have potent applications. Among all synthesized compounds, G 2 and G 3 showed a remarkable antioxi-dant activity with IC 50 of 15.09 and 21.88 μg/ml respectively. While the compound G 2 and G 4 showed a strong inhibitory antidiabetic activity with the IC 50 value of 24.23 and 28.94 μg/ml respectively. Furthermore , molecular docking results for both of the proteins assist the experimental data and confirms the different interactions between binding domains and substituent moieties. SAR study also relates to the experimental facts by giving us positive results of synthesized compounds. According to the QSAR study, G 4 and G 2 emerged as the most stable and most reactive compound among other compounds respectively. While MEP shows moderate to good nucleophilic and electrophilic reactivity of all four compounds.
Conference Paper
Diospyros discolor Willd. (Bisbul) is known to have an activity as a reducing agent to reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles. These abilities affected by the phytochemical content in the extract, such as phenolics and flavonoids compounds, which makes the synthesis process to be environmentally friendly. In this study, various concentrations of crude water extract from Bisbul leaves were used at concentration 0.01, 0.025, and 0.05 % (w/v), with the ratio between the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 was 1:9 (v/v). The formation of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by the presence of absorption spectra between 350-450 nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Based on the results of phytochemical tests, it showed that the extract contains phenols and flavonoids compound. Furthermore, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured to know their presence in the extract. The amount of those compounds in each extract concentration tend to increase with the increasing of extract concentration. The extract with concentration 0.05 % had a narrower peak width based on the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) value, which can indicate the monodispersity in silver nanoparticles size and distribution.
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