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Envisioning Information

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... How data should be structured and presented in e-learning platforms for the education of an architect is the question of this research. To be able to answer the research question, this study is examined potential e-learning platforms including social media for the education of an architect based on the types of visual narrative [7]; the aim; the information visualization mantra for interactivity [5]; data types as 1D, 2D, 3D, network, etc. [5]; and Edward Tufte's writing about the visual communication of information under the topics of scale, color etc. [8] and finally it creates comparative visualizations. As a conclusion for this study, a network can be seen as an environment to support know-where. ...
... the topics of scale, color etc. [8] can give ideas on design concerns of a tool. The following sections introduce the mentioned concepts. ...
... Edward Tufte's writing about the visual communication of information helps anyone who wants to structure the information they want to present and identify suitable visualization strategies. Edward Tufte points out some criteria to ensure that a visual representation is effective in his books named Envisioning Information, and The Visual Display of Quantitative [8]. There are five chapters from the book to analyze as Small Multiples, Narrative of Space and Time, Macro/Micro Readings (as seen in number 1 below), Layering and Separation, and Escaping Flatland (as seen in number 2 below) [8]. ...
Article
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In a learning space, whether it is surrounded by digital tools or not, the way a tutor represents the information is usually in a linear fashion. However, e-learning platforms have already started to support the learner and a new paradigm for learning. In light of these thoughts and concerns, this paper is focused on the education of an architect and examines potential e-learning platforms including BlackBoard, Facebook in the case of an architectural course, EdX, and Khan Academy Knowledge Map based on the types of visual narrative, the aim of the platform, the information visualization quality, and data types. As an output, this study creates a comparative visualization to see and discuss the potentials of the tools for the education of an architect. After the analysis of e-learning platforms, this study concludes that (1) an education model based on a network can help architects to see the big picture, however it also causes data reduction and loss, (2) an education model based on a network allows architects to create their own learning paths and share it with their colleagues, (3) an education model based on a network may be a sustainable platform for architects from different experience levels and enhance the communication between them to support the youngers’ education, 4) an education model based on network decentralizes the process of learning and enriches it through the interaction between other learners, concepts, thoughts, and objects, (5) an education model based on network bridges the gap between what one already knows and what one needs to know to understand the whole picture, (6) an education model based on network gives the opportunity to compare previous years’ feedbacks, concepts, and thought in one medium.
... Ocupa-se este subcapítulo de um tema frequentemente mencionado entre os autores da literatura especializada sobre os dados: a visualização (Tufte, 1990;Horn, 2000;Friendly e Denis, 2001;Few, 2009;Cairo, 2000Cairo, , 2013. Lev Manovich observa que "apesar da crescente popularidade da infovis (uma abreviatura para "visualização da informação), não é tão fácil apresentar uma definição que sirva para todos os tipos de projetos de infovis criados" (2011: 148) e propõe uma definição provisória para o termo visualização da informação, o de um mapeamento entres dados discretos de uma representação visual. ...
... Existem diversos modelos de referência para o processo de visualização, que abordam os dados brutos e a conversão destes para estruturas visuais (Tufte, 1990;Wurman, 1991;Engelhardt, 2002;Bertin, 2010). Edward Tufte (1990) preescreve que as visualizações gráficas devem ser fiéis aos dados; ter coerência interna; apresentar níveis distintos de detalhamento; chamar a atenção para o seu conteúdo, e não para a sua construção e incentivar um olhar comparativo. ...
... Existem diversos modelos de referência para o processo de visualização, que abordam os dados brutos e a conversão destes para estruturas visuais (Tufte, 1990;Wurman, 1991;Engelhardt, 2002;Bertin, 2010). Edward Tufte (1990) preescreve que as visualizações gráficas devem ser fiéis aos dados; ter coerência interna; apresentar níveis distintos de detalhamento; chamar a atenção para o seu conteúdo, e não para a sua construção e incentivar um olhar comparativo. O autor recomenda ainda que as visualizações devem definir formatos adequados; combinar palavras, números e desenhos; prezar pelo equilíbrio e proporção; expor complexidades com clareza e evitar decorações desnecessárias. ...
Thesis
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O relacionamento entre governo e sociedade é potenciado pelas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC), sendo verificado nas possibilidades de acesso a um conjunto de dados públicos, interessando ao presente trabalho as bases de dados públicas na área cultural, mais especificamente a base de dados do Programa Nacional de Apoio à Cultura no Brasil - PRONAC, passível de ser consultada a partir da plataforma governamental correspondente. As possibilidades de uso, reúso e redistribuição desta base de dados são aqui estudadas e debatidas, examinando-se diferentes questões, tais como o direito de acesso à informação no Brasil, a promoção da abertura dos dados governamentais e o seu potencial cívico. A partir de entrevistas, da observação estruturada das plataformas envolvidas e da análise documental, esta dissertação objetiva a identificação dos atores envolvidos na publicação e intermediação desta base de dados, as suas características, competência e motivações. Os resultados evidenciam a existência, para além da entidade governamental, de atores da sociedade civil que se apropriam e dão novos usos à base de dados do PRONAC, atuando como intermediários destes dados. Tais iniciativas são examinadas à luz dos princípios dos dados abertos e observados os percursos das mesmas, confrontando-se distintas abordagens desde a obtenção até a publicação dos dados. São identificados desafios técnicos, legais e culturais a serem ultrapassados para a abertura efetiva dos dados. Acentua-se a atividade dos intermediários dos dados, com expressão de uma partipação cívica sem precedentes e no surgimento de uma mudança do contrato social entre o Estado e o cidadão. _____________________________________________________________________________________The relationship between the government and society is enhanced by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and verified by the existing possibilities to access a set of public data. The present work focuses on public databases in the cultural area, specifically the database of the National Program for Support of Culture in Brazil - PRONAC, which can be accessed from the corresponding government platform. The possibilities of use, reuse and redistribution of this database are the object of study and debate here as different issues such as the right of access to information in Brazil, the promotion of open government data as well as their civic potential, are examined. Through interviews, structured observation of the relevant platforms and documentary analysis, this dissertation aims to identify the main protagonists involved in the publication and intermediation of this database along with their characteristics, competence and motivations. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the governmental body, there are also civil society actors who appropriate and give new uses to the PRONAC database, acting as intermediaries of these data. Such initiatives are examined in the light of the principles of open data and, having observing these, through confronting the different approaches from the moment the data is obtained through to its publication. Technical, legal and cultural challenges are identified as elements to be overcome in order to allow the effective opening of the data. The data intermediaries activity is also emphasized, through unprecedented civic participation and the emergence of a change in the social contract between the state and the citizen.
... The definition of the type of illustrations for the 15 suits was based on the specificity of each concept, and research on the visual display of information (Tufte, 1990). Conceptual suits have symbols. ...
... Principles of visualization of information emphasize the content of data and stimulate understanding of concepts (Tufte, 1990;Gombrich, 2000). To create graphics that people understand, Malamed (2011) recommends to: organize for perception; direct the eye; reduce realism; make the abstract concrete and clarify complexity; connect to emotion and use metaphors, novelty, and humor. ...
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The architectural design process is complex, as new technical, social, environmental and economical requirements are introduced, and this very scenario is applicable for school buildings. The quality of a school building depends on known design criteria, professional knowledge and feedback from building performance assessments. To attain high performance school buildings, the design process should add a multidisciplinary team via an integrated process. This article presents a design tool to structure a school building design briefing process. A participatory architectural programming phase is advocated and tested through a focal group, supported by a game called “Shuffle the School Building Design Deck” (SSBDD). The content of SSBDD and application procedure are based on known facts, needs and global concepts for learning environments in the twenty-first century. The briefing game considers the specific context of Brazil. Validation tests show positive results for productive architectural programming for school buildings. SSBDD has potential for global contexts, including translations for other building types.
... The extent to which significance testing (not necessarily of the traditional NHST variety) can be useful depends on its proper implementation and interpretation, consideration of the audience to whom the results are directed, the need for input for meta-analyses, and situations in which there is a discrepancy between visual analysis and statistical analysis (e.g., when the data are noisy-such as in unstable baselines-and clear patterns cannot be discerned by visual analysis alone; Barlow & Hersen, 1984;Hales et al., 2018;Huitema, 1986b;Kyonka, 2018). Of course, visual analysis should be informed by suggested best practices of data presentation so as to be effective judgment aids (e.g., Tufte, 1990Tufte, , 1997Tufte, , 2006Tufte, , 2009Tukey, 1977). Even when visual displays satisfy these principles, conclusions based on visual analysis may be contaminated by confirmation bias and subjectivity, in which the researchers "see" data that conform to their hypotheses even when a statistical analysis demonstrates poor evidence of a treatment effect (Bakker & Wicherts, 2011;Hales et al., 2018;Huitema, 2016). ...
... As mentioned earlier, behavior scientists/analysts have advocated the superiority of visual (graphical) analysis over the use of statistical procedures like NHST. Scientists outside of behavior science/analysis have also noted the importance of visual analysis in analyzing quantitative data (e.g., Cleveland & McGill, 1985Cumming & Finch, 2005;Tufte, 1990Tufte, , 1997Tufte, , 2006Tufte, , 2009Tukey, 1977;Valentine et al., 2015). However, it was first pointed out in the mid-1980s that reliance on visual analysis had been harmful to the field of behavior science/analysis because studies using only this form of analysis were not included in meta-analyses (Huitema, 1986b). ...
Article
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For over a decade, the failure to reproduce findings in several disciplines, including the biomedical, behavioral, and social sciences, have led some authors to claim that there is a so-called “replication (or reproducibility) crisis” in those disciplines. The current article examines: (a) various aspects of the reproducibility of scientific studies, including definitions of reproducibility; (b) published concerns about reproducibility in the scientific literature and public press; (c) variables involved in assessing the success of attempts to reproduce a study; (d) suggested factors responsible for reproducibility failures; (e) types of validity of experimental studies and threats to validity as they relate to reproducibility; and (f) evidence for threats to reproducibility in the behavior science/analysis literature. Suggestions for improving the reproducibility of studies in behavior science and analysis are described throughout.
... But it also applies to graphics and visual communication. 61 For example, do not get carried away by technology (templates, frames, animation etc.) that clouds the data (Law 2) or draws attention away from the message (Law 3; see also Baillie's and Vandemeulebroecke's comment 62 in the discussion of Bowman 63 ). The removal of "chart junk" (in Law 2) is another example. ...
Article
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Effective visual communication is a core competency for pharmacometricians, statisticians, and more generally any quantitative scientist. It is essential in every step of a quantitative workflow, from scoping to execution and communicating results and conclusions. With this competency, we can better understand data and influence decisions towards appropriate actions. Without it, we can fool ourselves and others and pave the way to wrong conclusions and actions. The goal of this tutorial is to convey this competency. We posit three laws of effective visual communication for the quantitative scientist: have a clear purpose, show the data clearly, and make the message obvious. A concise “Cheat Sheet”, available on http://graphicsprinciples.github.io, distills more granular recommendations for everyday practical use. Finally, these laws and recommendations are illustrated in four case studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The same is generally true of truth tables and calibrated data sets. What visualization offers is the opportunity to see one's data, making it easier to discern patterns and identify relationships (Cleveland, 1993(Cleveland, , 1994Tufte, 1983Tufte, , 1990Tufte, , 1997Tufte, , 2006aWainer, 1997Wainer, , 2005. While such an observation is uncontroversial (Gelman et al., 2002), I offer that visualization is especially valuable in QCA research, as the method is designed to retain complexity. ...
Article
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This article reviews approaches to presenting qualitative comparative analysis and set-theoretic research, with an emphasis on graphic presentation. Although visualization is an important aspect of presenting empirical research, techniques for visualizing qualitative comparative analysis remains underdeveloped. This article reviews existing and emerging standards of presenting qualitative comparative analysis and introduces a number of new ones. Techniques are presented for visualizing calibrated data, truth tables, and consistency/coverage solutions, with particular attention given to strategies for presenting superset/subset relationships.
... By default, patients are represented as semi-transparent circular markers, while a different shape is used for the patient in focus (a cross) so they can be more easily identified via pre-attentive cues. In an application of Tufte's layering and separation principle [46], patients used as matches for the selected patient are given a higher opacity and larger border so that they can be identified among the rest of the cohort. Additional tooltips allow the user to view the patient id, position, mean dose, prediction error, cluster, and current position in the scatterplot. ...
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We describe a visual computing approach to radiation therapy (RT) planning, based on spatial similarity within a patient cohort. In radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment, dosage to organs at risk surrounding a tumor is a large cause of treatment toxicity. Along with the availability of patient repositories, this situation has lead to clinician interest in understanding and predicting RT outcomes based on previously treated similar patients. To enable this type of analysis, we introduce a novel topology-based spatial similarity measure, T-SSIM, and a predictive algorithm based on this similarity measure. We couple the algorithm with a visual steering interface that intertwines visual encodings for the spatial data and statistical results, including a novel parallel-marker encoding that is spatially aware. We report quantitative results on a cohort of 165 patients, as well as a qualitative evaluation with domain experts in radiation oncology, data management, biostatistics, and medical imaging, who are collaborating remotely.
... Their recommendations are of minimalist style: a chart, to be as efficient and understandable as possible, must be very simple from an aesthetic point of view. Many of their principles converge on this simplicity in style, which is meaningful according to them [7][8][9][10]. Several authors question this. ...
Chapter
When conducting eye tracking studies, the benefits of collecting qualitative data are significant. In this paper, we propose to take qualitative data collection even further by exploring participants’ emotions and habitus during a semi-directive interview guided by the user himself. This method is part of a research on data visualization: how does the user make sense of data visualization and what is the influence of visualizations embellishment on this sense making? Since sense making can be stimulated as much by the human perceptual system as by personal experience and opinions, the methodological challenge of this research is to design an experimental protocol that considers these two dimensions. It is of great interest to combine an eye tracking study with qualitative data collection, which is intended to be both complementary and expanding. The challenge is to find the right method for collecting qualitative data when studying subjective elements. We then propose a semi-directive post-experimental interview method that will integrate all these aspects into the research.
... By plotting the individual variables against each other-by bivariate scatter plots-and considering grouping information such as treatment levels by graphical methods, no information is lost and an informed toxicological qualitative hazard assessment is performed. There are several methods available to display grouping information in scatter plots: one can use different colours and shapes within the same plot or the dataset is spread over a plot array, called multi-or trellis plots (Cleveland 1985) or small multiples (Tufte 1990), which prevents overplotting. ...
Article
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In toxicological bioassays, organ weight is often expressed as a ratio to body weight or another denominator to account for natural differences in animal sizes. However, the relationship of treatment-induced organ and body weight change is complicated and relative weights may accordingly confound a toxicological assessment. In addition, the statistical assessment of relative weights is challenging. The examples given in this document show that toxicological interpretation of organ weight data in relation to body weight can be vastly improved by simple bivariate scatter plotting. Conversely, plots of relative organ weight are of limited value and may lead to an incorrect interpretation of toxic effects when used in isolation. Scatter plots are useful for qualitative hazard characterization and to generate hypotheses. Bivariate summary statistics indicate effect levels and help to explore the actual correlation of organ to body weight.
... In information design, Tufte sees the world as 'complex, dynamic, multidimensional; the paper is static, flat. How are we to represent the rich visual world of experience and measurement on mere flatland ?' [24]. In his book, 'Beautiful Evidence', Tufte emphasises the importance of including multiple types of evidence in research: 'Evidence that bears on questions of any complexity typically involves multiple forms of discourse. ...
... Attempts have been made to compile "best practices" regarding data visualizations. Otten and colleagues (2015) reference Tufte's work (Tufte, 1983(Tufte, , 1990(Tufte, , 2006 on "best practices for communicating quantitative and qualitative information". Lesselroth and Pieczkiewicz (2012) argue that ultimately, there is no "grand unified theory", as it is highly dependent on the context. ...
Research
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Objective: This study reports the use of assessment methods in clinical decision-support systems that rely on data visualizations found in literature up to 2019. Method: The study searched for articles indexed in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Additional bibliography was added by manually inspecting relevant studies. The search terms used were selected to capture as many articles as possible. Results: A total of 256 entries were found, with 82 duplicates. After reviewing 174 abstracts a total of 38 articles were selected. After reading the 38 articles, 10 of them were selected in the study. Discussion: Assessments first appeared in 2012. Most of the assessments focus on user performance. Half of them compared the system with a baseline. None of the articles justify or compare the assessment methods used in the studies. Conclusion: The increase in clinical data has the potential to assist clinicians and patients to make better decisions. Data visualizations have been proven to ease the cognitive load required to make sense of the data. The degree to which a visualization can improve data understanding and thus assist in the decision-making process is still an active area of research.
... The supplementary contour lines Figures 15-20 created with the presented method are of production-ready quality. We collected feedback and comments from two senior expert cartographers specialising in topographic mapping at the Swiss national mapping agency Swisstopo and the Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation of ETH Zurich, two institutions that are internationally renown for their expertise in terrain mapping (Tufte 1990, Field 2018. The experts were asked to comment on the selection and the length of the automatically placed supplementary contour lines. ...
Article
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Supplementary contour lines are placed between regular contour lines to visualize small but important forms that regular contour lines are unable to show. On topographic maps, typical forms are hillcrests, depressions, saddles, terraces, banks, and levees. No automated method for the selection of supplementary contour lines has been described so far. We document cartographic design principles for the selection of supplementary contour lines for topographic maps, and present an automated method for their placement. Results of the automated method are similar to manually placed supplementary contour lines. Our method helps map authors to create contour line maps that more effectively illustrate relevant small details in maps showing terrain elevation or other scalar fields.
... These studies lean on classic works (e.g. Bertin 2011;Tufte 1990) in terms of representational readability, i.e. how spatial data can be represented most accurately. Most notably, the semiotic qualities of interactivity are only discussed with regards to technological innovations such as the map table (Vonk & Ligtenberg 2010). ...
Thesis
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This thesis investigates the communicative qualities of visual landscape design representations. The main subjects of inquiry were visual design representations in their many forms and appearances; the meanings that are attributed to, or derived from, those representations by designers, planners, and project stakeholders; the participatory planning and design processes of the multifunctional flood defence landscape projects wherein those representations are used. The meaning-making processes of visual design representations are conceptualized as a relation between the semiotic complexity of images, interpretive habits of stakeholders, and visual discourse of design producers. The shaping of participatory planning and design processes by design representations is categorized into a typology of nine semiotic qualities. This thesis suggests a way of looking at visual representations and organizing the planning and design process that enables planners and designers, as process facilitators, to determine the most appropriate communicative strategy at a specific moment, for specific participants.
... But it also applies to graphics and visual communication. 60 For example, do not get carried away by technology (templates, frames, animation etc.) that clouds the data (Law 2) or draws attention away from the message (Law 3; see also Baillie's and Vandemeulebroecke's comment 61 in the discussion of Bowman 62 ). The removal of "chart junk" (in Law 2) is another example. ...
Preprint
Effective visual communication is a core competency for pharmacometricians, statisticians, and more generally any quantitative scientist. It is essential in every step of a quantitative workflow, from scoping to execution and communicating results and conclusions. With this competency, we can better understand data and influence decisions towards appropriate actions. Without it, we can fool ourselves and others and pave the way to wrong conclusions and actions. The goal of this tutorial is to convey this competency. We posit three laws of effective visual communication for the quantitative scientist: have a clear purpose, show the data clearly, and make the message obvious. A concise "Cheat Sheet", available on https://graphicsprinciples.github.io, distills more granular recommendations for everyday practical use. Finally, these laws and recommendations are illustrated in four case studies.
... Color is an integral and omnipresent element of many statistical graphics and data visualizations. Therefore, colors should be carefully chosen to support all viewers in accessing the information displayed (Tufte 1990;Brewer 1999;Ware 2004;Wilkinson 2005;Wilke 2019). However, until relatively recently many software packages have been using color palettes derived from simple RGB (red-green-blue) color combinations such as the RGB "rainbow" (or "jet") color palette with poor perceptual properties. ...
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The R package colorspace provides a flexible toolbox for selecting individual colors or color palettes, manipulating these colors, and employing them in statistical graphics and data visualizations. In particular, the package provides a broad range of color palettes based on the HCL (Hue-Chroma-Luminance) color space. The three HCL dimensions have been shown to match those of the human visual system very well, thus facilitating intuitive selection of color palettes through trajectories in this space. Using the HCL color model general strategies for three types of palettes are implemented: (1) Qualitative for coding categorical information, i.e., where no particular ordering of categories is available. (2) Sequential for coding ordered/numeric information, i.e., going from high to low (or vice versa). (3) Diverging for coding ordered/numeric information around a central neutral value, i.e., where colors diverge from neutral to two extremes. To aid selection and application of these palettes the package also contains scales for use with ggplot2, shiny (and tcltk) apps for interactive exploration, visualizations of palette properties, accompanying manipulation utilities (like desaturation and lighten/darken), and emulation of color vision deficiencies.
... Despite this, semioticians and multimodal analysts have largely neglected diagrams, with the exception of Kress and . Design theorists have mostly focused on information graphics, maps, and charts ( Bertin, 1983 ;Lima, 2011Lima, , 2013Tufte, 1983Tufte, , 1990Tufte, , 1997, and they rarely touched on the use of diagrams for purposes of management and organization. However, Lima's (2013 ) excellent book on tree diagrams does pay some attention to the history of organization charts, as well as to some of the new developments made possible by contemporary information technology. ...
... Despite this, semioticians and multimodal analysts have largely neglected diagrams, with the exception of Kress and . Design theorists have mostly focused on information graphics, maps, and charts ( Bertin, 1983 ;Lima, 2011Lima, , 2013Tufte, 1983Tufte, , 1990Tufte, , 1997, and they rarely touched on the use of diagrams for purposes of management and organization. However, Lima's (2013 ) excellent book on tree diagrams does pay some attention to the history of organization charts, as well as to some of the new developments made possible by contemporary information technology. ...
... It is observed through study of VCD, that visual perception could be broadly parameterized into 3 broad domains: elements and principles of visual communication, the semiotics or meaning part of the communication and the textual communication (Gombrich, 1960;Kepes, 1969;Wong, 1972;Mitchell, 1987;Tufte, 1990Tufte, , 2007Frascara, 2004;Heller, 2005Heller, , 2014Lauer, 2005;Smith, 2005;Ambrose & Harris, 2010;Meggs & Purvis, 2012;Krause, 2015). As it is discernable that both older and newer literatures have been taken into consideration for the study and the parameters remain persistently same over the period of time. ...
Article
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Cities develop and flourish based on various aspects such as infrastructural support, economic stability and socio-political datum. While considering all these, often an aspect is ignored or dealt subjectively-which is, visual perception of urban places. It has immense importance in terms of well being and quality of living, enhanced commerce, improved community feeling and motivated participation. Now, there is a lack of holistic methodology which deals with visual perception of places, on how to analyze, design or manage visual perception of urban places; Presently there is no clarity on which parameters to look at-and how to access their impacts. These in turn may solve complex issues like comparing two or more urban places in context to appropriateness of visual perception or how to allocate funds in accordance with maximum impact etc. Thus, these relate to urban competitiveness, not only in terms of infrastructure, socioeconomic standards, internet of things, smartness, employment etc. but also in terms of aesthetics and visual perception. Visual perception plays a key role in accessing qualitatively the urban competitiveness of cities, especially in case of smart cities. Because the very first tangible stimuli of the surrounding environment that affects human beings, occurs through their visual perception of places. This paper looks at a holistic methodology for visual perception of urban places, based on both theoretical and empirical understanding of two different disciplines in congruence, i.e. Visual Communication Design and Urban Design. The proposed paradigm, along with some empirical evidences has been recently presented, in the Smart Countries and Cities World Congress at Paris.
... Time can also be displayed as an attribute data value associated with a specific point, line, or area such different emergency response times for a transportation feature (ESRI, 2007). Sequences of images or feature positions may be viewable as animations, small multiples of time, or change maps (Tufte, 1990). ...
Article
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Travel distances are often thought of in terms of time. When asked about how far away a destination is, we answer that it is “x” minutes or hours away. This study explores a novel approach to visualize travel time from a selected, specific city to various destination cities in the Conterminous United States using two modes of transportation: automobile and airplane. Each destination city was selected randomly from cities that met a set of criteria including: city population categories, state representation, and overall geographic distribution. For the automobile and airplane time-space visualization Google Maps were consulted to get driving time and flying time estimates to 107 destination cities. For the airplane travel additional time was added to estimate driving to a local airport and parking. A straight-line time-vector trajectory between the example start city, Chicago, and the destination cities provided a consistent line to alter the relative locations of destination cities relative to buffer distances representing time. Time-altered city locations were used as control points to align an existing map of the United States. The automobile results show pronounced geographic dilation as well as contraction along many coastal states. Airplane travel severely contracted geographic extent of the U.S. as flying time is much faster and far less variable than automobile time. These visualizations provided a different cartographic product that emphasizes the time and space perception changes in time and space associated with movement via different modes of travel.
... Despite this, semioticians and multimodal analysts have largely neglected diagrams, with the exception of Kress and . Design theorists have mostly focused on information graphics, maps, and charts ( Bertin, 1983 ;Lima, 2011Lima, , 2013Tufte, 1983Tufte, , 1990Tufte, , 1997, and they rarely touched on the use of diagrams for purposes of management and organization. However, Lima's (2013 ) excellent book on tree diagrams does pay some attention to the history of organization charts, as well as to some of the new developments made possible by contemporary information technology. ...
... Well-posed visualizations clearly elicit features of underlying data values, maintaining an overt awareness of the risks of representational ambiguity and error (Rougier et al., 2014). Given the constraints of a human-computer visualization system (Haber and McNabb, 1990;Hansen and Johnson, 2005), they can reveal structures and patterns that may be elusive to other, e.g., statistical, approaches (Tukey, 1977(Tukey, , 1990Tufte, 1990). The informational capacity of static images can be extended by incorporating elements of interactivity (Ward et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Scientific visualization aims to present numerical values, or categorical information, in a way that enables the researcher to make an inference that furthers knowledge. Well-posed visualizations need to consider the characteristics of the data, the display environment, and human visual capacity. In the geosciences, visualizations are commonly applied to spatially varying continuous information or results. In this contribution we make use of a suite of newly written computer applications which enable spatially varying data to be displayed in a performant graphics environment. We present a comparison of color-mapping using illustrative color spaces (RGB, CIELAB). The interactive applications display the gradient paths through the chosen color spaces. This facilitates the creation of color-maps that accommodate the non-uniformity of human color perception, producing an image where genuine features are seen. We also take account of aspects of a dataset such as parameter uncertainty. For an illustrative case study using a seismic tomography result, we find that the use of RGB color-mapping can introduce non-linearities in the visualization, potentially leading to incorrect inference. Interpolation in CIELAB color space enables the creation of perceptually uniform linear gradients that match the underlying data, along with a simply computable metric for color difference, ΔE. This color space assists accuracy and reproducibility of visualization results. Well-posed scientific visualization requires both “visual literacy” and “visual numeracy” on an equal footing with clearly written text. It is anticipated that this current work, with the included color-maps and software, will lead to wider usage of informed color-mapping in the geosciences.
... Covers building complex sites, hierarchy design and organization, and techniques to make your site easier to search." On the other hand, authors such as Tufte [8] emphasized the visual structure displayed information as a method to understand and create meaning: the process itself in which data make sense. ...
... Across all three studies, the data has been visualized based on a few basic rules. Changes of degree in a factor are displayed with a gradient of the same color, changes of type are displayed with different colors, and the general vocabulary of visual styles is communicated with dots, lines, and areas [14]. The tools used for the data visualization are "Microsoft Excel" for calculation of delta, median, and average values, "Grasshopper" for processing data input in ".json," ".csv," or ".shp" file formats, "Rhinoceros" for processing the output data from "Grasshopper," "Processing" as a geo-located three-dimensional virtual space, where multiple data sets can be displayed and overlaid at the same time, in order to assess their relationship and "Adobe Suite" for final printed output. ...
Chapter
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Planning for resilience and enabling positive design outcomes require combinatory methods of working with data, in order to assist decision-makers to develop evidence-based methodologies and to communicate new knowledge. The staggering rise of technology and the integration of data-aided analysis tools in urban planning not only facilitates our understanding of socioeconomic flux but also attempts to actively involve users to participate in the creation of environments that are responsive and appropriate to their needs. This chapter aims to contribute to the discourse on user involvement in design-oriented fields, and specifically in urban planning, by analyzing two different approaches of user participatory design, those of indirect and direct participation.
... Nas buscas bibliográficas busca-se contextualizar as ferramentas geográfica, conceitual e historicamente, bem como sua utilização, visando compilar dados em uma base. A classificação metodológica referente à pesquisa documental foi delimitada em pragmática do design, utilizando os livros Envisioning Information (Tufte, 1990), Visual Insights (Börner & Polley, 2014) e Design for Information (Meirelles, 2013); e para historiografia do tempo, utilizou-se os livros Cartographies of Time (Grafton & Rosenberg, 2010) e Revolution in Time (Landes, 1983), a fim de entender o processo construtivo sociocultural das ferramentas a serem apresentadas no estudo. ...
... For example, gray scale is often used in imaging when finer comparisons must be made within an image. Using colour to correspond with differences in the tissue can make areas seem more dissimilar, making recognition more difficult as we saw in the case of MRI, or creating kind boundaries where there are none (Tufte, 1990). ...
... Walker (1979) reflete sobre a importância da codificação dos elementos que compõem o diagrama do metro londrino (E. Tufte, 1990Tufte, , 1997 e idealiza o conceito de chartjunk, "quinquilharia gráfica", ao referir-se a gráficos inúteis ou cujos constituintes encobrem informações quantitativas. Ele introduz a noção do rácio do número de dados por quantidade de tinta, e argumentando que o uso excessivo de decoração visual favorece a entropia (Ervin, 1989;Kamps, 1999) e metodologias baseadas em processamentos diagramáticos, além de trabalhos empíricos na área da automatização dos diagramas; Wildbur (1989) postula que os designers devem tornar a informação acessível; para Massironi (1996), o desenho é um meio de comunicação de extrema simplicidade técnica, o que sustenta em Horn (2000) o aparecimento do design de informação. ...
Thesis
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This study intends to evaluate projetual methodologies for the construction of diagrams with the aim of promoting better teaching processes. Particularly, those methodologies that emphasize regularly and systematically organizing the information, that best contribute to the visual translation of the problem and to communicate that promote ease of use to persons. With the diagrams is possible to describe data and present them distinctly. Its explanatory potential is another feature and therefore they serve as tools in learning activities. This context of use called of diagrammatic. The concept of diagrammatic process does not end when the product obtained through the diagram. It has implications for educational criteria and methodologies selected for its construction. To understand the relationship between the various methodologies used in evaluating projects diagrams and their contribution to the rigorous organization of information in visual translations that increase ease of use by the addressees will carried out case studies with specific groups, classified according to the degree of previous contact regarding the issue to expose the diagrams.
Chapter
The practical use of illustrations in medical teachings has been a device both necessary and useful; it is a means of exploring structures that are difficult to distinguish in gross specimens as well as a way to describe biological mechanisms invisible to the eye. This chapter will discuss how illustrations, medical imaging and figures can be instructive when used to demonstrate orientation, spatial relationships, and unique structure and function characteristics. Illustrations can provide context, illuminate alternative views or cross‐sections, and can range from highly realistic renderings to graphic representations. The organization of a paper or presentation should consider which illustrations and figures best articulate the content. This chapter will further advise how to distinguish and source illustrations (with consideration of copyright and format) in order to elevate your research and findings. The quality of the artwork depends not only on the ability of the illustrations and figures to effectively communicate information, but also on scientific accuracy and validity. The field of medical illustration yields a rich collaboration between artists and scientists; through such collaborations, high‐quality images congruous with your research design can be conceived. Whether you source artwork to support your concept or collaborate on unique graphics, incorporating images into your paper or presentation will make your research stand out.
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Many claims have been made about the learning benefits of communicating strategies in multi-media picture plus text formats, rather than mono-media text-only formats. However, there is little theorization and empirical evidence to support these claims. Drawing upon Cognitive Load Theory to develop learning-related hypotheses, this manuscript reports on a multi-country experiment that tests the effects of different modes of strategy communication on student learning. The results show the learning benefits to students of multi-media presentations of strategy and suggests how strategy professors should further encourage students to draw strategies in class. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2018.0066
Preprint
New Zealand has two top-level sets of administrative divisions: the District Health Boards and the Regions. In this note I describe a hexagonal layout for creating stylised maps of these divisions, and using colour, size, and triangular subdivisions to compare data between divisions and across multiple variables. I present an implementation in the DHBins package for R using both base graphics and ggplot2; the concepts and specific hexagonal layout could be used in any software.
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Mapping Science documents the different steps in the elaboration of prototypes of interactive visualization tools for scientific data manipulation. The thesis focuses in the interaction between scientists and their data, and in the application of design principles to achieve better results when scientists organize, structure, input, store, and visualize scientific data. Mapping Science relies on a Ph. D. thesis on bat behavior to assess its needs for visual solutions and to study scientific thinking processes that are later compared to those used by visual thinkers. The goal is to demonstrate the importance of visual thinking processes in the creation of hypotheses and the exploration of data.
Chapter
There are three ways you can present your numerical results: in a figure, in a table, or in the text. Choose one place. Never present the same results in more than one way [1–3]. So how do you know which is the optimal form of presentation? There are two ways to think about this: a formal perspective and a functional perspective.
Chapter
Although figures are a crucial component of medical papers, most medical papers have rather low-quality graphs. They present substantially less information than they could. The information they do present is usually shown in a suboptimal or inappropriate form. And then visually the graphs are often cluttered with many other useless and distracting marks. Probably many researchers do not give much thought to the visual presentation of their data, since training in data visualization and graphic design is very rare in the medical scientific world. So this chapter starts by identifying some types of low-quality graphs that are often seen in medical papers and explains why and how to replace them. Next, this chapter will present some other types of higher quality graphs that could be used often but currently are rarely seen. Finally, this chapter discusses some graphic editing steps that can be used to improve any graph you make. By putting some thought and clarity into your graphs, you will greatly increase the interest and comprehension of journal editors, peer-reviewers, and readers.
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The purpose of a table is to advance the readers’ understanding of the topic. To serve its purpose, a table must present a coherent set of results (or raw data) accurately, in a form that will engage the readers and increase their comprehension of the topic. Some tables do not advance the readers’ understanding, despite the readers’ efforts to look at the table, because the table contains unimportant information, lacks thematic coherence, is poorly organized, is typographically confusing, or various other reasons. Tables that do not advance the readers’ understanding, despite the readers’ efforts to review the table, do not serve the purpose that a table is meant to serve. They should be revised or fixed until they are able to fulfill their purpose. A table that most readers refuse to even look at – because it contains too much information, lacks relevance, is confusingly arranged, or any other reason – serves no purpose at all. If most readers are not going to even look at a particular table, then that table should be either replaced with a table that most readers will look at or just deleted altogether. (If some subgroup of readers would make good use of that table, it could be dumped to a supplemental online-only file.) Some tables mislead the readers into a false or confused misunderstanding – because they contain miscalculated numbers, numbers that are inconsistent with the same results in the Abstract or Discussion, numbers that are based on inappropriate statistical tests, or other erroneous information. These kinds of confusing or misleading tables negate the goal of scientific research, which is to improve our understanding of the world. Every table should be double-checked to verify that its contents are accurate and consistent with the rest of the paper, so the readers will not become confused or misinformed. Tables that would mislead the readers into a false or confused misunderstanding should be corrected, replaced, or deleted. Tables accomplish their purpose by presenting accurate results (or raw data) in a form that enables the readers to review those results (or data) efficiently yet precisely. Tables accomplish their purpose even better by engaging the readers to discover more information in the table than is actually printed on the page, by making comparisons of the basic information within the table.
Article
Knowledge access and ease of problem-solving, using technology or not, depends upon our choice of representation. Because of our unique facility with language and pictures, these two descriptions are often used to characterize most representational forms, or their combinations, such as flow charts, tables, trees, graphs, or lists. Such a characterization suggests that language and pictures are the principal underlying cognitive dimensions for representational forms. However, we show that when similarity-based scaling methods (multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering, and trajectory mapping) are used to relate user tasks that are supported by different representations, then a new categorization appears, namely, tables, trees, and procedures. This new arrangement of knowledge representations may aid interface designers in choosing an appropriate representation for their users' tasks.
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If humans have evolved looking at the world in all its sharp detail, we might expect that a picture that can reproduce that detailed world faithfully would be ideal for all pictorial communication. However, depending on the task, a high‐fidelity photograph is often outperformed by other kinds of pictures. This raises a fundamental question for research into illustration: how can we see and understand pictures that are “less‐real‐than‐real” in the first place? This chapter looks at the innate psychological faculties through which we comprehend pictures abstracted away from realism, and how knowledge of these faculties helps to build an appreciation of the special advantages of illustration, and in turn contribute to illustration theory. The brain has a built‐in margin for error, which allows it to regard novel impressions on the retina as something previously experienced but under different conditions. Illustration allows for these more generalized views of things to be presented to the beholder rather than the sliver of reality captured in the snapshot. Pictures reduced in fidelity away from their referents connect to two key aspects of the psychology of seeing: identification – telling the difference between things in the same class; and categorization – telling the difference between one class of things and another. This chapter explores perceptual and cognitive science, as it applies to illustration, in order to explain how illustrations can help the beholder with the visual tasks of both identification and categorization. Pictures communicate differently as a function of the degree of fidelity adopted by the illustrator. Distillation and exaggeration can actually communicate more powerfully to the psyche than “the real thing.” Furthermore, illustration need not be a means of recording aspects of the visible world at all but may also make visible those aspects of life that are not normally apparent to the eye. Just as human experience arrives through any of the senses or through combinations thereof, so depiction can be derived from experiences received through senses other than sight. Humans know about the world through all the senses and begin to understand it through image schemas upon which are built metaphorical concepts of how things in their world are interrelated. Johnson sees image schemas as also pointing the way “to all forms of symbolic human interaction and expression.” Because these schema work across the senses, they connect vision to other domains of knowing and communicating about the world and our experiences in it. In these connections they form the basis for metaphorical thinking. Accordingly, a theory of illustration must, in addition to the ideas of representing the visible world, look into the act of ordering existence that the illustrator undertakes when making a picture. Illustration exists in tension between perception and cognition, between seeing in and recording from the wild, but also making visible those feelings and understandings from the experiential and emotional recesses of a person and connecting these to communication concepts. As an appendix, a workshop on character design is explained which embodies the theory developed in this chapter.
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if we look - as we do - at data visualizations as signifying machines, in which every element is meaningful, what is the contribution of animation to the construction of meaning? What does motion or animation add in terms of significance to different kinds of graphics? Does it add something in terms of iconisation (do the movements of the graphics have a referential function? Do they look like figures of the world?). How animation can be an implementer of meaning, dramatizing the sense of data? Or, is it possible to use animation in an alternative way, to express an ironic framing or a position of doubt of the designer?
Chapter
There are a number of important basic functions extensively used in reliability and survival data analyses. This chapter defines some of these functions that will be applied in the later chapters. These include probability density function, cumulative density function, reliability or survival function, hazard function, and mean life function. This chapter also derives the interrelationships among these functions.
Article
Five computer network defense displays (one Alphanumeric and four graphical displays: Radial Traffic Analyzer, Bar Graph, Cube, and Treemap) were evaluated. Two experiments were conducted using different methodological procedures. Participants responded to questions that were structured to approximate various ways in which analysts might need to consider network traffic. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a fairly clear rank ordering of performance for the four graphical displays was obtained across experiments (from best to worst): Bar Graph, Cube, Radial Traffic Analyzer, and Treemap. The results are interpreted from the perspective of ecological interface design: the quality of performance is directly related to the quality of semantic mapping between work domain, display, and human constraints. Factors that may have contributed to the poor performance for the Radial Traffic Analyzer and Treemap displays are discussed. General implications for display and interface design are provided. Practitioner Summary: Proposed displays for computer network defense are evaluated; the results are interpreted from the perspective of ecological interface design. The associated design principles are applicable to all analogical graphical displays.
Article
This study examines the visual representation of Chinese immigrants in the U.S. Statistical Atlases from 1874 to1925. Compilers of the Atlases used a variety of visual strategies to facilitate rhetorical inclusion and exclusion, and by creating particular visual emphasis, constructed Chinese immigrants as being alienated, racialized, and low in the ethnic hierarchy. The visual constructs of the Chinese population reflected and reshaped the state’s policy of immigration restriction in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Article
This paper’s contributions are design principles and graphical components for air traffic control officer radar displays. The graphics inform of flights passing into uncontrolled airspace and controlled flight into terrain. This is a major cause for fatal accidents caused by loss of situational awareness by the flight crew. The objective is to contact the flight crew early enough to mitigate the situation. The theoretical framework stems from research into situational awareness and rapid visual perception graphics. The resulting graphics are evaluated through a small-scale simulator user study using certified air traffic control officers. It suggests that the proposed graphics are suitable to mitigate unintentional entry into uncontrolled airspace and controlled flight into terrain, but are inconclusive for warning times. The results suggest that the usability is acceptable. Further research should collect performance data from a larger user group, and generalize such graphics to other time-constrained situations.
Article
We present an integrated interactive framework for the visual analysis of time-varying multivariate data sets. As part of our research, we performed in-depth studies concerning the applicability of visualization techniques to obtain valuable insights. We consolidated the considered analysis and visualization methods in one framework, called TV-MV Analytics. TV-MV Analytics effectively combines visualization and data mining algorithms providing the following capabilities: (1) visual exploration of multivariate data at different temporal scales, and (2) a hierarchical small multiples visualization combined with interactive clustering and multidimensional projection to detect temporal relationships in the data. We demonstrate the value of our framework for specific scenarios, by studying three use cases that were validated and discussed with domain experts.
Article
Journalists, educators, and technical writers are increasingly publishing interactive content on the web. However, popular analytics tools provide only coarse information about how readers interact with individual pages, and laboratory studies often fail to capture the variability of a real‐world audience. We contribute extensions to the Idyll markup language to automate the detailed instrumentation of interactive articles and corresponding visual analysis tools for inspecting reader behavior at both micro‐ and macro‐levels. We present three case studies of interactive articles that were instrumented, posted online, and promoted via social media to reach broad audiences, and share data from over 50,000 reader sessions. We demonstrate the use of our tools to characterize article‐specific interaction patterns, compare behavior across desktop and mobile devices, and reveal reading patterns common across articles. Our contributed findings, tools, and corpus of behavioral data can help advance and inform more comprehensive studies of narrative visualization.
Article
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Adverse reactions caused by drug‐drug interactions are a major public health concern. Currently, adverse reaction signals are detected through a tedious manual process in which drug safety analysts review a large number of reports collected through post‐marketing drug surveillance. While computational techniques in support of this signal analysis are necessary, alone they are not sufficient. In particular, when machine learning techniques are applied to extract candidate signals from reports, the resulting set is (1) too large in size, i.e., exponential to the number of unique drugs and reactions in reports, (2) disconnected from the underlying reports that serve as evidence and context, and (3) ultimately requires human intervention to be validated in the domain context as a true signal warranting action. In this work, we address these challenges though a visual analytics system, DIVA, designed to align with the drug safety analysis workflow by supporting the detection, screening, and verification of candidate drug interaction signals. DTVA's abstractions and encodings are informed by formative interviews with drug safety analysts. DIVA's coordinated visualizations realize a proposed novel augmented interaction data model (AIM) which links signals generated by machine learning techniques with domain‐specific metadata critical for signal analysis. DIVA's alignment with the drug review process allows an analyst to interactively screen for important signals, triage signals for in‐depth investigation, and validate signals by reviewing the underlying reports that serve as evidence. The evaluation of DIVA encompasses case‐studies and interviews by drug analysts at the US Food and Drug Administration ‐ both of which confirm that DIVA indeed is effective in supporting analysts in the critical task of exploring and verifying dangerous drug‐drug interactions.
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