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Alleviation of Histopathologic Effects of Avian Influenza Virus by a Specific Nutrient Synergy

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This study aimed at alleviating the histopathologic effects of avian influenza virus by a specific nutrient synergy present in Epican Forte (R) (EF). The daily administration of EF at the level of 48.8 mg/mL/bird between 7-14 days of age, to birds challenged at 7-days old with H9N2-avian influenza virus, had different impacts on tracheal deciliation, goblet cell degeneration, mucus accumulation, hypertrophy of mucosal layer, and counts of tracheal heterophils and specific heterophils containing inclusion bodies. Other different impacts by EF were observed in histopathology observations of thoracic air sacs and lungs. The 2 most apparent significant reductions in tracheal histopathologic effects (P < 0.05) due to EF administration were the mucus accumulation and the drop in specific heterophils manifesting a presence of inclusion bodies.
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... 1,2 The Nutrient Synergy developed by Dr. Rath Institute in Santa Clara, USA (Epican Forte®) had nine molecules, including amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and a molecule purified from green tea . 3,4 The evaluation of the efficacy of such a developed material against colibacillosis required standardization of a successful E. coli challenge following primary infections, such as those caused by low pathogenic avian influenza viruses, 5 or other primary viruses . 6,7 The purpose of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of a developed material known as Epican forte® in broilers against a standardized high and low dose-E. ...
... Actually, previous research on benefits of NS on the surviving host challenged with the viruses only was documented. 3,4 Certain components of NS, including the green tea extract, vitamin C, selenium, magnesium, and copper, were proven to improve the regeneration of tissues damaged by infection, the healing of tumors, and even the reduction of viral multiplication. 9,10,11 The low E. coli challenge in group 4 treated with NS helped the survivors to gain a significantly higher weight with better feed conversion, compared to the similarly challenged group 2 that was deprived of NS treatment (P<0.05; ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Nutrient Synergy (NS; Blend of nine nutrients) in maintaining the performance and alleviating the pathologic effects in broilers challenged with a high and a low dose-E. coli, following a primary challenge with H9N2-avian influenza virus. Six groups of broilers were included (19 birds/group). Each bird in group 1-4 received at an age of 20 d. a primary intratracheal challenge of 2 HA Units of H9N2 virus. At the age of 23 days, birds of groups 1 and 3 received a high dose-E. coli challenge in the right thoracic air sac (1.5x 10 9 cfu/0.5ml/bird), while birds of groups 2 and 4 received-E. coli challenge in the same,I low close route (1.5 x 106 cfu/ml). The initiation of a NS-daily administration, intraesophageally. was according to the manufacturer instructions (Epican Forte (R)) (976 mg/Kg of body weight). The treatment was restricted to birds in groups 3, 4, and 5, effective the age of 17 days and Until 28th day of age. Birds of group 6 were unchallenged and Untreated.However, the average weight and feed conversion at 28 days of age was significantly improved (p<0.05) in the NS-treated group compared to NS-deprived group, with similar low dose-E. coli challenge. The frequency of ocular exudates-sign and diarrhea at 2 days post the E. coli challenge dropped significantly (p<0.05) in the NS-treated groups in comparison to deprived birds, with a similar dose of E. coli challenge. The frequency of diarrhea was kept low at 5d. post-challenge, with the high dose of E. coli in birds treated with NS (P<0.05). The frequencies of the right and left thoracic airsacculitis, and the frequency of pancreatitis were reduced significantly in NS-treated birds with low-dose E. coli in comparison to similarly challenged birds, deprived of NS (p<0.05). However in the high-dose E. coli. challenge groups, the NS treatment lowered only the frequency of abdominal airsacculitis (P<0.05).
... Based on this study and our earlier findings [18,19,27], this combination of plant-derived compounds and micronutrients may constitute a new anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategy by simultaneously affecting multiple aspects of viral life cycle, including viral entry and replication. This strategy was also implemented in our earlier studies, including those of human influenza H1N1, bird flu H1N5, and others, which were based on selecting natural components that simultaneously affect key pathology mechanisms across a wide spectrum of infective agents [28][29][30][31]. ...
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Despite vaccine availability, the global spread of COVID-19 continues, largely facilitated by emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutations. Our earlier research documented that a specific combination of plant-derived compounds can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 binding to its ACE2 receptor and controlling key cellular mechanisms of viral infectivity. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a defined mixture of plant extracts and micronutrients against original SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa, and Mu variants. The composition containing vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, resveratrol, theaflavin, curcumin, quercetin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli extract demonstrated a highest efficacy by inhibiting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) binding of SARS-CoV-2 to its cellular ACE2 receptor by 90%. In vitro exposure of test pseudo-typed variants to this formula for 1 h before or simultaneously administrated to human pulmonary cells resulted in up to 60% inhibition in their cellular entry. Additionally, this composition significantly inhibited other cellular mechanisms of viral infectivity, including the activity of viral RdRp, furin, and cathepsin L. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 including its mutated forms through pleiotropic mechanisms. Our results imply that simultaneous inhibition of multiple mechanisms of viral infection of host cells could be an effective strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.
... [18][19][20] Numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies conducted by us and others, involving different viruses, for example, HIV, H1N1, H1N9, and bird flu, confirm the universality of ascorbic acid efficacy in various viral infections and pleiotropic effects achieved from its combination with other natural compounds. [21][22][23] Our findings show that vitamin C has a consistent and significant lowering effect on ACE2 expression exercised at different molecular levels in human alveolar epithelial cells, but also in microvascular endothelial cells-the 2 main cell types affected by the SARS-CoV-2. In microvascular endothelial cells, ascorbic acid could inhibit ACE2 expression at the protein (Western blot) and RNA levels. ...
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Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme II or ACE2 is an integral membrane protein present on many types of cells, including vascular endothelial cells and lung alveolar epithelial cells. This receptor serves as the entry point for SARS-coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs), including a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Limited availability of these receptors can thwart cellular entry of this virus. Methods We tested the effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on cellular expression of ACE2 at the protein and RNA levels in human small alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, we investigated whether combinations of ascorbic acid with other natural compounds can affect ACE2 expression. Results The results show that ascorbic acid itself has moderate but consistent lowering effects on ACE2 expression at the cellular, protein, and RNA levels. Some natural compounds were effective in lowering ACE2 cellular expression, with the highest inhibitory effects observed for baicalin (75%) and theaflavin (50%). Significantly, combinations of these and other test compounds with ascorbic acid further decreased ACE2 expression. The highest impact of ascorbate on ACE2 expression was noted when combined with theaflavin (decrease from 50% to 87%), zinc (decrease from 22% to 62%), and with 10-undecenoic acid (from 18% to 53%). Ascorbic acid showed moderate additional benefits in decreasing ACE2 expression when combined with N-acetylcysteine and baicalin. Conclusion Our study provides valuable experimental confirmation of the efficacy of micronutrients in controlling ACE2 expression—the coronavirus cellular “entry” point. It further validates the importance of nutrient interactions in various aspects of cellular metabolism and in considering potential therapeutic applications of nutrient-based approaches. The study shows that ascorbic acid and its combination with some natural compounds could be included in developing preventive and therapeutic approaches toward the current pandemic.
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