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Determination of Chemical Composition and Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera Leaves

Authors:
  • Université Ouaga I
  • University Joseph KI-ZERBO
  • Université Joseph KI ZERBO

Abstract

The study on chemical composition and nutritional values of Moringa oleifera leaves has been carried out by analysing samples of this plant leaves collected from three different sectors of Ouagadougou. The analysis of nutrients contents including elemental has been done using recommended method of analysis. The result of analysis shows that the percentages (%) of proteins, moisture, fat, carbohydrate of the leaves are respectively 11.9; 73.9; 1.1 and 10.6% for the cool matter. For the dry matter, the contents in proteins, moisture, fat and carbohydrate are respectively 27.2; 5.9; 17.1 and 38.6%. The result of the mineral composition expressed in mg for 100 g of matters are 847.1; 151.3; 549.6; 17.5; 1.3 and 111.5 in the cool matter respectively for the Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, Zinc and Phosphor. The contents of same minerals analyzed for the dry matter are respectively 2098.1; 406.0; 1922.0; 28.3; 5.4 and 351.1. The result showed a satisfactory composition and a significant variability between the nutrients contents of different sectors. This plant can be valorized for a balanced nutrition of populations.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10 (3): 264-268, 2011
ISSN 1680-5194
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011
Corresponding Author: Charles Windépagnagdé Yaméogo, Research Center in Biological, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University
of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 03 BP 7131 Ouagadougou 03
264
Determination of Chemical Composition and Nutritional
Values of Moringa oleifera Leaves
Charles Windépagnagdé Yaméogo, Marcel Daba Bengaly, Aly Savadogo,
Philippe Augustin Nikiema and Sabadénédyo Alfred Traore
Research Center in Biological, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Ouagadougou,
03 BP 7131 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso,
Abstract: The study on chemical composition and nutritional values of Moringa oleifera leaves has been
carried out by analysing samples of this plant leaves collected from three different sectors of Ouagadougou.
The analysis of nutrients contents including elemental has been done using recommended method of
analysis. The result of analysis shows that the percentages (%) of proteins, moisture, fat, carbohydrate of
the leaves are respectively 11.9; 73.9; 1.1 and 10.6% for the cool matter. For the dry matter, the contents in
proteins, moisture, fat and carbohydrate are respectively 27.2; 5.9; 17.1 and 38.6%. The result of the mineral
composition expressed in mg for 100 g of matters are 847.1; 151.3; 549.6; 17.5; 1.3 and 111.5 in the cool
matter respectively for the Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, Zinc and Phosphor. The contents of same
minerals analyzed for the dry matter are respectively 2098.1; 406.0; 1922.0; 28.3; 5.4 and 351.1. The result
showed a satisfactory composition and a significant variability between the nutrients contents of different
sectors. This plant can be valorized for a balanced nutrition of populations.
Key words: Moringa oleifera, leaves, nutritional values
INTRODUCTION
The Moringaceae is a single-genus family with 12 to 14
known Species (Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002). Almost all
species of Moringa come from India and where they
have been introduced in several countries of the tropics
(Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002; Anwar and Banger, 2003).
Among these species, the Moringa oleifera (Lam) is the
most known and used (Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002). It is
also met in Africa, in Arabia, in the Southeast of Asia, the
Pacific, the Caribbean islands and in South America
(Morton, 1991; Somali et al., 1984).
This plant possesses multiple virtues. Indeed, the
Moringa is supposed to have multiple medicinal
qualities. Thus, the peels, the roots, the leaves, the
flowers of M. oleifera tree are used in the traditional
medicine for the treatment of the diarrhoea and
hypertension and the folk remedies in a lot of countries
(Anwar et al., 2007). The seeds of Moringa are the best
normal coagulants, possess antimicrobial, anti-
oxydantes properties and are used efficiently for the
treatment and the purification of the greatly troubled
water (Anwar et al., 2007; Ndabigengeser and Narasiah,
1998). The seeds also contain the oil which has high
nutritional quality and can be used in the kitchen (Lalas
and Tsaknis, 2002; Anwar and Banger, 2003). The
leaves of M. oleifera can be a food available all yearMATERIALS AND METHODS
round and to have high quality for the men. The youngSampling: For the biochemical composition analysis,
leaves are edible and are commonly consumed afterthe samples of cool leaves have been appropriated on
cooking like spinach, or prepared in soup or in salad.
This plant has a great utility on the food plan for the
peoples in Northeast of Nigeria region (Lockett et al.,
2000). In other countries as Senegal, the leaves of M.
oleifera are consumed like a sauce named Mbuun”,
accompanying with the couscous prepared with cereals
composed by millet, corns or rice. The “Mbeulekhé” is a
meal prepared with rice and sauce. Ouagadougou
where the study has been done is the capital of Burkina
Faso, a country of West Africa with a tropical climate. In
Burkina Faso, we meets only the Moringa oleifera
species and its leaves are used for “tô” (dough of
cereals flour submitted to the heat) and rice sauce
preparation. In some households, the leaves are cooked
with the water and eat after addition of the peanut oil, salt
and other additives, permitting the seasoning. In Burkina
Faso, these leaves are fluently consumed in the
traditional societies. A valorization of M. oleifera leaves
by a quantitative and qualitative production would be very
important to satisfy the food and nutritional needs of the
population of Burkina Faso.
The objective of this study is to study the nutritional
values and evaluate Moringa oleifera leaves nutrients
contents variability.
Pak. J. Nutr., 10 (3): 264-268, 2011
265
Moringa oleifera plants in three different sectors (sectorDetermination of total sugars content: Total sugars
4, sector 13 and sector 26) of Ouagadougou. These cool
samples have been preserved at +4 C before analysis.
o
A part of the cool leaves appropriated has been dried to
the laboratory temperature during fourteen (14) days and
then, reduced in powder with a grinder (mark NIMA,
model NO: BL - 888A, Japan). The powder has been
sifted by a sifter with the meshes 0.5 millimeter (mm) of
diameter and then, kept in plastic sachets to the
laboratory temperature (25 C). The composition
o
analyzes have been done in triplicate with the cool and
dry sample.
Macronutrients composition characterization: The
samples of cool and dried leaves of M. oleifera have
been analyzed for the following constituent: water,
proteins, lipids, crude fibers, total sugars and ashes.
The Analyses have been done in triplicate.
Determination of water content: The content in water
has been determined by the method (AOCS, 1990). A
mass, 5 grams (g) of samples has been weighed and
placed in crucibles. The crucibles have been placed in
drying oven to 105 C until getting a constant mass.
o
Determination of ashes content: The ashes content
have been determined by the method (AOCS, 1990). In
three crucibles, 2 g of samples has been placed. The
samples have been submitted to mineralize in the oven
to 550C during 3 h. After this time, the crucibles have
o
been withdrawn, cooled to the dessicator during 30 min
before being weighed. It has been put back at the oven
during one hour and has been weighed after cooling to
the dessicator. The operation has been restarted until
obtaining a constant weight.
Determination of proteins content: The content in
proteins has been determined by the method of
Kjeldahl (AOCS, 1990). The organic nitrogen of the
sample (0.2 g) has been transformed in mineral
nitrogen (NH4)2SO4 by the oxidizing action of the
sulphuric acid concentrated in presence of a catalyst.
The content in total proteins has been calculated by
multiplication of nitrogen quantity with a conversion
factor (6.25).
Determination of crude fibers content: The crude fibers
content has been estimated by insoluble formic method
(Deymie et al., 1981). We put 5 g of samples in a vial
containing 100 ml of formic acid 80% (V/V). The mixture
has been placed in the boiling water during 75 min. After
cooling, the product of the digestion has been filtered
and the insoluble phase has been recovered in a
crucible, dried to 103 C and weighed (w1). After
o
incineration in an oven, the weight of the ashes has
been determined (w2). The crude fibers content hasheated with temperatures varying between 100-340 C.
been determined after calculation of the difference of
these two weights.
content has been estimated according Tollier and Robin
method (1979). A quantity of sample (0.1 g) has been
weighed and introduced in three test-tube with 10 ml of
NaOH; 0.1 N. The mixture has been placed in the boiling
water during 30 min, after cooling the mixture has been
decanted in a tube. Then, 0.01 ml of the mixture has
been appropriated in a tube and adds 0.99 ml of distilled
water, 2 ml of orcinol and 7 ml of H2SO4 60%. The
mixture has been homogenized and has been placed
again in hot water (80 C) during 20 min. Then, the tubes
o
have been put to the obscurity after cooling during 45
min. The reading of the optic density has been done to
510 nanometer. A curve of standardization has been
achieved using glucose 0.5 mg/ml as reference. The
range of concentration in glucose varying between 5 and
50 µg/ml. The curve permitted to determine the
concentration in total sugars of samples.
Determination of lipids content: The lipids content has
been determined according to the soxlhet method
extraction using the hexane like solvent (AOCS, 1990). A
quantity of samples (5 g) has been weighed and placed
in three extraction cartridges. The cartridges have been
plugged with cotton and have been placed in the soxhlet.
Cleans and dry extraction balls have been weighed
before pouring 250 ml of hexane. The extraction has
been done during 5 h. After this time, the solvent has
been separated by evaporation in the ROTAVAPOR. The
weight of lipids has been gotten by difference between
the final weight and the initial weight of balls.
Determination of energizing values: The energizing
values of proteins, total sugars and lipids have been
determined by Merrill and Watt (1955) coefficients
adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization in
1970. The energizing value of samples have been gotten
by the following relation: P x 4 Kcal + G x 4 Kilocalorie
(Kcal) + L x 9 Kcal = X Kcal/100 g, with P = percentage of
proteins, G = percentage of sugars, L = percentage of
lipids, X = energizing values.
Micronutrients composition characterization
Phosphor (P), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Magnesium
(Mg) and Calcium (Ca) determination: The content of
these minerals in M. oleifera leaves has been
determined after the sample mineralization by humid
voice according to Houba et al. method (1989). In three
tubes, 0.5 g of samples ground to 0.5 mm has been
weighed and 5 ml of the extraction solution (sulphuric
acid - selenium - salicylic acid: 7.2%) have been added
in each tube. A Blanc solution has been prepared with 5
ml of the extraction solution. The samples have been let
to rest during 2 h at least. After this time, they have been
o
The mixture gotten after heating has been cooled to the
ambient temperature during 24 h and then, has been
Pak. J. Nutr., 10 (3): 264-268, 2011
266
diluted to 2/3 of tubes, agitated, cooling again and
completed to 75 ml with the distilled water. After agitation
and decanting, a quantity of the solution has been used
for:
CThe dosage of the total phosphor with the auto-
sensor (model SKALAR 1000) to 880 nm using the
ammonium molybdate as indicator.
CThe dosage of Magnesium and Calcium after
dilution in the Lanthane [(La (NO3)3 6H2O)]
respectively to 285.2 nm and 422.7 nm with an
atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model
PERKIN ELMER A100).
CThe dosage of Sodium and Potassium with a flame
photometer (model CORNING 400)
Ranges of standards solutions have been prepared for
the dosage of micronutrients. These ranges are given
like follows:
CPhosphor (P): a solution (300 ppm) of potassium
hydrogenophosphate (K2HPO4) permitted to achieve
a range of concentration varying between 3 and 15
ppm.
CPotassium (K) and Sodium (Na): a standard
solution of Sodium-potassium (100 ppm) permitted
to prepare a range concentration between 0 and 10
ppm.
CMagnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca): standards
solutions of Magnesium (1000 ppm) and Calcium
(1000 ppm) permitted to prepare concentrations
ranges varying between 5 and 30 ppm for the
Calcium, 0.5 and 3 ppm for Magnesium.
Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) Determination: In three tubes, 0.5
g of samples ground to 0.5 mm has been weighed and
5 ml of the extraction solution: Nitric acid (HNO3; 65%),
sulphuric acid (H2SO4; 96%) and perchloric acid (HClO4
70%) have been added in each tube. A Blanc solution
has been prepared with 5 ml of the extraction solution.
The samples have been let to rest during 2 h at least.
After this time, they have been heated with temperatures
varying between 75-240 C. The mixture gotten after
o
heating has been cooled to the ambient temperature
during 24 h and then, has been diluted to 2/3 of tubes,
agitated, cooling again and completed to 75 ml with the
distilled water. After agitation and decanting, a quantity
of the solution has been used for analyze the Iron (Fe)
and Zinc (Zn) in atomic absorption, respectively to 219.9
nm and 248.3 nm. A concentration range of standard
solution has been 6 to 36 ppm for the Iron (Fe) and 1 to
6 ppm for the Zinc (Zn).
Statistical analysis: The averages and Standards
Deviations (SD) calculation have been done with the
software EXCEL 2007. The test of Tukey with the
software XLSTAT pro 7.1 has been used to do the
comparison between the averages. The test has been
found meaningful at the doorstep of 5%.
RESULTS
The analysis of M. oleifera leaves chemical composition
and nutritional values showed a high concentration in
water of cool leaves appropriated in the three sectors
(Table 1). These concentrations in water have been
74.5; 71.6 and 73.7% respectively for the samples of
Sector 4, Sector 13 and sector 26. Non significant
differences have been observed between the contents in
water for the samples of Sectors 4 and 13 (p = 0.05).
However, a significant difference has been observed
between the content in water for the sample of sectors
13 and 26 (p = 0.01). An average content in water: 73.9%
has been observed for the three samples (Table 3).
The concentrations in proteins have been respectively
13.6; 10.3 and 9.1% respectively for the cool samples of
Sector 4; Sector 13 and Sector 26. Significant difference
have been observed between the contents in proteins for
the three samples (p = 0.004). The average
concentration in proteins for the three cool samples has
been 11.9% (Table 3).
The concentrations observed for total sugars have been
7.3; 11.3 and 11.3% respectively for the samples of
Sector 4; Sector 13 and sector 26. Significant difference
have been observed between the concentration in total
sugars of sector 4 and 13 (p = 0.004), Sector 4 and 26 (p
= 0.004). The average concentration in total sugars for
the cool samples has been 10.6% (Table 3).
For the lipids, their contents have been found in very
weak concentrations comparatively for the proteins and
total sugars. Thus, the concentrations have been 1.2; 1.7
and 1% respectively for the cool samples of Sector 4,
Sector 13 and Sector 26. A significant difference has
been observed between the contents in lipids of the
three samples (p = 0.002). The average concentration in
lipids for the three samples has been 1.1%.
The contents in crude fibers and in ashes observed for
the three cool samples have been determined. Thus, the
average contents have been respectively 2.3 and 3.4%
for the contents in ashes and crude fibers. An
acceptable average energizing value (86.6 Kcal/100 g)
has been observed for the three cool samples.
For the dried leaves, the average contents in proteins,
lipids, total sugars, ashes and crude fibers have been
respectively 27.2; 17.1; 38.6; 11.1 and 19.4% (Table 3).
A high average energizing value (339.7 Kcal/100 g) has
been observed for the dried leaves.
Table 1: Contents in g/100 g of cool leaves (average ± Standard
Deviation)
Components Sector 4 Sector 13 Sector 26
Water 74.5±0.1 71.6±0.7 73.7±0.7
Proteins 13.6±0.1 10.3±0.2 9.1±0.1
Lipids 1.2±0.0 1.7±0.0 1.0±0.0
Crude fibers 3.3±0.0 4.5±0.0 4.0±0.2
Ashes 3.0±0.0 2.2±0.1 1.8±0.0
Total sugars 7.3±0.0 11.3±0.1 11.3±0.0
Energy (Kcal) 82.1 95.4 86.1
Pak. J. Nutr., 10 (3): 264-268, 2011
267
Table 2: Contents in g/100 g of dried leaves (average ± StandardTable 4: Contents in mg/100 g of cool leaves (average ±
Deviation)
Components Sector 4 Sector 13 Sector 26
Water 4.8±0.0 4.9±0.7 8.1±0.1
Proteins 26.2±0.2 27.6±0.9 27.6±0.3
Lipids 16.9±0.9 21.6±0.3 12.5±0.8
Crude fibers 15.7±0.7 22.3±0.3 20.0±0.9
Ashes 16.0±0.2 9.1±0.1 8.2±0.1
Total sugars 35.7±0.0 36.6±0.0 43.3±0.1
Energy (Kcal) 337.8 362.4 317.0
Table 3: Contents in g/100 g of samples (average ± Standard
Deviation)
Components Cool leaves Dried leaves
Water 73.9±1.8 5.9±1.8
Proteins 11.9±2.1 27.2±0.8
Lipids 1.1±0.5 17.1±4.5
Crude fibers 3.4±1.2 19.4±3.3
Ashes 2.3±0.5 11.1±4.3
Total sugars 10.6±2.3 38.6±4.1
Energy (Kcal) 86.6±6.1 339.1±22.7
The analysis of micronutrients composition in M. oleifera
leaves showed remarkable concentrations in minerals
and trace elements (Table 4, 5 and 6). The results
showed high concentrations in Ca, K, Mg and P in the
cool leaves of the three Sectors. The content in Na has
been found in weak concentration among the minerals
determined. The concentrations in trace elements (Fe
and Zn) have been found acceptable. The Ca has been
found in very high concentration, followed by K, Mg and
P for the three cool samples (Table 4). The content in Ca
has been 1460.3; 790 and 463mg in 100g of cool matter
respectively for the samples of Sector 4, Sector 13 and
sector 26 (Table 4). The content in K has been 308.6;
690 and 600mg in 100g of cool matter respectively for
the samples of Sector 4, Sector 13 and sector 26 (Table
4). The contents in P, Mg also found in remarkable
concentrations have been indicated in the Table 4. The
concentration in Fe of cool samples has been 31.1;
17.9; 10mg in 100g respectively for the samples of
sector 4, sector 13 and sector 26. The average
concentration in Zn has been 2.8; 1.5; 0.2mg in 100g of
cool matter respectively for the samples of sector 4,
sector 13 and sector 26. The average contents found for
the three cool samples have been 847; 549.6; 151.3;
111.5; 17.5 and 1.3mg for 100g of cool matter
respectively for the Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (Table 6).
The average contents in Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe and Zn found in
the dry matter have been respectively 2098.1; 1922; 406;
28.3 and 5.4mg for 100g of dry matter (Table 6). A
comparative analysis showed a significant variation
between the contents in micronutrients of the three
sectors (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION
The analysis of nutritional values showed satisfactory
contents in nutrients for M. oleifera leaves. The contents
Standard Deviation)
Components Sector 4 Sector 13 Sector 26
Calcium (Ca) 1460.3±56.1 790.0±9.5 463.0±9.1
Magnesium (Mg) 267.0±9.16 155.0±3.0 40.3±4.6
Potassium (K) 308.6±6.5 690.0±2.6 600.0±6.2
Sodium (Na) 20.3±0.5 2.7±0.0 1.2±0.0
Iron (Fe) 31.1±4.2 17.9±0.0 10.0±0.0
Zinc (Zn) 2.8±0.2 1.5±0.0 0.2±0.0
Phosphor (P) 56.0±0.0 152.0±4.5 108.0±4.3
Table 5: Contents in mg/100 g of dried leaves (average ±
Standard Deviation)
Components Sector 4 Sector 13 Sector 26
Calcium (Ca) 3512.6±335.7 2100.0±2.0 682.3±2.0
Magnesium (Mg) 717.0±12.1 313.0±0.0 188.0±3.4
Potassium (K) 1296.0±50 2250.0±2.6 2220.0±6.2
Sodium (Na) 78.3±4.0 5.2±0.0 3.0±0.0
Iron (Fe) 52.1±2.8 19.8±0.0 12.9±0.0
Zinc (Zn) 10.9±0.2 2.2±0.0 0.8±0.0
Phosphor (P) 252.0±0.00 368.3±3.0 433.0±8.0
Table 6: Contents in mg/100 g of samples (average ± Standard
Deviation)
Components Cool leaves Dried leaves
Calcium (Ca) 847.1±430.6 2098.1±1414.8
Magnesium (Mg) 151.3±92.7 406.0 ±225.7
Potassium (K) 549.6±199.3 1922.0±542.3
Sodium (Na) ND ND
Iron (Fe) 17.5±9.7 28.3±20.8
Zinc (Zn) 1.3±1.1 5.4±4.6
Phosphor (P) 111.5±41.1 351.1±91.7
ND: Non Determined
in cool leaves have been found lowed than the contents
in dried leaves. This result can explain by a reduction of
water contents in the samples.
An analysis of M. oleifera dried leaves chemical
composition showed proteins (27.2%) and lipids
(17.1%) contents lower than the contents observed in
other part as the seeds. Thus, the seeds of M. oleifera
contents found by Anwar and Muhammad (2005) in
Faisalabad have been 34% and 33.23% respectively for
the proteins and lipids. However, the crude fibers
(19.4%) and ashes (11.1%) contents in M. oleifera dried
leaves of our study has been found superior compared
to the contents found by Anwar and Muhammad (2005)
for the crude fibers (7.5%) and the ashes (7%) in the M.
oleifera seeds.
A content in Iron (17.2 mg/100 g) of M. oleifera leaves of
this study has been found higher than the contents in
other cool vegetables given by the Food and Agriculture
Organization in 2002: Amaranthus sp. (8.9 mg/100g),
Manihot esculenta (7.6 mg/100g), Ipomoea batatas (8.2
mg/100 g). The contents in Ca observed in our study for
the dried leaves of M. oleifera have been found lower
than the Ca contents observed in some dried leaves
fluently consumed in Africa and have been found by
Ibsatou et al. (2001). It is the sorrel of Guinea leaves
Pak. J. Nutr., 10 (3): 264-268, 2011
268
(3630 mg/100 g), amaranth leaves (3590 mg/100 g),Deymie, B., J.L. Mutton and D. Simon, 1981. Techniques
gumbo leaves (2850 mg/100 g), onion leaves (2540
mg/100 g) and baobab leaves (2240 mg/100 g).
The three sectors where the samples have been
appropriate are localized in the same city of
Ouagadougou, under the same climatic factors.
Therefore, the variability of different contents in
macronutrients and micronutrients between the
samples observed can be explained by a difference of
the soil composition that can influence the soil nutrients
absorption by the plants. Indeed, the soil factors acts on
the mineral composition and can modify the soil
composition and the nutritional properties, or they acts
on the plants absorption (Heller et al., 1998).
The result of this study showed that the M. oleifera is an
important plant with the leaves which have high
concentration in energies, nutrients (proteins, Ca, K, Mg,
P, Fe and Zn). The leaves have nutritional potentialities
showing their importance in the rural and urban
population’s nutrition. A variability of nutrients
composition for the M. oleifera leaves appropriated on
three different sectors of the same city and under the
same climate has been highlighted.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our thanks are addressed particularly:
CTo Dr Dayéri DIANOU for his aid in the analysis of
our samples;
CTo M. Moussa SAWADOGO, Director of Soil Analysis
Laboratory in National Bureau of Soil, which
enabled us to done some analysis in their
laboratory.
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... The chemical analyses conducted by several researchers [43][44][45] confirmed the presence of different groups of pharmacologically active chemical compounds in M. oleifera. These chemical compounds included: alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phytosterols, saponins, tannins, coumarins and terpenoids. ...
... In addition, functional compounds of nutritional value such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins have also been discovered [46]. The contents of proteins (27.2%) and fats (17.1%) in M. oleifera leaves was lower than that observed in other plant parts such as seeds [43]. The mean dried leaves crude protein content was 28.7-30.3% ...
... The contents of crude fiber (19.4%) and ash (11.1%) in M. oleifera dried leaves were higher [43] compared to those of Anwar and Mohammed [45], who recorded values for crude fiber (7.5%) and ash (7%) in M. oleifera seeds. The dried M. oleifera leaves had mineral contents: Ca (3.65%), P (0.3%), Mg (0.5%), K (1.5%), Na (0.164%), S (0.63%), Zn (31.03 mg/kg), Cu (8.25%), Mn (86.8 μg/kg), Fe (490 μg/kg) and Se (363 μg/kg) [8]. ...
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M. oleifera is the best known and the most utilized of the 14 known species of the genus Moringa. Moringa is used as animal fodder and a medicinal plant as well as in the purification of water. Studies have shown that the day/night temperature of 30/20 °C is the most favorable for M. oleifera germination, plant growth and development. M. oleifera plants prefer sandy, well-drained loam soils due to their susceptibility to waterlogged soil conditions. It is recommended to use fertilizers to improve plant growth and the amount of forage production in areas with low rainfall and extreme temperatures. For forage production, an area of 20 × 20 cm is adapted to 16,000 plants per hectare. Chemical analyses confirmed the presence of different groups of pharmacologically active chemical compounds, as well as functional compounds of nutritional value such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins, in M. oleifera. The reviewed literature particularly encourages the use of M. oleifera whole plants as nonconventional forage in ruminants’ nutrition, as well as using M. oleifera leaves or leaves extract as a protein source for broilers and laying hens. M. oleifera in livestock feed with the ultimate goal of producing functional food (meat, eggs and milk) with appropriate contents of human health-promoting substances such as omega-3 and organic selenium remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, M. oleifera inclusion in livestock feed has the potential to increase the shelf-life of animal products during storage and processing. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate supplementation level of different plant parts or their extracts, as well as the appropriate processing methods or treatments of M. oleifera, in order to improve its palatability and consequently enhance the production performance of livestock without compromising animal health.
... This is much higher than the heart of date palm from three Saudi varieties: Sukkari (41⋅5), Solleg (44⋅7) and Naboat Saif (50⋅9) (12,32) . Its fat content is much higher as compared with Sukkari (1⋅7), Solleg (1⋅8) and Naboat Saif (1⋅6) and also that of okra (7⋅03) and Moringa oleifera leaves (38⋅6) (12,32,33) . This might be due to environmental factors and soil conditions. ...
... This is also adequate for daily diet. But the crude fat content for this sample was lower when compared with other edible plant leaves of Moringa oleifera (17⋅1) (33) . ...
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The consumption of locally nutrient-rich edible plants in rural areas can be used to satisfy the dietary diversity of pregnant women. Date palm is one of the wild edible plants in different parts of the world. Studies on wild edible plants in Ethiopia cover only about 5 % of the country's districts. Furthermore, the nutrient composition of the palm heart of Phoenix reclinata is not yet investigated as it is commonly consumed by indigenous people in western Ethiopia. The utilization of such plants requires strong policy support based on scientific evidence to maintain the nutrition security of pregnant women. Homogeneous samples of 1000 grams (g) of palm hearts were collected randomly. The macronutrient contents were determined using standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 2000). The flame Photometric method was used for potassium and sodium determination. The carbohydrate concentration (g/100 g) was 78⋅2. It covers approximately 78⋅5 % of the total daily Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). In line with this, the concentrations of minerals such as potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+), per milligram (mg/100 g) of the sample were 1962⋅3 and 7⋅9, respectively. The palm heart of Phoenix reclinata has many nutritional values and is important for pregnant women. Its nutrient composition is comparable with different staple foods of the country and can contribute to household food security in rural communities.
... Before the nitrogen deposition treatment, ten plants were selected from each treatment and tagged with a number, and the initial seedling height and ground diameter were measured with a tape measure and vernier calipers, and the height and ground diameter of the tagged seedlings were measured again at the end of the nitrogen deposition treatment. The tagged seedlings were washed and dried with tap water, then placed in an oven at 105 • C for 20 min, then baked at 75 • C for 24 h to a constant weight and the dry mass of the different parts was weighed [42]. ...
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Droughts are becoming more frequent and intense, and the nitrogen deposition rate is increasing worldwide due to human activities. Young seedlings of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. are susceptible to mortality under drought conditions because their root tips have few root hairs. We studied the effect of nitrogen deposition on the physiological characteristics of two-year-old B. sinensis seedlings under drought stress. Seedlings were grown under no nitrogen deposition (control; N0), low nitrogen deposition (N30, 30 kg·hm−2 year−1), medium nitrogen deposition (N60, 60 kg·hm−2 year−1), and high nitrogen deposition (N90, 90 kg·hm−2 year−1), and were subjected to either the normal watering regime (NW) or drought stress (DW). Under DW, the relative conductivity (RC) of seedlings receiving N60 was not significantly different from that of N0 seedlings, and the RC of seedlings receiving N90 was significantly higher than that of N0 seedlings. Under 10 d DW, N60 treatment increased antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and content of soluble protein, chlorophyll a and a + b, with POD activity and soluble protein significantly increasing by 18.89% and 34.66%, respectively. Under DW, the proline (PRO) content of seedlings treated with N90 increased. Our data suggested that moderate nitrogen deposition could alleviate drought stress by decreasing cell membrane permeability, reducing cell membrane peroxidation, increasing the content of osmoregulatory substances, and reducing the tendency for chlorophyll to decline, whereas high nitrogen deposition increased the sensitivity of B. sinensis seedlings to drought stress and aggravated the degree of stress, thereby affecting growth.
... Daun kelor mengandung banyak kalsium, zat besi, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B, dan Vitamin C , serta asam amino yang berfungsi sebagai anti oksidan (Misra and Misra, 2014), (Simbolan, Katharina and Sitorus, 2008). Bahkan kandungan zat besi dalam daun kelor lebih tinggi dari sayuran lain yaitu sebesar 17,2 mg/100 g (Yameogo et al., 2011). Kandungan Vitamin C pada daun kelor setara dengan kandungan vitamin C pada 7 buah jeruk, kandungan vitamin A pada daun kelor setara 4 buah wortel, dan kandungan kalsium pada daun kelor setara dengan kandungan kalsium dalam 4 gelas susu (Mahmood, Mugal and Haq, 2010). ...
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This community service program partners with SMEs producing Moringa leaf powder capsules who have problems with low sales levels and limited marketing reach. This community service activity aims to increase sales of Moringa leaf powder capsule products through rebranding strategies and the use of online marketing media. The rebranding strategy allows the product to be better known to the public from the name that the product bears. Meanwhile, product marketing through online media has several advantages, including unlimited marketing area coverage and low cost. The implementation of this community service activity is carried out using the Focus Group Discuss method in order to finalize the rebranding plan and online marketing strategy, which is followed by the mentoring method. The results of this activity were the creation of a new Moringga brand, new packaging designs, social media accounts as online marketing tools, obtaining P-IRT permits and distribution permits for herbal supplements from BPOM. By looking at the available market share which is still quite wide, and the availability of abundant raw materials, the implementation of rebranding strategies and online marketing can increase sales of Moringa leaf powder in capsule form, thereby increasing partner income. Keywords : Moringa, Branding, Marketing, Online
... The moringa leaves extract has several contents of different macro elements such as Mg responsible for induction and increase the amounts of chlorophyll a, b and contents of carotenoids (α, β carotene, lutein and xanthin) that have antioxidant properties [45][46][47]. ...
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Introduction: Monarda citriodora L. plant belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It is a medicinal and aromatic plant, an annual herb, one of important sources of thymol compound. This plant has various purposes such as medicinal properties, food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals industry, a powerful antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Objective: There is an ongoing need to find safe, natural sources of plant nutrients. Moringa leaves and pomegranate peels extracts are being used as a secure source of natural nutrients, and natural growth regulators on the growth and productivity of plants. Applying these bio stimulants helps avoid the excessive use of industrial materials in agriculture. So, this experiment was carried out to determine the effect of both moringa leaves extract, and pomegranate peels extract as a bio regulator on the productivity of M. citriodora plant. Methods: This experiment was carried out during two seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019) at the Experimental Station of Adlya Farm, Sekem Company, ElSharkia Governorate, Egypt, to study the influence of some natural extracts of moringa leaves and pomegranate peels on growth, yield as well as some chemical constituents of the dry herbs, such as total carbohydrate, total flavonoids compounds, total phenolic content, NPK content and essential oil contents and its components and determination of free radical scavenging activity of M. citriodora L. plant. Results: Both extracts of moringa leaves and pomegranate peels positively affected growth, yield, and chemical constituents compared to untreated plants. Moringa leaves extract had more effect compared with pomegranate peels extract. The main essential oil constituents were thymol, p -cymene, and carvacrol compounds. Conclusion: The application of bio-stimulants of moringa leaves extract (MLE) and pomegranate peels extract (PPE) positively affect the growth and production of M. citriodora plant.
... One of the Indonesian plants that are believed to have antioxidant content is horseradish leaf Moringa oleifera (Jusnita & Tridharma, 2019;Toripah et al., 2014;Yuliani & Dienina, 2015) which is used as food, drug, fertilizer, etc. (Misra & Misra, 2014;Oluduro, 2012;Zongo et al., 2013). Horseradish leaf is found to contain calcium, iron, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B, and its vitamin and iron content are higher than other vegetables, 17.2 mg/100 g (Yamèogo et al., 2011). Another previous study shows that horseradish plant contains antimicrobial, antifungal, antihypertension, antihyperglycemic, antitumor, anticancer, and anti-inflammation (Toma & Deyno, 2014). ...
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This study aims to know the effect of water-extracted horseradish Moringa oleifera leaf and KW21 fertilizer combination application on the density of Nannochloropsis sp. It was conducted in the Natural Food Laboratory of State Polytechnique, Tual. The experiment used complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications: A (25% horseradish leaf extract + 75% KW21), B (50% horseradish leaf extract + 50% KW21), C (75% horseradish leaf extract + 25% KW21), D (positive control of 100% KW21), and E (negative control of 100% horseradish leaf extract). Results showed that Treatment C yielded the best result, both the highest density of Nannochloropsis sp. and suitable harvest time.
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Keadaan topografi Desa Dokan secara umum adalah merupakan daerah perbukitan atau dataran tinggi. Yang memiliki iklim kemarau dan penghujan, dimana hal tersebut mempunyai pengaruh langsung terhadap pola tanam yang ada di desa Dokan Kecamatan Merek. Iklim yang menentukan pola tanam masyarakat sangatlah penting dikarenakan mayoritas mata pencahariaan masyarakat Desa Dokan adalah sebagai petani. Penduduk desa Dokan dengan proporsi 47,1% berjenis kelamin perempuan merupakan potensi yang seharusnya diberdayakan dan berkontribusi dalam ketahanan pangan keluarga. pada tahun 2030 variabilitas iklim akan mengancam ketahanan pangan, sehingga diperkirakan jumlah masyarakat yang kekurangan gizi akan meningkat. Metode pelaksanaan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat dilakukan dengan pemberdayaan sumberdaya perempuan dan pendampingan melalui pengolahan daun kelor. Kelompok perempuan berpartisipasi aktif dalam kegiatan dan berkomitmen bersama untuk berdaya dalam ketahanan pangan keluarga dengan menyediakan bahan makanan yang bernutrisi salah satunya bahan makanan yang berbahan dasar olahan daun kelor.
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This study aims to determine the effect of addition Moringa leaf puree on the characteristics of mackerel nuggets, and to find out the right addition of Moringa leaf puree to produce mackerel nuggets with the best characteristics. This research was based on completely randomized design (CRD) with by addition treatment of Moringa leaf puree consisting of 6 levels: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Each treatment was repeated 3 times to obtain 18 experimental units. The data obtained were analyzed by variance and if the treatment had significant effect followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that the effect of adding Moringa leaf puree had a significant effect on water content, fat content, protein content, crude fiber content, antioxidant activity, taste, aroma, texture (hedonic and scoring), and overall acceptance. The addition of 20% Moringa leaf puree produced with the best characteristics with water content criteria of 44,18%, ash content of 1.47%, fat content of 11.49%, protein content of 8.85%, crude fiber content of 9.26%, antioxidant activity of 67.32%, IC50 3757.486 ppm, ordinary aroma, taste like, texture and overall acceptance liked.
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Moringa Oleifera (MO) has potential for nutritional and medical applications. We verified whether the administration of MO changed mineral accumulation patterns and mitigative effects of lead poisoning using Sprague–Dawley rats. MO leaves, aqueous leaf extracts, and seeds were administrated to rats in two different concentrations (100 and 600 mg/kg body weight/day) for 3 weeks. Element analysis, biochemical blood tests, oxidative-stress assessment, and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity assays were performed after euthanasia and dissection. Although apparent changes in element accumulation patterns and biochemical parameters for hepatic and renal function assessments were not observed, lead-induced oxidative stress was significantly mitigated by the administration of MO leaves. The administration of high-dose MO leaves and seeds significantly recovered ALAD activity. Further investigations for potential mitigative effects of MO on lead toxicity and its mechanism are required.
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Interprovenance variation was examined in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan), Bahauddin Zakariya University (Multan, Pakistan), and the University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Sindh, Pakistan), ranged from 33.23 to 40.90%. Protein, fiber, moisture, and ash contents were found to be 28.52–34.00, 6.52–7.50, 5.90–7.00, and 6.52–7.50%, respectively. The physical and chemical parameters of the extracted M. oleifera oils were as follows: iodine value, 67.20–71.00; refractive index (40°C), 1.4570–1.4637; density (24°C), 0.9012–0.9052 mg/mL; saponification value, 177.29–184.10; unsaponifiable matter, 0.60–0.83%; color (1-in. cell), 1.00–1.50 R+20.00–30.00Y; smoke point, 198–202°C; and acidity (% as oleic acid), 0.50–0.74. Tocopherols (α, γ, and δ) accounted for 114.50–140.42, 58.05–86.70, and 54.20–75.16 mg/kg, respectively, of the oils. The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120°C) of the crude oils were 9.64–10.66 h and were reduced to 8.29–9.10 h after degumming. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.80–2.50 and 0.54–1.00, respectively. The major sterol fractions of the oils were campesterol (14.13–17.00%), stigmasterol (15.88–19.00%), β-sitosterol (45.30–53.20%), and ͤ5-avenasterol (8.84, 11.05%). The Moringa oils were found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 76.00%), followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acids up to levels of 6.54, 6.00, 7.00, and 4.00%, respectively. Most of the parameters of M. oleifera oils indigenous to different agroclimatic regions of Pakistan were comparable to those of typical Moringa seed oils reported in the literature. The results of the present analytical study, compared with those for different vegetable oils, showed M. oleifera to be a potentially valuable oilseed crop.
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The oil from Moringa oleifera seeds variety Periyakulam 1 (PKM 1) from India was extracted using three different procedures including cold press (CP), extraction with n-hexane (H) and extraction with a mixture of chloroform:methanol (1:1) (CM). The oils were compared with those of a commercial virgin olive oil and Moringa oleifera var. Mbololo seed oil. The oil concentration ranged from 25.1% (CP) to 41.4% (CM). The density, refractive index, colour, smoke point, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, sterols, tocopherols (by HPLC), peroxide value, E1%1 cm at 232 nm and the susceptibility to oxidation measured by the Rancimat method were determined. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 71.60%). The dominant saturated acids were palmitic and behenic (both up to 6.4%). The oil was also found to contain high levels of β -sitosterol (up to 45.58%), stigmasterol (up to 23.10%) and campesterol (up to 15.81%). α -, γ - and δ -tocopherols were detected up to levels of 15.38, 25.40 and 15.51 mg/kg of oil, respectively. Moringa oleifera seed oil showed a long induction period (at 120°C), which however was reduced from 42.56 to 72.56% after degumming. The Moringa oleifera seed oil showed high stability to oxidative rancidity. Among the methods used for extraction, the mixture of chloroform:methanol (1:1) (CM) showed the higher resistance to oxidation.
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Two rural settled Fulani villages, northeastern Nigeria, were surveyed for dietary practices and use of edible wild plants (n = 100 households). Commonly consumed species of edible wild barks, fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, and tubers were analyzed for protein, fat, and carbohydrate and for minerals. Kuka bark (Adansonia digitata) given to infants to increase weight gain was high in fat, calcium, copper, iron, and zinc. Cediya (Ficus thonningii), dorowa (Parkia biglobosa) and zogale (Moringa oleifera) were good sources of protein and fat and excellent sources of calcium and iron or copper and zinc. Fruits, leaves, and nuts of aduwa (Balanites aegyptiaca) were widely used during the dry season and during drought. Edible wild species available during the wet season generally were inferior in energy and micronutrient mineral content compared to dry season plants. Fruits commonly eaten by children were poor sources of protein and minerals but rich in carbohydrate and fiber. Tsamiya seeds (Tamarindus indica) were good sources of zinc and used to make dawwa (porridge) commonly consumed during pregnancy. Kirya seeds (Prosopos africana) contained the highest zinc concentrations. Shiwaka leaves (Veronia colorate) consumed by pregnant women to increase breastmilk production and to expel intestinal worms, were high in fiber, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and were adequate sources of calcium.
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Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree.
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Samples of municipal and industrial wastewaters were treated by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, using a crude water extract of dry Moringa oleifera seeds as a primary coagulant. The quality of the treated wastewater was analyzed and compared to that of the wastewater treated with alum. Experiments were conducted at various dosages of the crude 5% (wt/v) water extract of dry shelled and non-shelled Moringa oleifera seeds, using jar-test equipment. Parameters of quality of the wastewaters were measured before and after the treatment to evaluate the removal efficiency on the major pollutants of concern in wastewater treatment, such as suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen), microorganisms and heavy metals. Results showed that Moringa oleifera seeds were efficient as a primary coagulant in wastewater treatment for removal of suspended solids and microorganisms, and also removal of some metals. Nutrients and COD were not successfully removed. COD and nutrients were somehow increased by coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds. Compared to alum, Moringa oleifera seeds produced 4 to 6 times less sludge volume. Alum was found to be quite effective in phosphorus removal. The increase in COD and nutrients observed in the case of Moringa oleifera seeds might be avoided by using purified proteins instead of the crude water extract.
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Because mineral composition data for Western African foods are incomplete, it is essential to obtain analyses of foods in order to assess the quality of existing food as well as to estimate dietary intake of various minerals, such as calcium. Twenty-eight Western African foods were analyzed for calcium using the method described by Ferguson et al., (1993) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (Padmore, 1990). Calcium concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP). Calcium recovery was 94.4% of the expected value with respect to a standard reference material (corn husk). For all foods assessed, the content of calcium ranged from 3.04 to 3630 mg/100 g dry wt. Based on dry weight, the top five foods for calcium in rank order were sorrel leaves (3630 mg/100 g), amaranth leaves (3590 mg/100 g), okra leaves (2850 mg/100 g), onion leaves (2540 mg/100 g), and baobab leaves (2240 mg/100 g). Data from this study provide calcium analyses of some commonly eaten Western African foods, which should help in planning food-based intervention programs to improve mineral nutrition.
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The horseradish tree (Moringa pterygosperma,) is being introduced into drought-ridden lands to augment the local food and fodder supply. The tree grows up to 5 m per year. The foliage is high in calcium and has half the oxalates of amaranth. Seeds yield edible oil and the seed meal is used as fertilizer and as a coagulant to clarify turbid water. The philanthropic center, ECHO (Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization), North Fort Myers, Florida, receives many requests for seeds. A missionary in Mali wrote: “The seeds you sent arrived during the worst year of 14 years of dry weather. Only the moringa survived, and they have flourished. ”Another seed shipment resulted, after harvesting a crop, in 25 000 trees being planted by university students and faculty, around laborers’ houses in Maranhao, Brazil. The tree is not limited to tropical lowlands, but thrives at elevations of 800-1200 m in protected mountain areas of southern Mexico. The long-range effects of ingesting various parts of the tree as food or folkmedicine need study. Attention should be given to horticultural improvement, perhaps through hybridization with one or more related species now being compared with M. pterygosperma in India and Africa.
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TheMoringa peregrina kernel contains 1.8% moisture, 54.3% oil, 22.1% protein, 3.6% fiber, 15.3% carbohydrate and 2.5% ash. The composition and characteristics of the extracted oil were determined. Gas liquid chromatography of methyl esters of the fatty acids shows the presence of 14.7% saturated fatty acids and 84.7% unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid composition is as follows: palmitic 9.3%, palmitoleic 2.4%, stearic 3.5%, oleic 78.0%, linoleic 0.6%, linolenic 1.6%, arachidic 1.8% and behenic 2.6%.
Article
The hexane-extracted oil content of Moringa oleifera seeds ranged from 38.00 to 42.00%. Protein, fiber, and ash contents were found to be 26.50-32.00, 5.80-9.29, and, 5.60-7.50%, respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 68.00-71.80; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4590-1.4625; density (24 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9080 mg/mL; saponification value, 180.60-190.50; unsaponifiable matter, 0.70-1.10%; and color (1 in. cell), 0.95-1.10 R + 20.00-35.30 Y. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil were up to 123.50-161.30, 84.07-104.00, and 41.00-56.00 mg/kg, respectively. The oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 78.59%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acid up to levels of 7.00, 7.50, 5.99, and 4.21%, respectively. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 9.99 h and reduced to 8.63 h after degumming. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.70 and 0.31, respectively. Many parameters of M. oleifera oil indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical Moringa seed oils reported in the literature. The results of the present analytical study were also compared with those of different vegetable oils.