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Flotation Rest and Imagery in the Improvement of Collegiate Basketball Performance



22 expert collegiate basketball players were exposed to either imagery training only or restricted environmental stimulation (REST) with imagery training. The REST group showed significantly better performance on both objective game performance and coaches' blind ratings.
Percep&alandMoior Skills,
1991, 72, 119-122
Perceptual and Motor Skills 1991
U.S. Army, Fort Sam Houston
Washington State University
expert collegiate basketball players were exposed to either imagery
training only or restricted environmental stimulation (REST) with Imagery training.
The REST group showed significantly better performance on both oblect~ve game per-
formance and coaches' blind ratings.
Restricted Environmental Stimulation (REST) enhances mental imagery
Barabasz, 1982,
press). REST combined with imagery training can
produce significant improvements in athletic performance (McAleney,
M. Barabasz, 1990; Lee
Hewitt, 1987). Lee and Hewitt
(1987) employed multiple REST sessions with novice and intermediate com-
petitive gymnasts and found improvement on the basis of judges' ratings of
performance. Only one controlled investigation of improved athletic perform-
ance by REST has been completed with expert players, these being tennis
players studied by McAleney, A.
Barabasz, and M. Barabasz (1990) who
reported significant improvement in first service winners in actual intercolle-
giate competition. Now, the present study focused on expert collegiate
basketball players to provide a test of the effects of REST and imagery on
both objective and subjective measures of performance.
Male basketball players
from two major university varsity teams
volunteered for a study of "mental imagery and sports performance" during
the 1988-89 basketball season. Coaches for each team agreed to allow solici-
tation of subjects.
but one player from each team volunteered. Subjects
from each team were assigned to a random ordered sequence of either REST
plus imagery (n
11) or imagery only (n
'This report is based on a dissertation by the first author (1990) at Washington State Uni-
versity. Reprint requests should be addressed to Prof. Arreed Barabasz, Ed. D., Ph.D., Director,
Hypnosis and REST Laboratory, Washington State University, Cleveland
Pullman, WA
Detailed information on
measures appears elsewhere (Wagaman,
1990). Briefly, performance (PERF) scores are objective measures based on
collegiate or professional basketball game performance statistics. Concurrent
validity coefficients range from .73 to .83. The PERF score is derived from
Sonstroem and Bernardo's (1982) formula which, for example, would score a
plus point for successful shooting or passing and
minus point for a foul or
traveling. To provide a plateau for performance aggregated PERF scores were
caIcuIated for each pIayer over 11 games prior
beginning the study and
over the five games immediately after completion of treatment. The
Performance Evaluation Questionnaire is a standardized coaches' report form
(AAHPERD, 1984) which was filled out pre- and posttreatment by coaches
who were blind to subjects' group assignment. The Performance Ques-
tionnaire (Stanley,
et al.,
1987) is a short self-report measure of subjects'
perceptions of treatment effects on their basketball performance. These data
were obtained within five days of completion of
treatment sessions.
Imagery Training
The Le and Hewitt (1987) tape of enhancement of athletic perform-
ance was adapted for use with basketball players by substituting for
gymnastic imagery visualization in successful game performance of shooting,
passing. The 20-min. audiotape emphasized relaxation and vi-
sualization of skills in competition.
transcript of the tape is given by
Wagaman (1990).
REST subjects floated supine on a 20% solution of water and epsom
salts at about
in a light-proof, sound-attenuating fiberglass tank. As
in the McAleney,
(1990) study, an intercommunication system integral
to the Flotarium tank facilitated transmission of the imagery tape.
Imagery-only subjects sat in a comfortable chair in a lighted office. No
attempt was made to attenuate normal ambient sound levels. These subjects
were free to study or simply to sit comfortably before and after the tape was
After collection of
pretreatment performance measures, subjects were
exposed to the above conditions for six sessions over a 5-wk. period.
Consistent with arrangements described by McAleney,
et al.
(1990), the im-
agery tape was played at the 30-min. point of each session.
Details of analyses are reported by Wagaman (1990). Briefly, a split-plot
analysis of variance on PERF scores from pre- and posttreatment games for
both groups showed a significant interaction (pre-post
3.69, p
ScheffC test showed the REST group (M
scored significantly (p< .01) higher than the imagery-only group
ScheffC test contrasting scores for the five subjects who com-
pleted two REST sessions between games with those for six subjects
completing only one session between games was also significant (pc.05).
Subjects exposed to two REST sessions between games showed higher PERF
scores (M
13.0) than subjects who experienced REST only once
between games (M
3.6). The baseline pretreatment PERF scores
were not significantly different between groups
.41, p> .05).
Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of variance was calculated on
coaches' blind rankings of players immediately after each of the 11 pretreat-
ment games and immediately after each of the five posttreatment games.
The REST subjects were rated as significantly (p< .05) better than the Imag-
ery-only subjects on passing (REST M rank
4.9, Imagery-only M rank
and shooting (REST M rank
5.0, Imagery-only M
7.0) but not on drib-
bling, defense, or over-all skill.
one-way analysis of variance of subjects' ratings of treatment ef-
fectiveness (Performance Questionnaire scores) showed no significant (p>
.05) difference between the REST group
and the
Imagery-only group (M
The present study was the first to show significant effects of REST for
intercollegiate varsity basketball players. The findings confirm that flotation
REST, with taped imagery, produces better performance than the same im-
agery training without REST. The REST-imagery group's performance was
better than that of the Imagery-only group on both objective game perform-
ance scores and coaches' blind ratings of passing and shooting. REST appears
to increase the effectiveness of imagery training. The potential contribution
of expectancy to these results appears to be limited since subjects' ratings of
perceived effectiveness showed only neutral to
slight effect and no signifi-
cant difference between REST and the Imagery-only group. Further research,
employing a suitably large
and several teams, should address the issue of
REST effects and specificity of imagery according to the various positions
ketball Sk~lls
Renton, VA: Author.
Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hyp-
lnrernational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis,
(in ress) Flotation REST elicits spontaneous hypnosis. In A. Barabasz
Barabasz (EL.),
Clinical and experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: new de-
New York: Springer-Verlag.
Using visual imagery in
flotation tank to improve gymnastic
performance and reduce physical symptoms.
International Journal of Sport Prychology,
Effects of flotation Restricted
Environmental Stimulation on intercollegiate tennis performance.
Perceptual and Motor
71, 1023-1028.
Intraindividual pregame state anxiety and basketball
performance: a re-examination of the inverted-U curve.
Journal of Sport Psychology,
J. D.
Effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation on intercolle-
giate basketball performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State
Accepted January
... Within the field of sport psychology, anecdotal reports about the utility of REST for athletes first appeared in the mid-1980s (Hutchison, 1984). These reports were followed by a limited number of experimental studies investigating the effects of flotation REST, often in combination with imagery, on athletes' arousal levels, muscle tension, and/or performance (Lee & Hewitt, 1987;McAleney, Barbasz, & Barbasz, 1990;Norlander et al., 1999;Suedfeld & Bruno, 1990;Suedfeld, Collier, & Hartnett, 1993;Wagaman, Barabasz, & Barabasz, 1991). In general, previous research has indicated that athletes perceive flotation REST as beneficial for general stress-reduction in order to increase well-being (Klockare et al., 2015). ...
... In particular, muscle tension reductions (as assessed by EMG-measurement) were found following flotation REST, and the elite level archers performed more consistently after flotation REST in comparison with their less skilled counterparts. Improved performance after flotation-REST, in comparison to control groups, was also found in studies of basketball players after one floating session (Suedfeld & Bruno, 1990;Wagaman et al., 1991) and on a dart-throwing task after two floating sessions (Suedfeld et al., 1993). A meta-analysis conducted by van Dierendonch and Nijenhuis (2005), comprised a total of 27 flotation REST studies in health and sport psychology literature examining the efficacy of flotation REST, also provides support for positive outcomes related to physiological indicators of stress (e.g., cortisol, and blood-pressure), increased perceptions of well-being (e.g., optimism), and decreased ill-being (e.g., anxiety, and depression) as well as performance (assessed by diverse sport specific tasks). ...
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers’ anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.
... Corresponding positive effects have been reported for the floating form of REST (e.g., [14][15][16][17][18]). Several studies (e.g., [18][19][20][21]) provide strong support for the contention that the flotation-isolation procedure reinforces aspects of "imagery," a prerequisite to the creative process [22]. At the same time, these effects may also be regarded as an expression of a primary process domination [23][24][25]. ...
... At the same time, these effects may also be regarded as an expression of a primary process domination [23][24][25]. Flotation REST has been applied within a sports psychology context in order to attain a more effective control over the negative consequences of stress, to reinforce various visualization techniques, and to improve the restitution process following training bouts and competition [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate if experiences induced by flotation-REST (in flotation-tank) are affected by settings or subjects earlier experiences of altered states of consciousness (ASC). No such significant differences were found. Significant effects owing to flotation-REST were found regarding reduction in experienced pain and enhancement of mood. Flotation-REST was considered a pleasurable technique. Different kinds of visual and acoustic effects, altered time perception, and a sense of weightlessness have been reported. Also, deep transpersonal experiences were quite common, and could be distinguished into three types: experiences of one's own childbirth/delivery; feeling of cosmic unity; and experiences of losing contact with the body or out-of-body experiences. Flotation-REST must be regarded as a consciousness-altering method with promising potential for clinical and therapeutic use.
... It was also described as being an effective method to speed up recovery from injuries and to enhance restoration from hard physical labor or exercise: " The ultra-deep relaxation of floating " resets " the body's hormonal and metabolic balance, strengthening resistance to and accelerating recovery from the effects of stress, illness, injury or strenuous exercise. " To what extent floating can facilitate rehabilitation of injuries is unclear, but studies on floating from a sport psychological context have demonstrated that increased restoration after training and competition occurs [27,4950515253. Statements about improved function of the immune system were also found but this has not been studied thoroughly. One study observed enhanced immune response after floating , reflected by increased levels of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes [54], which provides too little support for promising improved immune system function. ...
... visualize ice-skating). Floating has successfully been used in a sport psychological context and resulted in fewer unwanted effects of stress, increased restoration after training and competition, as well as and increased athletic performance [27,4950515253 making these statements reasonable. ...
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Introduction Flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) is a complementary and alternative medicine therapy with evidence-based beneficial effects like pain and stress reduction. During flotation-REST a person is lying in a supine position inside a quiet and dark tank, filled with salt water maintained at skin temperature. The water is high in buoyancy, which makes it possible to float comfortably on the back. The method induces deep relaxation through minimization of sensory input. Contemporary scientific findings about beneficial effects resulting from floating have increased the number of private owned floating centers. The aim of this study was to investigate how these centers advertise the benefits of flotation to the public and compare these claims with published scientific evidence. Method The Google search engine was used to localize web-sites hosting private floating center entrepreneurs. Described effects resulting from floating on these sites were systematically gathered and analyzed thematically. In addition, advertisements were compared to scientific studies on flotation-REST. Results The analysis resulted in five overarching themes: (1) Physiological changes, (2) Alleviation of medical conditions, (3) Relaxation, (4) Personal growth and enhancement, and (5) Altered states of consciousness. Advertisements seemed to target four different interest groups: the inner explorers; the sick; the supermen; and the stressed out. Various effects of flotation were highlighted for the different groups and some limited scientific evidence identified. Conclusions Although the advertisements described many evidence-based effects resulting from floating, information tended to be exaggerated, could be misleading to consumers, and was not always substantiated by published scientific studies.
... Use by professional sports teams and endorsements by individual athletes has bolstered mainstream popularity despite limited research. The few studies investigating the use of floatation-REST in sport performance have primarily focused on the use of floatation-REST in mental preparation and visualization prior to competition (5)(6)(7). ...
Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether a one-hour floatation-REST session could augment recovery from high-intensity resistance exercise (6 x10 back squats, 2 minutes rest) known to induce significant metabolic, adrenergic, and mechanical stress. Methods: Eleven healthy resistance-trained males (age: 22.5 ± 2.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 6.0 cm; weight: 85.7 ± 6.2 kg, back squat 1RM: 153.1 ± 20.1 kg; strength to weight ratio: 1.8 ± 0.2) completed the within-subjects, cross-over controlled study design. Participants completed two exercise testing blocks separated by a two-week washout. In one block, the high-intensity resistance exercise protocol was followed by a one-hour floatation-REST session, while recovery in the alternate block consisted of a passive sensory-stimulating control. Markers of metabolic stress, neuroendocrine signaling, structural damage, inflammation, and perceptions of soreness, mood state and fatigue were assessed over a 48-hour recovery window. Results: Floatation-REST significantly attenuated muscle soreness across recovery (p = 0.035) with greatest treatment difference immediately following the intervention (p = 0.002, ES = 1.3). Significant differences in norepinephrine (p = 0.028, ES = 0.81) and testosterone (p = 0.028, ES = 0.81) immediately following treatment revealed modification of neuroendocrine signaling pathways which were accompanied by greater improvements in mood disturbance (p = 0.029, ES = 0.81) and fatigue (p = 0.001, ES = 1.04). Conclusions: As no adverse effects and significant and meaningful benefits were observed, floatation-REST may prove a valuable intervention for managing soreness and enhancing performance readiness following exercise.
... In several studies, flotation REST has been com- bined with visual imagery training, or used as a pre-competition strategy and resulted in subsequent positive outcomes. Signifi- cant improvements to basketball free-throw shooting (Suedfeld & Bruno, 1990;Wagaman, Barabasz, & Barabasz, 1991), tennis first- serving percentage (McAleney, Barabasz, & Barabasz, 1990), archer accuracy ( Norlander et al., 1999) and rifle marksmanship (Barabasz, Barabasz, & Bauman, 1993) have all been attributed to the benefits associated with the psychological and muscle relaxation attained during flotation REST. ...
Relaxation techniques and napping are very popular strategies amongst elite athletes recovering from the psychophysiological demands of training and competition. The current study examined a novel relaxation technique using restricted environmental stimulation therapy in a flotation tank (FLOAT). FLOAT involves reducing the level of environmental stimulation while achieving a sense of near weightlessness through floating in an enclosed, warm, saline-dense water tank. Sixty elite, international-level athletes (28 male, 32 female) across a range of 9 sports, completed a ∼45 min FLOAT session following exercise training for their sport. Pre and post FLOAT, athletes filled out a multidimensional mood-state questionnaire (MDMQ) containing 16 mood-state variables as well as a question on perceived muscle soreness. Group data were analysed for pre to post FLOAT for all measured variables. Further analyses were performed on all variables for athletes that napped during FLOAT (n = 27) and compared to those that did not nap (n = 33). A single FLOAT session significantly enhanced 15 of the 16 mood-state variables (p < 0.05) and also lowered perceived muscle soreness (p < 0.01). Small (n = 3) to moderate (n = 6) effect sizes in favour of napping for 9 of the 16 mood-state variables were found when compared to the no nap group. FLOAT may be an effective tool for both physical and psychological recovery following training in elite athletes. Furthermore, napping in combination with FLOAT may provide additional benefits to enhance certain mood-state variables. This study serves as a pilot study for future research into the performance recovery of elite athletes following FLOAT.
... This form of therapy has been previously used as a relaxation tool for stress-management (Van Dierendonck and Te Nijenhuis, 2005) and to increase internal focus and primary-process orientation important for complex skill execution (Norlander, Bergman, and Archer, 1999). Several investigations have reported positive benefits on sports performance following single (Barabasz, Barabasz, and Bauman, 1993; Suedfeld and Bruno, 1990; Suedfeld, Collier, and Hartnett, 1993) or multiple (Lee and Hewitt, 1987; McAleney, Barabasz, and Barabasz, 1990; Wagaman, Barabasz, and Barabasz, 1991) exposures of flotation tank recovery, usually combined with imagery training. Of these studies, one has reported benefits in basketball shooting (37% improvement in free-throw basketball shooting) after flotation tank recovery combined with imagery training in novice players (Suedfeld and Bruno, 1990). ...
Full-text available
Video-based training combined with flotation tank recovery may provide an additional stimulus for improving shooting in basketball. A pre-post controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a 3 wk intervention combining video-based training and flotation tank recovery on three-point shooting performance in elite female basketball players. Players were assigned to an experimental (n=10) and control group (n=9). A 3 wk intervention consisted of 2 x 30 min float sessions a week which included 10 min of video-based training footage, followed by a 3 wk retention phase. A total of 100 three-point shots were taken from 5 designated positions on the court at each week to assess three-point shooting performance. There was no clear difference in the mean change in the number of successful three-point shots between the groups (-3%; ±18%, mean; ±90% confidence limits). Video-based training combined with flotation recovery had little effect on three-point shooting performance.
... First, flotation REST has been shown to enhance performance in a variety of athletic tasks that require attention, concentration, and perceptual-motor coordination such as gymnastics, 12 tennis, 13 dart-throwing, 14 and basketball. 4,15 Because musical performance also involves perceptual-motor coordination, our first hypothesis was that the beneficial effects of flotation REST would extend to perceptual-motor skills in jazz improvisation. ...
The flotation version of restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) has been shown to improve perceptual-motor skills in sports and creativity in the sciences. We examined whether these effects would extend to jazz improvisation—an activity involving perceptual-motor coordination and creativity. College students enrolled in an intermediate-level jazz improvisation class (N = 8) floated for one hour per week for 4 consecutive weeks. The comparison group (N = 5) consisted of student volunteers enrolled in the same class who did not engage in flotation. The dependent variables were (a) blind ratings of improvised pieces collected before and after treatment, (b) instructors' ratings of perceived change in improvisational ability, and (c) final class grades. Both blind and perceived change measures demonstrated higher scores on technical ability in the flotation group. The flotation group also had higher final class grades. The results suggest that flotation REST can improve perceptual-motor skills in jazz improvisation.
Full-text available
In this study we investigated the value of flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) as a stress-management tool. We focused on the physiological effects of REST, its influence on well-being, and on performance. Twenty-seven studies published in 25 articles or book chapters were included in a meta-analysis. The total number of participants was 449, with a mean age of 29 years (ranging between 20 and 45). Sixty-four percent was male and 36% was female. The results showed that REST has positive effects on physiology (e.g., lower levels of cortisol, lower blood pressure), well-being, and performance. The pre–post mean effect size and the overall randomized control group effect size were relatively strong. This suggests that despite some limitations of the original studies, flotation REST can be a useful stress management tool in addition to or instead of other stress management tools.
Research over the last 25 years on the contribution of aloneness to creativity enhancement has had mixed results. Early studies of sensory deprivation generally found negative effects while more recent research on flotation isolation has reported positive influence. Sports performance, for example, has been improved by means of directed imagery and flotation aloneness. However, there has been only one study which has attempted to enhance creativity through the flotation method and while this study reported positive results, it lacked several control features and was based on a very small sample of highly selected subjects.The present study was designed to evaluate directly the potential contribution of floating to creativity enhancement as measured by the Guilford fluency test and other measures. Subjects were male and female university students, half of whom spent one hour in a float environment and the other half in a darkened room. Each was tested before and after experimental trial on the Guilford and other creativity measures and on two personality/affect scales. Float subjects showed significant increases on the Guilford test from the pre- to post-float and meaningful increases on other thinking measures as compared to non-floating control subjects. Floating was associated with a decrease in anxiety/tension, depression, hostility, and fatigue, but with an increase in vigor and a maintenance of curiosity scores, and it is speculated that the creativity benefits may be a result of these state changes.
Full-text available
The study investigated the effects of flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation (REST) with an imagery message on the competitive performance of intercollegiate tennis players (10 men, 10 women). Pre- and posttreatment athletic performance was measured during intercollegiate competition. Posttreatment results indicated that subjects exposed to flotation REST with an imagery message performed significantly better than subjects exposed to imagery only on a measure of first service accuracy. Findings suggest that flotation REST can be used to enhance the performance of a well learned skill by athletes of high ability.
A dozen years ago, Peter Suedfeld introduced the world to the term "REST' to describe the modern technique or therapy involving Restricted Environmental Stimulation. At the time, REST was still equated with "sensory deprivation". Textbooks in psychology and psychiatry cited primarily the work of the 1950s and 60s which suggested that reduction of normal levels of stimulation was, in a sense, a form of torture producing severe psychological disturbances and subjugation of the hapless participant to the whims of an experimenter working in the service of a sinister government. In contrast to this perception, other psychologists and psychiatrists held the unsubstantiated belief that apparent REST effects were merely the result of awe inspiring experimental settings and subject expectancies. Suedfeld was not persuaded by either of these unscientific positions. He (Suedfeld, 1980) argued that REST, when stripped of anxiety producing melodrama, was simply a powerful way to positively alter a variety of psychological and behavioral processes. Research continued. More and more data were published and presented. Research scientists and clinicians began to correct misconceptions. The First International Conference on REST was held in 1983 and IRIS, the International REST Investigators Society, was founded that same year. REST has outlived misconstrued perceptions. The beneficial effects of the technique are now recognized in the majority of scientific texts.
Tested an extension of the inverted-–U curve hypothesis by defining low, moderate, and high arousal levels as an athlete's lowest, median, and highest pregame state anxiety values across 3 games of a basketball tournament. Performance was measured by a game statistics composite (PER) and by total points (TP) in each game. Ss were 30 female university varsity basketball starters from 6 teams. They were trichotomized on competitive trait anxiety (A-trait), and a 3 by 3 ANOVA with repeated measures on A-state categories was used. Ss were administered the Sport Competition Anxiety Test before a practice session and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory 20–30 min before each game. Significant A-state effects were found for both PER and TP. Although A-trait predicted absolute A-state levels extremely well, it failed to achieve a significant relationship with performance. When intra-S T-scores for PER and TP were regressed separately on intra-S A-state T-scores, the relationship of variables consisted essentially of a quadratic function that explained 18.4 and 16.9% of within-S variance for PER and TP, respectively. High A-state scores were associated with poorest performances in all 3 trait groups, but plotting performance T-scores across A-state categories indicated this effect to be particularly pronounced in high-competitive trait-anxious Ss. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Restricted environmental stimulation procedures were used with 10 Ss. The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale: Adult (SHCS) of Morgan and J. R. Hilgard (1975), modified to include a posthypnotic suggestion for an analgesic reaction, and pain threshold and tolerance tests were administered prior to restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST), immediately after REST, and 10–14 days later. Occipital EEG alpha, skin conductance, and peripheral, core, and chamber temperature data were collected prior to, during, and after REST. A control group of 10 Ss was used to assess the effects of repeated hypnosis upon susceptibility scores and demand characteristics of the experiment. Multivariate analysis of variance results showed SHCS and pain tolerance scores to be significantly enhanced for Ss exposed to REST immediately after and 10–14 days later. Orne's (1959) postexperimental inquiry technique did not reveal experimental demand characteristics which might account for the results. EEG alpha density increased significantly in REST, but the increase was not progressive during the REST period. The maintenance of hypnotizability and pain tolerance at follow-up failed to support Reyher's (1964) theory of brain function and behavioral regulation. E.R. Hilgard's (1977) neodissociation interpretation combined with J.R. Hilgard's (1974, 1979) imaginative involvement findings is viewed as a possible explanation.
Basketball Sk~lls Texl Renton Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hypnotizabil~ry lnrernational
  • Amwcan Alliance
  • Physical Health
  • Education
  • Recreation
  • Dance
AMWCAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, RECREATION AND DANCE. (1984) Basketball Sk~lls Texl Renton, VA: Author. BARABASZ, A. (1982) Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hypnotizabil~ry lnrernational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 147-166.
Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hyp-notizabil~ry lnrernational
  • A Barabasz
BARABASZ, A. (1982) Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hyp-notizabil~ry lnrernational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 147-166.
ress) Flotation REST elicits spontaneous hypnosis
  • A F Barabasz
BARABASZ, A. F. (in ress) Flotation REST elicits spontaneous hypnosis. In A. Barabasz & M.
Effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation on intercollegiate basketball performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
  • J D Wagaman
WAGAMAN, J. D. (1990) Effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation on intercollegiate basketball performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State Univer.