Article

BacoMind®: A Cognitive Enhancer in Children Requiring Individual Education Programme

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Abstract

Bacopa monnieri belonging to family Scrophulariaceae has been used since time immemorial by Ayurvedic medical practitioners in India as brain tonic. In the present clinical trial, efficacy of BacoMind®, an enriched phytochemical composition from Bacopa monnieri on cognitive function in children requiring individual education programme was evaluated Twenty-eight volunteers with Intelligent Quotient between 70-90 were enrolled in the clinical trial. The study was conducted as outpatient procedure in hospital settings with close monitoring. BacoMind® at 225 mg as single oral dose for a duration of four months showed significant change in the baseline value of working memory and short term verbal memory from 5.21±0.32 to 6.38±0.25 (p≤0.05) and 5.33±0.44 to 6.54±0.35 (p≤0.05), respectively in 70.83% of study population. Significant improvement (p≤0.05) was also seen in logical memory, memory related to personal life and also in visual as well as auditory memory. BacoMind® was also found to be well tolerable with no major side effects. The findings of the current study revealed the cognitive enhancing effect of the BacoMind® in children requiring individual education programme.

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... Five studies were identified as investigating the benefits of Bacopa in child and adolescent populations using single extract interventions. [40][41][42][43][44] See Fig. 1 for a flow chart of the included study trial search. Three studies were randomised controlled trials [40][41][42] and two were open-label trials. ...
... Three studies were randomised controlled trials [40][41][42] and two were open-label trials. 43,44 None of the included studies matched treatment groups for age or sex. One included study was an unpublished report conducted by the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) of Lucknow, India of a standardised Bacopa monnieri extract (SBME). ...
... 42 Study designs were similar in that they each investigated cognitive and behavioural outcomes, with the main variance in population samples which included healthy children, 40 ADHD children, 41,42,44 and those children with a low intelligence quotient. 43 Age range was 4-18 years (mean age 8.57 ± 1.48). Bacopa doses ranged from 100 mg to 1050 mg per day. ...
Article
Objectives: Clinicians utilise critical research to advance their knowledge when prescribing standard and alternative therapies for developmental disorders. Recent research has reported that the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri may improve cognitive outcomes in adult populations; however, few studies have investigated its benefits in younger cohorts. The aim of the current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trial outcomes and safety of Bacopa and its effects on the cognition and behaviour in children and adolescents. Method: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google and CINAHL were searched up to August 2015 for trials investigating Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations. There were no restrictions in study design. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs and effect sizes were calculated for all significant data to allow for direct comparisons. Results: Five studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The results demonstrated significant consistent improvements in the language behaviour cognitive domain and in a number of the memory sub-domains. Significant improvements were also seen in hyperactivity and attention-deficit domains. Overall outcome data demonstrated small to medium effect sizes (mean d=0.42). Safety and tolerability data was well reported for 80% of studies with only 2.3% of all participants reporting mild side-effects. Conclusion: This review highlights the safe use of Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations for improving elements of cognition as well as behaviour and attention-deficit domains. However, there is a significant need for replicated study designs and stringent statistical analysis to validate these outcomes.
... Randomized, controlled trials in adult populations have demonstrated cognitive improvements in auditory verbal learning (Barbhaiya et al., 2008;Calabrese et al., 2008;Morgan & Stevens, 2010;Stough et al., 2001), visual perception (Calabrese et al., 2008;Stough, Downey, & Lloyd, 2008), and associative memory (Barbhaiya et al., 2008;Roodenrys et al., 2002). Findings in child and adolescent populations have reported similar findings with improvements against placebo in language behaviour (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008;Negi et al., 2000), visual memory (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008), memory span (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008;Sharma, Chaturvedi, & Tewari, 1987), mental speed (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008), and attention (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2014) as well as behavioural improvements in hyperactivity (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2014). Conversely, one recent metaanalysis noted a lack of consistent positive outcomes for BM in clinical samples (Brimson et al., 2021). ...
... Randomized, controlled trials in adult populations have demonstrated cognitive improvements in auditory verbal learning (Barbhaiya et al., 2008;Calabrese et al., 2008;Morgan & Stevens, 2010;Stough et al., 2001), visual perception (Calabrese et al., 2008;Stough, Downey, & Lloyd, 2008), and associative memory (Barbhaiya et al., 2008;Roodenrys et al., 2002). Findings in child and adolescent populations have reported similar findings with improvements against placebo in language behaviour (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008;Negi et al., 2000), visual memory (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008), memory span (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008;Sharma, Chaturvedi, & Tewari, 1987), mental speed (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008), and attention (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2014) as well as behavioural improvements in hyperactivity (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2014). Conversely, one recent metaanalysis noted a lack of consistent positive outcomes for BM in clinical samples (Brimson et al., 2021). ...
... Randomized, controlled trials in adult populations have demonstrated cognitive improvements in auditory verbal learning (Barbhaiya et al., 2008;Calabrese et al., 2008;Morgan & Stevens, 2010;Stough et al., 2001), visual perception (Calabrese et al., 2008;Stough, Downey, & Lloyd, 2008), and associative memory (Barbhaiya et al., 2008;Roodenrys et al., 2002). Findings in child and adolescent populations have reported similar findings with improvements against placebo in language behaviour (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008;Negi et al., 2000), visual memory (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008), memory span (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008;Sharma, Chaturvedi, & Tewari, 1987), mental speed (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2008), and attention (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2014) as well as behavioural improvements in hyperactivity (Asthana et al., 2001;Dave et al., 2014). Conversely, one recent metaanalysis noted a lack of consistent positive outcomes for BM in clinical samples (Brimson et al., 2021). ...
Article
The current study investigated the efficacy of extract of Bacopa monnieri (BM; CDRI 08®) in reducing levels of inattention and hyperactivity in young children. BM has demonstrated improvements in cognitive outcomes in adults, yet little research is available on its effects in younger populations. A 14-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, with placebo run-in and run-out phases, investigated the effects of BM on behavioural, cognitive, mood, and sleep effects in male children aged 6 to 14 years against placebo. One-hundred and twelve participants were recruited into the trial, with 93 datasets available for analysis. No significant behavioural differences were noted between treatment groups. Cognitive outcomes indicated decreased error-making in children taking CDRI 08® (p = .04) and increased speed of reaction time in those taking placebo (p = .04) at study end. Improvements in cognitive flexibility (p = .01), executive functioning (p = .04), interpersonal problems (p = .02), and sleep routine (p = .04) were noted in those consuming CDRI 08® over placebo. CDRI 08® did not improve behavioural outcomes, but may have cognitive, mood and sleep benefits in children aged 6 to 14 years. Further study is required to support the findings presented here.
... Similarly, Bm improved the capacity to identify and assimilate written letters by healthy subjects 1 to 2 hours after the consumption of the standardized Bm extract CDRI-08, with dosages ranging from 300 to 650 mg (Benson et al. 2014). Furthermore, it was found that a single daily dose of CDRI-08 significantly improved short-term verbal memory in young subjects with a lower range of intelligence quotients (Usha et al. 2008). Prolonged consumption of CDRI-08 also showed improvement in learning capacities involving language and written concepts in healthy subjects compared to placebo supplementation in a double-blind clinical trial (Stough et al. 2001b). ...
... The capability of Bm to improve language has also been tested in children and adolescents suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These studies found that CDRI-08 significantly improved language behavioral capacities, including word and sentence repetition, and logical memory in these subjects (Usha et al. 2008;Jauhari et al. 2001;Negi et al. 2000). Recently, Prabhakar et al. found that Bm consumption obtained similar results to donepezil treatment in MCI and AD subjects regarding the assessment of verbal fluency-controlled oral word tests, although this study included a small number of participants, and larger cohorts are required to verify this hypothesis (Prabhakar et al. 2020). ...
... Of note, these authors highlighted that the maximum observed effect regarding enhancements in learning rates and memory consolidation were more significant toward the end of the treatment (Stough et al. 2001b). Furthermore, it was also shown in another study that a similar dose of CDRI-08, as used by Kumar et al., over a span of four months enhanced working memory and short-term verbal memory in children in an individualized education program (Usha et al. 2008). A higher dose of 450 mg of CDRI-08 administered daily for 12 weeks also improved attention and verbal memory in a population of elderly individuals with normal cognition. ...
Article
Substances with modulatory capabilities on certain aspects of human cognition have been revered as nootropics from the dawn of time. The plant kingdom provides most of the currently available nootropics of natural origin. Here, in this systematic review, we aim to provide state-of-the-art information regarding proven and unproven effects of plant-derived nootropics (PDNs) on human cognition in conditions of health and disease. Six independent searches, one for each neurocognitive domain (NCD), were performed in parallel using three independent scientific library databases: PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus. Only scientific studies and systematic reviews with humans published between January 2000 and November 2021 were reviewed, and 256 papers were included. Ginkgo biloba was the most relevant nootropic regarding perceptual and motor functions. Bacopa monnieri improves language, learning and memory. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) modulates anxiety and social-related cognitions. Caffeine enhances attention and executive functions. Together, the results from the compiled studies highlight the nootropic effects and the inconsistencies regarding PDNs that require further research.
... 25 SBME was found to be safe and tolerable in children as well. 26 Given that SBME has been shown to be safe and effective in the management of certain cognitive dysfunctions, 26,27 the research team has conducted the present study with the objective of evaluating the effect of SBME in ameliorating the severity of ADHD symptoms in children. ...
... 25 SBME was found to be safe and tolerable in children as well. 26 Given that SBME has been shown to be safe and effective in the management of certain cognitive dysfunctions, 26,27 the research team has conducted the present study with the objective of evaluating the effect of SBME in ameliorating the severity of ADHD symptoms in children. ...
... 38,39 In the current study, SBME administration significantly reduced learning problems in the children, and the effect of SBME on learning problems may be ascribed to the memory-enhancing effects of B monnieri that have been reported in studies by Negi et al 22 in ADHD children and Usha et al 26 in children requiring an individualized education program. The overall effects of SBME on symptoms of ADHD may be ascribed to the neuroprotective, 14,40 neurotrophic, 41 and nootropic 26,27,42 effects of B monnieri on the brain systems. ...
Article
Context: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity or difficulty in controlling behavior. Psychostimulant medications remain the mainline treatment for children with ADHD; however, the average response rate to these medications is 70%, and up to 30% of children do not respond to these medications or are unable to tolerate such potential adverse effects as nausea, insomnia, and weight loss. Objective: The study investigated the effectiveness of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract (SBME) in ameliorating the severity of the symptoms of ADHD in children. Design: The clinical trial was conducted as an open-label study. Setting: The study was conducted at the Center for Research in Mental Retardation (CREMERE) in Mumbai, India, from 2008 to 2010. Participants: Thirty-one children were participants in the trial. They were 6-12 y of age, with an age of onset of ADHD before 7 y of age, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. Intervention: The children received SBME at a dose of 225 mg/d for a period of 6 mo. The specific SBME used in the study was BacoMind (M/s Natural Remedies, Bangalore, India). Outcome measures: Subsequent to the screening of participants, the research team administered the Parent Rating Scale to assess the ADHD symptom scores at baseline, and the team administered it again at the end of the 6 mo of treatment. Results: SBME significantly reduced the subtests scores of ADHD symptoms, except for social problems. The symptom scores for restlessness were reduced in 93% of children, whereas improvement in self-control was observed in 89% of the children. The attention-deficit symptoms were reduced in 85% of children. Similarly, symptom scores for learning problems, impulsivity, and psychiatric problems were reduced for 78%, 67%, and 52% of children, respectively. It was observed that 74% of the children exhibited up to a 20% reduction, while 26% of children showed between a 21% and a 50% reduction in the total subtests scores. Conclusion: Standardized extract of B monnieri was found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of ADHD and was well-tolerated by the children.
... Five studies were identified as investigating the benefits of Bacopa in child and adolescent populations using single extract interventions. [40][41][42][43][44] See Fig. 1 for a flow chart of the included study trial search. Three studies were randomised controlled trials [40][41][42] and two were open-label trials. ...
... Three studies were randomised controlled trials [40][41][42] and two were open-label trials. 43,44 None of the included studies matched treatment groups for age or sex. One included study was an unpublished report conducted by the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) of Lucknow, India of a standardised Bacopa monnieri extract (SBME). ...
... 42 Study designs were similar in that they each investigated cognitive and behavioural outcomes, with the main variance in population samples which included healthy children, 40 ADHD children, 41,42,44 and those children with a low intelligence quotient. 43 Age range was 4-18 years (mean age 8.57 ± 1.48). Bacopa doses ranged from 100 mg to 1050 mg per day. ...
... The choice of therapeutic agent is important in GWI, considering the high chemical sensitivity seen in this participant population. This clinical trial will use BacoMind® Bacopa monnieri standardized extract (Natural Remedies Private Limited), which has been extensively studied in clinical and pre-clinical research, and for which safety and tolerability data are available for the general and geriatric populations [29,31,[33][34][35]. BacoMind® has met the requirements of self-affirmed Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status based on the evaluation of toxicology and safety data conducted by Soni and Associates, Inc. for daily dosage of up to 319 mg in accordance with Section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of the United States. ...
... This indicates its promising therapeutic potential for treating Veterans with GWI, especially when a large proportion report cognitive problems [39][40][41][42]. While Bacopa has not been previously studied in GWI, Bacopa is well tolerated in other populations [29,31,[33][34][35], and its low toxicity profile adds to its appeal in this population for which chemical sensitivities are common. If found to be safe and effective in symptom management, Bacopa could serve as an easily accessible botanical component of treatment plans for GWI. ...
Article
Aims: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, debilitating, multi-symptom condition affecting as many as one-third of the nearly 700,000 U.S. troops deployed to the Middle East during the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW). The treatment of GWI relies on symptom management. A common challenge in studying the efficacy of interventions for symptom management is participant recruitment related to factors such as the burden of travelling to study sites and the widespread dispersion of Veterans with GWI. The goal of this study is to assess the efficacy of a novel low-risk therapeutic agent, Bacopa monnieri, for cognitive function in Veterans with GWI and to evaluate the utility of a remote patient-centric study design developed to promote recruitment and minimize participant burden. Main Methods: To promote effective participant recruitment, we developed a remote patient-centric study design. Participants will be recruited online through social media and through a web-based research volunteer list of GW Veterans. An online assessment platform will be used, and laboratory blood draws will be performed at clinical laboratory sites that are local to participants. Furthermore, the assigned intervention will be mailed to each participant. Significance: These study design adaptations will open participation to Veterans nearly nationwide and reduce administrative costs while maintaining methodologic rigor and participant safety in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial.
... Mild gastrointestinal disturbances were reported. Overall, these trials reported that BacoMind was safe and tolerable in children up to 6 months of treatment period (Dave et al., 2008(Dave et al., , 2014. ...
... In addition, significant improvement was also observed in logical memory, memory related to personal life, visual as well as auditory memory. BacoMind significantly enhanced cognition in slow learners requiring IEP (Dave et al., 2008). ...
... Previous research has found statistical significance when using Bacopa on cognitive processes with similar sample sizes [49]. Child and adolescent studies examining the efficacy of Bacopa have used smaller sample sizes (n = 40,28,36,31) [52,55,56,83] and have each demonstrated statistically significant effects on cognition. Given this is the first known trial of its kind, the sample size was selected on the basis of previous effect sizes from RCTs administering Bacopa. ...
... In the current study, we will administer either placebo or a novel and standardised Bacopa monnieri extract CDRI 08 to children and adolescents with ADHD or high levels of inattention and hyperactivity for 14 weeks. Preliminary open trials in India have indicated that CDRI 08 may be of benefit for children with behavioural problems and symptoms associated with ADHD [52,55,56,83]. Additionally, many studies have now shown that chronic administration of Bacopa improves attention and cognition in adults (children with inattention and hyperactivity show deficits in attention and cognition). ...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention) have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6-14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000827831.
... In order to curtail the economic losses towards the stress-related disorders and to improve the quality of life, traditional therapies seem to be promising alternatives. Indian system of traditional medicine describes remedies based on herbal supplementation, minerals , and other therapeutic procedures for enhancing physical and mental performance to evade the stress levels10111213. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. (synonym: Ocimum sanctum ), generally known as Tulsi or Holy Basil, belongs to family lamiaceae. ...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OciBest, an extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. in symptomatic control of general stress. The participants received either placebo (n = 79) or OciBest (n = 71; 1200 mg of actives per day) for six weeks. The severity of stress-related symptoms was self-evaluated by patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the trial period using a symptom rating scale. After six weeks of intervention, scores of symptoms such as forgetfulness, sexual problems of recent origin, frequent feeling of exhaustion, and frequent sleep problems of recent origin decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in OciBest group as compared with placebo group. Also, the total symptom scores of OciBest group revealed significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) as compared to placebo group. The overall improvement in OciBest group was found to be 1.6 times or 39% more in the control of general stress symptoms with respect to placebo. No adverse events were reported during the study. The findings revealed that OciBest was found to be effective and well tolerated by all the patients over the six weeks of study period.
... Effects of Brahmi on human cognitive function and stress have been investigated across different age ranges, from children to the elderly, and in both healthy and clinical populations . Initial studies conducted in India mainly involved clinical populations, patients with anxiety (Singh and Singh 1980) or mild to severe mental deficiency (Agrawal et al. 1990; Agrawal et al. 1993), students with poor educational performance (Dubey et al. 1994) or children (Sharma et al. 1987; Negi et al. 2000; Usha et al. 2008). Most studies consistently reported improved learning or memory, as well as some improvements in attention. ...
Article
Rationale A number of studies have indicated positive effects of long-term administration (3 months) of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on various cognitive functions especially memory and anxiety. However, inconsistent results in literature may be linked to various methodological issues. Objective The present study aimed to test the chronic effects (12 weeks) of 450 mg of a B. monniera (Brahmi) extract on learning and memory, information processing and anxiety in healthy adult Indian population. Methods The study design was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Participants comprised of 72 healthy urban adults, both men and women, in the age range of 35–60 years who were educated and English speaking with basic knowledge of computers from Bangalore. The outcome measures included verbal learning and memory, inspection time, attention and interference. State and trait anxiety were additional outcome variables. Results In the present study, there were no significant differences between the two groups on any of the cognitive measures. However, there was a trend for lower state anxiety in the B. monniera (Brahmi) group as compared to placebo group. Conclusions The current study attempted to determine the chronic effects of single daily dose of 450 mg of Brahmi extract on cognitive performance and anxiety in healthy adults. The results of the current study are not in agreement with findings of some of the earlier studies which have found improvement both on cognitive parameters and a reduction of anxiety scores.
... Indian system of traditional medicine describes remedies based on herbal supplementation, minerals and other therapeutic procedures for enhancing physical and mental performance to evade stress levels. [10][11][12][13] Among all medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum is a traditional medicinal plant belongs to Labiatae family which grows different parts of world. Different parts of Ocimum sanctum like roots, stem, leaves, flowers and seeds possess medicinal properties and are used for treatment for many pathologic conditions as analgesic, antipyretic, anticancer, expectorant, antiasthmatic, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antidiabetic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypolidemic and also been used in arthritis, bronchitis, convulsions and antistress agent. ...
Article
Unlabelled: HISTORY AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to study the anxiolytic effects of Ocimum sanctum stress-induced anxiety. Materials and methods: The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 gm), male albino mice (25 ± 100) the effect of O. sanctum evaluated for anxiety and depression using forced swim test FST and rotarod test. Results: Restraint stress (3 hours/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction. It was significantly decreases the mobility period during stress. The standard deviation values are 14.4 and 9.26 and is statistically significant (p = 0.001). In rotarod test, (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion: Ocimum sanctum possess significant antistress activity but the magnitude and efficacy for relieving stress is less, when compare to standard anxiolytic agent, i.e. Alprazolam.
... Brahmi has been used in ayurvedic medicine, since centuries [4,5]. The plant extracts has been used for enhancing memory and improving functions of brain [6,7], Cognitive enhancer [8,9] antioxidant [10,11], antiulcerogenic agent [12], anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic13. Studies have reported antidepressant activities of brahmi [14][15][16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: In traditional system of medicine brahmi has been used to enhance memory. Recently it has been reported to have action in psychiatric disorders. With these backgrounds the work has been undertaken to study antidepressant activity of brahmi in albino mice. Aim: To evaluate antidepressant activity of brahmi in experimental models. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant activity was studied in albino mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and shock induced depression (SID). Imipramine (10mg/kg), fluoxetine (30mg/kg) were used as standard drugs and brahmi (10, 20, 30mg/kg) was used as test drug. Results: Brahmi exhibited significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and reduced the shock induced decrease in activity in SID models. It didn’t show any activity in the TST model. Conclusion: Brahmi has shown antidepressant activity in FST and SID.
... The herb improved many aspects of memory in these children, including working memory and logical memory. 20 Another randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study investigated 65 adults (ages 50-75) who, for at least 1 year prior to the study, had complained of memory impairment but had not showed any major cognitive deficits. Participants in the active group were given a 450-mg BacoMind capsule for 12 weeks and then were studied during a 12-week withdrawal period. ...
Article
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This review discusses the clinical potentials of Bacopa monnieri (bacopa, water hyssop, or brahmi). Bacopa is an herb that combines adaptogenic and nervine properties. Animal and clinical studies show it to have anxiolytic, antidepressant, cognitive-enhancing, antioxidant, cholinergic, and adaptogenic actions. These properties make it a highly useful herb to help patients cope with physical and emotional stress, and the cognitive impairment that usually accompanies aging.
... In the current review, the included studies demonstrated significant cognitive and behavioural improvements following supplementation with B.monnieri-dominant poly-herbal formulas. Improvements in hyperactivity and attention were consistent with previous research into B.monnieri, as well as improvements in language behaviour and memory free recall in both child and adolescent [5,[45][46][47], as well as adult, [8,14,18,25,48] populations. The extent to which the additional herbal extracts may be working in synergism to aid these improvements is beyond the scope of this review. ...
Article
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Background: The Ayurvedic medicinal system employs a holistic approach to health, utilising the synergistic properties of organic resources. Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult populations. The aim of current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trials investigating B.monnieri-dominant poly-herbal formulas and their effects on the cognition, memory, learning, and behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: Key word searches were performed using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, DHARA, and CINAHL for publications meeting inclusion criteria up to November 2017. There were no restrictions in study design. Effect sizes were calculated for all significant findings to allow for direct comparisons, and each study was evaluated on design quality. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs for cross-study comparison. Results: Nine trials met inclusion criteria. Five studies reported sufficient data for effect size analysis with most improvements reported in behavioural outcomes. True cognitive abilities and behavioural constructs were reviewed in six studies, with visual perception, impulsivity, and attention demonstrating the greatest improvements. The veracity of the evidence for the formulations reviewed is weakened by inconsistent statistical design and under-reporting of safety and tolerability data (44%). Conclusions: The current review extends research supporting B.monnieri as a cognitive enhancer and provides modest evidence for the use of B.monnieri in poly-herbal preparations for improving cognitive and behavioural outcomes in child and adolescent populations. Greater emphasis on statistical vigour and the reporting of tolerability data are essential for future trials to adequately document poly-herbal treatment efficacy.
... The beverage powder fortified with MMN and BME was well-tolerated by the children, with no serious adverse events observed. Our observations are in agreement with studies in which high dosages of BM have been administered in children with no major side effects (Sharma et al., 1987;Dave et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Several studies have indicated a chronic cognitive enhancing effect of Bacopa monnieri across different ages and cognitive impairment associated with vitamin and mineral deficiencies in children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 4-month supplementation with a combination of B. monnieri extract and multiple micronutrients on cognitive functions in Indian school children aged 7–12 years. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, single-center study in which 300 children were randomized to receive a beverage either fortified with B. monnieri and multiple micronutrients (“fortified”) or a non-fortified isocaloric equivalent (“control”) twice-daily for 4 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB) administered at baseline, Day 60 and Day 121. The primary endpoint was change in short-term memory (working memory) from baseline in subjects receiving “fortified” vs. “control” beverages after 4 months. Secondary endpoints included sustained attention, episodic memory, and executive function. The “fortified” beverage did not significantly improve short-term memory or any of the secondary outcomes tested relative to the “control” beverage. However, the spatial working memory “strategy” score showed significant improvement on Day 60 (difference between groups in change from baseline: −0.55; p < 0.05), but not on Day 121 due to the active intervention. Study products were well-tolerated. Reasons for these unexpected findings are discussed.
... BM increased cognition in elderly people [52e58], healthy adults [59e64], in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [65,66], in subjects with AD [67], in school children [68], and in college students [69]. BM was also proved to improve symptoms of learning ability in ADHD children [70] and in children requiring individual education program [71]. ...
Chapter
The chapter reviews the overall neuronal molecular mechanisms of Bacopa monnieri with respect to cognitive performance. It starts with defining cognition, and how interruption in signal transduction can cause cognitive impairment. Then the factors influencing signal transduction and regulation of those factors are briefed to give a glimpse on cascade involved in signal transduction and their importance in governing the cognitive performance. The drugs and nutraceuticals commonly used as cognition enhancers and their mechanisms of action are covered in brief before taking up details of B. monnieri. Later, effect of B. monnieri on various factors contributing to signal transduction like neurotransmitters, receptors, second messenger system, gene expression, neuronal structural factors, neuronal connections, cerebral blood flow and neuroprotection are detailed to understand the neuronal molecular mechanisms involved in improving cognitive performance. Summary of this review points toward strong scientific substantiation available in the literature to justify the use of B. monnieri in dietary and food supplements intended for cognitive health.
... [13] B. monnieri is reported to improve working memory and short-term verbal memory in children. [14] According to the results obtained regarding anthropometric parameters of test and marketed product treated groups, it was observed that there is an increase in height, weight, BMI, circumferences of chest, waist, and head, etc., as the children are under growing phase but no significant difference in both the groups in parameters like body weight, circumferences, BMI, and arm fat index, etc. ...
Article
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Bacopa monnieri (BM) is of immense therapeutic potential in today’s world. This review is aimed to project the beneficial role of BM in disorders affecting the brain, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, epilepsy and depression. The active constituents and metabolites responsible for the effects of BM could be bacoside A and B, bacopaside I and II, bacopasaponin C, betulinic acid, asiatic acid, loliolide, ebelin lactone and quercetin. The mechanistic role of BM in brain disorders might be related to its ability to modulate neurotransmission, neurogenesis, neuronal/glial plasticity, intracellular signaling, epigenetics, cerebral blood flow, energy metabolism, protein folding, endoplasmic reticulum stress, neuroendocrine system, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. We have also discussed CDRI-08, clinical trials, safety, emerging formulation technologies, as well as BM combinations and dietary supplements. To propel the clinical translation of BM in disorders affecting the brain, strategies to improve brain delivery via novel formulations and integration of the preclinical findings into large and well-defined clinical trials, in appropriate age groups and sex, specifically in patient population against existing medications as well as placebo, are essentially required.
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