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Life Cycle Assessment of Sajor-caju Mushroom (Pleurotus Sajor-caju) from Different Sizes of Farms in Thailand

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Abstract

Sajor-caju (Pleurotus sajor-caju) is one of the most famous mushroom in Thailand. Sajor-caju farming uses plastic bags for cultivation. Energy is needed for sterilization of substrate and waste management of spent plastic bag. Thailand has several sizes of sajor-caju farms which have different cultivation management. Therefore, the environmental performance of sajor-caju produced from three farm sizes was evaluated in this study using life cycle assessment approach. It was found that the main impacts came from i) substrate preparation which are the production and transportation of the substrate raw materials and ii) sterilization process. Medium farm showed relatively large impacts in all impact categories. The climate change caused by 1 kg sajor-caju produced from big, medium and small farms were 3.371, 5.003 and 3.0146 kg CO2 eq, respectively.
AbstractSajor-caju (Pleurotus sajor-caju) is one of the most
famous mushroom in Thailand. Sajor-caju farming uses plastic
bags for cultivation. Energy is needed for sterilization of
substrate and waste management of spent plastic bag. Thailand
has several sizes of sajor-caju farms which have different
cultivation management. Therefore, the environmental
performance of sajor-caju produced from three farm sizes was
evaluated in this study using life cycle assessment approach. It
was found that the main impacts came from i) substrate
preparation which are the production and transportation of the
substrate raw materials and ii) sterilization process. Medium
farm showed relatively large impacts in all impact categories.
The climate change caused by 1 kg sajor-caju produced from
big, medium and small farms were 3.371, 5.003 and 3.0146 kg
CO
2
eq, respectively.
Index TermsLCA, Pleurotus sajor-caju, environment.
I. INTRODUCTION
Pleurotus sajor-caju is a kind of oyster mushrooms,
known as “Hed Nangpha” in Thailand. It is one of the popular
edible mushrooms and is commercially cultivated in
Thailand. The substrate for Pleurotus sajor caju is based on
sawdust, rice straw that are agricultural by-products [1].
Sajor-caju high content of protein and low content of fat. It
also contains vitamins (B1, B2, C, A), minerals (P, Na, Ca)
and high content of fibers and carbohydrates [2].
There are many products from sajor-caju such as fried
Sajor-caju, soup, chilli sauces. The environmental
performance of saju-caju will influence environmental
performance of food having sajor-caju as ingredients.
Sajor-caju is mainly grown in the middle of Thailand [3].
However, some of raw materials such as sawdust have to be
transported from the southern part of the country.
Cultivation of sajor-caju in plastic bag has certain
environmental issues. Energy is needed for sterilization of
substrate and waste management of spent plastic bag is
required. In Thailand, there are several sizes of sajor-caju
farms which have different cultivation management such as
waste management, energy consumption, water consumption
[3]. This work divided the farms into three sizes, big, medium
Manuscript received November 12, 2013; revised February 12, 2014.
This work was supported in National Science and Technology Development
Agency (NSTDA).
S. Ueawiwatsakul is with Thailand Advanced Institute of science and
Technology and Tokyo Institute of Technology (TAIST-Tokyo Tech),
Faculty of Engineering, Kesetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
(e-mail: a_uknow8@hotmail.com).
T. Mungcharoen is with the Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University,
Bangkok 10900, Thailand (e-mail: thumrongrut@nstda.or.th).
R. Tongpool is with the National Metal and Materials Technology Center,
Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand (e-mail: rungapt@mtec.or.th).
and small.
As life cycle assessment (LCA) method was reported to be
able to identify environmental impacts [4]. It was used to
study how to improve environmental performance of
sajor-caju produced from the three sizes of farms.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
A. Goal
This study aims to evaluate the potential environmental
impacts of sajor-caju produced from three different sizes of
farms in Thailand, The hotspots of life cycle of sajor-caju
were identified. This is to find out possible means for
environmental performance improvement of the sajor-caju.
B. The System and Scope
Fig. 1. Boundary system of sajor-caju product under LCA approach.
The study includes raw material acquisition, cultivation,
and waste management (Cradle to Gate approach) as shown
in Fig. 1. The cultivation process consists of substrate
preparation, sterilization, inoculation, incubation, fruiting
and harvesting. First the plastic bag was filled with substrate
mixture. Trucks were used to carry the substrate materials
and the other inputs to the farms. Second, a plastic ring was
applied at the top of bag. A cotton ball or paper was plugged
in the hole on the top of the bag and rubber band was applied.
Third, sterilization of substrate was carried out using a steam
for 3-4 hr. A firewood and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
were used as fuel for steam generation. When it was cooled in
room temperature, the spawn was put inside the bag and then
the spawn runs for 28-30 days. After that it was incubated for
3-4 months. After fruiting, it is ready for harvest. After
harvest, spent paper, spent plastic, spent cotton fabric and
S. Ueawiwatsakul, T. Mungcharoen, and R. Tongpool
Life Cycle Assessment of Sajor-caju Mushroom
(Pleurotus Sajor-caju) from Different Sizes of Farms in
Thailand
International
Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 5, No. 5, October 2014
435
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2014.V5.523
spent rubber band which were expired were burnt out or
thrown away as garbage. The substrates and residues of
sajor-caju were sold out to produce fertilizer.
The functional unit is 1 kg of sajor-caju produced from the
house farm. LCI data were collected from thirty one farms by
interviewing with farmers in Ratchaburi province, where
30.88% of total sajor-caju of the country was produced [3].
The data of the input and output of sajor-caju production is
shown in Table I. The amounts of CH
4
and N
2
O from
firewood, gasoline, and LPG combustion for steam
generation were obtained by calculation using the emission
factors from IPCC 2006 [5]. The amount of CO
2
from
firewood combustion was not included in inventory because
wood absorbs CO
2
from atmosphere during growing stage.
Emissions of CO, SO
2
, NOx, NMVOC, PM10 and PM2.5 of
firewood, gasoline and LPG combustion were calculated
using emission factors from EMEP/EEA air pollutant
emission inventory guidebook 2013 [6]. The open burning of
spent paper, spent plastic, spent cotton fabric and spent
rubber band, causes emissions to air. The amounts of CO
2
,
N
2
O and CH
4
were obtained by calculation using the
emission factors from IPCC 2006 [5]. The amounts of, NOx,
VOC, CO, SO
2
, PM10, PM2.5 were calculated using
emission factors from EPA [7]. The impacts from buildings
and machinery were excluded in this study.
This work divided the farms into three groups according to
the amount of cubes of all types of mushroom cultivated in
the farm. The amounts of overall mushroom produced per
year for small, medium and big farm sizes are shown in Table
II. This criteria was suggested by Ratchaburi Agriculture
office, Thailand. There are fifteen farms in the big size group
and eight farms in each small and medium size groups.
TABLE I: THE DATA OF INPUT AND OUTPUT OF SAJOR-CAJU PRODUCTION
Process Input Output
Substrate preparation
Sawdust, Rice bran, Water, Urea fertilizer, Magnesium sulphate, Lime,
Gypsum, Rice flour, Cassava flour, Glutinous rice flour, Pumice, Cotton,
Rubber band, Plastic bag, Molasses, Paper, Neck ring, Human labour,
Electricity, Transportation of inputs
Sterilization
Inoculation
Incubation and fruiting
Harvesting
Waste management
Firewood, Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Transport of firewood and
LPG, Water, Human labour
Spawn, Transportation of spawn, Human labour
Water, Electricity, Gasoline, pesticide, Transport of gasoline and
pesticide, Human labour
Plastic bag, Transportation of plastic bag, Human labour
Spent substrate, Spent bag, Spent neck ring, Spent paper, Spent cotton
fabric, Spent rubber band, residue of sajor-caju
CO
2
, CH
4
, N
2
O, NOx, CO, NMVOC,
SO
2
, TSP, PM10, PM2.5
Cube mushroom
Water, CO
2
, CH
4
, N
2
O, NOx, CO,
NMVOC, SO
2
, TSP, PM10, PM2.5
Spent substrate, Spent bag, Spent neck
ring, Spent paper, Spent cotton fabric,
Spent rubber band
CO
2
, CH
4
, N
2
O, NOx, CO, VOC,
SO
2
, PM10, PM2.5
TABLE II: THE DIVIDED SIZES OF FARMS
The data of inputs and outputs of all farms in each group
were weighted averaged according to the annual production.
In 2012, the farms produced sajor-caju twice a year. The data
coverage was 21.79% of overall sajor-caju in Thailand in
2012.
The data of the inputs and transportations of each group
were traced back to natural resource consumption and
emissions of the upstream processes. The background data of
LPG, gasoline, electricity, tap water, sawdust, polypropylene,
transportation were provided by Thailand national LCI
database. The background data of rice bran came from the
inventories of milled rice production [8]. The background
data of plant hormone for incubation and fruiting was
excluded from the study because it could not be found. The
other background data were obtained from Ecoinvent
database in SimaPro software.
C. Environmental Impact Assessment
After LCI was obtained, the classification and
characterization method of ReCiPe Midpoint was applied via
SimaPro 7.3.3 software [9]. The concerned impact categories
in this study are 1) climate change, expressed as kg CO
2
equivalent, 2) marine eutrophication, expressed as kg N
equivalent, 3) human toxicity, expressed as kg 1,4-DB
equivalent, 4) water depletion, expressed as m
3
, 5) fossil
depletion, expressed as kg oil equivalent.
III. RESULTS
A. Environmental Impacts from Different Farm Sizes
The results of environmental impact assessments of
sajor-caju are shown in Table III. It can be seen that the
sajor-caju from the medium farms caused the highest impacts
in all impact categories, especially, climate change The
climate change caused by 1 kg sajor-caju produced from big,
Type
Cubes of all kinds of
mushroom (Bag per farm)
Weight of all kinds of
mushroom produced per
year (kg per year)
Small farm < 40,000
< 20,000
Medium farm
Big farm
40,000-80,000
> 80,000
20,000-40,000
> 40,000
International
Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 5, No. 5, October 2014
436
medium and small farms were 3.371, 5.003 and 3.0146 kg
CO
2
eq, respectively. The impact of sajor-caju from the big
and small farms were almost the same. The impact of climate
change of sajor-caju in all size farms higher than shiitake
(1.8671 kg CO
2
eq), in the categories of human toxicity and
fossil depletion were lower than shiitake (0.0563 kg 1,4-DB
eq, 0.5851 kg oil eq) [10].
B. Contributors of the Environmental Impacts
The impact contributors were grouped in 6 processes; i)
substrate preparation ii) sterilization, iii) inoculation, iv)
incubation and fruiting, v) harvesting, and vi) waste
management, as shown in Fig. 2. It can be seen that the
substrate preparation, and sterilization are the main impact
contributors for all farms sizes and for all impact categories.
The medium farms caused the highest impacts in all
categories and all impact contributors. The sterilization
process was more than 70% of total impacts in the category of
climate change.
TABLE III: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF 1KG OF SAJOR-CAJU FROM THREE SIZES OF FARMS
Impact category Unit Small size Medium size Big size
Climate change kg CO
2
eq
3.014518
5.002945 3.371086
Marine eutrophication
Human toxicity
Water depletion
Fossil depletion
kg N eq
kg 1,4-DB eq
m
3
kg oil eq
0.005778
0.024677
0.198833
0.116995
0.007604
0.028359
0.275168
0.125464
0.005696
0.024767
0.209707
0.103351
The medium size of farms showed the highest impact
relatively large amount of firewood was used. The
replacement of firewood with LPG will reduce released CH
4
,
N
2
O, CO, NOx, SO
2
, NMVOC, PM10 and PM2.5. However,
the amount of CO
2
will increase, resulting in higher impacts
in the categories of climate change and fossil depletion.
The impact of Marine eutrophication mainly came from
both substrate preparation and sterilization for all farm sizes.
Fig. 4 shows that sawdust was the reason for the impact in the
substrate preparation. Fig. 3 shows that the emission from
sterilization was the reason for the impact in sterilization
process.
The result of human toxicity mainly came from substrate
preparation for all farm sizes. The sawdust was more than
50% of total impact as shown in Fig. 4.
The substrate preparation was the main cause of fossil
depletion category for all farm sizes. This came from sawdust
and transportation as shown in Fig. 4.
In Fossil water depletion category, substrate preparation
showed relatively large contribution, which were 89% of big
farms, 85% of medium farms and 82% of small farms. This
came from rice bran as shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 3 shows that transportation of fuels and the emissions
from burning were the main causes for the impact of
sterilization process. This is because firewood and LPG were
used for steam generation. These results were the same for all
farm sizes. The combustion of firewood released CH
4
, N
2
O,
(a) (b) (c)
International
Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 5, No. 5, October 2014
437
CO, NOx, SO
2
, NMVOC, PM10 and PM2.5 which can cause
climate change and marine eutrophication and water
depletion. The prevention of heat loss will reduce fuel
consumption and environmental impacts.
The contributions of environmental impact from the
substrate preparation process were mainly from the
productions of rice bran and sawdust, as well as the
transportations of the substrate raw materials as shown in Fig.
4. These results were the same for all farm sizes. The rice
bran was more than 70% of the total impact in water
depletion. The sawdust was more 40% of the total impacts in
the categories of climate change, marine eutrophication,
human toxicity and fossil depletion. More than 20% of
climate change came from the transportation. The transported
from the southern of Thailand which was very far from the
farms which is about 500-800 km. The environmental
performance of sajor-caju can be largely improved if the
sawdust sources are close to farms or replacement of sawdust
with rice straw, corn and other agricultural by-products
having relatively low environmental impacts might be an
alternatives. It was reported that used rice straw with
cottonseed in the substrate improved sajor-caju yield [11].
Since certain agricultural by products should be milled or
ground before used as substrate including energy and
expense is needed. Environmental performance of sajor-cajor
with innovated substrate should be assessed.
(d) (e)
Fig. 2. Impact contributions of 1kg of sajor ca-ju in the categories of (a) Climate change, (b) Marine eutrophication, (c) Human toxicity, (d) Fossil depletion
and (e) Water depletion.
Fig. 3. Impact contribution from sterilization of the substrate that yield 1 kg
of sajor-caju in big farms.
Fig. 4. Impact contributions from the substrate that yield 1 kg of sajor-cajuin
big farms.
In the impact contributions of substrate preparation and
sterilization of sajor-caju farms, the results were consistent
with shiitake farms in Thailand that came from i) production
of sugar and rice bran used as a substrate ii) transportation of
sawdust and firewood used as a substrate and fuel iii) fuel
burning during sterilization process [10]. If the sawdust was
transported in distance of 100 km and if the spent bages and
neck rings were not burnt but used for plastic recycling, the
impact of fossil depletion and climate change can be reduced
that were reported [10]. It is interesting for environmental
performance of sajor-caju farms.
IV. CONCLUSION
This study employed life cycle assessment (LCA) to
quantify potential impacts of Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivation
from different sizes of farms. The results showed that the
substrate preparation and sterilization were the main impact
contributors for all farm sizes in impact categories which
were climate change, marine eutrophication, human toxicity,
water depletion and fossil depletion. It is found that the
Pleurotus sajor-caju from medium farms showed higher
environmental burden than the big and small farms because
large amount of the raw materials in substrate preparation and
fuel in sterilization process. As the sajor-caju is largely
produced in Thailand, the reduction of its impact can
influence environment of the country.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This study was accomplished through the financial support
of National Science and Technology Development Agency
(NSTDA) Thailand, under the Thailand National LCI
Database Project, Thailand Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology and Tokyo Institute of Technology
(TAIST-Tokyo Tech), and Faculty of Engineering, Kesetsart
University. We acknowledge the Department of Agriculture
and Farmers in Ratchaburi province for data collection.
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International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 5, No. 5, October 2014
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Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for the provision of goods and services (both of which are summarized under the term "products"). Environmental impacts include those from emissions into the environment and through the consumption of resources, as well as other interventions (e.g., land use) associated with providing products that occur when extracting resources, producing materials, manufacturing the products, during consumption/use, and at the products' end-of-life (collection/sorting, reuse, recycling, waste disposal). These emissions and consumptions contribute to a wide range of impacts, such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric ozone (smog) creation, eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources, water use, land use, and noise-among others. A clear need, therefore, exists to be proactive and to provide complimentary insights, apart from current regulatory practices, to help reduce such impacts. Practitioners and researchers from many domains come together in life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate indicators of the aforementioned potential environmental impacts that are linked to products-supporting the identification of opportunities for pollution prevention and reductions in resource consumption while taking the entire product life cycle into consideration. This paper, part 1 in a series of two, introduces the LCA framework and procedure, outlines how to define and model a product's life cycle, and provides an overview of available methods and tools for tabulating and compiling associated emissions and resource consumption data in a life cycle inventory (LCI). It also discusses the application of LCA in industry and policy making. The second paper, by Pennington et al. (Environ. Int. 2003, in press), highlights the key features, summarises available approaches, and outlines the key challenges of assessing the aforementioned inventory data in terms of contributions to environmental impacts (life cycle impact assessment, LCIA).
Emission inventory improvement program
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Emission inventory improvement program," Open Burning, vol. 3, ch. 16, January 2001.
Bag Cultivation of Mushroom
  • C Wongsangprai
C. Wongsangprai, Bag Cultivation of Mushroom, Kasetsiam, Bangkok, 2012, ch. 1, pp. 7-9.
Analysis and Information Systems
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