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Squalius kottelati, new species, is described from the Orontes, Ceyhan and Seyhan rivers in Turkey. It belongs to the S. lepidus group, characterized by a projecting lower jaw. It is distinguished from the other species of the genus Squalius in Turkey and adjacent basins by having a conspicuous broad, dark stripe on the upper part of the flank, from the head to the end of the caudal peduncle (vs. absent or very faintly marked, except S. lepidus). It differs from S. lepidus by having a longer head (28.3-30.9, vs. 25.3-27.3 % SL), fewer lateral-line scales (45-47, vs. 48-49) and fewer gill rakers on the first gill arch (9-10, vs. 11-13). It differs from S. anatolicus by having more scales in the lateral line (45-47,mode 46 vs. 43-45, mode 44); a longer caudal fin (length of upper lobe 20.3-22.5, vs. 15.8-19.0 % SL).
Accepted by R. Pethiyagoda: 29 Sept. 2009; published: 22 Oct. 2009 53
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2009 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 2270: 5362 (2009)
Squalius kottelati, a new cyprinid species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Orontes
River, Turkey
1 Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 53100 Rize, Turkey
2 Corresponding author. E-mail:
Squalius kottelati, new species, is described from the Orontes, Ceyhan and Seyhan rivers in Turkey. It belongs to the S.
lepidus group, characterized by a projecting lower jaw. It is distinguished from the other species of the genus Squalius in
Turkey and adjacent basins by having a conspicuous broad, dark stripe on the upper part of the flank, from the head to the
end of the caudal peduncle (vs. absent or very faintly marked, except S. lepidus). It differs from S. lepidus by having a
longer head (28.3–30.9, vs. 25.3–27.3 % SL), fewer lateral-line scales (45–47, vs. 48–49) and fewer gill rakers on the
first gill arch (9–10, vs. 11–13). It differs from S. anatolicus by having more scales in the lateral line (45–47,mode 46 vs.
43–45, mode 44); a longer caudal fin (length of upper lobe 20.3–22.5, vs. 15.8–19.0 % SL).
Key words: Turkey, Cyprinidae, Squalius kottelati, taxonomy, Orontes, Ceyhan, Seyhan
The genus Squalius comprises a number of medium-sized fishes widely distributed in Europe and West Asia.
The species of Squalius were for long placed in Leuciscus, until morphological and molecular data showed
that Leuciscus as earlier understood was paraphyletic (e.g., Zardoya & Doadrio, 1999; Bogutskaya, 1994).
Although species of Squalius are present in almost every stream in Anatolia, the species-level taxonomy of
the genus is still not fully settled (Stoumboudi, et al. 2006) . Only a few populations have been described in
sufficient detail in Anatolia and neighboring basins. A few species have been described from Anatolia but
most have later been relegated to the synonymy of S. cephalus, a ‘species’ at some time considered to be
distributed throughout Europe (see overview of the western Anatolian species in Stoumboudi et al., 2006). In
the past 40 years, authors who studied the aquatic fauna of southern Europe have shown that the Squalius of
the Mediterranean basin are much more diverse than reported in the classical (northern European) literature;
they clearly constitute a number of very distinctive lineages (see, e.g., Doadrio & Carmona, 2006, for the
Iberian Peninsula; Bianco & Recchia, 1983, for Italy; Bianco & Knezevic, 1987 and Bogutskaya & Zupancic,
1999, for Appennine and Balkan Peninsula; Kottelat & Economidis, 2006, for Greece; and in general by
Kottelat & Freyhof, 2007). Recent molecular data (Durand et al., 2000) support these morphological
observations and show a number of distinct lineages within the ‘S. cephalus’ of earlier authors. For the sake of
convenience, in the following discussion we will call these species the S. cephalus group.
Besides the S. cephalus group, there are a few species in Squalius that have always been considered as
distinct and whose distinctness has been accepted by all authors. One of these is S. lepidus. This species has
been reported from the Tigris, Euphrates, Kueik, Orontes and Beysehir drainages (Bogutskaya 1994, 1997). It
is distinguished from the species of the S. cephalus group by its elongated and pointed head and its projecting
lower jaw; greater number of cephalic pores (see below); and the posteriorly expanded lateral portions of its
parietals (Bogutskaya, 1994: 617). Bogutskaya (1997) described the populations from Lake Beysehir basin as
... In early studies, several species were described from Turkey: S. orientalis ( Nordmann, 1840) from the rivers and streams of Caucasus; S. berak Heckel, 1843 from Qweik River (Kilis Prov.); S. lepidus Heckel, 1843 from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; S. turcicus De Filippi, 1865 from Kura River drainages; S. cii ( Richardson, 1857) from the southern Marmara Sea basin; S. fellowesii ( Günther, 1868) from Madra River south to Eşen River; S. pursakensis ( Hanko, 1924) from Sakarya River; S. cephaloides ( Battalgil, 1942) from northern Armutlu Peninsula; S. kosswigi ( Karaman, 1972) from Tahtalı River; and S. anatolicus ( Bogutskaya, 1997) from Lake Beyşehir basin. Later, all the mentioned species, except S. anatolicus and S. lepidus, have been treated as synonyms of S. cephalus ( Geldiay & Balık, 1999;Bogutskaya, 1997), but subsequently, these species have been again consideredas valid ( Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri, 2006;Turan, Yılmaz & Kaya, 2009;Özuluğ & Freyhof, 2011). In addition to these species, Turan et al. (2009) described S. kottelati, from Seyhan, Ceyhan and Orontes Rivers. ...
... Later, all the mentioned species, except S. anatolicus and S. lepidus, have been treated as synonyms of S. cephalus ( Geldiay & Balık, 1999;Bogutskaya, 1997), but subsequently, these species have been again consideredas valid ( Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri, 2006;Turan, Yılmaz & Kaya, 2009;Özuluğ & Freyhof, 2011). In addition to these species, Turan et al. (2009) described S. kottelati, from Seyhan, Ceyhan and Orontes Rivers. Özuluğ & Freyhof (2011) revised the species of central and western Anatolia and described four additional species: S. aristotelis from Tuzla drainage, S. carinus from Lake Işıklı basin, S. cappadocicus from Melendiz River in Lake Tuz basin, and S. recurvirostris from Lake Eber, Akşehir and Ilgın basins. ...
... A study of the fishes of the Euphrates River (Persian Gulf basin) yielded four species of Squalius. One is readily identifiable as S. lepidus, a species belonging to the lepidus-group and which also occurs in the Tigris drainages ( Turan et al., 2009). Two species belong to the cephalus-group: S. seyhanensis, whose type locality is the upper drainages of Seyhan River, and S. berak, whose type locality is Qweik River and which is also present in the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers ( Khaefi, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Geiger & Freyhof, 2016). ...
In a study of the fishes of the Euphrates River (Persian Gulf basin) three species of Squalius belonging to the cephalus-group were found: The Tohma population was identified as S. seyhanensis and the Merzimen and Hilvan populations as S. berak. The comparison of 28 metric and 5 meristic parameters and morphological characters showed that the populations of the northern Euphrates River drainages are distinct and belong to a hitherto unnamed species. We describe it here as Squalius semae sp. n.
... The presence of 74 species of fish in Turkey and 53 species of fish in Iraq have been reported from the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers according to the available resources can be accessed. Several taxonomical studies have been used for the current situation of freshwater fish of these two rivers for Turkey (Kuru 1980;Ünlü 1991Ünlü et al. 1994, 1997, 2000Erk'akan et al. 1998Erk'akan et al. , 2007Erk'akan et al. , 2008Tsigenopoulos et al. 2003;Bogutskaya et al. 2006;Fricke et al. 2007;Turan et al. 2009Turan et al. , 2011Turan et al. , 2013Turan et al. , 2016Turan et al. , 2017Kara et al. 2011Kara et al. , 2016Liao et al. 2011;Çiçek et al. 2015;Freyhof and Özuluğ 2017;Küçük et al. 2017;Pers. commun with Prof. Ünlü) and for Iraq (Coad 2010;Jawad 2012) (Table 69.1). ...
The preliminary study aims to present and compare the parasites of the freshwater fish from the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers of Iraq and Turkey. This study is also the first to provide a collective look at the parasites of freshwater fish from both these rivers. The comparison is mainly based on the checklists studied from the published papers on the fish parasites of these rivers. The parasite diversity is examined according to Phyla Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda), Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, and Ciliophora. The number of parasites reported in the freshwater fish from the Tigris River (241 species) is higher than the Euphrates River (170 species). In addition, the parasite diversity of the Euphrates River Part in Iraq (129 species) is higher than the Euphrates River Part in Turkey (62 species). The fish parasite diversity from the Tigris River of both countries was not compared due to insufficient information. It is recommended to do parasitological study as detailed in both rivers in future, especially the Tigris River.
... Until 2000's most of the short-snouted chubs, within the 'Euro-Asiatic' lineage, were identified as chub Squalius cephalus and known from almost all water bodies of Anatolia (Doadrio & Carmona, 2006;Özuluğ & Freyhof, 2011). Based on the molecular and morphological studies (Durand et al., 2000;Kottelat & Freyhof, 2007;Turan et al., 2009;Özuluğ & Freyhof, 2011;Turan et al., 2013;Turan et al., 2017a), numerous species of chubs existed in Anatolia as valid and most of these species were endemic to restricted water bodies. One of these endemic chubs, Akşehir chub Squalius recurvirostris Özuluğ & Freyhof, 2011 is known from Lake Eber, Ilgın and Akşehir basins in the Central Anatolia and was listed as Vulnerable (VU) in IUCN Red List (IUCN 2021). ...
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This study aims to investigate the length-weight (LWRs) and length-length relationships (LLRs) of three endemic freshwater fish species (Squalius recurvirostris, Squalius carinus and Capoeta turani) living in Turkey. Fish samples were captured with backpack electro-shocker from June 2006 to October 2010. The calculated values of parameter b in the LWRs were 3.363 and 3.045 for S. recurvirostris (Eber and Ilgın Lake populations, respectively), 3.275 for S. carinus and 3.111 for C. turani. The coefficients of correlation (r) for all the LLR equations were greater than 0.95. The growth parameters of S. recurvirostris is provided for the first time in this study.
... In particular, the populations in barbel zone are affected by chemical input and loads in water beds (Luigi et al. 2015). The chub Squalius orientalis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) is a benthopelagic fish species and distributes in Turkey (Turan et al. 2009). The natural populations of the species are abundant in the barbel zone. ...
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In an aquatic environment, the presence of Bisphenol A (BPA) adversely affects reproduction, biology, behavior, gonads, and early larval development of fish due to being endocrine-disrupting compound. In addition, the detected concentration of BPA in water bodies is reported to be higher than 0.41 μg/L. As an alternative tool, sperm cells are used in toxicological assays for the reliable and practical assessment. For these reasons, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure of BPA on sperm quality of chub Squalius oriantalis and Padanian barbel Barbus plebejus. Spermatozoa were exposed to lower concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 µg/L) of BPA for 2 h. The enzymatic activities [glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were evaluated in spermatozoa. The results demonstrated that BPA exposure significantly decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px but increased CAT activity and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Compared to control, the percentage and duration of sperm motility significantly decreased. Overall, spermatozoa clearly showed the sensitivity to lower concentrations of BPA.
... Chubs of the genus Squalius are widespread in Europe and the Middle East (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007; Turan et al. 2009 Turan et al. , 2013). The genus has a high species diversity especially in the Mediterranean basin (Geiger et al. 2014), with only two species known from the Euphrates and Tigris drainages (S. lepidus and S. berak) (Turan et al. 2013). ...
Squalius namak, new species, from the endorheic Lake Namak and Kavir basins in Iran, is distinguished from the species of the genus Squalius in the Persian Gulf and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a wide and thick symphysial knob on the lower jaw, a convex posterior anal-fin margin, a bold, dark-grey or brown, roundish or crescent-shaped blotch at the posterior tip of each flank scale and orange caudal-, anal- and pelvic-fin rays in life. Squalius namak is also character-ized by four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.
... Apparently they had a confusion when define distribution areas of S. lepidus and S. kottelati. They reported both species from Orontes, Tigris and Euphrates rivers, althoughTuran et al. (2009) clearly demonstrated distribution of S. lepidus from Tigris-Euphrates rivers and S. kottelati from Orontes, Ceyhan and Seyhan rivers. Squalius sp. ...
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I am a realist and argue that biological species exist in nature. I also argue that the validity of findings of the many disciplines within the natural sciences employing biological species in their endeavours of inquiry are unequivocally linked to the accuracy of the species used in experiments. Few scientists today see the fundamental importance of taxonomic and systematic studies in both addressing accuracy of diversity and the delineation of species diversity for other areas of science. The basic controversial issues in the debate revolve around opinions regarding the nature of species as either Individuals or Classes, confusion of Species as a taxonomic category and as entities in nature, the varied practitioners studying diversity, a general lack of a Lineage perspective and a gross chauvinistic perspective on the types of data worthy of exposing and delineating diversity. I argue that species in nature are Individuals and form Lineages. As Individuals, they cannot be defined but can only be diagnosed in time. The category Species is a Class with a definition. The difficulties realised by scientists studying biodiversity in ‘defining’ a species hinges upon the fact that as natural entities they cannot be defined. Recognizing and understanding the origins of characters in species is further complicated if one views species in nature as Classes and lacks an appreciation for the Lineage and the origin and retention of traits through time. This forms an interesting paradox that many scientists have fallen victim to wherein species are viewed as Classes (hence definable, but immutable) yet are used to understand the process of descent that involves lineages and Individuals! The pre-Darwinian Class perspective of species, combined with a common chauvinistic perspective on characters ultimately delays progress and places a ‘glass ceiling’ on species diversity for planet Earth. One resolution to the species and species concept issue is to view the concepts in a hierarchical manner of primary (theoretical) and secondary (operational) concepts. Interestingly, the issue of Individuals versus Classes for naturally occurring entities is much more widespread and exists in many other scientific fields. Thus, a hierarchical perspective of having a primary, nonoperational concept for natural entities and multiple operational concepts serving as ‘tools’ for discovering natural things consistent with the primary concept is a heuristic methodology that is applicable to the advancement of many areas of science.