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Stevia, Ka'a He'e, wild sweet herb from South America - An overview

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The use of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, perennial indigenous native plant from the tropical region of South America is presented, with a brief outlook on the history and uses of the wild plant by Guarani Indians, the crop domestication, and the authorization of its use as a natural sweetener in food and beverages. Other aspects considered are natural glycosides and physicochemical properties for food processing, nutritional information, medicinal properties, Stevia market and household uses. The future of this plant is promising but more research is needed to ensure use of leaves and steviosides, and also to study cultivation practices in various regions of the world.
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Emir. J. Food Agric. 2013. 25 (10): 746-750
doi: 10.9755/ejfa.v25i10.16405
http://www.ejfa.info/
REVIEW ARTICLE
Stevia, ka'a he'e, wild sweet herb from South America - An overview
L. Giuffré*, R. Romaniuk and E. Ciarlo
Edafología, Facultad de Agronomía. UBA, Av. San Martín4453.1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Abstract
The use of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, perennial indigenous native plant from the tropical region of South
America is presented, with a brief outlook on the history and uses of the wild plant by Guarani Indians, the crop
domestication, and the authorization of its use as a natural sweetener in food and beverages. Other aspects
considered are natural glycosides and physicochemical properties for food processing, nutritional information,
medicinal properties, Stevia market and household uses. The future of this plant is promising but more research
is needed to ensure use of leaves and steviosides, and also to study cultivation practices in various regions of the
world.
Key words: Stevia, Steviosides, Uses, Properties
Introduction
Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni (more commonly
known as Stevia) is a wild herb, from the
Asteraceae Family, a perennial indigenous native
plant from the tropical region of South America,
still in wild state in Paraguay, especially in the
Department of Amambay, and Argentina's
Misiones province. The name in Guarani language
is ka'a he'e, which means sweet herb, and in
Spanish is transcribed as "caaje'é".
The Guarani Indians had known for centuries
about the unique advantages of ka'a he'e long
before the arrival of the invaders from the Old
World. These native people knew the leaves of the
wild stevia shrub to have a sweetening power
unlike anything else, they commonly used the
leaves to enhance the taste of the typical beverage:
“mate” a bitter infusion (a tea-like beverage), and
medicinal potions, or simply chewed them for their
sweet taste. The widespread native use of stevia
was chronicled by the Spaniards in historical
documents preserved in the Paraguayan National
Archives in Asuncion. Historians noted that
indigenous peoples had been sweetening herbal teas
with stevia leaves since ancient times. In due
course, it was introduced to settlers. By the 1800s,
daily stevia consumption had become well
entrenched throughout the region - not just in
Paraguay, but also in neighboring Brazil and
Argentina (Stevia net, 2012).
Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the 154
genuses of Stevia, with elongate, lanceolate, or
spatulate leaves shape, serrate margins from the
middle to the tip and entire below (Figure 1).
Maximum active principle for sweetening is found
just prior to flowering. In wild conditions grows in
sandy soils, acid infertile sand or muck soils
(Madan et al., 2010).
Figure 1. Stevia in natural habitats of Argentina.
(Original photography from the author).
Stevia is named after the Spanish botanist
Pedro Jaime Esteve (1500-1556) who found it in
northeastern territory of modern Paraguay, later the
Swiss naturalist Moises Bertoni described the
Received 11 March 2013; Revised 02 June 2013; Accepted
04
June 2013; Published Online 24 June 2013
*Corresponding Author
L. Giuffré
Edafología. Facultad de Agronomía. Av. San Martín4453.1417
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Emails: giuffre@agro.uba.ar
L. Giuffré et al.
747
species in the Upper Paraná, and then the
Paraguayan chemist Ovid Rebaudi published in
1900 the first chemical analysis, and he found a
glycoside able to sweeten 200 times more than
refined sugar.
The Stevia plants use as a sweetener was first
observed in 1889 and since then Stevia has become
more widely produced for its natural sweetness as a
no calorie, no carbohydrate alternative to sugar.
These subtropical plants can be grown easily like
most other vegetables, so they have been cultivated
for decades due to their interesting properties, and it
is important also that can be grown in small
gardens, kitchen gardens or pots. Crop
domestication began in the 1960´s, then it was
introduced in Japan, Argentina, France, Spain,
Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Korea, Chile,
Brazil, Mexico, United States, Canada and China.
In December 2008, the FDA of USA authorized
its use as a natural sweetener in food and
beverages. An ADI (average daily intake) of 0–4
mg/kg body weight/day was established (expressed
as steviol). FDA notes that the equivalent ADI for
rebaudioside A is 0-12 mg/kg bw/d, due to the
relative molecular weights of rebaudioside A of 967
g/mol and steviol of 318 g/mol (FDA, 2009) . From
December 2011 steviol glycosides extracted from
high purity Stevia are permitted by regulation of the
EU as a food additive sweetener with the number
E-960 (EU 1131, 2011).
Natural glycosides and physicochemical
properties for food processing
The leaves of wild Stevia plants contain several
different natural glycoside compounds including
dulcoside A & B, rebaudiosides A-E, steviolbioside
and stevioside these are the compounds
responsible for producing the sweet taste sensation.
The sweet Stevia extract is similar to other non-
nutritive sweeteners, such as sucralose, in that it has
zero calories, is 200-300 times sweeter than table
sugar, is non-fermentable, and does not contribute
to dental caries or plaque. Stevia is incredibly sweet
in its raw form (Forsythe-Pribanic, 2012).
Stevia presents a mix of eight diterpene
glycosides, which are mainly stevioside and
rebaudioside. Stevioside could be described as a
glycoside composed by steviol, which is adhered to
sophorose through a carbon hydroxyl group.Its
empirical formula is C38H60O18, and its molecular
weight is 804.98 (WHO, 1999).
The pattern of glicosilation heavily influences
the taste perception of these intensely sweet
compounds. The reactions generally start with
steviol and end with rebaudioside A. In addition to
the eight Stevia glycosides, the triterpens amyrin
acetate and 3 esters of lupeol, and the sterols like
stigmasterol, sitosterol and campesterol were also
isolated from leaves (Madan et al., 2010).
Desirable physicochemical properties for food
processing can include:
Heat resistance
Its structure is not altered by exposure to high
temperatures and therefore does not lose its
sweetness. It is suitable for hot or baked. Stable at
normal temperatures used in food processing:
pasteurization, sterilization, cooking. High
solubility in water and hydroalcoholic solutions.
pH resistance
It is stable in a wide pH range, 3 to 9, even at
100°C. Above pH 9 there is a rapid loss of
sweetness, food however show few values of pH>
9. In carbonated beverages that include in their
composition citric and phosphoric acid, are detected
loss of sweetness of 36% and 17%, respectively,
when stored at 37°C.
Do not add calories
There are a large number and variety of patents
of extraction and purification processes of
stevioside, which may be summarized in the
following steps: extraction of the leaves of Stevia
rebaudiana with organic solvents, filtration,
coagulation and precipitation of impurities by
change of pH; clean-up on ion exchange resins,
crystallization, drying. Importantly, if the process is
not a product with acceptable taste (stevioside high
concentrations exhibits somewhat bitter aftertaste),
other treatments such as chemical or enzymatic
modifications could be applied, but the resulting
product could not be called natural (Fundació n
Tierra, 2008).
Besides the known extraction methods, new
methods from glycoside-based extraction from
Stevia were developed, and it was found that water
can be very effective for extracting glycosides at
selected pH and temperature (Madan et al.,2010).
Nutritional information
According to results presented by Encuentro
Bariátrico (2009), dried stevia leaves contain about
42% of water-soluble substances (hence sweetens
more mixed with liquids). The main active
ingredient is the stevioside, buy it also contains
protein, fiber, iron, phosphorus, calcium,
potassium, zinc, rutin, vitamin A and C. Several
laboratory tests have shown that Stevia has the
following properties: rich in iron, manganese and
cobalt, has no caffeine, pure crystal melting is at
238°C, presents no ferments.
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Medicinal properties
Sweetener
Studies revealed that Stevia has been used
throughout the world since ancient times for
various purposes, for example, as a sweetener and a
medicine. Stevia is likely to become a major source
of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural
food market in the future, and its use is
recommended by various researchers. A Stevia leaf
powder with no processing is highly safe to use,
calorie free, and around 20-30 times sweeter than
sugarcane. Although Stevia can be helpful to
anyone, there are certain groups who are more
likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening
potential. These include diabetic patients, those
interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children
(Geuns, 2004; Goyal et al., 2010).
Sugar blood
Stevia and natural sweetener steviosides have
been used for many years in the treatment of
diabetes among Indians in Paraguay and Brazil.
Quality of life of diabetics (estimated over 135
million worldwide) could benefit from the
regulatory properties of blood sugar level by tender
leaves of stevia. The active principle of the plant
induces pancreatic beta cells by themselves to
produce large quantities of insulin, which helps to
reduce blood glucose, which is the cause of
diabetes mellitus 2 (Jeppesen et al., 2000;
Gregersen et al., 2004).
Anti-cancer activity
Isosteviol (hydrolisis product of stevioside)
were assayed for their inhibitory activity toward
DNA metabolic enzymes and human cancer cell
growth. It potently inhibited mammalian DNA
polymerases and human topoisomerases II. It
prevented the growth of human cancer cells(Madan
et al., 2010).
Cardiovascular Action
A good deal of experimental work has been
done on the effects of Stevia and stevioside on
cardiovascular functioning in man and animals.
Some of this work was simply looking for possible
toxicity, while some was investigating possible
therapeutic action, with no significant properties
found by Humbolt (1978), only a slight lowering of
arterial blood pressure at low and normal doses,
changing to a slight rise in arterial pressure at very
high doses.The most curious finding is a dose
dependent action on heartbeat, with a slight
increase appearing at lower doses, changing to a
mild decrease at higher doses. The long-term use of
Stevia would probably have a cardiotonic action,
that is, would produce a mild strengthening of the
heart and vascular system (Agricultural
information, 2004). Chan et al. (2000) found that it
acts as a cardiotonic agent (it regulates blood
pressure and heart rate), and resulted in decreased
systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Regulation of
blood pressure and heartbeat could be associated
with Stevia high richness of potassium (3.45%) and
very low sodium (0.03%) level. In relation to effect
on cardiovascular system, Sharma et al. (2009)
reported that extract of Stevia has been found to
reduce heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure,
and that stevioside also lowers mean arterial blood
pressure, an effect that is blocked by Indomethacin.
This suggests that cardiovascular action of
stevioside is mediated via a prostaglandin-
dependent mechanism.
Anti-hypertensive
A 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled
study of 106 individuals with high blood pressure
evaluated the potential benefits of Stevia for
reducing blood pressure. In the treated group, the
average blood pressure at the beginning of the
study was about 166/102. By the end of the study,
this had fallen to 153/90, a substantial if not quite
adequate improvement. In contrast, no significant
reductions were seen in the placebo group (Chan et
al., 2000).
Antiviral activity
Stevia rebaudiana extracts are potent anti-
rotavirus inhibitors in vivo and in vitro. Activity of
hot water extract showed inhibition of replication of
all four serotypes of HRV (Anti-Human rotavirus)
in vitro (Madan et al., 2010).
Antibacterial qualities
Stevia extracts have shown strong bactericidal
activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria,
including certain Escherichia coli strains. They
also are very effective against bacteria in the oral
mucosa and also the type Candida albicans, which
causes recurrent vaginitis. Research clearly shows
that Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and other microbes do
not thrive in the presence of the non-nutritive
Stevia constituents. Also, it has shown to lower the
incidence of dental caries, this fact, combined with
the naturally sweet flavor of the herb, makes it a
suitable ingredient for mouthwashes and for
toothpastes (Pinheiro et al., 1987; Tomita et al.,
1997; Agricultural information 2004; Matsukubo
and Takazoe, 2006). Abou-Arab and Abu-Salem
(2010) reported the importance of Stevia leaves and
callus extracts for pharmaceutical uses and food
L. Giuffré et al.
749
preservation due to their antioxidant and
antimicrobial activities.
Toxicity and uses in non-traditional medicine
Acute and subacute toxicity studies revealed a
very low toxicity of Stevia and steviosides. Stevia
uses in folk medicine include against hypertension,
diabetes, and as a contraceptive, and for obese
persons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar
(Madan et al., 2010).
Digestive Tonic Action
In the literature of Brazil, Stevia ranks high
among the list of plants used for centuries by the
"gauchos" of the southern plains to flavor the bitter
medicinal preparations used by that nomadic
culture, and their "mate". Stevia made a significant
contribution to improved digestion, and improved
overall gastrointestinal function. Likewise, since its
introduction in China, Stevia tea, made from either
hot or cold water, is used as a low calorie, sweet
tasting tea, as an appetite stimulant, as a digestive
aid, as an aid to weight management, and even for
staying young (Agricultural information, 2004).
Effects on the Skin
The Guarani and other people who have
become familiar with Stevia report that it is
effective when applied to acne, seborrhea,
dermatitis, eczema. Placed directly in cuts and
wounds, more rapid healing, without scarring, is
observed. Smoother skin, softer to the touch is
claimed to result from the frequent application of
Stevia poultices and extracts. Stevia is also known
for skin shining and tightening properties, and has
found its way in several commercial skin tightening
products or anti-wrinkle products (Agricultural
information, 2004).
Precautions must be taken into consideration,
as adverse cardiovascular and kidney/genitory-
urinary effects have been documented with Stevia.
Stevia extracts were found to decrease the fertility
of male rats, while steviosides induced diuresis and
natriuresis and a fall in renal tubular reabsorption of
glucose (Madan et al., 2010).
Stevia market
Data from Leatherhead Food Research valued
the world Stevia market (defined as including both
crude extracts and high purity products such as reb
A) at US$100m in 2010, up by nearly 27% from
$79m the previous year. During this time, volume
sales rose from less than 2,300 tonnes to 2,400
tonnes, with crude extracts accounting for up to
80% of this figure. At present, the US is thought to
account for more than 80% of worldwide sales of
reb A, with the market expected to reach up to
$700m within the next five years. Furthermore,
annual retail sales of US food and drinks promoted
as containing stevia have grown from practically
zero to over $1bn since regulatory approval was
granted. Reb A could have the potential to penetrate
up to 25% of the world sugar market, as sugar
consumption has fallen in many parts of the world
(Thomas, 2012).
Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and
Splenda have dominated the non-nutritive
sweetener market, but according to the August
2011 report by the market research firm Mintel, the
trend is turning toward natural sweeteners. Mintel
estimated the global market for stevia sweeteners
reached $500 million by mid-2011, and food
consultant Zenith International expects the global
market for stevia-derived products to reach $825
million by 2014. Coca-Cola, and PepsiCo have
taken notice and have invested years of research
and millions of dollars to find new ways to lower
the calorie content in their brands without affecting
the taste (Kawabe, 2012).
Household uses
Stevia is a new promising renewable raw stuff
for the food market, with a high potential of
development. This natural sweetener is used is used
in products like biscuits, jams, chocolates, ice-
creams, baked foods, soft drinks, soda, candies ,
and beverages like dip tea, coffee and herbal tea, in
particular for diabetics and health conscious
consumers. The leaves of Stevia impart a pleasant
flavour apart from increasing the sweetness. The
Stevia leaves or their powder are used in typical
Indian dishes, and ground Stevia is excellent when
sprinkled over cooking vegetable and meat, cereals
and salads (Barathi, 2003).
Stevia is an ideal plant for autocultivation, in
order to take advantage of each day leaves that have
proven very beneficial effects on health. Stevioside
obtained from leaves is a "white crystalline powder,
odorless, non-hygroscopic, non-fermentable,
sweeter flavor in very dilute solutions, very soluble
in water". However, its main obstacle for marketing
what is called an aftertaste, that to be removed
requires expensive laboratory processes. The intake
of fresh leaves is much more economical and
equally healthy. The dose most commonly used is 4
tender leaves, eaten directly before or during lunch
and 4 leaves, before or while dining, or a tea of
dried leaf (an infusion in the morning and another
in the evening). The infusion dose is one teaspoon
of chopped dried leaf dessert per cup of infusion
(Fundació n Tierra, 2012).
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2013. 25 (10): 746-750
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750
Conclusions
More scientific research is needed to ensure use
of Stevia leaves and steviosides, related to toxicity
and health effects, and its application in food
industry.
Furthermore, as it can be grown in different
conditions, it is necessary to study cultivation
practices in various regions of the world, in natural
conditions or in greenhouse production, regarding
propagation, planting density, adequate soil types,
fertilization, irrigation, and net profit for small
producers.
References
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Chan, P., B. Tomlinson, Y. J. Chen, J. C. Liu, M.
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Encuentro Bariátrico. 2009. Una planta saludable a
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... Además de ser un gran edulcorante la estevia ha demostrado tener distintas propiedades entre las que destacan principalmente regulación y tratamiento para diabetes, niveles de azúcar e hipertensión (Salvador-Reyes et al., 2014;Durán et al., 2012;Goyal et al., 2010;Gutierrez y Bermejo, 2015;Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013), también se reporta beneficioso para prevención de caries, control de peso (Gutierrez y Bermejo, 2015;Salvador-Reyes et al., 2014;Goyal et al., 2010) y digestión (Goyal et al., 2010;Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013), así como bactericida y antidepresivo (Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013;Durán et al., 2012), entre otros. ...
... Además de ser un gran edulcorante la estevia ha demostrado tener distintas propiedades entre las que destacan principalmente regulación y tratamiento para diabetes, niveles de azúcar e hipertensión (Salvador-Reyes et al., 2014;Durán et al., 2012;Goyal et al., 2010;Gutierrez y Bermejo, 2015;Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013), también se reporta beneficioso para prevención de caries, control de peso (Gutierrez y Bermejo, 2015;Salvador-Reyes et al., 2014;Goyal et al., 2010) y digestión (Goyal et al., 2010;Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013), así como bactericida y antidepresivo (Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013;Durán et al., 2012), entre otros. ...
... Además de ser un gran edulcorante la estevia ha demostrado tener distintas propiedades entre las que destacan principalmente regulación y tratamiento para diabetes, niveles de azúcar e hipertensión (Salvador-Reyes et al., 2014;Durán et al., 2012;Goyal et al., 2010;Gutierrez y Bermejo, 2015;Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013), también se reporta beneficioso para prevención de caries, control de peso (Gutierrez y Bermejo, 2015;Salvador-Reyes et al., 2014;Goyal et al., 2010) y digestión (Goyal et al., 2010;Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013), así como bactericida y antidepresivo (Gupta et al., 2013;Giuffré et al., 2013;Durán et al., 2012), entre otros. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a tropical, perennial and bushy plant native from Paraguay. The main commercial interest is that it can be up to 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Her secondary metabolites with low calorie content (rebaudiosides and steviosides) do not raise glucose and represent an alternative for the consumption of sugar in people with hypertension and diabetes. Furthermore, aeroponics is a soilless cultivation technique, where the roots of the plants are suspended in the air inside the dark container, where a nutrient solution is sprayed constantly. Aeroponics allows to reduce culture water consumption up to 95 %, his biggest advantage over hydroponics is oxygenation of the roots. In the present work, a low pressure recirculating aeroponic system was designed and characterized for the cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana. For that reason, an automatic system for irrigating and measuring modules for abiotic variables were developed using free software and hardware, which allowed monitor the behavior of the aeroponic system for its characterization. With the measuring modules, it was determined that exists a high and inversely linear correlation between temperature and humidity within the grow room (r = 0.88, r2 = 0.77). On the other hand, by the use of several temperature and illuminance sensors placed along the height of vertical compartment containing the roots, show that there are significant differences of temperature and illuminance (p < 0.05) according to the height where they were measured in the vertical compartment. In the same way, it is observed that the temperature is higher inside the root compartment compared to the growing room, as long as there is no irrigation, testing different irrigations it was observed that the temperature inside the vertical compartment can be reduced. Similarly, it was perceived that the variance in water temperature is less than the variance in air temperature within the compartment for all cases. It was concluded that, when the frequency of irrigation rises, the variance of the temperature inside the container decreases. Each spray carried out expresses a transfer of temperature from the water to the air. In a test with biological material, three nutritive solutions were evaluated in equivalent concentrations, Hoagland, Fertiplus and Triple 19, the three were dissolved in 20 liters of water each; after 35 days of culture, different morphometric variables were measured. During this time, no water exchange or nutrient addition was made. Although there are significant differences in the temperature and illuminance of the different heights of the vertical compartment, there is no evidence that they influence the growth of the crop. Therefore, the Nutritive Solutions have an important effect on the grown of the plants. With an ANOVA, it was determined that there are significant differences (p<0:05) between the nutritional solution treatments. However, for Triple 19 and Hoagland treatments there are no significant differences in the production of aerial biomass and leaf area, these being variables of greatest commercial interest. However, Hoagland has a cost 80 times higher than Triple 19. Finally it was concluded that it is possible to grow Stevia rebaudiana in a vertical aeroponic system even with the existence of light and temperature variations along the system column.
... Stevia is a well-known plant used by Guarani people that have sweetening characteristics. They call this plant as Kaa` he'e` [23]. Guarani people have been using Stevia plant as a natural sweetener for centuries. ...
Article
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The aboriginal people actively participate in safeguarding ecological diversity worldwide. The interaction of aboriginal people with their ecological diversity for generations has acquired them with indigenous or inherent knowledge. The indigenous information is used by aboriginal individuals for health issues, agricultural practices, animal breeding, plant breeding and also for various spiritual and cultural ceremonies. Every year aboriginal tourism programmes are organized in different locations around the globe. In recent years, it is witnessed that some researchers, scientists and representatives of various global corporations often perform educational, research, explorative or project tours in the native places of aboriginal people. During the aboriginal tourism programmes, biopirates disguise as aboriginal tourists and isolate samples of plants, animals, and also ancestral knowledge. These vital ecological samples and ancestral knowledge are largely used for producing bioproducts which are often subjected to patenting. It was concluded from this investigation that biopirates have used aboriginal tourism as a mask for biopirating the inherent knowledge and ecological diversity of the aboriginal people for their selfish research and greed for wealth.
... En las concentraciones bactericidas, al 10%, 25%, 50% y 75% (Pérez, 2013), el efecto inhibitorio sobre el potencial acidogénico se puede deber a que S. mutans es eliminado antes de permitirle formar ácidos en gran cantidad. El efecto bactericida del extracto de hojas de Stevia rB se puede deber a la presencia de metabolitos activos como los terpenos (Mohammadi-Sichani et al., 2012;Giuffré et al. 2013), flavonoides (Tadhani et al., 2006;Mohammadi-Sichani et al., 2012;Wölwer-Rieck, 2012;Ajagannanavar et al., 2014;Siddique et al., 2014;Sunitha et al., 2015;Mehta et al., 2016), polifenoles (Kujur et al., 2010;Shruti, et al., 2015), taninos (Kujur et al., 2010;Siddique et al., 2014;Shruti, et al., 2015;Chakravarthy et al., 2016) y alcaloides (Kujur et al., 2010;Siddique et al., 2014;Shruti, et al., 2015;Mehta et al., 2016). Sin embargo, un análisis fitoquímico más avanzado es necesario, para la identificación, estudio, aislamiento y purificación, con la finalidad de identificar el principal componente funcional del extracto de Stevia rB Peruana. ...
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El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar el efecto in vitro del extracto etanólico de Stevia Rebaudiana sobre los factores de virulencia cariogénicos de Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. Se evaluó el efecto del extracto etanólico 70° de Stevia Rebaudiana a diferentes concentraciones. El efecto sobre el potencial acidogénico se determinó evaluando cambio de pH pre y post-incubación. El efecto sobre la formación de polisacáridos insolubles se determinó utilizando método fenol-ácido sulfúrico. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante análisis de varianza y análisis post hoc con prueba Tukey. La significancia fue considerada si p < 0,05. Las seis concentraciones presentaron efecto inhibitorio sobre ambos factores de virulencia. Del potencial acidogénico, la concentración 1,07% presentó menor efecto que las concentraciones 25%, 50% y 75%; la de 5% menor efecto que las de 50% y 75%; la de 10% menor efecto que la de 75%. Con relación a la formación de polisacáridos insolubles: las concentraciones 1,07%, 5%, 10% y 25% presentaron menor efecto que las de 50% y 75%. Se concluye que el extracto etanólico de Stevia rebaudiana posee efecto inhibitorio in vitro sobre el potencial acidogénico y la formación de polisacáridos extracelulares insolubles en agua de Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.
... Historically, stevia has been therapeutically used in Paraguay and Brazil to treat diabetes [9], and studies have highlighted stevioside's ability to normalize blood glucose levels in humans with diabetes and in diabetic rodent models [10][11][12]. Ahmad et al. (2018) observed that diabetic rats (streptozotocin-induced) consuming stevia for 8 weeks had reduced calorie and fluid intake, lower blood glucose levels and body weight, and increased insulin and liver glycogen in a dose-dependent manner [13]. ...
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Stevia is a natural low-calorie sweetener that is growing in popularity in food and beverage products. Despite its widespread use, little is understood of its impact on the gut microbiota, an important environmental factor that can mediate metabolism and subsequent obesity and disease risk. Furthermore, given previous reports of dysbiosis with some artificial low-calorie sweeteners, we wanted to understand whether prebiotic consumption could rescue potential stevia-mediated changes in gut microbiota. Three-week old male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized to consume: (1) Water (CTR); (2) Rebaudioside A (STV); (3) prebiotic (PRE); (4) Rebaudioside A + prebiotic (SP) (n = 8/group) for 9 weeks. Rebaudioside was added to drinking water and prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin added to control diet (10%). Body weight and feces were collected weekly and food and fluid intake biweekly. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests, gut permeability tests, dual X-ray absorptiometry, and tissue harvest were performed at age 12 weeks. Rebaudioside A consumption alone did not alter weight gain or glucose tolerance compared to CTR. Rebaudioside A did, however, alter gut microbiota composition and reduce nucleus accumbens tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter mRNA levels compared to CTR. Prebiotic animals, alone or with Rebaudioside A, had reduced fat mass, food intake, and gut permeability and cecal SCFA concentration. Adding Rebaudioside A did not interfere with the benefits of the prebiotic except for a significant reduction in cecal weight. Long-term low-dose Rebaudioside A consumption had little effect on glucose metabolism and weight gain; however, its impact on gut microbial taxa should be further examined in populations exhibiting dysbiosis such as obesity.
... The stevia plant was traditionally used by indigenous Guarani people of Brazil; an ethnographer in the early 20 th century recorded its use as a sweetener and later it was massed produced in Japan in the 1970s as an alternative to sugar (particularly for diabetics). 24 Today the biosynthetic pathway to produce steviol glycosides is known and there are over 20 patents (many by major food companies) on compounds from the plant and synthetic variations as the market for the sweetener increases. 25 To date, the Guarani people haven't received any benefits from the commercial use of their traditional knowledge and natural resources. ...
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Advances in genetic engineering have placed synthetic biology at a prime position to develop new products, materials, and services that could contribute to the 2030 UN Sustainable Development goals. These include novel materials for water purification, new bio-based products to replace toxic industrial chemicals, and engineered organisms for bioremediation. Supporting the development of synthetic biology initiatives in developing countries is needed to ensure these benefits are open to all.
... Generally, the ratio between stevioside and rebaudioside-A content in Stevia rebaudiana is in the range of 2:1. As is well known, both stevioside and rebaudioside-A are sweet in taste, with the former being about 300 times sweeter than sucrose (Kohda et al., 1976;Debnath, 2008;Giuffre et al., 2013). However, stevioside has a slightly bitter aftertaste with rebaudioside-A having none. ...
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Abstract: The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni segregants and to characterize them morphochemically to facilitate selection of superior genotypes for hybridization in breeding programs. Two identified strains named A and B and their segregant populations (F1 and F2) were evaluated with their morphological and chemical characteristics. Various qualitative and quantitative morphological characters including leaf shape, plant type (loose or compact), plant habit, plant height, and shoot collar diameter were considered. Simultaneously stevioside and rebaudioside-A content was evaluated. A few individuals were identified with rebaudioside-A content ranging from 5.11% to 8.55% and the ratio between stevioside and rebaudioside-A was found to be very low. One plant with stevioside of 16.18% was obtained. Key words: Extraction, morphology, populations, rebaudioside-A, Stevia, steviosi
... Stevioside has chemical formula of a diterpene glycoside (C 38 H 60 O 18 ) and is accountable for the sweetening properties. It is about 300 times sweeter than sucrose (Debnath, 2008;Giuffre et al., 2013) (Table 2), but has an unpleasant bitter aftertaste (Schiffman et al., 2000;Abelyan et al., 2004;Mitchell, 2006;Carakostas et al., 2008). Rebaudioside-A, normally present in lower amount (25% to 45% of stevioside) in leaves, possess no bitter aftertaste and has a sweetening power of 1.2 to 1.6 times higher than stevioside (Kinghorn and Soejarto, 1985). ...
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The Stevia genus encompasses about 200 herbs and shrubs species. Stevia rebaudiana, one of the members has gained commercial importance as a natural low-calorie sweetener, due to the presence of high concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside - A (25% to 45% of stevioside content) in the leaves. The major processes involved in the production and quantification of steviol glycosides are extraction, purification and estimation. Various extraction methods have been used for extraction of steviol glycosides in the world. The extraction methods of steviol glycosides mostly differed at the stage of clarification of extracts. The present study is an attempt to summarize the scattered literature and reports on a single podium. Moreover, it also depicts upto date literature regarding numerous extraction, purification and quantitative estimation methods for steviol glycosides.
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The experiment was carried out to study the best combination of soil with different growing media for herbage yield (fresh weight and dry weight), number of roots/plant and root length of Stevia rebaudiana cuttings atissue culture laboratory, Main Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari, Gujarat, India. From the observations of experimental data, Treatment T6 (soil+sand+coco peat+ vermin compost 1:1:1:1) was found best in terms of highest fresh weight of plant (10.40 g), dry weight (2.0 g) and root length (12.20 cm). Poor herbage yield, fresh weight (2.60g) and dry weight (0.46 g) was found in treatment T 1 (soil+sand 1:1). Finally, it was concluded that proper roots also helped plant to survive and increase the survival rate with context to increase in fresh weight and dry weight of the plant. Results from this experiment suggests that one can use combination of soil + sand + cocopeat + vermicompost in equal proportion for good herbage yield and growth performance of this vital plant in South Gujarat.
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Objective We examined the impact of maternal low-dose aspartame and stevia consumption on adiposity, glucose tolerance, gut microbiota and mesolimbic pathway in obese dams and their offspring. Design Following obesity induction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated during pregnancy and lactation to: (1) high fat/sucrose diet (HFS) +water (obese-WTR); (2) HFS +aspartame (obese-APM; 5–7 mg/kg/day); (3) HFS +stevia (obese-STV; 2–3 mg/kg/day). Offspring were weaned onto control diet and water and followed until 18 weeks. Gut microbiota and metabolic outcomes were measured in dams and offspring. Cecal matter from offspring at weaning was used for faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) into germ-free (GF) mice. Results Maternal APM and STV intake with a HFS diet increased body fat in offspring at weaning and body weight long-term with APM. Maternal APM/HFS consumption impaired glucose tolerance in male offspring at age 8 weeks and both APM and STV altered faecal microbiota in dams and offspring. Maternal obesity/HFS diet affected offspring adiposity and glucose tolerance more so than maternal LCS consumption at age 12 and 18 weeks. APM and STV altered expression of genes in the mesolimbic reward system that may promote consumption of a palatable diet. GF mice receiving an FMT from obese-APM and obese-STV offspring had greater weight gain and body fat and impaired glucose tolerance compared with obese-WTR. Conclusion Maternal low-calorie sweetener consumption alongside HFS may disrupt weight regulation, glucose control and gut microbiota in dams and their offspring most notably in early life despite no direct low-calorie sweetener consumption by offspring.
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Advances in synthetic biology have the potential to develop new products, materials and services that could contribute to the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Support for synthetic biology initiatives in developing countries is needed to ensure that these benefits are open to all.
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The Sweet Herb of Paraguay, Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is fast becoming a major source of high potency sweetener which produces sweet taste but has no calorific value. Many research activities on its chemical and biological properties have been done in recent past. Several countries including India have started its commercial cultivation. The published literature on this crop is quite scattered. Therefore an effort to compile the literature and review the current status of research and development including cultivation practices has been done in this paper.
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Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners, Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are more likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients, those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories and is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar.
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The ent-kaurene type of diterpenoid glycosides are typically the characteristics of leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, the plant with sweet leaves. Relative to sucrose, the potent sweetness intensities of these glycosides have projected them as cost effective sucrose substitute. In the present paper, the structural and physicochemical features of ent-kaurene glycosides of Stevia along with an insight into the structure-sweetness relationship are presented. Despite their age-old widespread use in several parts of the world, there still remains certain concern regarding safety profile of these glycosides. Henceforth, the pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of ent-kaurene glycosides is reviewed.
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Stevia rebaudiana is considered natural as source of antioxidants, which contained phenolic compounds and flavonoides at levels 24.01 and 18.93 mg/g dry weight basis of leaves and 33.99 and 30.03 mg/g dry weight basis of callus, these substances have been suggested to play a preventive role for human health. Antioxidant activity of water and methanolic extracts of stevia leaves and callus equivalent to gallic acid (GA) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) were determined. GA was the stronger antioxidant in both water and methanol extracts than BHA. Antibacterial and antifungal of stevia leaves and callus extracted by six types of solvent (acetone, chloroform, hexane, methanol, ethyl acetate and water) were studied. Methanol and acetone extracts had greater antibacterial potential for the strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. However, acetone, chloroform, methanol and ethyl acetate had antifungal potential for Asperigillus ochraceus, Asperigillus parasiticus, Asperigillus flavus and Fusarium. The results indicate that stevia leaves and callus extracts may be an ideal candidate for further research into their uses for food preservation and pharmaceutical due to their antioxidants and antimicrobial activities.
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Aims Stevioside is a natural plant glycoside isolated from the plant Stevia rebaudiana which has been commercialized as a sweetener in Japan for more than 20 years. Previous animal studies have shown that stevioside has an antihypertensive effect. This study was to designed to evaluate the effect of stevioside in human hypertension. Methods A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken. This study group consisted of 106 Chinese hypertensive subjects with diastolic blood pressure between 95 and 110 mmHg and ages ranging from 28 to 75 years with 60 subjects (men 34, women 26; mean ± s.d., 54.1 ± 3.8 years) allocated to active treatment and 46 (men 19, women 27; mean ± s.d., 53.7 ± 4.1 years) to placebo treatment. Each subject was given capsules containing stevioside (250 mg) or placebo thrice daily and followed-up at monthly intervals for 1 year. Results After 3 months, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the stevioside group decreased significantly (systolic: 166.0 ± 9.4–152.6 ± 6.8 mmHg; diastolic: 104.7 ± 5.2–90.3 ± 3.6 mmHg, P < 0.05), and the effect persisted during the whole year. Blood biochemistry parameters including lipid and glucose showed no significant changes. No significant adverse effect was observed and quality of life assessment showed no deterioration. Conclusions This study shows that oral stevioside is a well tolerated and effective modality that may be considered as an alternative or supplementary therapy for patients with hypertension.
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A fermented aqueous extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni showed strong bactericidal activity towards a wide range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. The colony-forming ability of the food-borne pathogenic bacteria tested so far was reduced to < 10(-7) when exposed to > or = 40% (v/v) solutions of the fermented extract at 37 C for 2 hr. Secretion of verocytotoxin 1 and 2 by enterohemorrhagic E. coli was also diminished by fermented extract at a concentration of > or = 10% (v/v). In contrast, the fermented extract did not significantly kill Bifidobacteria or Lactobacilli. The active principle(s) of the fermented Stevia extract were bactericidal under acidic conditions.
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The natural sweetener stevioside, which is found in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, has been used for many years in the treatment of diabetes among Indians in Paraguay and Brazil. However, the mechanism for the blood glucose-lowering effect remains unknown. To elucidate the impact of stevioside and its aglucon steviol on insulin release from normal mouse islets and the beta-cell line INS-1 were used. Both stevioside and steviol (1 nmol/L to 1 mmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced insulin secretion from incubated mouse islets in the presence of 16.7 mmol/L glucose (P < .05). The insulinotropic effects of stevioside and steviol were critically dependent on the prevailing glucose concentration, ie, stevioside (1 mmol/L) and steviol (1 micromol/L) only potentiated insulin secretion at or above 8.3 mmol/L glucose (P < .05). Interestingly, the insulinotropic effects of both stevioside and steviol were preserved in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. During perifusion of islets, stevioside (1 mmol/L) and steviol (1 micromol/L) had a long-lasting and apparently reversible insulinotropic effect in the presence of 16.7 mmol/L glucose (P < .05). To determine if stevioside and steviol act directly on beta cells, the effects on INS-1 cells were also investigated. Stevioside and steviol both potentiated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells (P < .05). Neither stevioside (1 to 100 micromol/L) nor steviol (10 nmol/L to 10 micromol/L) influenced the plasma membrane K+ adenosine triphosphate ((K+)ATP)-sensitive channel activity, nor did they alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in islets. In conclusion, stevioside and steviol stimulate insulin secretion via a direct action on beta cells. The results indicate that the compounds may have a potential role as antihyperglycemic agents in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Article
Stevioside is a natural plant glycoside isolated from the plant Stevia rebaudiana which has been commercialized as a sweetener in Japan for more than 20 years. Previous animal studies have shown that stevioside has an antihypertensive effect. This study was to designed to evaluate the effect of stevioside in human hypertension. A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken. This study group consisted of 106 Chinese hypertensive subjects with diastolic blood pressure between 95 and 110 mmHg and ages ranging from 28 to 75 years with 60 subjects (men 34, women 26; mean +/- s.d., 54.1+/-3.8 years) allocated to active treatment and 46 (men 19, women 27; mean +/- s.d., 53.7+/-4.1 years) to placebo treatment. Each subject was given capsules containing stevioside (250 mg) or placebo thrice daily and followed-up at monthly intervals for 1 year. After 3 months, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the stevioside group decreased significantly (systolic: 166.0+/-9.4-152.6+/-6.8 mmHg; diastolic: 104.7 +/- 5.2-90.3+/-3.6 mmHg, P<0.05), and the effect persisted during the whole year. Blood biochemistry parameters including lipid and glucose showed no significant changes. No significant adverse effect was observed and quality of life assessment showed no deterioration. This study shows that oral stevioside is a well tolerated and effective modality that may be considered as an alternative or supplementary therapy for patients with hypertension.
Article
Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18% (P =.013). The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased by approximately 40% by stevioside compared to control (P <.001). Stevioside tended to decrease glucagon levels, while it did not significantly alter the area under the insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide curves. In conclusion, stevioside reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, indicating beneficial effects on the glucose metabolism. Stevioside may be advantageous in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.