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This review article outlines an overview of new trends and modern approaches for practical implementation of magnetic water treatment to eliminate scaling salts (carbonate, chloride and sulfate salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations) in power heat-exchanger devices and pipe lines. The principles of physical effects of the magnetic field on H2O molecules as well as the parameters of physico-chemical processes occurring in water and the behavior of the dissolved in water scaling salts subjected to the magnetic treatment are discussed. It is demonstrated that the effect of the magnetic field on water is a complex multifactorial phenomenon resulted in changes of the structure of hydrated ions as well as the physico-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts, changes in the rate of electrochemical coagulation and aggregate stability (clumping and consolidation), formation of multiple nucleation sites on the particles of fine dispersed precipitate consisting of crystals of substantially uniform size. There are also submitted data on constructive features of various magnetic water treatment devices produced by domestic industry, based on the permanent magnets and electromagnets (solenoids), such as hydro magnetic systems (HMS), magnetic transducers (MT) and magnetic activators (MA) of water. It was estimated the efficiency of using the various magnetic water treatment devices in water treatment technologies.
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European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
72
Copyright © 2014 by Academic Publishing House Researcher
Published in the Russian Federation
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology
Has been issued since 2013.
ISSN: 2310-6255
Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 72-85, 2014
DOI: 10.13187/ejmb.2014.4.72
www.ejournal8.com
UDC 621.187.12: 628.16
Basic Concepts of Magnetic Water Treatment
1 Oleg Mosin
2 Ignat Ignatov
1 Moscow State University of Applied Biotechnology, Russian Federation
Senior research Fellow of Biotechnology Department, Ph. D. (Chemistry)
103316, Moscow, Talalihina ulitza, 33
E-mail: mosin-oleg@yandex.ru
2 Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics (SRC MB), Bulgaria
Professor, D. Sc., director of SRC MB.
1111, Sofia, N. Kopernik street, 32
E-mail: mbioph@dir.bg
Abstract. This review article outlines an overview of new trends and modern approaches for
practical implementation of magnetic water treatment to eliminate scaling salts (carbonate,
chloride and sulfate salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations) in power heat-exchanger devices and
pipe lines. The principles of physical effects of the magnetic field on H2O molecules as well as the
parameters of physico-chemical processes occurring in water and the behavior of the dissolved in
water scaling salts subjected to the magnetic treatment are discussed. It is demonstrated that the
effect of the magnetic field on water is a complex multifactorial phenomenon resulted in changes of
the structure of hydrated ions as well as the physico-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved
inorganic salts, changes in the rate of electrochemical coagulation and aggregate stability
(clumping and consolidation), formation of multiple nucleation sites on the particles of fine
dispersed precipitate consisting of crystals of substantially uniform size. There are also submitted
data on constructive features of various magnetic water treatment devices produced by domestic
industry, based on the permanent magnets and electromagnets (solenoids), such as hydro
magnetic systems (HMS), magnetic transducers (MT) and magnetic activators (MA) of water. It
was estimated the efficiency of using the various magnetic water treatment devices in water
treatment technologies.
Keywords: magnetic field; magnetic water treatment; scaling salts; power heat industry.
Introduction
As is known, the effect of magnetic field on water bears a complex and multifactorial
character that in the final result affects the structure of water and hydrated ions as well as the
physico-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts [1]. When being applied to
water, the magnetic field therein changes the rates of chemical reactions due to the occurrence of
competing reactions of dissolution and precipitation of the dissolved salts, facilitates the formation
and decomposition of colloidal complexes, and improves electro-coagulation followed by
sedimentation and crystallization of scaling salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ [2 ].
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
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Hypotheses explaining the mechanism of action of the magnetic field on water are divided
into three main groups colloidal, ionic and water hypotheses.
The first hypotheses assume that under the influence of the magnetic field in the treated
water there occurs a spontaneous formation and decay of colloidal complexes of metal cations -
Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+, which fragments of decay further forming the cetrtes of nucleation of
inorganic salts that accelerates their subsequent sedimentation. It is known that the presence of
metal cations (particularly, Fe3+) and microinclusions of ferromagnetic iron particles of Fe2O3 in
water intensifies the formation of colloidal hydrophobic sols of Fe3+ cations with chlorine Cl- anions
and neutral H2O molecules having the general formula [xFe2O3.yH2O·zFe3+] . 3zCl-, which may
cause the formation of nucleation centers which surface adsorbs calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+
cations (forming the basis of the carbonate hardness of water) that leads to the formation of fine
crystalline precipitation as a sludge [3]. Thus, the more stable the ion hydrate shell is, the more
difficult they converge or deposit on the adsorbent complexes formed on the surfaces between the
liquid and solid phases.
The hypotheses of the second group explain the action of the magnetic field on water by
polarization of dissolved ions and deformation of their hydration shells by the magnetic field,
accompanied by a decrease of hydration - an important factor that contributes to the solubility of
the dissolved salts in water, electrolytic dissociation, distribution of various substances between
solid and liquid phases, kinetic constants and equilibrium chemical reactions rates in aqueous
solutions, which in its turn increases the likelihood of convergence of the hydrated ions and
sedimentation processes and crystallization of inorganic salts [4]. In the scientific literature there is
experimental evidence that under the influence of the magnetic field there occurs a temporary
distortion of hydration shells of the dissolved in water ions that alters their distribution between
the solid and the liquid phase [5]. It is assumed that the influence of the magnetic field on the
dissolved in water ions of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ can be also associated with the generation of a
weak electric current in a moving stream of water or with the pressure pulsation [6].
The hypotheses of the third group postulate that the magnetic field due to dipole polarization
of water molecules directly influences the structure of water associates formed from a variety of
H2O molecules bound to each other via a low energy intermolecular van der Waals forces, dipole-
dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding, which may cause the deformation of hydrogen bonds
and their partial rupture, as well as the migration of mobile protons H+ within the associative
elements of water and redistribution of H2O molecules in temporary associatives - clusters with
general formula (Н2О)n, where n according to the recent studies can reach tens to several hundreds
units [7]. These effects may in combination alter the structure of water that leads to the observed
changes in its density, surface tension, viscosity, pH value, and parameters of physical and
chemical processes occuring in water under the applied magnetic field, including the dissolution
and crystallization of dissolved inorganic salts [8].
There is evidence of the effectiveness of magnetic water treatment in reduction of the
concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the magnetic treated water that is explained by the
formation of metastable clathrate structures of metal cations as a hexo aqua complex of
[Са(Н2О6)]2+. The complex influence of the magnetic field on the structure of the hydrated cations
of scalling salts opens up broad prospects for magnetic water treatment in power heating and
related industries, including the water treatment.
There is also evidence pointing out to the bactericidal effect of the magnetic field [9] that is
essential for the use of the magnetic water treatment in systems that require a high level of
microbial purity.
The above mentioned factors contribute to the use of the magnetic water treatment in the
power heat exchange devices and systems that are sensitive to scale - as formed on the inner walls
of pipes of heat exchangers the solid deposits of hydrocarbon (calcium carbonates Са(НСО3)2 and
magnesium carbonates Mg(НСО3)2, decaying to СаСО3 and Mg(OH)2 when water is heated with
the subsequent release of CO2, as well as sulfate (CaSO4, MgSO4), chloride (ClCl2, MgCl2) and in
less degree silicate (SiO32-) salts of calcium, magnesium and iron [10]. Limescale reduces the
diameter of the pipelines, which leads to the increased flow resistance, which in its turn adversely
affects the operation of heat exchange equipment. Since the scale has an extremely low coefficient
of thermal conductivity than the metal from which the heating elements were made, water heating
consumes much more time. Therefore over time, the energy losses can make the functioning of a
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
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heat exchanger on such water ineffective or even impossible. When the thickness of the inner layer
of limescale increases, this lead to a violation of water circulation; in boilers this may lead to
overheating of the metal and, ultimately, to its destruction. All these factors lead to the need for
regular repairs, replacement of piping and plumbing and requires substantial capital investments
and additional financial costs to clean out the heat exchange equipment from limescale.
The magnetic water treatment compared with conventional methods of water softening by ion
exchange and reverse osmosis technology is simple, economical and environmentally safe. It is
effective in the treatment of calcium-carbonate waters, which make up about 80% of all natural
waters of the Russian Federation and Bulgaria. That is why the scope of applying of the magnetic
water treatment covers the power heating boilers, heat exchangers, boilers, compressors, engine
cooling systems and generators, steam generators, network supplying hot and cold water, district
heating, piping and other heat transfer equipment etc. The magnetic water treatment reduces
corrosion of steel pipes and heat exchange equipment by 30-50% (depending on the initial
composition of water), which makes it possible to increase the lifetime of thermal power
equipment, water pipes, and significantly reduce the accident rates [11].
Taking into account the contemporary trends and prospects of using the magnetic water
treatment, it is very relevant to develop the new and to improve the existing magnetic water
treatment technologies for achievement of higher efficiency and functioning of magnetic water
treatment devices for a more complete extraction of the water hardness and increasing resources of
heat exchange equipment. The aim of this research was to review the mechanisms of action of the
magnetic field on water, the parameters occurring in water physico-chemical processes and the
behavior of the dissolved in water salts.
The mechanism of action of the magnetic field on water. The principle of operation
of existing water softener magnetic devices is based on complex multifactorial influence of the
exposed magnetic field generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets to the dissolved in
water hydrated metal cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ and the structure of the hydrates and
water associates that leads to a change in the rate of electrochemical coagulation and aggregate
stability (clumping and consolidation) of dispersed charged particles in a liquid stream of
magnetized water and to formation of multiple nucleation sites on the particles of fine dispersed
precipitate consisting of crystals of substantially uniform size [12].
In the process of the magnetic water treatment there are occurred several processes:
The displacement by the electromagnetic field the balance between the structural
components of water and the hydrated ions;
Increase in the nucleation of dissolved salts on microinclusions of dispersed
ferroparticles in a local volume of water;
Changing in coagulation and sedimentation rates of dispersed particles in the treated by
the magnetic field water flux.
As a result, magnesium and calcium salts dissolved in water lose their ability to form a dense
deposits - instead of usual calcium carbonate is formed fine crystalline polymorphic CaCO3, which
on the structure resembles aragonite a carbonate mineral with orthorhombic acicular crystals,
that is either not released from the treated water as the crystal growth stops at the stage of
microcrystals, or is precipitated as a fine sediment accumulating in the sump container.
Anti-scale effect under the magnetic water treatment depends on the composition of the
treated water, the magnetic field strength, rate of water movement, the duration of its stay in the
magnetic field and other factors. In general, anti-scale effect of the magnetic treatment of water
increases with increasing temperature of the treated water; with increasing content of Ca2+ and
Mg2+ cations; with an increase in the pH value of the treated water, as well as with the reducing the
total salinity of water.
In theoretical calculations an individual water molecule is considered as the charged dipole.
With the flow of water molecules (dipoles) in the magnetic field perpendicular to the magnetic field
lines along the axis Y (the vector V) occurs torque F1, F2 (Lorentz force) trying to deploy a
molecule in the horizontal plane (Figure 1). When the dipole moves in a horizontal plane, along an
Z-axis, in the vertical plane arises a torque. The magnet poles prevent rotation of the dipole
molecule; therefore the movement of the dipole perpendicular to the magnetic field lines will be
inhibited. This leads to the fact that for a dipole placed between the two poles of the magnet
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
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remains only one degree of freedom - the oscillation along X-axis, i.g. the oscillation along the
magnetic lines of the applied field. For other coordinates the motion of H2O dipoles is limited: they
became “sandwiched” between the poles of a magnet, making an oscillatory motion about the X-
axis. Certain position of the dipoles of H2O molecules in the magnetic field along the field lines will
be maintained, thereby somehow arranging their orientation in the magnetic field. These
theoretical calculations are applicable to the description of the behavior in the magnetic field the
hydrated metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+, with the difference that in the magnetic field
there occurs polarization of the hydrated cation shells.
Figure 1. Physical behavior of the dipole in the magnetic field
It was proved experimentally that on the fixed water the magnetic field acts much weaker,
because moving in a flux water poccess some electroconductivity; while its moving in the
electromagnetic fields are generated small electric currents [13]. Therefore, this method of
treatment of moving in a stream water is often designated by the magnetohydrodynamic treatment
(MHDT). With the use of modern methods MHDT can achieve effects such those as observed at
water treatment, as the increase of pH value of water (to reduce the corrosivity of water flow),
creating a local increase in the concentration of ions in the local volume of water (for the
conversion of excess content of hardness ions in a finely divided crystalline phase and prevention
of salts precipitation on the surface of heat exchange equipment and piping), etc. [14].
Structurally, the majority of magnetic water treatment apparatus are composed of a magneto-
cell manufactured in the form of a hollow cylindrical element made from ferromagnetic material
with the magnets placed inside by the means of the flange or the threaded connection with the
annular air gap cross sectional area, the passage area of which, however, is not smaller than the
passage area of the supply and discharge piping, that does not lead to a significant drop in output
pressure of the apparatus [15]. As a result of a steady laminar flow of an electrically conductive
fluid (water) in the magnetodynamic cell being placed in a uniform transverse magnetic field with
induction B0 (Figure 2), the Lorentz force is generated [16], the value of which depends on the
charge q of the particle, its velocity u and the magnetic field B.
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The Lorentz force is directed perpendicular to the fluid velocity and the lines of the magnetic
induction of the electromagnetic field B, whereby the ions and the charged particles in a fluid
stream are moving around a circle which plane is perpendicular to the lines of the vector B [17].
Thus, by choosing the required position of the magnetic induction B with respect to the velocity
vector of the liquid stream, it can be possible to purposefully affect the cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+
and Fe3+ , redistributing them in a local volume of an aqueous medium.
Figure 2. Diagram of flow of water in the MHD cell: σ - conductivity of the cell wall; В0 - amplitude
value of the magnetic field induction vector
According to theoretical calculations, to initiate crystallization of hardness salts within the
local volume of the liquid (water) moving through a pipe around the walls of the pipes in the
operating air gaps of the magnetic device, is applied such a direction of the magnetic induction B0,
wherein in the middle of the operating air gap is formed the zone with zero induction. For this
purpose, the magnets are arranged in the device in such a way that the same magnetic polls are
directed towards each other (Figure 3). In this scheme under the action of the Lorentz force in an
aqueous medium there occurs a counter flow of anions and cations in the region interacting with
the zero value of magnetic induction, which contributes to the creating in this zone the
concentrations of interacting ions, which in its turn leads to their precipitation and subsequent
formation of nucleation centers of scale-forming salts.
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Figure 3. Scheme of layout of magnets, lines of induction, Lorentz force vectors and ions in MHDT.
1 - anions, 2 - the direction of the induced currents, 3 - zones with zero induction, 4 cations
When designing magnetic devices it need be specified the type of device performance, the
amplitude of the magnetic field in the gap and the corresponding magnetic field strength, the
velocity of water in the operating air gap, the passage time of water through the core unit, the
composition of the ferromagnet (apparatus with electromagnets/solenoids), magnetic alloy and
dimensions of the magnet [18].
Design of magnetic water treatment devices. Domestic industry produces two types of
devices for the magnetic water treatment (DMW) based on permanent magnet made from hard
magnetic ferrites (Table 1, Table. 2) and operates on AC solenoid electromagnets (Table 3)
(solenoids with ferromagnets), generating an alternating magnetic field. These devices subdivided
into hydromagnetic systems (HMS), magnetic transducers (hydromultipoles) - MSP, MWS, MMT
and activators of water series AMP, MPAV, AIM, KEMA for domestic and industrial usage. Most of
them are similar in design and principle of operation (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Both these devices
are mounted to the pipeline by means of threaded or flanged connections.
Installing of threaded magnetic water treatment devices is carried out in the following cases:
If the system has a pump unit, the selection carries out on the performance of the pump;
When setting the threaded device the distance to the object to be protected must be in a
range from 1 m to 5 m;
If there is a water meter, the unit is set up not less than 1 meter after the water meter along
the flow of water;
It is necessary to install the device in a relaxing (laminar) flow of water, i.e. before the pump
or more than 15 m after it;
If possible to set up the unit before the pump to protect it;
To protect the divice from sludge it is required to set up the device before the
magnetomechanical filter;
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Selection of magnetofilter is carried out by the connection diameter;
Installation of flange magnetic water treatment devices is carried out in the following cases:
The unit is installed at least not far from 3 meters and within 30 meters from the protected
equipment;
The unit is set up in laminar flow of water, or before the pump or more than 15 m after it;
If possible to set the unit to the pump to protect it;
In front of the divice is set sludge filter set (not necessarily magnetomechanical);
Selection of magnetofilter is carried out by connection diameter.
Table 1: Specifications of domestic magnetic water treatment devices (screw connection)
based on permanent magnets
Key Features:
Nominal diameter (mm): 10; 15; 20; 25; 32
Nominal pressure (MPa): 1
Parameter
Apparatus model
АМP 10 РZ
АМP 20РZ
АМP25 РZ
АМP32 РZ
The amplitude peak value
of the magnetic induction
(В0) on the surface of the
working area, mT
180
The number of working
areas
5
Nominal water flow,
min./norm./max, m3/h
0,15/0,5/0,71
0,65/1,9/2,9
1,0/3,0/4,5
1,6/4,8/7,4
Nominal diameter, mm
10
20
25
32
Compound, inch
1/2
3/4
1
11/4
Maximum working
pressure, MPa
1
Operating temperature
range, 0C
5120
Dimensions, (LDy), mm
10832
14841
17250
15056
Weight, kg
0,5
0,8
1,2
1,8
Table 2: Specifications of domestic industrial magnetic water treatment devices (flange connection)
based on permanent magnets
Key Features:
Nominal diameter (mm): 32; 40; 50; 65; 80; 100; 125
Nominal pressure (MPa): 10
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
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Parameter
Apparatus model
АМP 32FZ
АМP 40FZ
АМP 50FZ
АМP 65FZ
АМP 80FZ
АМP
100FZ
АМP 125FZ
The amplitude
peak value of the
magnetic
induction (В0) on
the surface of the
working area, mT
180
The number of
working areas
5
Nominal water
flow,
min./norm./max,
m3/h
1,6/4,8/7,4
2,5/7,5/11,5
4,8/11,8/18
6,6/20/30,5
10/30,5/46
15,7/47/72
20/75/112,5
Nominal
diameter, mm
32
40
50
65
80
100
125
Maximum
working
pressure, MPa
10
Operating
temperature
range, 0C
5120
Dimensions,
(LDy), mm
280145
326160
398180
418195
460215
540245
568280
Weight, kg
8,0
13,5
19,0
24,0
32,0
45,0
56,0
Table 3: Specifications of domestic magnetic water treatment devices based
on the electromagnets (solenoids)
Key Features:
Nominal diameter (mm): 80; 100; 200; 600
Nominal pressure (MPa): 1,6
Parameter
Apparatus model
АМО-
25UHL
АМО-
100UHL
АМО-200UHL
AMO-600UHL
Voltage, V
220
Frequency, Hz
60
Performance for treated water
m3/h
25
100
200
600
The magnetic field strength,
kA/m
200
Temperatures of water, 0C
60
40
50
70
Working water pressure, MPa
1,6
Electromagnet power
consumption, kW
0,35
0,5
0,5
1,8
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The dimensions of the
electromagnet, mm
260410
440835
520950
7551100
Overall dimensions of the power
supply, mm
250350250
Electromagnet weight, kg
40
200
330
1000
Weight of power supply unit, kg
8.0
a)
b)
Figure 4. Types of domestic devices for magnetic water treatment based on permanent magnets: a)
- with flange compounds; b with screw compounds
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
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Figure 5. Domestic apparatus for magnetic water treatment based on electromagnets AMO-25
UHL (“SIBKOTLMASH”, Russia)
In magnetic devices operating on electromagnets (solenoids), water is exposed by
continuously adjustable influence of the magnetic field of different strength and alternating
direction of the magnetic induction, wherein electromagnets can be located both inside and outside
the unit. The electromagnet consists of a coil-winding and the magnetic circuit formed by the core,
the rings of the coil and the casing. Between the core and the coil is formed an annular gap for the
passage of an influx of the treated water. The magnetic field crosses twice the water flow in a
direction perpendicular to its motion. The control unit provides a half-wave rectification of AC to
DC. To install the electromagnet in the pipeline there are provided special electric adapters. The
unit itself must be installed as close as possible to the protected equipment. If the system has a
centrifugal pump, the magnetic treatment unit is mounted after the pump.
In the constructions of the second type of magnetic devices are applied permanent magnets
based on modern powdered magnetic carriers - ferromagnetic ferrite, barium and rare earth alloy
magnetic materials of rare earth metals neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm) with zirconium (Zr),
iron (Fe), copper (Cu), titanium (Ti), cobalt (Co) and boron (B). Recent types on neodymium (Nd),
iron (Fe), titanium (Ti) and boron (B) are preferable because they possess long service life, the
magnetization 1500-2400 kA/m, a residual induction of 1,2-1,3 Tesla, the energy of the magnetic
field 280-320 kJ/m3 (Table 4) and do not lose their properties when heated to 150 0C.
Table 4: Main physical parameters of rare-earth permanent magnets
Magnet composition
Residual induction, T
Magnetization, kA/m
Magnetic field energy,
kJ/m3
SmZrFeCoCu
1,01,1
15002400
180220
NdFeCoTiCuB
1,21,3
15002400
280320
The permanent magnets oriented in a certain way in a unit are arranged coaxially within the
cylindrical body of the magnetic element made from stainless steel of marking 12X18H10T, which
ends are provided with tapered centering tips elements connected by argon-arc welding [19]. The
main element of the magnetic transducer (magnetic dinamic cell) is a multi-pole magnet of
cylindrical shape that creates a symmetrical magnetic field, the axial and radial components of
which under the transition from one pole to another pole of the magnet change in the opposite
direction. Due to the location of the magnets, creating a high-gradient magnetic field transverse
with respect to the water flow, is achived the maximum efficiency of the magnetic field on the ions
of dissolved in water scale-forming salts. As a result, crystallization of scale-forming salts does not
occur on the walls of the heat exchangers, but in the bulk water as a fine suspension (dredge),
which is removed by blowing a stream of water in special sump collectors installed in heating
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systems after DMW-device, as well as in hot water magistrales. Hydromagnetic water treatment
systems (HMS) are varried favorably on techno-economic characteristics. The optimal interval
velocity of the water flow for HMS makes up 0,5-4,0 m/s, the optimal pressure 0,8-1,0 MPa
(Table 5) [20]. Operating costs of such devices usually make up 10 years. These devices can be
installed in both industrial and domestic conditions: magistral lines, feeding water into the water
mains, boilers, flow heaters, steam and water boilers, water heating systems of various
technological equipment (compressor stations, electric cars, and other thermal equipment).
Although HMS are designed for water flow rates from 0,08 to 1100 m3/h and for the pipe‟s
diameter of 15-325 mm, however, there have been experience in creating the magnetic devices for
power plants with pipe sizes of 2000 to 4000 mm [21].
Table 5: Specifications of hydromagnetic systems
Key features:
Nominal diameter (mm): 15; 20; 25
Nominal pressure (MPa): 0,8
Model
Pipe diameter, mm
(inch)
Nominal pressure,
Mpa
Productivity, m3/h
HМS-15
15(1/2")
0,8
1,5
HМS-20
20(3/4")
0,8
2,0
HМS-25F
25(1")
0,8
7,0
HМS-35F
35(1")
0,8
20,0
In recent time are also used the apparatus of pulsed magnetic field, the distribution of which
in the space is characterized by an electric frequency modulation and pulse intervals composed of
microseconds, capable of generating a strong induction at 5-100 T and superstrong magnetic fields
with the the magnetic induction being more than 100 T. For this purpose are used mainly helical
coils made of durable steel and bronze. For formation of superstrong constant magnetic fields with
greater induction are used superconducting electromagnets [22].
Devices based on permanent magnets are favorably differend from the magnetic devices
based on electromagnets (solenoids), because during their operation there are not any problems
associated with the consumption of electricity and, therefore, with the repair from electrical
breakdown of electromagnet coils (Table 6, Table. 7). These devices can be installed in both
industrial and domestic conditions: lines, feeding water into the water mains, boilers, water
heating systems of various technological equipment. The main disadvantage of these devices is that
the permanent magnets on the base of barium ferrite are demagnetized on 40-50% after 5 years.
For industrial purposes it is recommended to use the magnetic devices based on electromagnets, as
AMO-25UHL, AMO-100UHL, AMO-200UHL and AMO-600UHL.
When designing magnetic devices is setting up an apparatus type, its capability, the magnetic
field in the operating air gap and the corresponding magnetic field strength, the velocity of water in
the operating air gap, the time of passage of water, the core unit, the composition of the
ferromagnet (machines with electromagnets), magnetic alloy and dimensions of the magnet
(machines with permanent magnets).
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Table 6: Magnetic activators AMV. Household series (with screw connections)
Model
Capacity, m3/h
Minimal
Average
Maximum
1
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 10
0,1
0,5
0,9
2
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 15
0,2
1,35
2,5
3
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 20
0,5
2,25
4,0
4
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 25
1,0
4,00
7,0
Table 7: Magnetic activators AMV. Industrial series (with flanged connection)
Model
Capacity, m3/h
Minimal
Average
Maximum
1
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 32
1,8
5,9
10,0
2
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 40
2,5
7,7
13,0
3
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 50
3,3
11,7
20,0
4
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 65
5,0
20,0
35,0
5
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 80
8,0
26,5
45,0
6
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 100
12,0
51,0
90,0
7
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 125
20,0
85,0
170,0
8
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 150
30,0
130,0
260,0
9
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 175
45,0
170,0
345,0
10
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 200
55,0
215,0
435,0
11
Magnetic activator АМВ Dу 250
100,0
400,0
700,0
Apparatus for magnetic water treatment may be used for household and industrial purposes
to prevent scaling; to reduce the effect of scaling in pipes of hot and cold water magistrales, in
heating elements of the boiler equipment, heat exchangers, steam generators, cooling equipment,
etc.; to prevent corrosion in pipes of local hot and cold water magistrales; for purification of water
(for example, after chlorination); in this case, the deposition rate of scale-forming salts is increased
by 2-3 fold with sumps requiring smaller capacity; increase of the filtration systems for chemical
water treatment - filtration cycle is increased by 1,5 times while reducing the consumption of
chemical reagents and purification of heat exchange units [23]. The magnetic water treatment
devices may be used alone or as part of any installations patterns of apparatus tend to scale
formation during operation - water treatment systems in dwellings, cottages, children and health
care facilities, water treatment in the food industry, etc. The use of these devices is the most
efficient for treatment of water with a carbonate hardness predominance to 4 mg-Eq/l, and the
total hardness to 6 mg-Eq/l with a total mineralization level of 500 mg/l.
Requirements regulating the working conditions of the magnetic water treatment devices
consist in the following factors:
Temperature of water heating in the apparatus should be no higher than 95 0C;
Content of Fe2+and Fe3+ ions in the treated water should be no less than 0,3 mg/l;
The total content of sulfates and chlorides of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (CaSO4, CaCl2, MgSO4,
MgCl2) should be not more than 50 mg/l;
Carbonate hardness (Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2), - not more than 9 mEq/l;
Content of dissolved oxygen in water - less than 3 mg/l;
The velocity of the water flow in the apparatus - 1-3 m/s.
According to the Russian building regulation norms (SNIP 11-35-76, Boiler”), the magnetic
water treatment for thermal equipment and boilers is advisable to carry out, if the content of Fe2+
and Fe3+ ions in water does not exceed 0,3 mg/l, oxygen content - 3 mg/l, the constant hardness of
water (CaSO4, CaCl2, MgSO4, MgCl2) - 50 mg/l, carbonate hardness (Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2) is not
greater than 9 mEq/l and the water heating temperature must not exceed 95 0C. For power boilers
and cast iron sectional boilers the using of the magnetic water treatment technology is possible if
the carbonate hardness is less than 10 mEq/l, the content of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in water 0,3 mg/l, on
condition that water enters from the tap or surface source. Some productions, however, establish
European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.(4), № 2
84
more stringent regulation to the water purification, until its deep softening (0,035-0,05 mEq/l) for
water-tube boilers (15-25 atm) 0,15 mEq/l; fire-tube boilers (5-15 atm) 0,35 mEq/l; high
pressure boilers (50-100 atm) 0,035 mEq/l.
Conclusions
On the basis of this research can be made the following conclusions:
The magnetic water treatment affects both an influence on the water, the mechanical
impurities and scale-forming salts and ions and on the nature of the physical and chemical
processes of dissolution and crystallization;
In water exposed after magnetic treatment is possible the change of the hydration of ions,
salts solubility, pH value, which results in changing the rate of corrosion processes.
Thus, magnetic water treatment causes a variety of related physical and chemical effects.
Indisputable advantages of magnetic treatment in contrast to the traditional schemes of water
softening by using ion exchange and reverse osmosis is the simplicity of the technological scheme,
environment safety and economy. Besides magnetic water treatment method requires no chemical
reagents, and is therefore environmentally friendly.
References:
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Energosberezheniye i vodopodgotovka. 2006. № 2. P. 23–29 [in Russian].
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B.T. Gusev. Moscow: Energya, 1970, 144 p. [in Russian].
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[in Russian].
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УДК 621.187.12: 628.16
Основные принципы магнитной обработки воды
1 Олег Викторович Мосин
2 Игнат Игнатов
1 Московский государственный университет прикладной биотехнологии, Российская
федерация
Старший научный сотрудник кафедры биотехнологии, канд. хим. наук.
103316, Москва, ул. Талалихина, 33
E-mail: mosin-oleg@yandex.ru
2 Научно-исследовательский центр медицинской биофизики (РИЦ МБ), Болгария
Профессор, доктор наук Европейской академии естественных наук (ФРГ)
1111, София, ул. Н. Коперника, 32/6
E-mail: mbioph@dir.bg
Аннотация. В данной статье приводится обзор современных методов и подходов
практической реализации магнитной обработки воды для устранения солей жесткости
(карбонатные, хлоридные и сульфатные соли Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ и Fe3+) в теплообменной
аппаратуре и трубопроводах. Рассмотрены комплексные многофакторные принципы
физического воздействия магнитного поля на молекулы H2O, параметры протекающих в
воде физико-химических процессов и поведение расстворенных в воде солей жесткости,
подвергающихся магнитной обработке. Показано, что влияния магнитного поля на воду
является комплексным многофакторным феноментом, результатом которого являются
изменения структуры гидратированных ионов, а также физико-химических свойств и
поведения расстворенных в воде неорганических солей с последующей их агрегацией и
преципитацией, образование многочисленных центров кристаллизации на частицах
тонкодисперстного осадка из солей, состоящих из микрокристаллов почти одинаковой
формы. Также приведены данные по конструктивным особенностям различных аппаратов
для магнитной обработки воды, выпускаемы отечественной промышленностью, основанные
на постоянных магнитах и электромагнитах (соленоидах): гидромагнитные системы (ГМС),
магнитные преобразователи (МП) и магнитные активаторы воды. Показана эффективность
использования различных аппаратов магнитной обработки воды в технологиях
водоподготовки.
Ключевые слова: магнитное поле; магнитная обработка воды; соли жесткости;
теплоэнергетика.
... Generally, water molecules are gathered in the form of H 2 O clusters, held together by hydrogen bonds. The effects of an external magnetic field on the properties of water are discussed largely in the literature [1][2][3].Numerous searching papers about the influence of magnetic (MF) and electromagnetic (EMF) fields on the physicochemical properties of water or aqueous solutions and suspensions have been published [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. The effects of these fields on water still attract much research, especially, MF effects on physical and chemical properties of water have been investigated exten-sively [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
... The effects of these fields on water still attract much research, especially, MF effects on physical and chemical properties of water have been investigated exten-sively [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Different hypotheses regarding the influence of magnetic fields on water have been taken into account [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. EhsanEsmaeilnezhad et al. [4], have shown that some properties of water as pH, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and scale formation inhibition, can be changed by the influence of magnetic field. ...
... According to them, the time that water remains supercooled increases with the increase of intensity of the DC magnetic field, furthermore the crystallization speed also increases obviously. The new behavior of magnetized water is associated https with a new distribution and polarization of H 2 O molecules caused by the application of MF, these assumptions are confirmed by both the IR spectrum and the Raman spectrum [10]. Several research have been made to shorten the freezing period and increase the freezing rate [11]. ...
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... Other configurations, such as fastening the magnet around the pipe, were proposed by Simonič and Urbancl et al. [87], where north and north poles or south and south poles were placed instead of Fig. 2a, b. Using solenoids [88,89] and cylindrical magnets [90][91][92] were studied as well, which are shown in Fig. 2 c, and d. The manufactured DMF configuration via the solenoid coil generates an electrical current using the warped wires around the pipe, and the MF intensity can be controlled by modifying the AC frequencies of the current [93][94][95][96]. ...
... Either the structure of the water or the interactions of water bonds influence the evaporation process [27]. Thus, weakened Van der Waals forces [78,90,141,142] or weakened HBs [41,79,143,144] could justify the water behavior changes when it is subjected to an MF. It is assumed that weak intermolecular bonds lead to cluster size decrement, which eventually requires less energy to evaporate due to the weakened or broken intermolecular bonds. ...
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... So, synthesis, exploration, and modeling of magnetic materials have great importance because of their spread of uses in the world of technology (21). Nevertheless, significant limitations, tiny magnetic properties, stability, and reproducibility as well as hysteresis of most of the currently existing materials [21], have encouraged scientists; deeper research the magnetic properties of molecules and biological materials such as protein (22), DNA (23), water (24), hemoglobin (25), and magnetotactic bacteria is underway (26). Though, to the best of our knowledge, most of the mentioned figures of merits have not been wholly solved (22)(23)(24)(25)(26). ...
... Nevertheless, significant limitations, tiny magnetic properties, stability, and reproducibility as well as hysteresis of most of the currently existing materials [21], have encouraged scientists; deeper research the magnetic properties of molecules and biological materials such as protein (22), DNA (23), water (24), hemoglobin (25), and magnetotactic bacteria is underway (26). Though, to the best of our knowledge, most of the mentioned figures of merits have not been wholly solved (22)(23)(24)(25)(26). It seems that, focusing on biomaterials in the form of inspiration from nature and current existents such as parasites, that, up to now, have only had their negative features evaluated and investigated (27). ...
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... Studies revealed that exposing water to magnetic field influences the water's physiochemical properties which affect the biological properties of the organisms that consume the water (Sedigh et al., 2019). Mosin and Ignatov (2014) said that in water exposed after magnetic treatment is possible the change of the hydration of ions, salts solubility, pH value, which results in changing the rate of corrosion processes. Thus, magnetic water treatment causes a variety of related physical and chemical effects. ...
... Also, water has many important features such as holds the magnetic charges and has a dipole moment [4]. Mosin and Ignatov [5] reported that the effect of the magnetic field on water resulted in changes of the structure of hydrated ions, physio-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts. Wang et al. [6] reported that water passing through a magnetic field changes water to a magnetic water, as a result of these exposure to the magnetic field could enhance the conductivity, decrease the surface tension of water, increase of evaporation amount and decrease of specific heat and boiling point after magnetization. ...
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... Then, because of the limited water resources, better use of available water resources for irrigation is important, the use of poor-quality irrigation water with high salinity is one of the main problems in agriculture. For this reason, the use of techniques such as magnetic water in soil and water reclamation must be studied (Mosin and Ignatov, 2014). Some experiments have shown that the magnetization of water can change water properties. ...
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... Water is one of the fluids, which plays an important role in yielding production of oil storages, and besides, water is basic fluid for all the fluids in flooding of polymer or surfactants; thus, it is necessary to study the effect of magnetic field on water used in the field of oil engineering. Water used for crude oil extraction can be magnetized by two modes: static and dynamic [133]. In the static mode, a specific volume of water is exposed to a magnetic field, whereas in the dynamic mode, water is passed through a magnetic field. ...
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We reviewed the application of magnetized solvents in a wide range of fields, including chemistry, concrete, brick, agriculture, livestock and poultry, extraction of oil and its derivatives, automobile, and medicine. In addition, we reanalyze the Zeeman effect for the first time since solvents are able to retain and transfer the properties obtained through magnetization even after they are no longer exposed to the magnetic source. These properties are retained for several days even after exposure to high temperatures. These claims strongly suggest that magnetized solvents can include polar and non-polar solvents, not being limited to just water.
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The electromagnetic frequency is one of the most important parameters in electromagnetic scale inhibition research, and most of the previous studies on the optimal frequency range used experimental analysis. In this paper, a computational model for the optimal frequency of CaCO3 scaling in copper pipes under the action of electromagnetic fields is introduced. By establishing the equivalent electric dipole pipeline physical propagation model of the two-layer medium of the pipe wall and the water body, the vector magnetic potential in the water body is deduced by the mirror method, and the electromagnetic field expression of the water body in the pipe is derived. According to the electromagnetic energy relationship, the optimal electromagnetic frequency range is calculated to be 70–75 kHz. Finally, experiments were performed to analyze the effect of electromagnetic fields in different frequency ranges on the scaling of CaCO3 in copper pipes, and the obtained results verified the accuracy of the optimal frequency calculation model for CaCO3 scaling in copper pipes under the action of electromagnetic fields.
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Abstract In this review it is reported about the research on the structure of intermolecular water cyclic associates (clusters) with general formula (Н2О)n and their charged ionic clusters [(Н2О)n]+ and [(Н2О)n]- by means of computer modeling and spectroscopy methods as 1Н-NMR, IR-spectroscopy, DNES, EXAFS-spectroscopy, X-Ray and neurons diffraction. The computer calculation of polyhedral nanoclusters (Н2О)n, where n = 3–20 are carried out. Based on this data the main structural mathematical models describing water structure (quasicrystalline, continuous, fractal, fractal-clathrate) have been examined and some important physical characteristics were obtained. The average energy of hydrogen bonding between Н2О molecules in the process of cluster formation was measured by the DNES method compiles -0.1067 ± 0.0011 eV. It was also shown that water clusters formed from D2О were more stable, than those ones from Н2О due to isotopic effects of deuterium. Keywords: hydrogen bond, water, structure, clusters. 5. Conclusion The experimental data obtained during the last years suggest that water is a complex dynamic associative system, consisting of tens and possibly hundreds individual H2O molecules binding by multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonds, being in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Up till now is scientifically proven the existence of associative water clusters with general formula (H2O)n, where n = 3–20. Although calculated structural models explain pretty well many anomalous properties of water and being in a good agreement with the experimental data on the diffraction of X-rays and neutrons, Raman, Compton scattering and EXAFS-spectroscopy, they are the most difficult to agree with the dynamic properties of water – flow, viscosity and short relaxation times, which are measured by picoseconds. Referenses Antonov A. & Galabova T. (1992) Reports from the 6th Nat. Conference of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. Sofia. Antonov A. 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Observable changes of water by magnetic fields have been investigated in an attempt to contribute to the knowledge of the structure of liquid water. The crystallization mode of the water's mineral content was found to change from a dendritic, substrate-bound solidification habit to the form of separate disc-shaped crystals after the water had moved through a number of magnetic fields. The former scarcity of crystallization nucleii in the water had been turned into an abundance of nucleation centers in the water. The reduction of the number of the substrate-bound crystals has been used as a quantitative measure of the magnetic effect. A mechanism is suggested assuming that resonance between the time sequence of the magnetic fields and the internal vibratory frequency of the water complexes results in the fracture of some of the complexes. Thereby, the formerly encased foreign particles are released and provide the nucleii for the formation of the disc-shaped crystals throughout the volume of the water Further studies are urged in view of the staggering potential benefits for many water uses, such as prevention of hard lime scale build-up, increased effectivity of chemical additions to water for softening, fertilizing, feeding, cleaning purposes.
Magnetic water treatment: history and current status / V.F. Ochkov // Energosberezheniye i vodopodgotovka
  • V F Ochkov
Ochkov V.F. Magnetic water treatment: history and current status / V.F. Ochkov // Energosberezheniye i vodopodgotovka. 2006. № 2. P. 23-29 [in Russian].
Theory and Practice of Magnetic Water Treatment and Water Systems
  • L N Chesnokova
Chesnokova L.N. Theory and Practice of Magnetic Water Treatment and Water Systems / L.N. Chesnokova. -Moscow: Tsvetmetinformatsiya, 1971, P. 75 [in Russian].
Prospects of application of magnetic water treatment in medicine, in: Theory and practice of magnetic water treatment and water systems
  • G R Solov " Eva
Solov " eva G.R. Prospects of application of magnetic water treatment in medicine, in: Theory and practice of magnetic water treatment and water systems / G.R. Solov " eva. – Moscow: Nauka, 1974, 112 p. [in Russian].
Current status of magnetic water treatment in power (review)
  • I P Shterenshis
Shterenshis I.P. Current status of magnetic water treatment in power (review) /