ArticlePDF Available
Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 2013, 2, 1-6
doi:10.4236/ojmp.2013.24B001 Published Online October 2013 (
Parental Involvement in Child’s Development:
Father vs. Mother
Yeoh Si Han, Woo Pei Jun
Department of Psychology, Sunway University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
Received May, 2013
This study aims to investigate on Malaysian young adults’ perceived father and mother involvement. A questionnaire
survey with Father Involvement Scale, and Mother Involvement Scale was carried out on 100 male and 100 female lo-
cal university and college student aged 18 and 25 years old. The findings show that mothers engaged more in expressive
and mentoring/advising involvement as compared to fathers. However, there is no difference between fathers and
mothers in instrumental involvement. This study gives us a better understanding on the pattern of parental involvement
in Malaysia and hence helps to promote better parent-child relationship.
Keywords: Parental Involvement; Father; Mother
1. Introduction
For years, theorists and scholars have been acknowl-
edged that fathers and mothers play a different role in
family systems (see [1]). Fathers assume the role of
breadwinner, working outside and earning a living for the
family while mothers are usually the primary caregivers,
taking care and fulfilling the needs of the children. Half a
decade ago, Parsons and Bales’ [2] suggested that fathers
were more engaged in instrumental functions, such as
disciplining children and providing income whereas
mothers were expected to be involved in expressive
functions such as care giving, sharing activities and com-
panionship. Today, women are getting more involved in
the workforce as compared to a few decades before.
Hence, will this structural distribution of parental in-
volvement be remained? This study aims to investigate
whether fathers and mothers involve differently in their
children’s development in terms of the three dimensions
of involvement (i.e., expressive involvement [EI], in-
strumental involvement [II], and mentoring/advising in-
volvement [MAI]).
2. Parental Involvement
2.1. Definitions and Theories
Many researchers have defined parental involvement
differently based on their purposes of studies [3-5]. Singh
et al. [3] noted that parental involvement has been con-
sidered a multidimensional construct with multiple do-
mains. A widely used model by Lamb and colleagues [4]
conceptualised three typologies of involvement: (1) In-
teraction – one to one interaction with the child including
feeding, playing and reading; (2) Accessibility – avail-
ability to the child, even if not directly involving; And (3)
responsibility – assuming responsibility for child care
and welfare.
On the other hand, Mo and Singh [5] described paren-
tal involvement as “initiated by the parents as part of
their responsibility for children's psychosocial and edu-
cational development” (p.1). According to Mo and Singh
[5], parental involvement consisted of three components:
parent-child relationship, parental involvement in school,
and parents’ educational aspirations for their children.
These involvements have found to be predictive to stu-
dents’ educational engagement and performance.
Theory of structure-functionalism [6] suggested that
individuals in society have separate and distinct roles; the
responsibility to complete these roles is necessary for
survival. Hence, when this concept is applied in family,
fathers and mothers are expected to function differently
in order to maintain the harmony in the family system.
Finley and Schwartz [7] found a similar differentiation of
parental involvement and have further expanded the two
components (i.e., EI and II) into three –EI, II and MAI.
These distinctions were found to be applied well to
young adults’ perceptions of parental involvement [8].
Drawing on previous works on parental involvement
[2,7,8], this study defines parental involvement as par-
ents’ interaction and engagement in a child’s life, which
promote some aspects of development. This involvement
encompasses three dimensions: (1) EI – leisure, fun, and
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Y. S. HAN, W. P. JUN
play, companionship, sharing activities/interests, care-
giving, and promoting emotional, social, physical, and
spiritual development; (2) II – developing responsibility
and independence, encouraging ethical/moral and career
development, providing income, discipline, being protec-
tive, and concern about school or homework; (3) MAI –
developing competence, mentoring/teaching, advising,
and intellectual development.
2.2. Research Evidences on Parental
Involvement: Father vs. Mother
Thompson and Walker [9] noted that once women and
men become parents, they tend to relate to their children
differently and do different things with and for their
children. This insight suggests the complication that lies
beneath the experience of parenthood and the importance
of revealing the unique and similar aspects of the paren-
tal experience for men and women.
EI. Research has shown that in families, women often
take primary responsibility for emotional support, nur-
turing, establishing routines, setting rules and organising
their children, especially when the children are young
[10]. Besides, another study that researched on parental
involvement of Malay and Chinese families from penin-
sular Malaysia found that mothers generally spent more
time than fathers in childcare task [11].
Furthermore, Yeung and colleagues’ [12] study which
examined on 1761 children aged 0 to12 years old re-
vealed that as compared to fathers, mothers generally
engaged more in personal care activities, play and com-
panionship activities, achievement-related activities,
household activities, and social activities. Additionally,
research findings on 1714 young adult university stu-
dents (M age = 19.9 years) showed that mothers were
perceived to be significantly more involved in the do-
mains of expressive dimensions, especially in the area of
emotional development, caregiving, spiritual develop-
ment, companionship and social development [8].
Nonetheless, there were also researchers and scholars
who proposed that fathers are getting more involved in
expressive functions [13-15]. Giele and Holst [13] found
that there were changes in gender roles as a result of so-
cial revolution during the 1960s and 1970s. Therefore,
they presumed that fathers are now become more in-
volved in child rearing and activities at home (e.g., care-
giving). Besides, reviews by scholars also suggested that
fathers are getting more engaged in expressing areas such
as companionship and care giving (e.g., [15]). Guided by
the theory of structure-functionalism and findings from
the majority studies, it is predicted that mothers as com-
pared to fathers enrol more in expressive functions.
II. Traditional aspects of II are often characterised by
fathering roles – providing income, discipline, protecting,
moral guide, and encouraging responsibility. A state-
wide, random household telephone survey of 1010 adults
on the social norms about expectations of fathers re-
vealed that a majority of participants agreed that most
fathers engaged in the areas of financial support, protec-
tion, and moral or faith-based guidance [16]. Another
study [17] researched on 1492 young adult university
students from intact families also found that fathers were
significantly more involved in instrumental functions as
compared to expressive functions. The findings also
showed that seven out of the eight most heavily endorsed
fathering functions were from the instrumental dimen-
sion (i.e., providing income, being protective, discipline,
responsibility, moral/ethical, independence, and career).
Additionally, to examine the moderating effect of ethnic-
ity in fathering functions, the study also revealed that
Asian fathers were significantly more involved in the
instrumental dimensions as compared to the expressive
dimension of involvement [17].
Furthermore, studies on specific ethnic groups also
found similar findings (e.g., [18-20]).One of these studies
illustrated that African American fathers were character-
ised as more involved in instrumental functions such as
monitoring but as relatively unaffectionate [18]. Besides,
Asian fathering role has also appeared to lend itself more
to instrumental rather than expressive functions [19].
Lastly, a study using national-level data to examine
American fathers’ involvement in child rearing for chil-
dren aged 5 to 18 years revealed that Hispanic fathers
participated more in cognitive domains, such as rein-
forcing family rules and monitoring homework [20].
On the contrary, study by Finley et al. [8] showed that
other than proving incomes, fathers were significantly
less involved in all domains of parental involvement (i.e.,
EI, II, and MAI). However, there was a trend showing
that fathers were more involved in instrumental function
as compared to expressive functions [8].
Although fewer studies have been researched on fa-
thers’ II in comparative to that of mothers, drawing on
most of the supporting findings that fathers engaged
more in II [16-20], this study predicts that fathers would
participate more in this dimension of involvement as
compared to mothers.
MAI. This dimension of involvement is indeed con-
ceptually overlapping between expressive and instru-
mental parenting, thus limited studies are done particu-
larly on this dimension of involvement. Among these
limited studies, Finley et al. [8] found that mothers as
compared to fathers were more engaged in MAI. Spe-
cifically, the findings indicated that mothers were sig-
nificantly more involved in the domains of advising, in-
tellectual development, mentoring, and developing com-
petence. Additionally, Yeung and colleagues’ study also
revealed that mothers relatively spent more time with
their children as compared to fathers in teaching related
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Y. S. HAN, W. P. JUN 3
activities, such as studying, doing homework, reading,
and in educational lessons [12].
Based on the promising findings from the previous
studies [8, 12], it is of interest to explore whether parents
in Malaysia follow this pattern of involvement. Therefore,
this study expects to see that mothers show higher level
of involvement in this mentoring/advising dimension as
compared to fathers.
3. Hypotheses
Specifically, this study tested three hypotheses: (1) Moth-
ers as compared to fathers involve more in EI; (2) Fathers
as compared to mothers involve more in II; And (3)
mothers as compared to fathers involve more in MAI.
4. Methodology
4.1. Participants
A single survey was conducted to 100 male and 100 fe-
male students (aged 18 and 25 years old, M = 21.07, SD
= 1.75) from three public universities and one private
university in Malaysia. Among the participants, there
were 22 Malays (11.0%), 162 Chinese (81.0%), and 16
Indians (8.0%). In terms of religion, there were 22 Mus-
lims (11.0%), 33 Christians (16.5%), 120 Buddhists
(60.0%), 11 Hindus (5.5%) and 14 participants (7.0%)
who had other religions. All participants in this study
were single and from intact families. Regarding the par-
ents’ working status, 174 (87.0%) participants’ fathers
were reported as working, 3 (1.5%) of the participants’
fathers were not working, and 23 (11.5%) of their fathers
have retired. For mothers’ working status, participants
reported that 89 (44.5%) of their mothers were still
working, 101 (50.5%) participants’ mothers were not
working, and 10 (5.0%) of their mothers have retired.
4.2. Procedures
A brief explanation of the study was given to the partici-
pants and written consents were obtained. Participants
were given approximately 15 minutes to complete the
questionnaires. Participants were also allowed to with-
draw from this study at any point of time without preju-
4.3. Measurement
Reported father and mother involvement. Young adults’
reports of father and mother involvement were measured
using the Father Involvement Scale (Finley & Schwartz,
2004) and Mother Involvement Scale (Finley et al.,
2008). These two scales consisted of similar content ex-
cept for the terms “father” and “mother” are stated ac-
cordingly. The scales consisted of 20 domains of parent-
ing and can be categorised into three subscales: (1) EI -
caregiving, companionship, sharing activities, emotional
development, social development, spiritual development,
physical development, and leisure, play and fun; (2) II -
discipline, being protective, providing income, school/
homework, ethical/moral development, developing re-
sponsibility, career development, and developing inde-
pendence; and (3) MAI - intellectual development, de-
veloping competence, mentoring/teaching, and giving
The response rating for reported involvement is a lin-
ear response rating, which ranges from 1 (never involved)
to 5 (always involved). Higher score indicates higher
level of involvement. No items are reversed scores. Total
scores for reported involvement can be created by sum-
ming the respective domain ratings. Possible scores for
these totals range from 20 to 100. Subscale scores can be
generated by summing the domain scores of particular
subscale and dividing the number of items.
These scales had excellent internal consistencies (Finley
et al., 2008). For the reported father involvement, Cron-
bach’s alpha coefficients were .91 for EI, .90 for II, and
0.88 for MAI (Finley et al., 2008). For the reported
mother involvement, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients
were .86 for EI, .80 for II, .82 for MAI (Finley et al.,
5. Results
A paired sample t test was conducted to examine the dif-
ferences of fathers and mothers in the three dimensions
of involvement in a child’s development. For EI, the re-
sult reveals that there is a significant difference between
father EI (M = 3.03, SD = 0.67) and mother EI (M = 3.58,
SD = 0.72), t (199) = -10.04, p < .01. This result indicates
that mothers were perceived to be more involved in EI as
compared to father.
For II, the result shows that there is no significant dif-
ference between father II and mother II, t (199) = -1.12, p
> .05.
For MAI, the result reveals that there is a significant
difference between father MAI (M = 3.37, SD = .83) and
mother MAI (M = 3.63, SD = .81), t (199) = -4.16 p
< .01). This result indicates that mothers were perceived
to be more involved in MAI as compared to fathers.
To further analyse the differences between fathers and
mothers in the involvement domains, another paired
sample t test was conducted. The results show that there
is a significant difference between fathers and mothers in
all the eight domains of EI – emotional development (fa-
thers’ M = 2.86, SD = 0.97 vs. mothers’ M = 3.67, SD =
1.02), t (199) = -9.38, p < .01; social development (fa-
thers’ M = 3.06, SD = 1.04 vs. mothers’ M = 3.56, SD =
1.06), t (199) = -5.23, p < .01; spiritual development (fa-
thers’ M = 3.08, SD = 1.18 vs. mothers’ M = 3.55, SD =
1.09), t (199) = -4.73, p < .01; physical development (fa-
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Y. S. HAN, W. P. JUN
thers’ M = 2.82, SD = 1.01 vs. mothers’ M = 3.26, SD =
1.13), t (199) = -4.46, p < .01; leisure, fun, and play (fa-
thers’ M = 2.99, SD = 1.11 vs. mothers’ M = 3.25, SD =
1.09), t (199) = -2.73, p < .01; sharing activities or inter-
est (fathers’ M = 2.83, SD = 1.00 vs. mothers’ M = 3.32,
SD = 1.03, t (199) = -5.63, p < .01; caregiving(fathers’ M
= 3.61, SD = 1.04 vs. mothers’ M = 4.28, SD = .84), t
(199) = -8.42, p < .01; and companionship (fathersM =
3.01, SD = 1.03 vs. mothers’ M = 3.75, SD = 1.03), t
(199) = -8.72, p < .01 (see Table 1). These results indi-
cate that mothers as compared to fathers were signifi-
cantly more involved in all the eight domains in EI.
For II, the results show that there is a significant dif-
ference between fathers and mothers in two domains –
providing income (fathers’ M = 3.98, SD = 1.11 vs.
mothers’ M = 3.39, SD = 1.20), t (199) = 5.49, p < .01,
and school/homework (fathers’ M = 2.43, SD = 1.15 vs.
mothers’ M = 3.01, SD = 1.27), t (199) = -6.27, p < .01
(see Table 2). These results indicate that fathers were
more involved in providing income as compared to
mothers. In contrast, mothers as compared to fathers
were more engaged in their children’s schoolwork. No
significant difference was found between fathers and
mothers in other domains – ethical/moral development,
career development, developing responsibility, develop-
ing independence, being protective, and discipline.
In terms of MAI, the results show that there is a sig-
nificant difference between fathers and mothers in three
out of the four domains – intellectual development (fa-
thers’ M = 3.47, SD = 1.02 vs. mothers’ M = 3.67, SD =
1.01), t (199) = -2.34, p < .05, mentoring/teaching (fa-
thers’ M = 3.04, SD = 1.17 vs. mothers’ M = 3.54, SD =
1.10), t (199) = -5.39, p < .01, and advising (fathers’ M
= 3.73, SD = 1.03 vs. mothers’ M = 3.92, SD = .98), t
(199) = -2.25, p < .05 (see Table 1). No significant dif-
ference was found between fathers and mothers in the
developing competence domain. Hence, the results indi-
cate that mothers as compared to fathers engaged more in
the domains of intellectual development, mentoring or
teaching, and advising.
6. Discussions
This study was designed to examine the differential in-
volvement of fathers and mothers in child’s development.
The results support the first hypothesis and shows that
mothers were significantly more involved in expressive
functions than fathers. This finding reinforces Parsons
and Bales’ [12] structural distribution of parental in-
volvement, and is in accordance to previous findings
which supported mothers’ greater involvement in care-
giving, companionship, emotional development and other
expressive tasks as compared to fathers[8,11,12].
For II, the results do not support the second hypothesis
and show that there is no significant difference between
fathers and mothers in terms of their instrumental in-
volvement. Neither this finding supports Parsons and
Bales’ [12] structural distribution of parental roles where
fathers are expected to assume the instrumental functions
more than mothers nor Finley and colleagues’ [8] oppos-
ing findings that mothers as compared to fathers signifi-
cantly more engaged in II.
However, when each instrumental domain is taken into
consideration, fathers were reported as often involved in
providing income and were significantly more involved
than mothers. Similar findings have shown fathers re-
mained to be the financial support for the household and
contributed a higher proportion of household income to
the families [12, 16]. Moreover, this finding is not unex-
pected given that the number of fathers in this study who
were reported as working doubled the number of those of
mothers. Based on these findings, a possible explanation
for the non-significant result between fathers and moth-
ers in the instrumental dimension could be that fathers’
greater involvement in providing income might compro-
mise the time spending with their children in developing
responsibility or independence, disciplining, or dealing
with school and homework. Fathers’ earning and work
Table 1. Mean score of reported involvement by parent and
Mean Score
Variable Father Mother t (199)
Emotional development 2.86 3.67 -9.38**
Social development 3.06 3.56 -5.23**
Spiritual development 3.08 3.55 -4.73**
Physical development 2.82 3.26 -4.46**
Leisure, fun, play 2.99 3.25 -2.73**
Sharing activities/interest 2.83 3.32 -5.63**
Caregiving 3.61 4.28 -8.42**
Companionship 3.01 3.75 -8.72**
Moral development 3.67 3.81 -1.66
Career development 3.39 3.44 -.57
Developing responsibility 3.70 3.82 -1.37
Developing independence 3.63 3.66 -.34
Providing income 3.98 3.39 5.49**
Being protective 3.87 3.90 -.45
Discipline 3.66 3.78 -1.46
School/homework 2.43 3.01 -6.27**
Intellectual development 3.47 3.67 -2.34*
Developing competence 3.26 3.42 -1.86
Mentoring/teaching 3.04 3.54 -5.39**
Advising 3.73 3.92 -2.25*
*p < .05. ** p< .01.
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Y. S. HAN, W. P. JUN 5
hours were found to be significantly and negatively af-
fecting their level of involvement with children [21],
especially during weekdays [12].
On the other hand, mothers were reported to be sig-
nificantly more involved than fathers in school or
homework domain. This outcome is congruent with
Hossain and Anziano’s [21] finding that mothers as com-
pared to fathers were more involved in academic work
such as homework, buying school supplies, school con-
tacting and tutor arrangement. For other instrumental
domains, the involvement of fathers did not differ from
those of mothers. Both parents were generally rated as
often involved in ethical or moral development, develop-
ing responsibility, developing independence, being pro-
tective, and in disciplining; whereas for career develop-
ment domain, both parents were rated as sometimes in-
Despite the non significant results for II, there was a
trend showed that fathers generally more involved in
instrumental dimension as compared to mentor-
ing/advising and expressive dimensions. The mean score
of father II indicated that fathers were generally rated as
often involved as compared to EI and MAI which were
rated as sometimes involved. This trend appears to sup-
port the previous ethnicity studies which revealed that
fathers tend to be more involved in instrumental func-
tions rather than expressive functions [19-21].
In terms of MAI, the result supports the third hypothe-
sis and is in congruence with previous findings [8, 12].
The finding shows that mothers were significantly more
involved than fathers in the MAI. Specifically, mothers
were more involved than fathers in the areas of intellec-
tual development, mentoring/teaching and advising. In
deference to Parsons and Bales, if the most highly en-
dorsed parental involvement for fathers (providing in-
come) and for mothers (caregiving) are considered, the
findings are indeed fully supportive of Parsons and
Bales’ [2] theoretical formulation.
This study has several strengths. Firstly, the scales that
are used in this study have high reliability and validity.
Secondly, questionnaire survey with closed-ended ques-
tions not only facilitates the process of scoring but also
result interpretation. In addition, this study is also one of
the few studies that look into the differential functions of
fathers and mothers in the three dimensions of involve-
ment. Therefore, this study provides some base level data
for Malaysia parenting research and for future compari-
son. In particular, the use of retrospective report in this
study provides uniquely valuable information regarding
the young adults’ long term perception of parental in-
volvement in their lives instead of parents’ report on the
level of involvement.
Nevertheless, the findings of the present study should
also be considered in light of several limitations. Firstly,
the sample in this study is not representative of the cur-
rent Malaysian population due to the overrepresentation
of Chinese ethnicity. Secondly, the use of university
samples raises genera liability issues and may have
screened out young adults from lower educational back-
ground or those with intellectual, social, or emotional
challenges. Thirdly, although the use of retrospective
reports allows young adults to reflect back on their pa-
rental involvement from a more “mature” perspective,
this method is also vulnerable to recall biases [22]. Lastly,
there may be possibility that young adults’ reports of
their parents’ past involvement are affected by their cur-
rent relationship with their parents. Therefore, these
limitations should be kept in mind when interpreting the
Several suggestions for future research follow from the
present findings and limitations can be made. Firstly,
equal size of races should be considered so that the re-
sults would be more representative of Malaysia popula-
tion. Secondly, future research can also consider to ex-
amine whether similar findings would have emerged in
young adults from other backgrounds (i.e., lower educa-
tional background, social or emotional challenges, low
socioeconomic status, etc.). Thirdly, future research may
also investigate the behaviours or specific types of activ-
ity that contribute to each of the involvement domain.
For instance, spiritual involvement may includes talk
about meaning of life, attend weekly religious meeting,
share values and beliefs, etc. Additionally, as this study
has set a base level data on perceived parental involve-
ment which based on young adults from intact families, it
is recommended that future work can examine on young
adults from other family forms (i.e., dual career family,
single parent family, and divorced family).
The present study has several important implications
for the parenting research and program. First of all, the
findings enhance the existing knowledge regarding Ma-
laysian young adults’ long term perception on their par-
ents’ involvement. Besides, more informative workshops
or talks on how to interact with their children in those
significant domains (e.g., companionship, emotional de-
velopment, sharing activities, etc.) could also be organ-
ised to further enhance the involvement that parents have
in their children’s development.
Lastly, to address the question posted prior in the be-
ginning of this study on whether social changes affect the
traditional distribution of parental involvement, this
study concludes that the trend of this traditional structure
seems to be remained, mothers and fathers do involve
differently in their children’s development. In particular,
mothers were found to be more involved in expressive
and MAI. Whilst there is an egalitarian involvement of
both parents in instrumental dimension, fathers have
found to be more involved in instrumental functions as
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMP
Y. S. HAN, W. P. JUN
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMP
compared to other two dimensions of involvement. As
the present study is one of the few studies that research
on the different dimensions of parental involvement,
more studies are warranted, especially in examining
children from different backgrounds.
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... While the likelihood of being off-track for development was lower for children whose mothers had a low education level than those whose mothers had a high education level, the likelihood of being off-track for development was higher for children whose fathers had a low education level than children whose fathers had a high education level. There is a large body of literature explaining the importance of fathers on economic and social roles in the family [28][29][30]. Lamb et al. [31] developed a widely used model conceptualizing 3 different categories of parental involvement with children: (1) interaction, which refers to one-on-one interaction with the child, such as feeding, playing, or reading; (2) accessibility, which refers to the parent's availability to the child, including indirectly; and (3) accountability, which refers to the degree to which parents take responsibility for the child's care and welfare. ...
... Fathers typically take on the role of providing for the family economically and often work outside of the home to earn a living for the family. In contrast, mothers tend to be the primary caregivers who care for and meet the needs of their children [30][31][32]. Thus, it is possible that parents with a high education level are more engaged in various types of occupations than parents with a low education level (Supplemental Material 2). ...
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Objectives: This study aimed to determine the associations between parental depression and early childhood development among children aged 36 months to 59 months in Indonesia. Methods: From Indonesia's Basic Health Survey (RISKESDAS) 2018, this study included 6433 children aged 36 months to 59 months and their parents. Maternal and paternal depression was examined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview survey instrument, which was previously translated into Indonesian. The study also used the Early Child Development Index to measure child development and its 4 domains (cognitive, physical, socio-emotional, and learning). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between parental depression and early childhood development. Results: Overall, 10.3% of children aged 36 months to 59 months were off-track for development. After adjusting for biological, parental, and social characteristics, children born to parents with depression were found to be 4.72 times more likely to be off-track for development (95% confidence interval, 1.83 to 12.15). Conclusions: Children of depressed parents were more likely to be off-track for development. The findings highlight the need for early diagnosis and timely intervention for parental depression to promote early childhood development.
... Through parental emotion socialization, children learn to understand, express, and regulate emotions according to social norms [2]. Mothers who are more involved than fathers in parenting [3] and who are also more emotionally expressive provide more opportunities for children to model emotional expressiveness and regulation within the context of the family [4]. As children enter adolescence, they experience developmental changes across biological, physical, and social domains (Collins and Laursen 2004). ...
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This study examines the relationships among maternal meta-emotion philosophy, maternal video-mediated cognitions, and adolescent behavior adjustment. We adopt video-mediated recall methods to obtain mothers’ perceptions of their interaction with their children. In total, 121 pairs of mothers (age, M = 42.55) and their adolescent children (age, M = 12.34) were videotaped for 10 min while discussing daily issues. The mothers reviewed the tape (30 episodes) and rated their own behaviors and the counterparts' behaviors on 8 cognitive or affective dimensions. The mothers also completed a parental meta-emotion philosophy inventory, and the adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report. The results indicate that maternal emotional dysfunction has a positive effect on adolescents’ externalizing problem behaviors through mothers’ perceptions of conflictual interaction. These findings highlight the importance of considering maternal meta-emotion philosophy in the mother-adolescent interaction process and understanding adolescent problem behaviors.
... [13,14] This could be attributed to the fact that in general the primary caregiver of the child is mother compared to father who plays part more in the financial support. [15] Furthermore, comparison on the basis of number of children showed that the parents having six or more children showed better knowledge than other parents. Other studies have supported the fact that having more children leads to a better attitude and knowledge towards the health of primary dentition of the children. ...
Background: The parental awareness and perceptions help in early recognition of problems in deciduous dentition, which will help us plan better preventive measures. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the perceptions of Saudi parents residing in Riyadh towards the problems related to primary dentition of their children. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the patients attending private dental institution in Riyadh city. Information about demographic details, questions related to maintenance of primary teeth, and future implications of poor primary dentition health were collected. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for the analysis. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 1773 male and females filled up the survey form, which comprised of 28% males and 72% females, and maximum parents (68%) were university graduates. Overall better responses were in females and parents having more children. Conclusion: Over all mothers had a higher level of knowledge and positive attitude towards their children's oral health as compared to fathers. Developing and strengthening optimistic outlook among parents towards oral health especially primary dentition is utmost important.
... Fathers are reportedly often involved in providing income and are significantly more involved than mothers. Similar findings have shown that fathers continue to be financial support for households and contribute to higher household incomes for families (Han, 2013). ...
... Previous studies revealed that mother is more involved in parenting than father (Putri & Lestari, 2015;Rice & Dolgin, 2008;Steinberg, 2011). Teenager spends more time talking to their mother and is more likely to choose mother for opinions in various topics (Rice & Dolgin, 2008), while father takes role as head of family who is more involved in income contribution (Han & Jun, 2013). ...
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Parenting efficacy is essential in parenting quality. This study aimed to devise and determine the Positive Parenting Program effect in improving the parenting efficacy of mothers with teenage children. The study tested two hypotheses. First, the Positive Parenting Program had good content validity. Secondly, the Positive Parenting Program could improve the parenting efficacy of mothers. The study involved 27 mothers subjects (13 subjects of the experimental group and 14 subjects of the control group). The experiment was carried out using the method of ‘Untreated control group design with dependent pretest and posttest samples’ involving three measurements at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The results proved that the Positive Parenting Program Module had good content validity. The module has a high content validity with Aiken's V coefficients in each session ranging from 0.89 to 0.95 with an average of 0.92. The second hypothesis test was performed by Mann Whitney U Test analysis. The results of the study also showed that the Positive Parenting Program significantly improved the parenting efficacy of mothers (Zposttest-pretest= -4,321, p = 0.001 (p <0.05), Zfollow-pretest= -4,423, p = 0.001 (p <0,05)).
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This study was carried out with the qualitative research method in order to determine the family participation studies applied by preschool teachers in the distance education process. The study group consists of 35 preschool teachers determined by simple random sampling method. The data of the study were collected with an interview form consisting of semi-structured questions. The data were analyzed by the researcher with content analysis, one of the qualitative research data analysis methods. As a result of the study, it was revealed that there are differences in the family participation studies of preschool teachers in the distance education process. This differentiation has been more positive. It has been revealed that nearly half of the families actively participate in the distance education process, and most of them are mothers. Fathers working and mothers being housewives caused this situation. Teachers mostly used the Whatsapp message application for educational activities as a communication channel with families. Teachers had problems with families, children and systemic structure during the distance education process. In order to increase family participation in the distance education process and to make it efficient, teachers; they made suggestions to families, children and systematic structure.
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This study examined the mediational role of achievement goal orientations (2x2 model) in the associations between parenting styles and academic achievement. The sample included 640 tenth-grade students from the Sultanate of Oman. The students completed measures regarding their perception of parenting styles (Alkharusi et al., 2011) and achievement goal orientations (2x2 model) (Alkha-rusi & Aldhafri, 2010). To achieve the goal of the study, the researcher utilized the AMOS25 software. The findings showed that achievement goal orientations mediated the relations between perception of parenting styles and academic achievement through seven statistically significant paths. Direct and indirect effects explained 37% of variance in students’ academic achievement. The findings highlight the importance that parenting styles, in interrelation with achievement goal orientations (2x2 model), play in the high school students' academic achievement. Keywords: mediation, parenting styles, achievement goal orientations, academic achievement, Oman. هدفت الدراسة للكشف عن الدور الوسيط لتوجهات أهداف الإنجاز (2×2) في علاقتها بأنماط التنشئة الوالدية والتحصيل الأكاديمي لدى (640) طالبًا وطالبة من طلبة الصف العاشر بسلطنة عمان، وباستخدام مقياس أنماط التنشئة الوالدية (Alkharusi et al., 2011) ومقياس توجهات أهداف الإنجاز (2×2) (Alkharusi & Aldhafri, 2010). أشارت نتائج تحليل المسار (باستخدام برنامج AMOS25) إلى توسط توجهات أهداف الإنجاز (2×2) العلاقة بين أنماط التنشئة الوالدية والتحصيل الأكاديمي من خلال 7 مسارات دالة إحصائيا، حيث فسرت التأثيرات الكلية (المباشرة وغير المباشرة) 37% من التباين في التحصيل الأكاديمي. وأوصت الدراسة للاهتمام بتوعية الوالدين حول أنماط التنشئة الوالدية التي يتبنونها في التفاعل مع الأولاد؛ للتأثيرات المهمة التي تتركها في التحصيل الأكاديمي بصورة مباشرة، أو بصورة غير مباشرة من خلال تأثيرها في توجهات أهداف الإنجاز لدى الطلبة. الكلمات المفتاحية: الوسيط، أنماط التنشئة الوالدية، توجهات أهداف الإنجاز (2×2)، التحصيل الأكاديمي، سلطنة عمان.
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George Eliot lived in a period marked by rapid changes and radical ideas. She had the opportunity to witness change and question the dogmas of her time during her transformation from a village girl to an educated woman, and through getting acquainted with the influential intellectuals of the nineteenth century. In time, she formed her own philosophy against the rigidly defined codes of Victorianism, and she came believe in the prominence of reality in life and art. Hence, reality became the perfect media for her to depict the true picture of individual in society. For Eliot, the individual is a problematic, self-deceptive being: he/she is inclined to form a fictitious image of himself/herself and fake social relations which result in self-deception and insincerity, and which distort the natural flow of life. The solution for this problem, Eliot thinks, is to encounter reality through a tragic experience which teaches and brings maturity to the individual and to life itself. In Adam Bede, George Eliot depicts four flawed, escapist characters: Adam, Dinah, Hetty, and Arthur are, in their own ways, self-deceptive, ego-centred figures. Having already formed second personality traits, they are neither true to themselves nor to the society do they live in. In the end these personality traits cause the emergence of tragedy and suffering after which their lives turn to normal. However, wisdom comes too late: it comes after experiencing tragedy. Keywords: self-deception, family, parentification, individual, society, maturity
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Previous studies showed the significant association between women’s empowerment and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practice. Only around 40% of Indonesian children met adequate IYCF practice. Hence, each dimension of women’s empowerment in the household domain must be explored. We carried out a dataset of the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey, with samples of 4,880 mothers of reproductive age in a marriage relationship with their last-born child aged 6-23 months. Logistic regression was applied. Mother with legal asset ownerships had lower odds of her child meeting (aOR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.95) minimum dietary diversity (MDD), (aOR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.87) minimum meal frequency (MMF) and (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.90) minimum acceptable diet (MAD). Mother who could control her own earnings had higher odds of her child meeting MDD (aOR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.74) and MAD (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.34, 1.94). Employed mother had higher odds of meeting MMF (aOR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38, 1.82). Mother who did not approve of intimate partner violence was more likely to feed her child with MDD (1.39 times), MMF (1.41 times) and MAD (2.04 times). Mother with three or more parity had lower odds of her child meeting MDD (aOR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.93), MMF (aOR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.99) and MDD (aOR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00). Mother who did not approve towards domestic violence, was working, controlled her assets and had a maximum of two parity was associated with official IYCF recommendation.
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This study focused on parents' relationships and involvement in their children's lives and the effects on the students' school engagement and school performance. The study used the Wave I data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The data on seventh and eighth grade students' school and family experiences were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The study examined the effect of parents' relationships and involvement on students' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement in school and subsequently on school performance. The results confirmed the importance and significance of parents' involvement in middle school students' school engagement and performance. The study has implications for practice and provides empirical support for creating school structures that would foster parents' continued interest and engagement in their children's education.
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This study examines the relationship betweenroles (work and family) and well-being (happiness andsymptoms of distress) in a sample of employed Malaysianwomen, made up of both Malays (N = 288) and Chinese (N = 92). The two groups were similar in termsof their socioeconomic status, as measured by education,occupation, and family income. Both quantitative andqualitative analyses were used. Results of the quantitative analysis showed that aftercontrolling for the demographic variables of age, race,and occupational group as well as the personalityvariable of negative affectivity, job autonomy predicted both measures of well-being. Happiness was alsopredicted by spouse support. The qualitative resultsprovided another aspect into women's perceptions oftheir roles. The women's replies to questions on their preference for employment, theirhusbands' preference for them to work, their reasons forworking, the importance of work and family, child care,and their overall reports of work and family richly complemented the findings of the regressionanalysis. These findings are discussed with respect tothe general literature on women's roles and well-beingas well as within the context of the Malaysiansociety.
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Using national-level data, this analysis examines American fathers' participation in three domains of child rearing for children aged 5 to 18 years. Focus is placed on the extent to which participation varies by race or ethnicity, gender and family ideologies, and the interaction between these factors. Results show that minority fathers consistently outperform White fathers in the cognitive domain. Findings also show that fathers' involvement is a function of an interplay between race or ethnicity and cultural ideologies.
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Throughout the 1990s, scholars interested in fatherhood have generated a voluminous, rich, and diverse body of work. We selectively review this literature with an eye toward prominent theoretical, methodological, and substantive issues. This burgeoning literature, complemented by social policy makers' heightened interest in fathers and families, focuses on fatherhood in at least 4 key ways. First, theorists have studied fatherhood as a cultural representation that is expressed through different sociocultural processes and embedded in a larger ecological context. Second, researchers have conceptualized and examined the diverse forms of fatherhood and father involvement. Third, attempts have been made to identify the linkages between dimensions of the father-child relationship and developmental outcomes among children and fathers. Fourth, scholars have explored the father identity as part of a reciprocal process negotiated by men, children, mothers, and other interested parties. Our review highlights research that examines the relationships between dimensions of the father-child relationship and children's well-being and development. We conclude by discussing promising avenues of scholarship for the next generation of research on fatherhood.
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This article uses diary data from the most recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Time Use Survey (N > 4,000) to compare by gender total child care time calculated in the measurements of (1) main activity, (2) main or secondary activity, and (3) total time spent in the company of children. It also offers an innovative gender comparison of relative time spent in (1) the activities that constitute child care, (2) child care as double activity, and (3) time with children in sole charge. These measures give a fuller picture of total time commitment to children and how men and women spend that time than has been available in previous time use analyses. The results indicate that compared to fathering, mothering involves not only more overall time commitment but more multitasking, more physical labor, a more rigid timetable, more time alone with children, and more overall responsibility for managing care. These gender differences in the quantity and nature of care apply even when women work full-time.
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Assessed the effects of different components of parental involvement on the academic achievement of 8th graders. Four components of parental involvement considered were parental aspirations for children's education, parent–child communication about school, home structure, and parental participation in school-related activities. Data from a nationally representative sample of 21,834 students and their parents were analyzed using latent variable structural equation models. Results suggest that educational aspirations of parents have a powerful influence on the 8th-grade student's achievement. The study found a small negative effect of home structure on achievement and no effect of parent–child communication and parental participation in school-related activities. These effects appear age-specific, suggesting that parent involvement may affect learning more in elementary than in middle school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT Race/Ethnic Differences in Father Involvement in Two-Parent Families: Culture, Context, or Economy This paper examines the contribution of economic circumstances, neighborhood context, and cultural factors to explaining race/ethnic differences in fathering in two-parent families. Data come from the 1997 Child Development,Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative sample of children under age 13. Black children’s fathers exhibit less warmth but monitor their children more, Hispanic fathers monitor their children less, and both minority groups exhibit more responsibility for childrearing than white fathers. Economic circumstances contribute to differences in paternal engagement and control, while neighborhood,factors contribute to differences in warmth and responsibility. Cultural factors such as intergenerational fathering and gender-role attitudes contribute to explaining control and responsibility on the part of both blacks and Hispanics. 4
We review the research on gender by focusing on three domains of family life—marriage, work (both wage and family work), and parenthood. Regarding marriage, we consider intimacy, communication and conflict, and wife-battering. Regarding wage work, we consider women and men as providers and resistance to wives as coproviders. Regarding family work, we consider the nature of family work and resistance to sharing housework and child care. Regarding parenthood, we consider the images of motherhood and fatherhood, activities and experiences of mothering and fathering, and the gender differentiation that accompanies parenting. We offer recommendations for further research and encourage family scholars to conceptualize gender as relational or interactional rather than as an individual property or role.