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In a knowledge-based economy, the success of organizations depends mostly on the quality of their human resource. Organizations rely on their competent employees as a main resource. The performance of organizations depends not only on the workforce competency, but also on their evaluation and development on an ongoing basis to meet the global competition. For obvious economic and business reasons, organizations have always been concerned about the competence of its people. In the modern world, characterized by rapid and dramatic change, the attainment of competence has become an integral component of individual and organizational strategies. The competency mapping process helps the organization in developing a clear strategy for developing competencies of their workforce. It supports successful performance of the employees within the organization. Gone are the days where gigantic plant, superior technology and marketing strategy played central role in organizational success. The organizational strategy must be designed to identify, nourish and utilize the competencies. This paper seeks to delve deeper into the concept of competency, tracing its history and its role in the current scenario.
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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 1. Ver. I (Jan. 2014), PP 14-22
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Understanding Competencies and Competency Modeling A
Literature Survey
Vikram Singh Chouhan & Sandeep Srivastava
Abstract: In a knowledge-based economy, the success of organizations depends mostly on the quality of their
human resource. Organizations rely on their competent employees as a main resource. The performance of
organizations depends not only on the workforce competency, but also on their evaluation and development on
an ongoing basis to meet the global competition. For obvious economic and business reasons, organizations
have always been concerned about the competence of its people. In the modern world, characterized by rapid
and dramatic change, the attainment of competence has become an integral component of individual and
organizational strategies. The competency mapping process helps the organization in developing a clear
strategy for developing competencies of their workforce. It supports successful performance of the employees
within the organization. Gone are the days where gigantic plant, superior technology and marketing strategy
played central role in organizational success. The organizational strategy must be designed to identify, nourish
and utilize the competencies. This paper seeks to delve deeper into the concept of competency, tracing its history
and its role in the current scenario.
Keywords: competency, competency mapping, competency model, performance, literature review, strategies.
I. Introduction
Today organizations are all talking in terms of competence. Gone are the days when people used to talk
in terms of skill sets, which would make their organizations competitive. There has been a shift in the strategy of
the organizations. Now they believe in excelling and not just competing. It is better to build a core competency
that will see them through the crisis. And what other way than to develop the people, for human resource is the
most valuable resource any organization has. For over four decades now, competencies and competency models
have become an inseparable part of Human resources management and have been widely used as a means for
increasing personal and organizational efficiency. Competencies include the collection of success factors
necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Competency
refers to the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competency. People are rewarded for their
competencies (Spencer & Spencer, 1993), which in turn are influenced by some personal antecedents (Bartram,
2005). Competency Models are effective measurement tools that help employees agree on a common language
and comprehend what is understood by superior performance. Moreover, Competency-based HRM is a core
strategy to help align internal behavior and skills with the strategic direction of the organization as a whole.
Competency models translate organizational strategies, goals and values into specific behaviors. Today
organizations realized that if properly designed and skillfully handled, the competency model leads to individual
and organizational performance enhancements and therefore helps the integration and promotion of all HRM
practices. As the interest in measuring and predicting performance in the workplace has grown tremendously,
 
II. History of Competencies
Way back in 1953, David McClelland, an American management guru for the first time recognized a
      Robert White in 1959 and later McLagan, Richard Boyatzis, Signe
Spencer and David Ulrich remarkably developed the concept  for  survival
and sustained competitive advantage. In 1973, David McClelland, Professor of Psychology at Harvard
University and founder of McBer and Company (now part of the Hay Group), wrote a seminal paper: Testing
for Competence Rather than Intelligence, which created a stir in the field of industrial psychology.
    ptitude and knowledge content tests were
good predictors of academic performance, they seldom predicted on-the-job performance. It raised questions
               etween
intelligence test scores and job success often may be an artifact, the product of their joint association with class
 McClelland went on to argue that the best predictors of outstanding on-the-job performance were
underlying, enduring person      
Understanding Competencies and Competency Modeling A Literature Survey
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have been cross-culturally validated by 30 years of global competency research carried out by McBer and later
by the Hay Group. Hence, the history of competency can be traced to the early 1970s, when industrial
psychologists and human resource managers were seeking ways to predict job performance.
McClelland launched the competency modeling movement in the USA by outlining an alternative to
the accepted intelligence tests a         (1973,
1998) was focused on applications in the educational sector, greater interest was shown in business and industry.
  t intelligence tests alone are sufficient
to evaluate individual performance. It was the elements of accountability and performance inherent in his
thinking that stimulated attention outside educational institutions. Since his study, the competence approach also
has been widely utilized and applied in various areas, such as primary and secondary education, higher
education, and organization studies. 
credited to Richard Boyatzis (198     
         
underlying characteristic, it is suggested, could include a motive, trai        
               
              
Spencer, 1993: 9).
After 18 years Gerald Bareeett     
        ich, they argued that though McClelland and his
associates believed that Intelligence testing should be replaced by competency based training since 18 years,

In the recent years, many meanings and new labels have evolved through common usage for the term
    The term     
or quality of being able and fit. Usually          

used to refer to the meaning expressed as standards of performance (Hoffmann, 1999).
III. Understanding Competencies
3.1 Meaning of the Term “Competency”
              
  (Caupin et al., 2006: 9). The English dictionary defines the word competence
as the state of being suitably sufficient or fit. Trying to draw a fine line between the (buzz) words such as
proficiency, capability, capacity, competence, competency/ competencies is even more difficult and creates
confusion (see examples in Byham & Moyer, 2000; Cooper, 2000; Mirabile, 1997).
Those who spend efforts in examining competency are immediately struck by the lack of uniform
definitions, compositions, and methodologies which, of course, lead to misunderstanding, wandering, and waste
(Cooper, 2000; Dalton, 1997). Its meanings defined by standard dictionaries are broad, vague, and inferred
which subject to a variety of interpretations.
3.2 Definitions by Authors
The definition of competency is one of the most fraught tasks in business research, with little
agreement among researchers.
McClelland (1973) presented data that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to
predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job
effectively and measure them using a variety of tests. He defined   a personal trait or set of
habits that leads to more effective or superior job performance-
nomic value to the efforts of 
Klemp (1980) 

Boyatzis (1982, 2007) adopted the term competency an “underlying characteristic of an individual that is
casually (change in one variable cause change in another) related to superior performance in a job”. He
identified that there were 19 generic competencies that outstanding managers tend to have. He clubbed those 19
generic management competencies into five distinct clusters, as a goal and action management, leadership,
human resource management, directing subordinates and focus on others.
Hornby and Thomas (1989)         d with

Jacobs (1989)
Hogg B (1989teristics of a manager that lead to the demonstration of skills and
abilities, which result in effective performance within an occupational area. Competency also embodies the
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
Spencer and Spencer (1993)Competencies are skills & abilities-things you can do -acquired through work

Page and Wilson (1994) after reviewing 337 citations regarding competencies, defined it as “the skills,
abilities, and personal characteristics required by an „effective‟ or „good‟ manager”. The point to note about
this definition is the inclusion of directly observable and testable competencies, such as knowledge and skills,
and the less assessable competencies related to personal characteristics or personal competencies.
Gilbert (1996)   petent refers to having the ability to consistently
produce the results (the worthy outcomes of behavior) that are required for the most efficient and effective
achievement of the larger organizatio
Dubois (1998):  - knowledge, skills, mindsets, thought patterns, and the
like-
Evarts (1998) defined competen           

Woodall and Winstanley (1998       
and attributes, sets of values, beliefs and attitudes which lead to effective managerial performance in a given

Rice (2006) reflects on the leadership development among healthcare executives in the U.S. According to him,
competency-based leadership development does not just drift, however it intentionally focuses on clear career
aspirations. Meanwhile, he stressed that disciplined approach to career growth will enhance the organization's
performance.
Lucian Cernusca and Cristina Dima (2007) in their research essay explained the concept of competency and
               
models of competency mapping and appraisal tools for performance management. A business might possess
extremely capable human resources, but they might not work on the position that suits them. This is where
competency mapping and the appraisal tools come to help the HR experts choose who should work on what
position.
Rothwell et al. (2004) addressed competency efforts in the USA programmes have evolved from an early focus
on distinctions between best-in-class (exemplary) and fully-successful performers to become a link between
organizational strategy and organizational and individual performance. Interests in competency-based
approaches are growing. Training and development professionals are using competency models to clarify
organization-specific competencies to improve human performance and unify individual capabilities with
organizational core competencies.
Gaspar (2012) found that Competency based selection method is healthy, structured and comprehensive.
Candidates are evaluated on the competencies they need to demonstrate, when inducted into the organization.
The performance management, competency system diagnoses the future training and development needs of the
employees and it helps the HR executives assist employees in decisions like promotions and transfers.
risen over the past decade. The definition that is most
preferred is as follows: Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving
important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of
knowledge, skills, and abilities           
behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles.
      ippman et
al., 2000), for the purposes of our study, we adopted the definition proposed by Bartram, Robertson, and
       behaviors that are instrumental in the delivery of
                
 al., 1993, p. 40). A competency is the capability of applying or
using knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and personal characteristics to successfully perform critical work
tasks, specific functions, or operate in a given role or position. Competencies are thus underlying characteristics
of people that indicate ways of behaving or thinking, which generalizes across a wide range of situations and
endure for long periods of time.
3.3 Five Types of Competency Characteristics
There are five major components of competency (Tucker and Cofsky, 1994);
1) Knowledge-This refers to information and learning resting in a person, such as surgeo  
Human Anatomy.
2) Skill-
3) Self Concepts and Values-              
confi       
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confidence in carrying out a complex surgery.
4) Traits-Traits refer to physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations or information. Good
eyesight is a necessary trait for surgeons, as is self control is an ability to remain calm under stress.
5) Motives-Motives are emotions, desires, physiological needs or similar impulses that prompt action. For
example, surgeons with high interpersonal orientation take personal responsibility for working well with
other members of the operating team.
Motives and Traits may be termed as initiators what people will do on the job without close supervision. As
shown in figure 1, the resultant of a critical behavior is higher performance. The level of performance (low,
moderate or high) is always determined by the level of knowledge, skill and attitude.
Figure 1. Concept of competency
3.4 Classification of Competencies
In order to set the context of theoretically derived competence classes, a brief review is given regarding
some of the classification patterns. In literature different patterns for classification of competencies are given.
Most often, researchers define categorization according to their own theory and purpose of the study.
Katz and Kahn (1986) grouped competency into three areas which later expanded into the following four:
1) Technical or Functional (knowledge, attitudes, skills, etc. associated with the technology or functional
expertise required to perform the role);
2) Managerial (knowledge, attitudes, skills, etc. required to plan, organize, mobilize and utilize various
resources);
3) Human (knowledge, attitudes and skills required to motivate, utilize and develop human resources); and
4) Conceptual (abilities to visualize the invisible, think at abstract levels and use the thinking to plan future
business).
Carrol and McCrackin (1988) organized competencies into three main categories.
1) Core competencies (Hamel and Prahalad, 1994): A core competency forms the basis for strategic direction;
it is something a company does well relative to other competitors. Core competencies refer to the elements
of behavior that are important for all employees to possess as, for example, a core competency in "result/
quality orientation".
2) Leadership / managerial competencies: This category involves competencies that are related to leading an
organization and people. Some examples include "visionary leadership", "strategic thinking", and
"developing people".
3) Functional competencies: These are job-specific skills required to perform a particular job role or
profession (Ozcelik and Ferman, 2006:75).
3.5 Competency Mapping
Competency map is a process of identifying key competencies for a company or institution and
the jobs and functions within it. Competency mapping is used to identify key attributes (knowledge, skills, and
behavior) that are required to effectively perform job classification or any identified process. Competency
m     , Opportunities & Threats) for better
understanding and this helps to improve his career growth. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its
Knowledge
Skills
COMPETENCY
Self
Concepts
Traits
Motives
Critical
Behavior
Performance
Result
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constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual
knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully. Competency mapping determines
the extent to which the various competencies related to a job are possessed by an employee. Competency
mapping envisages development and sustainability of competency, based on the changing organizational
requirements. Therefore, competency mapping is a process a HR expert uses to identify and describe
competencies that are most crucial to success in a work situation. Competency mapping is one of the most
accurate means in identifying the job and behavioral competencies of an individual in an organization.
Companies are vastly shifting their strategy of having multi-skilled employees with knowledge of only one skill.
The competence approach focuses on linking business strategies to individual performance efforts. Development
of employees focuses on enhancing their competencies rather than preparing them for moving to jobs. In this
way they can develop capabilities useful throughout the organization as it changes and evolves.
3.6 Competency Model
A Competency model is a valid, observable, and measurable list of the knowledge, skills, and attributes
demonstrated through behavior that results in outstanding performance in a particular work context.
Competency model is a set of competencies that include the key behaviors required for excellent performance in
a particular role (Lucian Cernusca and Cristina Dima, 2007). Depending on the work and organizational
environment, a group of 7 to 9 total competencies are usually required for a particular job and depicted in a
competency model (Shippman et al., 2000). A competency model is an organizing framework that lists
competencies required for effective performance in a specific job, job family (e.g., a group of related jobs), and
organization. The model is organized into tiers of competencies and includes descriptions of the activities and
behaviors associated with each competency. Competency models are often highly tailored to the organization.
As such, the elements of a competency model communicate, in clear terms, the circumstances and conditions of
performance. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an
organization or profession to understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce performance.
IV. Review of Literature
Our study has reviewed global leading articles on the topic for the purpose of gaining in-depth insight
into the competency mapping in organizations. Here is the snapshot of the extensive literature survey.
Any analysis of competencies requires careful definition because of the considerable variance in the
              e numerous definitions of
competency can be summarized effectively as a collection of technical and cultural capabilities (Brockbank
1997). However, it is obvious throughout the literature that different authors advocate different approaches to
competency definition. For example, one particular approach to modeling competencies advocated by Ulrich et
al. (1995) and Boyatzis (1996) includes the integration of areas of competence into groupings. Ulrich carried
out a large-scale survey in the US looking at specific competencies in HR in order to produce benchmarking
standards. There was the emergence of the HR business partner model resulting in a need for the professional
 competitive stance as a
whole. Ulrich defined competence as the ability to add value to the business; competence must focus on the
process leading from changing business conditions to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Ulrich et al.
(1995) model combines various aspects of competence into three primary elements: knowledge of the business,
HR functional expertise and management of change. They argue that management of change is critical, as the
 Globalization, information flow, customer expectations, technology,
etc.) must be matched by the internal rate of change for the organization to remain competitive. Irrespective of
job role or job title, the elements of competence remain in the same order of importance, with any variation
manifesting itself in weight alone. In the definition of the models it is already clear how individuals carrying out
different models of personnel management will require different degrees of competence in different areas.
Many studies focused on hierarchical and functional differences in managerial work. Pinto (1975) identified
through factor analysis 13 independent dimensions of managerial responsibilities and found that upper level
managers have undertaken more of planning, public and customer relations advanced consulting and broad
personnel responsibilities when compared to middle and begin level managers. Whitley (1989) concluded that
managerial work is closely linked to industrial context and cannot be easily isolated from their context and
standardized across enterprises and industries. Studies comparing managers from different nations and
environmental conditions reinforce this view. The content of managerial work across nations was found to be
similar but actual performance seems to be context dependent. Rankin (2002) carried out an analysis of the core
competency frameworks of 40 employers showed that 433 competencies were named in total. Suar & Dan
(2001) identified 47 competencies for different jobs. These competencies were relating to nine broad categories
Aptitudes, Skills and abilities, Communication, Leadership, Knowledge, Physical competency, Personality,
Principles and values and Interests. Parveen (2002) established organizations with an expanded role for HR,
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ranked advising on HR issues as the most important competency. Ranjekar (2003) portrayed the relationship
between possession of HR competencies and credibility. The list of important HR competencies for being
credible is suggested, which includes; Sound subject knowledge, Personal work habits and productivity,
Fearlessness, Care and sensitivity, Playing it low key and Comfort with dilemmas and ambiguities. There are
three components of credibility for a function or an organization, personal credibility, group credibility (how
many members in that group have high personal credibility) and most importantly the consistency of such
credibility. Richard (2003) related competencies to success in the role of HR, which includes Networking and
internal consultancy, Interpersonal sensitivity, Theoretical basis, Strategic perspective, Systems and process
orientation, Quantitative analysis and Project management.
Since the pioneering work of Stogdill (1948), Katz (1955), and Mann (1965) on competencies, a
burgeoning literature in the 1980s and 1990s has gone on to identify an array of competencies linked to
managerial success and effective performance (e.g., Boyatzis, 1982; Du Gay, Salaman,& Rees, 1996; Lawler,
1994; Mansfield, 1996; McCall & Lombardo, 1983; McLagan, 1996;Mirabile, 1997; Spencer & Spencer, 1993).
However, even if competency-driven applications have been applauded by many organizations, some authors
have complained about the unbalanced relationship between the abundance of competency models used in
organizational settings and the paucity of empirical research studies that have been conducted to support them
(Laber & O  ). Within the field, systematic research on how competencies can be grouped into
higher order dimensions is considered to be crucial for the development of a meaningful structure at work, and
scholars are turning attention to theorize and empirically investigate on this issue (e.g., Borman & Brush, 1993;
Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, & Sager, 1993; Shipper & Davy, 2002; Tornow & Pinto, 1976).
The latest HR competency model by Dave Ulrich (2012) proposes that HR professionals must master
six competencies: Credible activist; Strategic positioner; Capability builder; Change champion; Human resource
innovator and integrator; and Technology proponent. These competencies are based on research from more than
20,000 respondents (HR professionals and their line and HR associates) around the world, who completed
assessments of HR competence on 140 behavioral and knowledge items.
Competency models a       -defined concepts with no clear
meaning (Sackett & Laczo, 2003). Competency modeling does not inherently lack rigor. However, most early
efforts were conducted by less methodologically rigorous consultants who were not researchers. They had many
key advantages such as a broader view of management and perhaps better rapport with management because of
this. Competency modeling becomes a popular management topic (Alldredge, & Nilan, 2000; Bartlett &
Ghoshal, 1997; Kochanski, 1997; Mirabile, 1997; Pickett, 1998; Punnitamai, 1996; Shippman et al., 2000;
Winterton, & Winterton, 1999). Thousands of organizations throughout the world have joined the quest for
competency studies (Bemthal & Wellins, 2001; Cooper, 2000; Dubois, 1998).
V. Strategies for the Development of Competency Models
There are three approaches for building competency models-
The single-job approach: The first competency models were developed for single jobs and are the most
common approach to competency modeling. Developing a single-job competency model starts with an
identified critical job that line management or an HR professional sees as needing better selected or developed
incumbents. The data collection usually includes the resource panel or focus group of job holders and/or their
managers and interviews with jobholders. The data gathering phase may also include interviews with customers
and direct reports, surveys of additional job holders, and direct observation of job holders at work. Once this is
complete, the next step is to analyze the data to distill it into a competency model that typically includes 10-20
traits or skills, each with a definition and a list of specific behaviors that describe what effective performers do
and how to achieve effective results.
The "one-size-fits-all" approach: HR professionals who are seeking a broad, quick, and consistent impact for
competency technology often adopt a "one-size-fits-all" competency model, by defining one set of competencies
for a broad range of jobs (e.g., all managerial jobs). The first step is to identify the population for whom the
model will apply, such as all managers. Instead of gathering data, a team charged with developing the
competency model usually selects concepts from available individual job competency models and from books
and articles on leadership, business, organizational development, and human resource development.
A multiple-job approach: This method creates multiple models depending on jobs and levels. This method is
used when all the jobs do not have anything in common. To go ahead with creating models that are of use, the
organization has to be more specific on the potential uses of the model. The time is ripe for a multiple-job
approach to building competency models. There is the requirement of such an approach and assumes, for
example, that an organization needs competency models for 25 professional and managerial jobs, as well as
consistent programs and tools for performance management, professional development, and selection for these
jobs, based on the competency models.
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VI. Future Directions in the Development of Competency Models
The three approaches described are likely to become more widely used, because they all offer ways to
unify and integrate a variety of HR programs. The single-job competency model provides a way to improve the
development and selection for a job seen as critical to the organization's success. The "one-size-fits-all"
approach to building competency models has the advantage of providing a simple, unifying framework of all
HR programs for a family of jobs, such as managerial. This approach is more difficult to implement, because it
usually requires approval of top management and may also require the agreement of several independent HR
groups. Implementing this approach, therefore, requires an effective champion from the HR function or from
line management. The multiple-job approach to developing competencies offers the dual advantages of a
common conceptual framework and customization for individual jobs. This is the only approach that facilitates
comparison of competency models with each other and comparison of employee profiles with multiple jobs. The
multiple job approach is more cost effective than the single-job approach, if many competency models are
needed, but the multiple-job approach is the most difficult of the three approaches to implement.
VII. Linking Competency Models to Organizational Goals and Objectives
Competencies must be typically linked to business objectives and strategies (e.g., Campion et al., 2011;
Martone, 2003). The business objectives linkage of competency models is critical to the interest and
commitment of senior management. In addition, the business linkage distinguishes competency models from job
analysis, which usually stops short of translating how the competencies directly influence organizational goals.
In order to ensure that the best practices are met, the development of the competency model often starts with a
definition of the organizational goals and objectives. Based on the guiding framework, competencies critical for
obtaining those goals and objectives are identified (figure 2). Sometimes the competencies are direct
translations of the organizational goals. Other times, the competencies might be one step back in the chain of
efforts required for the organizational goals, such as the identification of innovative new products. Note that this
best practice does not preclude the inclusion of some competencies that relate to the fundamental requirements
of organizations that are not necessarily linked to specific organizational goals, such as producing high-quality
products or services. Competencies of this nature are more common for lower-level jobs, whereas competencies
more clearly related to organizational goals are more apparent for management and executive jobs.
Figure 2. A Framework for Competencies (Campion M.A. et al., 2011)
VIII. Conclusion
From this critical literature review, it should be clear that the development and use of competencies is a
complex endeavor. The development and application of a competency model is the proven approach to investing
in human resources in order to achieve a more effective and productive workforce. The functioning of an
organization largely depends upon several remarkable components, with the talented employee occupying the
central role in the accomplishment of organizational goals. In the present economic scenario, the need for a
forward-looking and proactive approach to competency modeling is driven by the increasing pace of change in
the business environment. Competencies can be used for translating strategy into job-related and individual
skills and behaviors that people easily can understand and therefore implement. With the knowledge and use of
the information contained within a competency model and awareness of their individual competency strengths
and weaknesses, individuals may manage their future job or career success, navigate their current chosen career
pathway, or apply the information to examine new career opportunities, considering the utilization of
transferable competencies.
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We hope that describing the competencies and illustrating them through the applications of the models will
promote good practice around competencies. We believe this extensive literature survey can guide and
encourage more effective and efficient use of competencies and also inspire greater empirical research on
competencies.
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... É na gestão estratégica de recursos humanos que essas duas correntes se encontram, já que essa gestão permite alinhar o comportamento interno e as habilidades com a direção estratégica da organização como um todo, traduzindo visão, objetivos e valores organizacionais em comportamentos específicos por meio dos modelos de competências (Chouhan;Srivastava, 2014). ...
... É na gestão estratégica de recursos humanos que essas duas correntes se encontram, já que essa gestão permite alinhar o comportamento interno e as habilidades com a direção estratégica da organização como um todo, traduzindo visão, objetivos e valores organizacionais em comportamentos específicos por meio dos modelos de competências (Chouhan;Srivastava, 2014). ...
... O mapeamento de competências no setor público é o processo de identificação das competências necessárias para o desempenho eficaz em uma função específica, com descrições das atividades e comportamentos associados para permitir que os servidores entendam e apliquem as competências no desempenho do trabalho (Chouhan;Srivastava, 2014). ...
... In short, to do a job efficiently and effectively, one has to be competent. Chouhan and Srivastava (2014) opined that the term "competence" and "competent" refer to a state or quality of being able and fit. On the other hand, Hoffman (1999) said that usually the term competency/competencies have been used to refer to the meaning expressed as behaviors that an individual needs to demonstrate, while the term "competence" has been used to refer to the meaning expressed as standards of performance. ...
... On the other hand, Hoffman (1999) said that usually the term competency/competencies have been used to refer to the meaning expressed as behaviors that an individual needs to demonstrate, while the term "competence" has been used to refer to the meaning expressed as standards of performance. In a knowledge-based economy, the success of organizations depends mostly on the quality of their human resource (Chouhan and Srivastava, 2014). Obviously, a knowledgeable, skilled and well-trained workforce is critical to a company's success. ...
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... Future leaders who possess key role in many organisations frequently participate in the growth of the education process in higher education institutions (Filho et al., 2020). These leaders must possess leadership competencies that can be adaptable in a higher education institution context (Chouhan & Srivastava, 2014). The difficulty lies with a person's abilities to lead their subordinates and take action to create effective and efficient organisations. ...
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Opportunities and Challenges of an enriched collaboration perspective for NDE Organizations. Three use cases on the pillars, structures, and roadmaps that are creating a purposeful digital transformation of NDE CONTENT OF THE PRESENTATION Where do we come from? -The importance of creating and evolving proprietary frameworks based in hands-on experience -Three use cases on the power of an enriched global collaboration perspective: -An ecosystem perspective for NDE 4.0 1 Evolving and enriching the competencies of NDE practitioners to adapt to Industry 4.0 Work Environments including Inspectors certified under SNT-TC-1A/ISO9712 requirements. 2 Creating a digital platform for redefining the business model and value proposition of NDE services companies that serve Industry 4.0 clients. 3 NDE 4.0 Deployment Support Resources Development. -Conclusions, challenges ahead, and future research.