Open Journal of Ecology, 2014, 4, 571-581
Published Online June 2014 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/oje
How to cite this paper: Chomba, C., Obias, C. and Nyirenda, V. (2014) Game Ranching: A Sustainable Land Use Option and
Economic Incentive for Biodiversity Conservation in Zambia. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 571-581.
Game Ranching: A Sustainable Land Use
Option and Economic Incentive for
Biodiversity Conservation in Zambia
Chansa Chomba1*, Chimbola Obias2, Vincent Nyirenda3
1School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Disaster Management Training Centre, Mulungushi University,
2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Mulungushi University, Kabwe, Zambia
3School of Natural Resources, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Email: *email@example.com, *firstname.lastname@example.org, *email@example.com
Received 23 April 2014; revised 23 May 2014; accepted 2 June 2014
Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
The ten provinces of Zambia were surveyed to determine number and size of game ranches si-
tuated in these areas up to the end of 2012/early 2013. Three classes of game ranches were de-
veloped as; 1) ≥500 hectares as game ranch proper, 2) ≥50 - <500 hectares as game farm, and 3)
<50 hectares as ornamental. A total of 200 game ranches keeping large mammals from the size of
common duiker to eland were recorded with a growth rate of 6 per year for the period 1980-2012.
The largest number was ornamental 98 (49%); large game ranches were 75 (38%) and the least
was game farms 27 (14%). Thirty seven species of large mammals were recorded, of which, 15
were the most abundant with impala topping the list with 21,000 individuals (34%). It was found
that of the ten provinces, Luapula, Western and Northern Provinces despite being largely rural
with low population densities except for Luapula did not have any game ranch. The province with
the largest number was Lusaka 71(36%), Southern 59 (30%), Central 31(16%), Copperbelt 19
(10%), Eastern and Northwestern 9 (4.5% each) and Muchinga was the least with 2 (1%). The
rapid increase in the number of ornamental category is mainly attributed to the rise in the devel-
opment of tourist accommodation facilities and high cost residential properties. This growth pro-
vides an opportunity to convert to game ranching schemes abandoned farmlands which are not
currently useful to agriculture due to loss of fertility and other forms of land degradation. Simi-
larly, parcels of land with natural ecological limitations should also be considered for such
schemes. Rehabilitation of degraded land through ranching could also enhance carbon sequestra-
tion, a factor critical in minimizing carbon emissions and other green house gases.
C. Chomba et al.
Game Ranch, Province, Number, Species, Increase, Carbon Emissions
Game ranching in Zambia (Figure 1) has emerged as a popular use of wildlife by the private sector. This is dis-
cerned from the rapid increase in the number of private wildlife estates from one in early 1980 to 200 by end of
2012, representing a mean establishment rate of six each year. The first private wildlife estate was established in
Lusaka province, but growth of the sector has now covered seven of the ten provinces. At the time the first game
ranch was established, there was no policy or legislative framework to guide and facilitate its growth  .
The only provision made available was the Statutory Instrument on Licences and Fees, which provided a dis-
count of 50% for all live wild animals sold to individuals stocking game ranching schemes. This provision was
initially intended to encourage indigenous Zambians to establish and manage game ranches as an alternative
land use option to conventional agriculture and livestock keeping. Over the years, government realized the need
to regulate the sector through Policy and Legislative frameworks. The policy for National Parks and Wildlife in
Zambia of 1998 and the Zambia Wildlife Act of 1998 provided the required legislative frameworks to support
the growth of the game ranching sector.
After the establishment of the first Game Ranch in Lusaka Province, the Southern Province of Zambia
adopted and recorded a faster rate of increase in the establishment and growth of private wildlife estates. This is
assumed to be attributed to the cattle keeping tradition of the local tribes and the large scale cattle ranching
schemes by white farmers of mainly British and South African descent which is also a factor behind animal
husbandry skills inherent in the people of the province. This factor, coupled with the occasional outbreaks of
cattle diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia (CBPP) and oth-
ers are assumed to have inspired many livestock keepers in the province to switch to game ranching as a com-
plement to livestock keeping. However, most of the game ranch owners are mixed race and white settlers who
had acquired large tracts of land for cattle keeping and crop cultivation before and shortly after independence .
The second phase of rapid growth in the number of private wildlife estates was recorded when there was an in-
creased in flow of white migrants from South Africa after 1994, and Zimbabwe during land ownership disputes
respectively. These latter groups brought with them new skills in game ranching. Their experience in the sector
encouraged some local farmers to switch to game ranching.
In the east and southern African sub regions, particularly in the Southern African Development Community
(SADC) in general, game ranching has been increasing more rapidly than any other part of Africa and has
emerged as a desirable alternative to traditional ways of using land. In South Africa, for instance, there were
more than 10,000 game ranches in 2012  , up from 5000 in 2003 as recorded by ABSA , occupying over
20.5 million hectares of land or above 17% of the country’s available land under private conservation, which
was more than double the 7.5 million hectares of the national and provincial reserves combined   .
Game ranches generated over US$400 million annually through mainly live auctions and trophy hunting and
there were more game animals of some species in South Africa than the previous century, save for the rhino
which has recently been persecuted due to the sudden emergence of a new white and black rhino (Ceratotherium
simum and Diceros bicornis) horn market in Asia. For instance, there were about 30,000 African buffalo (Syn-
cerus caffer) of which 90% were disease free on 1918 game ranches  .
Experiences on the profitability of game ranching when compared with livestock particularly in marginal
areas obtained from countries such as, Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa inspired Zambia to enhance its
policies and legislation on ranching in order to support growth of the sector. Although the sector is described as
being relatively new, it has now gained momentum such that it now includes; leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys
pardalis) bell’s hinged (Kinixys belliana) and pancake (Malacochersus tornieri), keeping of birds and snakes,
large mammals and Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) on a commercial scale. Tortoise farming in particular,
increased after the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
imposed a non time bound moratorium on live exports of tortoises from Zambia, as it was assumed that the live
pancake tortoises that were being exported from Zambia were smuggled specimens from Tanzania. Government
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Figure 1. (a) Location of Zambia and its nine provinces, in relation to other Southern Africa
countries before the subdivision in 2011; (b) After the subdivision in 2011 which created the
tenth province, Muchinga.
was left with no option but to carry out field research to establish the existence of pan cake in Zambia , to
dispel the anecdotal reports of smuggling between Zambia and Tanzania. After the species was discovered in
North eastern Zambia , government encouraged captive breeding of the three species of tortoises with per-
mission from CITES. Trade eventually resumed and a number of people ventured into this new enterprise. Since
C. Chomba et al.
tortoises can be bred on limited space in back yards and requires minimal capital investments, many small scale
farmers took up the challenge -.
This paper focused on game ranches where large mammals are kept for trophy hunting and photographic
tourism as well as enhancing aesthetic beauty for purely ornamental purposes such as on hotel premises and high
cost residential properties. It provided an analysis of the characteristics of private wildlife estates and their pat-
terns of distribution throughout the 10 provinces of Zambia for potential farmers to use in deciding on suitable
location, size and species of interest, and how to overcome ecological and socioeconomic related obstacles in
the establishment of PWEs in provinces such as Northwestern, Luapula and Northern Provinces which seem to
be lagging behind. It could also be a useful tool in lobbying for customary land through traditional authorities
(chiefs) especially for game ranching which requires more land than monoculture. It is hoped that the conclu-
sions from this study will also stimulate local academic institutions such as the University of Zambia, Copper-
belt and Mulungushi Universities to offer courses that would provide the needed technical expertise in the sector.
The land policy also imposes a severe limitation by restricting the extent of land to be alienated for agriculture to
250 hectares which is not adequate for game ranching, hence the provision of technical information on the land
size requirements would help remove this barrier of size limitation which is caused by paucity of data.
2. Methods and Materials
Data on the number of private wildlife estates covering all the provinces of Zambia (Figure 1) followed the me-
thod of retrieving information stored in the directorate of research and licencing office of the Zambia Wildlife
Authority (ZAWA). Duplicate copies of the Certificate of Ownership (CO) and Permit to Keep Wild animals in
Captivity which are stored at ZAWA were accessed. Both the CO and Permit to Keep animals in Captivity are
issued to all private wildlife estates and are renewed annually which guaranteed up to date data on the perfor-
mance of the sector. The forms also contain all the species and numbers kept by each private property, area in
hectares of the property, name of the property and the owner’s name.
Forms described above, provide details on species name, sex, and numbers, category of private wildlife estate
(e.g. game ranch or crocodile farm), size in hectares, location of the property, and year established. Such data
were entered on data sheets.
Basic statistical analyses using Microsoft Excel 2007, and Minitab Software Programme Version 14 were ap-
plied to process and present results. Game Ranch sizes were classified on the basis of their size as follows; ≥500
hectares as game ranch proper, <500 hectares but >50 hectares as game farm and 50 hectares and less as orna-
3.1. Total Number of Game Ranches Based on Size in Hectares
By end of year 2012, there were 200 game ranches of different sizes in Zambia representing a moderate annual
growth rate of 6 (3%) per year in the last 32 years. The national pattern was such that ornamental properties
were the most abundant 98 (49%) and these were less than 50 hectares in extent, mainly located around residen-
tial properties, hotels and other tourist facilities; Game ranches of size ≥500 hectares 75 (38%) ranked second
with the least being game farms of intermediate size 50 - 499 hectares which recorded 27 (14% of national total)
3.2. Number of Game Ranches in Each Province
3.2.1. Comparison of Size of Province, Human Population Density and Number of Private
The number and size of game ranches were not determined by the size of province or human population density
(P < 0.05). Lusaka Province which is the smallest (21,896 km2) and which also had the highest human density
per sq kilometer (100.4/km2) had the largest number of game ranches at national level of 71 (36% of national
total). Of this total, the largest number were ornamental properties 46 (65%), followed by game ranches were 15
(21%) and the least were game farms 10 (14%). The second largest number were in Southern Province with a
combined total of 59 (30% of national total), of which ornamental properties were 29 (49%), game ranch proper
21 (36%) and the least were game farms 9 (15%).
C. Chomba et al.
Figure 2. Total number of Game Ranches based on size by December 2012,
Central Province ranked third with a total of 31 (16% of national total). Of this total, 22 (71%) were game
ranch proper, ornamental 6 (19%) and the least were game farms 3 (10%). The province also had the largest
number of Game ranch proper (≥500 hectares) which were 22 (29% of national total) (Figure 3(a), Figure 3(b)).
Copper belt province had the fourth largest number of game ranches in the country 19 (10% of national total).
Of this total, 9 (47%) were ornamental properties, while the other two categories had an equal number of 5 each
Eastern and Northwestern provinces had the least 9 (4.5% of national total each) and shared the same pattern
of size where of the total 5 (55% each) were game ranches of the size equal to and larger than 500 hectares and 4
(45% each) were ornamental. Muchinga Province had a total of 2 (1% of national total) and both were of the
size larger than 500 hectares.
Luapula, Western and Northern Provinces, despite being largely rural and not densely populated did not have
any game ranch (Table 1, Figure 3(a), Figure 3(b)).
3.2.2. Species of Large Mammals Popular on Game Ranching
A total of 37 species of large mammals (≥5 kg) were recorded with a total of 61, 934 individuals. Of the 37, two
were exotic species, sported deer or Axis deer (Axis axis) donated by the Government of India to the Govern-
ment of Zambia in the early 1980s and lowland nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) imported from the Republic of
South Africa, the rest (35) were indigenous species.
Of these 37 species 15 were the most abundant with numbers exceeding 1000 individuals per species. These
were in order of abundance as follows; impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus),
bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), puku (Kobus vardoni), greater kudu
(Tragelaphus strepsiceros), bush pig (Potamochoerus larvatus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), zebra
(Equus quagga), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), eland (Taurotragus
oryx), lichtensteini’s hartebeest (Alcelaphus lichtensteini), defassa waterbuck (Kobus defassa), and common
waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) (Figure 4(a), Figure 4(b)).
4.1. Size of Game Ranches
4.1.1. Ornamental Properties
Most ornamental properties were pre-existing fenced hotel and lodge premises as well as high cost residential
properties. Therefore, no effort was required to secure land, fence and provide water; these requirements were
already in place and since the properties were already on the title, all things that were required were to simply
introduce game to add aesthetic value. In certain instances, only minor modifications were required such as im-
proving the shape and configuration of drinking troughs and increasing the height of the enclosure in cases
where animals such as impala or spotted deer which can jump over a 2.5 metre fence were concerned. Species
diversity and animal numbers per property were also low and this lowered capital inputs and curtailed the leng-
thy and strenuous process required to establish a game ranch on virgin land. Since the properties were relatively
Less than 50
hectares ( 98), 49%
Between 50 - 499
hectares (27), 14%
Ab ove 500
hectares (75), 38%
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Figure 3. (a) Distribution of Game Ranches in each Province by end of year 2012; (b) Comparison of size of
province, human population density and number of game ranches, Zambia.
small with respect to ranching, only few animals of mainly small to medium size which also cost less and trans-
portation can be done in one truck load which is affordable made the process of establishment easier. The over-
all cost of commissioning the property was therefore generally low. Additionally, the increase in competition
between tourist accommodation facilities mainly around Lusaka and Livingstone to elevate their aesthetic beau-
ty in order to attract more visitors has also compelled many property owners to earn a competitive edge by in-
troducing game around the property to enhance their attraction profile. The latter reason appears to have applied
Human Population density Number of Game Ranches
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Table 1. Provinces, area in square kilometers, human population size and density compared with total number of established
game ranches in each province, 2013, Zambia.
Province Provincial capital Area km2 Population size Population
density Number of
Size of largest
Central Kabwe 94,394 1,267,803 13.4 31 34,000
Copperbelt Ndola 31,328 1,958,623 62.5 19 3,600
Eastern Chipata 69,106 1,707,731 24.7 9 24,800
Luapula Mansa 50,567 958,976 19.0 - -
Lusaka Lusaka 21,896 2,198,996 100.4 71 36,189
Northern/Muchinga** Kasama/Chinsali 147,826 1,759,600 11.9 2 11,600
North-Western Solwezi 125,826 706,462 5.6 9 22,000
Southern Livingstone 85,283 1,606,793 18.8 59 45,000
Western Mongu 126,386 881,524 7.0 - -
Zambia (Country) Lusaka 752,614 13,046,508 17.3 200*
Notes: Data used in this table are for the period up to December 31, 2013; **Muchinga province was separated from Northern Province in 2011 and
since then, there has been no census to determine its population size and in this report, it has been treated as part of Northern Province.
to high cost residential owners as well who would like to out compete their neighbours which eventually created
a domino effect particularly in areas such as new Kasama high cost residential area of Lusaka. As neighbours
learned from one another, it became relatively easy for the idea to spread quickly from one property owner to
the other. This explains the almost exponential growth rates in ornamental category (see Figure 2) experienced
in the last few years.
The reason for the relatively slow growth in the game farms cannot be readily explained. This is because the
current Lands Act permits land acquisition not exceeding 250 hectares for agricultural purposes. Implying that it
was easy to convert unproductive agricultural land to game farming but this was not the case. Perhaps the only
explanation would be lack of knowledge in the majority of middle class Zambian citizens most of whom engage
in maize production and other crops. Popular private enterprises for most Zambians in addition to farming seem
to be those associated with law firms, construction, accommodation and transport.
4.2. Distribution of Game Ranches in the Ten Provinces
Lusaka, southern and central provinces were the leading provinces in the number and size of game ranching
schemes, maintaining a skewed distribution across the ten provinces in the last 32 years. Most of the game
ranches were still concentrated along the old line of rail. The skewed distribution of game ranches in favour of
Lusaka and Southern provinces in particular, could be attributed to the increase in the number of hotels and
lodges as well as residential properties where certain species of game are bred as a way of enhancing aesthetic
beauty of their surroundings.
The rapid increase in the number of ornamental properties in the last few years was also attributed to the libe-
ralization of the economy in 1991, after which the country experienced an increase in the establishment of tour-
ist accommodation facilities and an emergence of the middle class. These tourist accommodation facilities as
mentioned earlier usually keep game for ornamental purposes as one way of enhancing the attraction profile of
their premises. Additionally, the increasing number of middle income groups and the rich increased the number
of spacious high cost premises. In certain areas such as New Kasama in Lusaka, most property owners’ stocked
game around their premises, which were then classified as ornamental.
On private properties and tourist accommodation facilities, only game considered non dangerous to people
were introduced and this explains why impala was the most abundant species. Large game is often considered
dangerous and can only be found on medium to large size game ranches and not on residential properties or ho-
tels. During the breeding season for instance, males of most species of wild animals in musth fight for females
and some species also become aggressive towards both human and properties. For this reason, large game is not
usually kept on residential properties.
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Figure 4. (a) Distribution of Game Ranches in each Province by end of year 2012, (b) Comparison of size of
province, human population density and number of game ranches, Zambia.
4.3. Game Ranching Schemes in Rural and High Rainfall Provinces
The absence of game ranching schemes in Northwestern, Luapula and Northern Provinces and the small number
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of ranches in other rural provinces could be attributed to a number of factors including; long distance(s) from
major cities and key tourist attractions such as the Mosi oa Tunya Falls, poor road net work and lack of air
transport facilities. Lack of such facilities ultimately increase transportation costs and is a disincentive to the es-
tablishment of game ranching schemes. For example, it is difficult for foreign clients to reach these remote areas.
Even if it were possible, the trip may not be rewarding as there are no other developed tourist attractions in the
vicinity which would enrich the visitor’s trip to justify the long and strenuous journey. In terms of trophy hunt-
ing, game ranches usually offer soft skin game hunting, implying that a client needs to go to another area for
cats and big game, and as such, most clients would like to operate in an area where they can meet a full hunting
package within a short distance, which saves time and money. It is hoped that through the current government
programme “link Zambia 8000” many remote areas would be opened up to game ranching.
The other reason is that most provinces in agro ecological zones III and II have a common ecological limita-
tion of dystrophic soils and hence poor pasture with coarse grasses such as Hyparrhenia spp dominating the
range. Such grass species are of low nutritional value as they are dominated by sclerenchyma tissue with thick
secondary walls containing lignin and hence unpalatable. In these areas which also have highly leached soils,
stocking rates would not be high, except for bulky grazers. Eutrophic soils are normally found in drier ecological
zones II and I and this may explain why most of the large game ranches are located in Southern Province. Simi-
lar observations were made in South Africa   where the sweet veld carried a higher diversity and densi-
ties than sour velds.
4.4. Popular Species for Game Ranching
Impala was the most abundant species of the top 15 species on game ranches. It was also the most abundant
even in the wild out numbering other bovines in Eastern and Southern Africa, gregarious and easy to capture,
reproduces fairly quickly with gestation period of six months, has a smooth coat and good colour and hence at-
tractive to look at, tames relatively easily save for the males who may be vociferous during rut when testoste-
rone levels surge and they puff and grunt. At this time, they may cause some unintentional coalition with hu-
mans as was reported in Kafue National Park, Zambia, where they were responsible for most of the vehicle col-
lisions . Otherwise, impala is a successful species and this explains their abundance on ranches and in the
wild. The absence of predators such as leopard (Panthera pardus) and wild dog (Lycaon pictus) on many game
ranches implies that mortality is virtually absent and so the population may increase exponentially even with
minimum management effort.
Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) was supposed to be one of the top 15 species as it is very popular in both hunting
and photographic tourism. Every rancher saves for ornamental properties would like to have buffalo as a pre-
mium species on the property. The main challenges however, are the stringent veterinary legislative and policy
frameworks which prohibit the capture and translocation of buffalo unless the specimens are Foot and Mouth
Disease (FMD) free. FMD is a disease of concern because it is a highly contagious viral disease affecting prac-
tically all cloven-footed domesticated mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. It spreads rapidly and
negatively impacts on animal productivity, and as such, it is considered to be the most economically devastating
livestock disease in the world. To prevent the spread of FMD, the Department of Veterinary Services bans the
movement or import of animals and animal products from known or suspected infected areas. Since buffalo is
known to be a carrier of the virus, its movement is prohibited unless tests are carried out to prove that the spe-
cimen is FMD free. It is the huge costs involved in raising FMD free calves that makes it prohibitive and pre-
vents most farmers from purchasing buffalo. This could be the reason why buffalo was not one of the top 15
Roan antelope numbers were low, perhaps because it is not easy to obtain breeding stock. The numbers are
low everywhere including in National Parks and Game Management Areas. Getting a large founder may not
have been practicable. Breeding of this species also appears to be slower than its relative the sable antelope for
reasons that are not very clear at the moment, though others associate this to habitat quality. For a few years to
come, roan antelope numbers at each property may continue to be low. Warthog and other members of the fam-
ily suidae have large litters and populations increase quickly and in many ranches, the species is said to be stable
to increasing. This species is expected to increase on every property where they exist.
Cats are virtually absent on all properties, due to legislative restrictions and because many farmers feel that
their presence on the ranch increases calf mortality of antelope species. On the few properties on which they ex-
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ist, they are confined to enclosures and are fed artificially which increases costs. Captive breeding and cat hunt-
ing are not allowed in Zambia, so the incentive to encourage ranchers to breed them is logically curtailed.
The absence of rhino can be explained by the current legislative and policy restrictions and high security costs.
Under the current policy, rhino can only be kept on a private property under custodianship arrangements. Many
property owners also feel that it would be risky to keep rhinos on private property, particularly beginning 2008
when poaching started to increase to unprecedented levels to the extent that even in South Africa which has the
highest investment in security on the African continent, started to lose more than 600 animals each year
(2008-2013). The poaching scourge for rhino increased due to a sudden upsurge of rhino horn price on the black
market particularly in Vietnam where it was estimated to cost no less than US$ 65,000 per kg (March 2014) or
in extreme circumstances up to USD 1400 as was once recorded in Vietnam in 2013. This had made rhino secu-
rity a risk and probably discouraged new property owners in Zambia from keeping rhino even under custodian-
ship arrangements, as the cost of doing so may far exceed benefits.
The game ranching sector in Zambia has the potential to increase as human population density is still low
(17/km2). To achieve good growth rates in each province there should be provision of technical information and
services. This would to enable new entrants to manage the range in a professional manner as to increase stocking
rates. The following suggestions are made to support growth of the sector:
1) Growing of Lurcene/Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) which is a nutritious fodder crop rich in proteins, minerals
and vitamins should be encouraged. Lurcene can with stand extremes of drought and this makes it remarkably
adaptable to various climatic conditions and its wide spread use in Zambia can revolutionarize game ranching as
well as live stock raising and should be considered as a priority programme to be implemented side by side with
game ranching. To speed up this process, the local academic institutions such the University of Zambia, Cop-
perbelt University and Mulungushi University should be willing and ready to offer technical training and out-
reach programmes to communities.
2) In areas along the Tanzania-Zambia Railways (TAZARA) corridor, it would be advisable to encourage
ranching as the area is already accessible by train. Additionally, ranching schemes in the high rainfall ecological
zones, should consider managing such properties as integrated production systems, which would also include
bee keeping, and in some instances aquaculture on the same property to increase profit margins and leverage
lower stocking rates.
3) In Western Province where the land tenure systems highly engrained in traditional systems, it would be ad-
visable for government to engage traditional authorities there to release land for ranching. In Luapula and
Northern Provinces, the major factor could be inadequate air and road support infrastructure coupled with the
absence of cattle keeping tradition. In Luapula Province for instance, fishing in natural water bodies which are in
fact in abundance, is a major occupation and ranching would be considered alien. In these areas establishment of
game ranching schemes should be preceded by massive awareness campaigns.
We wish to thank staffs of licensing and research departments of Zambia Wildlife Authority in particular Mr.
Daniel Mwizabi a research assistant at ZAWA for collecting data from the field, Mr. Ngubu a student on at-
tachment from the University of Zambia for entering data on excel spread sheets, Mr. Ignatius Mulembi of the
Licensing Office for providing documents which contain duplicate copies of the Certificates of Ownership, Mr.
Musonda for his skillful and careful driving during routine visits to Game Ranches. Many anonymous readers
that made contributions and critique of the initial draft summarizing it from several pages to the present succinct
account. We thank them all for the effort.
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