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The paper presents assessment of the impact of the processes handling efficiency on the transport process based on research done in the real object, using the same technologies and material handling equipment. The aim of the paper was to confirm the importance of loading and unloading processes of palletized cargo as an initial and final link of multimodal transport by developing methods proposal for monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of cargo operations as well as the development of measures and comparison estimators. The analysis of the manipulation operations duration throughout the transport process is based on the percentile rates of manipulation and carriage in total transport process duration and the percentage of manipulating time in the duration of the carriage. These indicators and the examined loading and unloading times are the basis for the development of scheduling algorithms for optimizing transport processes on the scale of the entire transport chain. This data is also helpful input to support strategic decisions on the allocation of financial resources for the development of infrastructure and terminal equipment, warehouses and other facilities. © 2014 Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering. All rights reserved.
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Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331 323
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
Faculty of Transport,
Silesian University of Technology
Krasińskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
Intermodal Transport
Submitted: Aug. 12, 2013
Approved: July 8, 2014
The paper presents assessment of the impact of the pro-
cesses handling efciency on the transport process based
on research done in the real object, using the same tech-
nologies and material handling equipment. The aim of the
paper was to conrm the importance of loading and unload-
ing processes of palletized cargo as an initial and nal link
of multimodal transport by developing methods proposal for
monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of cargo opera-
tions as well as the development of measures and compari-
son estimators. The analysis of the manipulation operations
duration throughout the transport process is based on the
percentile rates of manipulation and carriage in total trans-
port process duration and the percentage of manipulating
time in the duration of the carriage. These indicators and the
examined loading and unloading times are the basis for the
development of scheduling algorithms for optimizing trans-
port processes on the scale of the entire transport chain.
This data is also helpful input to support strategic decisions
on the allocation of nancial resources for the development
of infrastructure and terminal equipment, warehouses and
other facilities.
loading process; unloading process; cargo handling ef-
Nowadays, the most characteristic feature of the
transport forced by the signicant increase in trade
and the need to maintain competitive advantage is
the exibility and responsiveness to the changing cus-
tomer needs.
This trend is visible not only in the regional trans-
port chains, but also and mainly in the international
and multimodal transport, which also considers a
number of external factors that affect the process im-
This changing perspective forces the companies to
take more exible planning techniques for the whole
supply chain in which transport plays a crucial role. It
is important, therefore, to nd and use the appropriate
tools to measure the effectiveness and productivity
of the transport processes and to enable elimination
of these processes that do not create added value.
These in turn have a huge impact on the construction
of rational and viable labour standards of handling
possibilities [1-4].
A thorough analysis of obtained results in this way
is one of the rst steps to be taken in the formulation
of appropriate strategies and allocation of funds for
the necessary infrastructure and technology improve-
ments. The development of the transport system in
fact depends on an adequate level of process and
proper funding sources diversication into different
undertakings in this eld. One of the main funding
sources can be found in the transport policy [5].
The transport and logistics systems are strongly
correlated. Efciencies of the processes depend on
each other and this should not be interpreted as out-
sourcing. Important role in the integration can be de-
ned in logistic centres and container terminals [6, 7].
Some research has been conducted on the relation-
ship between local logistics and transport systems [6].
The transport processes can be analysed by many
novel methods for optimization and quality services,
for example by neural network, intelligent transport
systems and more [8, 9].
Proper organization of technological processes is
an interesting issue and widely described in the litera-
ture [10]. Additional information on previous research
in this area to preserve the intellectual cohesion is pre-
sented in the following paragraphs of the paper. This
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
324 Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331
issue, however, is a novelty in the analysed case study,
where the main objective is to obtain savings through
lean management of processes. Hence, the rst step
is to analyse the work of cargo loading and unloading
processes presented in this paper.
The process of transportation is a set of regulations
and administrative operations carried out in a specic
order in relation to the movement of cargo by differ-
ent means of transport. For the purpose of integrating
different transport modes very important are standard
technologies. One of the most common standards is
intermodal transport [11, 12]. The main transport pro-
cess elements are also called phases: loading, freight
carrying and unloading. Depending on the complexity
of the transport process also some additional opera-
tions may occur, such as preparing the cargo for trans-
port, warehousing, cargo acceptance and handling of
the cooperating means of transport, as well as activi-
ties related to forwarding service recipients.
It is extremely important that the implementation
of the transport process is strictly matched with a
specic technology. A comprehensive transportation
process should consist of the following technological
temporary storage of cargo at the sender’s or in the
multimodal terminals or warehouses,
execution of loading operations in each phase of
carriage of goods by various means of transport.
Another important issue is the proper organization
of technological processes. This should be done in
such a manner that different steps are followed im-
mediately one after the other, without interruptions. To
achieve this goal it is necessary to coordinate the sub-
processes with the vehicles working.
In addition, it is essential to coordinate the activi-
ties of all the relevant stakeholders in the process of
transport, and thus also both of the sender and the
receiver of cargo and transport, including indirect links
in the complex process of transportation.
The overall duration of the transport process, as
well as the balance of the elements differ depending
on different factors, such as:
average distance cargo transport,
localization of distribution points and cargo trans-
portation conditions,
capacity of the vehicle,
technical speed of vehicle movement,
technical vulnerabilities of cargo transport,
the level of mechanization degree of loading mech-
anisms construction,
construction of highways surface and other [13].
Although container terminals have increased their
capacity to process a greater number of containers per
year, the rapid growth in container cargo volume poses
a constant need for optimal use of port resources that
reduces operating costs and increases cargo through-
put [14]. The unloading operations themselves can be
further decomposed into multiple issues in literature.
Some researchers planned efcient ordering for quay-
side cranes to pick up containers from a vessel [15]
and some studied the routing problem, which seeks
the optimal sorting and stacking of containers at stor-
age that minimizes the handling time [16].
As of 2009 approximately 90% of non-bulk cargo
worldwide has been moved by containers stacked
on transport ships [17]. It should be emphasized,
however, that the success of a reliable, safe and fast
multimodal transport depends primarily on efciency
of intermodal freight shipping containers loading and
unloading processes carried in small consolidation
points of network (Figure 1), because there the time
and cost of making freight operations per one unit of
goods are the greatest.
Figure 1 - Loading and unloading operations at the points of consolidation
and deconsolidation in intermodal transport network
Supplier C
Customer A
Customer B
Road transport Road transport
Sea / rail transport
Loading cargo
into a container
Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331 325
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
The transportation of container cargo between dif-
ferent modes has become highly standardized in the
intermodal shipping industry.
The purpose of the research was to analyze the
cargo loading and unloading processes in a time func-
tion, and the analysis of the efciency of loading with
the example of a consolidation warehouse.
3.1 Object and Research Method
The subject of research was the analysis of the ef-
ciency of cargo handling processes using time mea-
sures according to loading and unloading operations
of the same product with the same material handling
equipment. Because of the importance of handling
equipment and technology used the research has been
conducted according to loading repeatable technology
for universal transport truck. This eliminated the need
of the load unit analysis because it has been reduced
to standardized EURO pallets. The scientic problem,
which has led to the clarication of the research prob-
lem relates to the methods for assessing the effec-
tiveness of processes and transport operations. The
loading units were standardized euro pallets with the
plastic packaging for the dairy products, packaged in
cartons with dimensions of 400 x 400 x 600 mm with
6 pieces in a single layer (Figure 2a), four layers on the
euro pallet (800 x 1,200 mm). The weight of one pallet
was 181 kg and the weight of cargo loaded was 33 x
181 kg = 5,973 kg. The cargo of 33 pallets was loaded
from warehouse ramp into Krone semi-trailer of stan-
dard dimensions: 13.6 x 2.48 x 2.80 m with sliding
roof. The manipulating operations of these processes
and measuring times method are presented in Figure
Each time the individual loading / unloading opera-
tions were done the length and the duration of trans-
port were analysed. The human factor which is always
present (e.g. the operator’s behaviour) was intention-
ally excluded from the research, and the analysis was
only focused on the technical operation activities. Reg-
istration of time began at the moment of load collec-
tion and ended strictly at the moment of unloading.
During the research the workers were fully informed
about the aim of the measures and the need to pre-
serve the nominal parameters in order to avoid accel-
erations or decelerations. All anomalies in the behav-
iour of the operator interrupted the measurement and
the research was re-started (with another process).
The results presented in the paper include a full pro-
cess in nominal terms in the regime of the operator
a) b) 1
5 m
6.2 m
7.4 m
8.6 m
9.8 m
11 m
12.2 m
13.4 m
14.6 m
15.8 m
17 m
Length of loading route
(13.6×2,48 m)
Euro pallets
Cargo pick-up area
600 600 600600
400 400
Figure 2 - Scheme and method of analysed handling processes:
a) loading unit dimensions, b) cargo loading scheme (research method)
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
326 Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331
while maintaining full real conditions. The research
had an active experiment character and was based on
a real object and did not rely on a special process mod-
elling, or easier or more convenient load positioning. It
preserved all the realities of the transport process and
recorded only those results that smoothly implement
the entire transport process.
There were two steps of research according to rare
loading and unloading operations. The schematic ad-
ministration and other handling activities which were
within the scope of research are presented in Figure 3.
3.2 Research Results
The rst step of the research was connected with
rare loading of the semi-trailer. Particular times were
measured from the time of the arrival of the truck with
semi-trailer to the gate of the company, where the
loading manipulations took place, and are shown in
Table 1.
Table 1 shows that the time required to execute all
the steps from arrival to departure of the truck in this
warehouse was 146 minutes, while the loading itself
took more than 39 minutes, which is about 26.7% of
the total time. The biggest problem that occurred dur-
ing this research was the waiting time caused by the
queue at the ramp. The exact time and distance of lo-
cating the cargo in the semi-trailer according to Figure
2b scheme from the rst to the thirty-third pallet was
considered and presented in Table 2. The handling was
supported by a pallet forklift with a capacity of 1,500
kg. Lifting on and lifting off times were the same for
every loading unit, so that the table presents only the
speed of forklift movement.
In the next stage, during the unloading operations,
the time needed was specied as shown in Table 3 and
the specication of unloading pallets with the same
handling equipment duration in Table 4.
The analyzed transport process can be represent-
ed graphically using the transport cycles card (Figure
4). The transport cycle preparation is one of the key
elements in the analysis of logistics processes to as-
sess the transport of various goods [18, 19].
Multiple repetitions of loading and unloading tests
allowed to dene the average times and speeds mea-
sured for this specic case. The average time of load-
ing process was 38.4 minutes and for unloading it was
30.4 minutes. The differences between these times
result from other non-quantiable additional factors
that affect the handling process. These include, for
example, the ramp and warehouse surface condition,
lighting quality, the level of qualications and psycho-
physical state of the forklift operator, maintaining gen-
eral orderliness of the paddock, etc. The duration of
other operations is of random nature but can be mini-
mized with organizational decisions.
The basic standard handling time is formed on
the basis of individual handling times at the standard
warehouse or terminal, and sometimes they are dis-
proportionate to the actual conditions prevailing on
arrival to a company
security notification
entering manipulation
needed for loading
trailer preparation for
driving up to the
warehouse ramp
readiness notification
rear loading
checking the product
according to the
checking the quality
and quantity of cargo
cargo securing
trailer preparation
trailer preparation
for unloading
driving up to the
warehouse ramp
readiness notification
rear unloading
checking the quality
and quantity of the
goods delivered
receiving transport
cargo receipt
giving backpass
arrival to a company
security notification
receiving a pass
passing of transport
arrival at gates
giving backpass
Figure 3 - Analyzed handling processes
Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331 327
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
the ramp. Therefore, on the basis of the presented
analysis, the company standards should be created
individually in order to take into account variable fac-
tors inuencing the increase of handling time stan-
dards. These norms need to be taken into account
when making strategic decisions on the allocation of
nancial resources for the development of infrastruc-
ture and terminal equipment, warehouses and other
The analysis also showed a directly proportional
dependence of the characteristic share of time to dis-
tance, which the forklift needs to make while loading
(decreasing line) and unloading (increasing line). It is
characteristic for the handling process that a signi-
cant part of the total duration time of the process is
accounted for by the movement of cargo by handling
Table 1 - Operation duration measured during the cargo loading process
Operations Time Duration [min]
Arrival to a company 6:00 5
Reporting the truck to the facility guard and printing the entrance pass 6:05 8
Waiting for entry 6:13 30
Entrance to the handling yard 6:43 5
Passing the transport documents to the warehouse 6:48 5
Driving to the warehouse ramp and preparing the trailer for loading 6:53 8
Waiting for the delivery of pallets to the cargo pick-up area 7:01 10
Taking the rst pallets of goods 7:1 1
39Cargo loading -
Positioning the last pallet on the trailer 7:50
Waiting for transport documents preparation 7:50 8
Departure from the ramp 7:58 3
Securing the cargo with transport belts 8:01 15
Driving to exit gate 8:16 5
Passing the exit gate, truck checking, giving back the pass 8:21 5
Departure 8:26 -
Total loading time 146 minutes
Table 2 - Analysis of 33 pallets loading time
Pallet No. Time [s] Distance [m] Speed [m/s] Pallet No. Time [s] Distance [m] Speed [m/s]
1100 17. 0 0.170 18 70 11.0 0.157
2100 17. 0 0.170 19 69 9.8 0.142
397 17. 0 0.175 20 67 9.8 0.146
494 15.8 0.168 21 63 9.8 0.156
594 15.8 0.168 22 61 8.6 0.141
6 95 15.8 0.166 23 60 8.6 0.143
7 89 14.6 0.164 24 59 8.6 0.146
8 89 14.6 0.164 25 59 7. 4 0.125
9 90 14.6 0.162 26 55 7.4 0.135
10 86 13.4 0.156 27 52 7.4 0.142
11 84 13.4 0.160 28 49 6.2 0.127
12 82 13.4 0.163 29 46 6.2 0.135
13 82 12.2 0.149 30 45 6.2 0.138
14 81 12.2 0.151 31 40 5.0 0.125
15 77 12.2 0.158 32 35 5.0 0.143
16 76 11.0 0.145 33 35 5.0 0.143
17 76 11.0 0.145 Total Loading
2,357 s
(≈39 min)
speed 0.151
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
328 Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331
Figure 6 presents the average loading and unload-
ing speed which is similar.
3.3 Handling Efciency
In the planning of loading and unloading processes,
especially over long distances, such as in the case of
multimodal transport, an important factor is to deter-
mine the handling process efciency indicators. They
are usually a relatively transparent quotient expressed
in percentage.
= (1)
m total handling time percentage index,
j total driving time percentage index,
t handling time to driving percentage index,
Table 3 - Operation duration measured during the cargo unloading process
Operations Time Duration [min]
Arrival to a company 7:03 4
Reporting the truck to the facility guard and printing the entrance pass 7:07 6
Waiting for entry 7:1 3 77
Entrance to the handling yard 8:30 5
Passing the transport documents to the warehouse 8:35 7
Driving to the warehouse ramp and preparing the trailer for unloading 8:42 9
Waiting for the delivery of pallets to the cargo pick-up area 8:51 15
Taking the rst pallets of goods 9:06
31Cargo unloading -
Locating the last pallet at the warehouse ramp 9:37
Waiting for transport documents return 9:37 7
Departure from the ramp 9:44 6
Passing the exit gate, truck checking, giving back the pass 9:50 6
Departure 9:56 -
Total loading time 173 minutes
Table 4 - Analysis of 33 pallets unloading time
Pallet No. Time [s] Distance [m] Speed [m/s] Pallet No. Time [s] Distance [m] Speed [m/s]
1 90 17. 0 0.188 18 60 11.0 0.183
291 17.0 0.186 19 59 9.8 0.166
3 82 17. 0 0.207 20 53 9.8 0.185
4 80 15.8 0.197 21 51 9.8 0.192
577 15.8 0.205 22 47 8.6 0.183
676 15.8 0.208 23 45 8.6 0.191
774 14.6 0.197 24 41 8.6 0,209
874 14.6 0.197 25 41 7.4 0.180
9 72 14.6 0.203 26 38 7.4 0.195
10 71 13.4 0.189 27 36 7. 4 0.206
11 69 13.4 0.194 28 35 6.2 0.177
12 65 13,4 0.206 29 29 6.2 0.214
13 63 12,2 0.194 30 32 6.2 0.194
14 64 12,2 0.190 31 20 5.0 0.250
15 63 12,2 0.194 32 21 5.0 0.238
16 61 11 0.180 33 20 5.0 0.250
17 61 11 0.180 Total Unloading
1,861 s
(≈31 min)
speed 0.268
Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331 329
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
m [min] – total handling time (loading or unloading),
j [min] – total driving time,
c [min] – total duration of transport process.
The exemplary research was done only by road,
transporting the 33-pallet load from Siemianowice
Śląskie (PL) to Ochsenfurt (DE) – 830 km (route 1,
2) and from Siemianowice Śląskie (PL) to Ochsenfurt
(DE) – 810 km (route 3, 4). To analyse the contribution
to handling in the whole transport process the percen-
tile rates based on the measured time were calculated
and are shown in Table 5.
For the analysed similar transport processes, it
turned out just like in the case of loading and unloading
measurement times, that the handling time percent-
age index may differ (in this case from 3.06% to 4.24%)
which further conrms the need to analyse time ef-
ciency parameters for proper transportation planning.
The purpose of this paper and research presented
was to develop a proposal for the methods of moni-
toring and assessing the effectiveness of cargo op-
erations as well as the development of measures and
comparison estimators (such as time function mea-
surement or the average speed of the loading estima-
Object of the process: loading of 33 pallets
:warehouse rampStarting point
:interior of semi-trailerEnding point
Transportprocess Cycle
time [s]
time [s]
What From HowTo
15.0 3 93.33 280.0
26.2 3 86.00 258.0
37. 4381.33 244.0
48.6 376.17 228.5
59.8 371.67 215.0
67.33 202.0
712.2 3 60.33 181.0
813.4 3 52.17 156.5
914.6 3 46.83 140.5
10 15.8 3 39.33 118.0
11 17.0 3 28.50 85.5
Legend: euro pallet
temporarystorage (ramp of warehouse)
frontforklift (capacityof1,500kg)
Figure 4 - Transport cycles card for loading process of semi-trailer with 33 pallets
Table 5 - Handling time efciency indicators
process total
time (min) -
time (min)
time (min)
Total handling time
index -
Total driving time
index -
Handling time to
driving percentage
index -
1 1,676 74 2 70.18 4.19% 44.27% 9.46%
2 1,608 783 68.18 4.24% 48.69% 8.71%
3 1,735 825 53.02 3.06% 47.55% 6.43%
4 1,695 823 55.43 3.27% 48.55% 6.74%
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
330 Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331
12345678910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Time [s]
Pallet No.
12345678910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Time [s]
Pallet No.
Figure 5 - Duration of handling process: a) loading, b) unloading
Average speed[m/s]
Pallet No.
Loading Unloading
Figure 6 - Loading and unloading process average speed
tors). It may also be assumed that the goal of the opti-
mization process can be used to maintain a constant
speed of unit loading (with the given standard devia-
tion). This gives an opportunity to signicantly facilitate
the management of the manipulation work especially
for those which are implemented equally, and on a
larger scale where the number of docking points of the
facility is big – it may also concern efcient entire eet
These measures and estimators may provide a
basis for comparing different methods of loading. At
the same time it may improve the quality of decisions
made by the management according to the selection
of appropriate technology, equipment and systems for
The following specic conclusion was drawn:
a) The use of suitable handling equipment and coor-
dinating the whole process of loading or unloading
directly affects improving the efciency of the en-
tire transport process, especially for long distances
(international transport) or when many handling
operations are required (multimodal transport).
b) The average time of the loading process of 33 pal-
lets was 38.4 minutes and for unloading it was
30.4 minutes with the same handling equipment
and the same distance from the trailer to the ramp.
The difference between these times results from
other non-quantiable additional factors that affect
the handling process (e.g. ramp and warehouse
surface condition, lighting quality, the level of quali-
cations and psychophysical state of the forklift op-
c) The research brought similar and repeatable times
of handling process times according to individual
objects (terminals, warehouses). It is therefore
necessary to create a separate manipulation time
standard for each of them to be able to rationally
plan the movement of goods by veried consoli-
dation and deconsolidation points of multimodal
d) Handling time percentage index may differ (in the
research object: from 3.06% to 4.24%) which fur-
ther conrms the necessity to analyse the time ef-
ciency parameters for proper transportation plan-
Promet – Trafc&Transportation, Vol. 26, 2014, No. 4, 323-331 331
R. Burdzik, M. Cieśla, A. Sładkowski: Cargo Loading and Unloading Efciency Analysis in Multimodal Transport
e) The biggest problem in handling and transport pro-
cess efciency measurement is connected with
random factors (like trailers waiting to be unloaded
because of a bottleneck on the warehouse ramp),
which can be reduced with scrupulous planning
and algorithm techniques.
f) Research presented in this paper is a part of a
more extensive research concerning the analysis
of technical factors affecting the efciency of trans-
port processes, which will be published in subse-
quent papers.
Wydział Transportu, Politechnika Śląska
Ul. Krasińskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice, Polska
W artykule przedstawiono znaczenie procesów
załadunku i rozładunku spaletyzowanych ładunków jako
inicjujące i końcowe ogniwo w transporcie intermodalnym.
Ocenę wpływu procesów manipulacyjnych na efektywność
całego procesu transportowego oparto o badania na rzec-
zywistym obiekcie, przy użyciu jednakowych technologii i
urządzeń przeładunkowych. Analizę czasu trwania czynności
manipulacyjnych w całym procesie transportowym oparto na
procentowych wskaźnikach udziału manipulacji i przewozu
w całkowitym czasie procesu transportowego oraz udziału
manipulacji do czasu trwania samego przewozu. Podane
wskaźniki i zbadane czasy załadunkowo-rozładunkowe,
są podstawą dla tworzenia algorytmów optymalizacji pro-
cesów transportowych na skalę całego łańcucha transpor-
towego oraz wspomagają decyzje strategiczne dotyczące
alokacji środków nansowych w rozbudowę infrastruktury i
wyposażenie terminali, magazynów i innych obiektów.
proces załadunku; proces rozładunku; efektywność pro-
cesów przeładunkowych
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... Кроме того, важно координировать действия всех соответствующих заинтересованных сторон в процессе перевоз-ки, в том числе, как отправителя, так и получателя. Общая продолжительность транспортного процесса зависит от различных факторов, таких как: средняя дальность грузоперевозок; местоположение транспортных узлов на обслуживаемой территории; условия перевозки грузов; грузоподъемность и вместимость транспортного средства; техническая скорость движения; уровень механизации погрузо-разгрузочных работ [3]. ...
... Рисунок 2 -Операции погрузки и разгрузки в точках консолидации в интермодальной транспортной сети [3] Целью исследования является оптимизация очередности погрузкиразгрузки подвижного состава в транспортных узлах на основе критерия оптимальности. Предмет исследования − процессы погрузочно-разгрузочных работ с учетом временных и стоимостных затрат. ...
The article describes the methodology for determining the sequence of services based on the criterion of optimality. This approach reduces the waiting time for loading and unloading of rolling stock. The service priority model is used to describe a coordinated transportation process. The given numerical experiment reflects the validity of the model and algorithm
... Unlike traditional physical touchpoints, digital touchpoints, and personal touch pint, intelligent touchpoints can assist environmental perception, senior identification, information reception, and behavioral decision-making. Currently, the focus of intelligent service touchpoints is primarily on locating specific intelligent service touchpoints in the service process using the method of service design; few people are interested in the intelligent service interaction ontology of intelligent service touchpoints, and the majority of them are primarily interested in discovering the basic functions of intelligent cargo transport vehicles [4]. ...
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... Loading and unloading times were modeled as a linear function of the weight to be (un)loaded (see Section A.4 in Appendix A). The maximum (un)loading time was set at 60 min for a full truck, in line with the observations from Burdzik et al. (2014). The interested reader can find two videos of the SPL model in the supplementary material of this paper as well as the documentation of the simulation model. ...
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... To improve the operation process, it is not always necessary for investments in technology, equipment, and facilities, but instead, the increase of the efficiency could be made with small improvements associated with process sustainability [1]. It is useful for the company to find the appropriate tools to measure the efficiency and productivity of a transport process to eliminate or reduce non-value-added activities [2]. Previous research in transport value has established through interviews with practitioners that there are two types of value-added activities, transportation, and unloading/loading activities [3]. ...
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... In accordance [12], the overall duration of the transport process, as well as the balance of the elements, differ depending on different factors, such as: ...
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... The emergence of the opportunity to employ a driver from Central and Eastern Europe has caused a distortion of the competitive environment in the road freight sector. The significance of the distortion of the competitive environment has gained significance at a time when manufacturing companies started using the just-in-time method, significantly reducing their inventory and storage costs [1,4]. This, of course, has increased the use of freight transport between companies, and the number of supplies between companies has increased. ...
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In this work the method of volumetric-calendar planning and production schedule drafting- the network planning - have been considered for the case, which is related to serial or serial-parallel execution of certain works and operations in order to shorten the total delivery cycle of intermodal freight in containers.
Integration of European countries results in development of economy and increase in the freight transport. The requirements on complexity of services, observance of delivery date and safety of freight transportation are constantly increased. It is urgent hurry on preparing and building of central European infrastructure net. The paper deals with possibilities and bottle-necks of current infrastructure, its modernizations and building of the new intermodal corridors mainly in the Czech Republic, interoperability problems, application of telematics and possibilities of transportation rising with emphasis on railway and intermodal transport.
The paper presents some results of research on city logistics systems performed within the frame of the project 'The model of logistics system of Poland as a way to transport co-modality in the EU'. The main objective of this paper is to present problems of logistics services for urban agglomeration by using Cargo Consolidation Centers. The general form of two-step logistics services for the city provided by Cargo Consolidation Centers and City Transshipment Hubs are presented. The elements of the logistics system, including CCC, supplying goods to customers located in the cities and also relationships between them were identifi ed. Two-stage system was enriched by appropriate optimization task formulated to minimize logistics servicing costs. Practical application of the proposed approach was presented on the example of selected district of Warsaw.
The problem of forming the distribution network results from the need to harmonize the characteristics of efficiency and efficacy of the supply chain with the corporate competition strategy. In this sense the possibility of optimising the distribution network has been presented (on a mathematical model) by applying the logistic outsourcing. The optimisation has been carried out using MS Excel software tools Solver. The results of the analysis have shown that possibilities for the reduction of distribution costs need to be searched for primarily in the domain of transport, in the target segment of the distribution network. The improvement elements have been achieved by outsourcing part of the supply chain, i.e. by introducing the cross-docking system which is managed by the external supplier of the logistic services. Quantitative changes, apart from the redistribution of the traffic of logistic and distribution centres and the reduction of logistic costs, have been reflected also in the geographical arrangement of distribution. The logistic outsourcing had dominant impact on the formation of the distribution network. KEY WORDS: distribution network, optimisation, logistic outsourcing
The paper presents results of research studies conducted in the Department of Logistics and Transportation Systems at the Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Transport within the frames of development project of a model of logistics system of Poland in terms of transport co-modality. The project was realised in the years 2009-2011. According to increasing road congestion and environmental degradation by transport activities, the methods for rational distribution of the traffic flows in the transport network are sought. The article concerns the issue of rational distribution of cargo flows in the transport network, taking into account the logistical approach to transport tasks. The different variants of traffic distribution with PTV VISUM according to various criteria were presented.
It is well known that the advent of cargo containerization has revolutionized the art of ship stowage by greatly increasing cargo handling efficiency. However, in order to take full advantage of this capability, and to optimize the use of the containership itself, the physical distribution of containers on board the vessel must be carefully planned. In this paper, a computer software system designed to aid in this planning process is described. First, the particular difficulties of containership stowage are discussed and a set of stowage objectives is developed. The solution algorithm, employing a combination of simulation and a Monte Carlo technique, is described. Finally, the implementation of the system by a major U. S. shipping line is discussed.