In the digital economy era, knowledge platforms have both the functions of knowledge collaboration and social media. At the same time, how to promote knowledge collaboration through platform empowerment is getting more and more attention. Since there are few types of research on how to realize the micromechanism of platform empowerment, the purpose of this paper is to take knowledge platforms as an example to study the conceptual system of platform affordances based on the social-technical perspective. Through the theoretical integration of technological empowerment and authorization empowerment, this paper provides new perspectives and future themes for explaining the platform empowerment mechanism of knowledge collaboration. As for the method, the deductive research approach is adopted in this paper. First, through the critical literature review, the gaps in platform empowerment research have been identified. Second, from the analysis of the characteristics of knowledge platforms such as Wukong Q&A and Zhihu, the relationship between platform affordances, platform organizational characteristics, and customer needs has been explored. In the final, according to knowledge platform characteristics, the conceptual system of platform affordances has been deduced. The result shows that through integrating organizational theory, knowledge management theory, and platform ecological viewpoints, the main components of the affordances of knowledge platforms have been summarized. In addition, the relevance of those components to the functions, interfaces and rules of the platform system has been illustrated, and the corresponding relationship between the affordances of the platform and the main components of authorization empowerment has been established. With regard to the implication of this study, it establishes the theoretical connection between technological empowerment and authorization empowerment and provides a more intuitive and operable method for platform empowerment of knowledge collaboration through the perspective of social-technical interaction. This paper emphasizes that starting from the mission of the platform, the stickiness of the platform can be enhanced by building platform affordances. In addition, extensive development ideas that purely pursue Internet traffic and capital need to be avoided, which is conducive to the high-quality development of knowledge platforms and the digital economy. Furthermore, this paper calls for more research on the affordances and empowerment mechanism of the platform to provide theoretical guidance for the highly unified practice of platform organizational characteristics, platform system characteristics, and target customer needs, so as to develop a more active and meaningful platform knowledge management field.
Zhihu is a famous Q&A platform in China, which was founded in 2010. Wukong Q&A is a follower of the Q&A platform industry and was founded around 2016 by a famous Internet company ByteDance. In 2017, the Wukong Q&A paid a huge amount of money to sign contracts with 300 influencers of Zhihu, which caused a disturbance in the industry. However, Wukong Q&A, which once invested over 2 billion RMB in building a group of creators, stopped its operation in early 2021. During the same period, Zhihu ushered in its tenth birthday celebration and was listed on the NYSE at the end of March 2021, showing a good development trend. Thus, Zhihu became a rare winner with Internet giants in the competition in a vertical domain in China.
“The failure of Wukong Q&A has given a fatal blow to the traffic-only theory and capital-only theory on the Internet. Internet traffic and capital can create a content platform, but they cannot give creators the fundamental element of retention, the platform ecology” (https://tech.ifeng.com/c/83GoPKeRiGP). In addition to the quality of user groups, platform functions, interfaces, and rules, incentive mechanisms and interactive atmosphere are all pain points for the Wukong Q&A. Relevant research also shows that Wukong Q&A has problems such as fewer topic tags, weak search engines and interactive functions, low content specialization, and low user quality .
In the Internet age, knowledge platforms that combine the functions of “knowledge collaboration” and “network social” have emerged, such as Zhihu and Wukong Q&A. With the opening of user registration and the import of Internet traffic, the scale of platform users has rapidly expanded, and the user group has shown an obvious long-tail structure. This is so-called the era of public knowledge production . However, the huge information capacity, random insertion, and editing at any time have greatly increased the amount of information and the level of confusion. Under these circumstances, the traditional online communication methods have been changed [3, 4]. Therefore, the operation of knowledge platforms is facing a complex situation. In the face of the withdrawal of Wukong Q&A from independent operation for less than four years, it is quite important to figure out why high-quality content creators prefer Zhihu platform. In addition to Internet traffic and capital, what should be done to build a platform ecosystem?
It seems that the digital platform system can be imitated easily. In fact, the value positioning, user community, and core capabilities behind it are all ecologically evolving and nonreproducible, which can neither be obtained by capital power nor be surpassed in a short period of time. Although many studies have shown that digital technology and platform ecology can greatly impact the innovation, entrepreneurship, and strategy of users or enterprises [5, 6], these studies ignore the differences of the platform itself. It gives people the illusion that the empowerment effect can be achieved as long as they have a platform and digital technology. Therefore, in the face of the popularization of knowledge collaboration, it is necessary to crack the platform “black box” of the empowerment mechanism. It is also necessary to study the interaction relationship between the platform and users from the dimensions of core functions, interactive interfaces, and interaction rules on the basis of organizational characteristics, so as to achieve the integration of technological empowerment and authorization empowerment (in this paper, authorization empowerment refers to the traditional concept of empowerment, which is different from technological empowerment, digital empowerment, and platform empowerment.) of knowledge collaboration, enrich the theoretical system of platform empowerment in knowledge management, and realize theoretical innovation.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Knowledge Collaboration
Knowledge collaboration is the basic operating mechanism of the knowledge platform [7, 8]. Driven by questions, community users interacted based on different needs such as knowledge seeking and knowledge contribution. In this way, knowledge innovation can be promoted, and the appreciation of knowledge capital and social capital can be realized [9, 10]. The realization mechanism of knowledge collaboration is not only directly affected by user motivation, cognitive conflict, group size, content quality, and other factors  but also closely related to platform empowerment and incentive mechanisms.
In a lot of researches that focus on platform ecology and value cocreation [12–14], “empowerment” has received widespread attention as an essential source of cocreation value . However, as a new research proposition, the discussion of platform empowerment is currently mainly about phenomenon description, concept definition, and effect verification . In addition, the platform is mostly used as an intermediary connection point and ecological core node and there is a lack of analysis of the internal micromechanism based on platform personalization and differentiation [17, 18].
From a social-technical perspective, a knowledge platform is a collection of possibilities and needs of user behaviors of knowledge collaboration in social media and organizational environments . Its value is not only created by digital technology but also cocreated by the interaction between the user, the technology, and the purpose of use . The platform positioning and organizational characteristics determine its user empowerment method  and the search and aggregation method of social resources . The platform system (for the convenience of discussion, this paper uses “platform” to refer to platform enterprises or platform organizations, emphasizing the role of organizations. “Platform system” specifically refers to digital software systems, emphasizing the role of products.) (including platform architecture, interaction rules, transaction and value sharing mechanism, etc.) is the technical realization of platform positioning and organizational characteristics , which has a high degree of asset specificity and has a dominant position in the platform ecology, so it directly determines the user experience and empowerment effect. Song and Mao  have already pointed out that the technological differentiation of Internet platform systems will eventually be imitated, and only organizational differentiation that continues to deepen with customer needs will remain ahead. The obstacles to survival and competition of Internet companies in a changing environment often come from the inside of the organization rather than from the outside, as shown in some studies. Under the guidance of the latter viewpoint, many companies strive to look for Internet traffic, market, and financing, neglecting to adjust their operating models better to create organizational value .
2.2. Empowerment Theory
In the early, the empowerment originated in the field of psychology and management has three key dimensions: structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and resource empowerment (Carmen et al., 2015). Recently, “technological empowerment” , platform empowerment, data empowerment, and digital empowerment have received widespread attention (Makine, 2006). Technological empowerment has prominent digital information technology “prints” (Hasler and Chenal, 2017) , and practical exploration based on digital technological empowerment has already developed before theoretical construction .
Most studies focus on the difference between technological empowerment and authorization empowerment, and only a small amount of literature focuses on the dialogue and integration between them. Kong  analyzed the core elements of value cocreation in the digital age by tracing to authorization empowerment and technological empowerment. Sun  pointed out that data empowerment is a kind of resource empowerment. Behind the platform system, there is a set of functions, technologies, knowledge, and rules, which are the technical realization of organizational characteristics . Platform empowerment is a combination of authorization empowerment and technological empowerment, which directly determines the quality of human-computer interaction and knowledge collaboration. Kozinets et al.  pointed that earlier studies of consumer empowerment on the Internet were overly general and exuberant because they failed to recognize the constraining impacts of network effects, affordances, and algorithms. Mei et al.  pointed out that the modularity, hierarchical nature of digital platform architecture design, and the dynamic nature of platform boundary resources are the empowerment mechanism for complementary innovation. It can be seen that starting from the design of the architecture, the platform must consider how to empower users to participate in knowledge sharing and knowledge innovation, not to mention platform functions, interfaces, and interaction rules. Therefore, the platform empowerment mechanism of knowledge collaboration must be discussed from the perspective of social and technology at the microlevel.
2.3. The Theory of Platform Affordances
The platform system is constituted by the platform’s core function, interactive interfaces, and interaction rules in the digital world . The core function expresses the value proposition of the platform. In addition, the interactive interfaces are a collection of user relationships, and the interaction rules reflect the algorithms and instructions for connection and interaction. The algorithm is also a concentrated expression of corporate values, value chain, and code of conduct . It can be seen that a certain organizational mechanism is embedded in the platform system, and it is at the front end of user interaction, which is a functional carrier empowered by the platform. So, how to empower users through the platform system? The concept of affordances provides theoretical support for this .
Affordances originally refer to the support that objective things can provide for a certain behavior, that is, the possibility that things provide a certain behavior . In recent years, it has become more popular in organizational research and can be used to better understand the impact of the combination of new technologies and organizational characteristics on organizational innovation and operations . “Affordance” not only provides a strong theoretical perspective for studying the relationship between technology and personnel in an organization but also provides a better language for the structured and patterned description of specific practices [33, 34].
The affordance of social platforms has an important influence on the process of organizational communication, employee and user behavior, and psychology, so it has become an important research object. Postigo  analyzed how YouTube guides users to conduct behaviors that are beneficial to the commercial interests of the platform through the design of platform architecture from the perspective of social-technical interaction. Rice et al.  defined social platform affordances as the relationship of the possibility of behavior perceived by users and the need (or purpose) aggregated in social media and the organizational environment under the constraints of the potential features or functions of the social platform. Furthermore, the affordances are critically important, and they can provide opportunities for consumer choice, voice, justice, and inclusion . It can be seen that the affordance of the platform represents the integration of user needs and technology characteristics, and the strength of the affordance means the extent to which it can help users achieve their psychological goals.
3. Analysis and Result
In the era of Web 1.0, the traditional website is a one-way information release. With the in-depth application of Web 2.0 technology, the knowledge platform provides users with editable and publishable functions and permissions. In fact, it is a kind of structural empowerment in the traditional sense to transform ordinary content viewers into content producers from the institutional arrangement, which promotes the formation of the ecology of knowledge collaboration. By extension, through the combination of specific technology characteristics and users’ psychological needs, the knowledge platform forms the functional affordances of the platform and gives users the ability to achieve social actions of knowledge collaboration. This is the specific realization mechanism of platform empowerment.
So, this paper adopts the deductive method to discuss the concept of the affordances of knowledge platforms. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the knowledge platform, the affordances theory is applied to study the concept of the knowledge platform affordances. In this way, two components of the platform affordances have been proposed: social affordances and knowledge affordances. Furthermore, the corresponding relationship between platform affordances, platform technology characteristics, and platform functions has been demonstrated. Finally, it discusses the empowerment mechanism of knowledge collaboration supported by platform affordances.
3.1. The Platform Affordances
The knowledge platform is not only an intermediary in the multilateral market but also a heterogeneous production organization with different value propositions and market positioning and different resource endowments. It is “productive” (convening and empowering socialized producers) and “intellectual” (providing industry-specific knowledge and proprietary resources), which is unique and decisive in the empowerment mechanism. Based on the social-technical perspective, affordance theory can better demonstrate the interactive relationship between Internet technology, user needs, and organizational characteristics and better understand knowledge collaboration and innovative operations under the guidance of affordances. By studying the micromechanism of the interaction between users and the platform, it can reveal the key elements and necessary institutional arrangements to empower users through the affordances of knowledge platforms and provide useful theoretical guidance for the realization of platform value.
The platform affordances can be divided into social affordances and knowledge affordances. The knowledge platform has accumulated two types of knowledge resources in the process of supporting knowledge seekers and contributors to achieve knowledge collaboration: “knowledge about users” and “knowledge produced by users.” The former refers to the knowledge about the user’s individual attributes, social networks, behavior patterns, etc., which are accumulated on the platform through digital interaction. It promotes the evolution of collaboration tools, user portraits, and precise recommendations, which are finally reflected in platform functions, interfaces, and rules, leading to the formation of social affordances of the platform [36, 37]. The latter refers to the knowledge collaboration outcomes contributed or completed together by users, which becomes the strategic resource accumulated by the platform, which is manifested as the knowledge affordances of the platform  (see Table 1).
Knowledge platform affordances
Platform system factors