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Fluorinated Fe(III) Salophene Complexes: Optimization of Tumor Cell Specific Activity and Utilization of Fluorine Labeling for in Vitro Analysis

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Abstract

Fluorine substituted iron salophene complexes (salophene = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine) were synthesized and evaluated for biological activity. All complexes showed growth inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 0.05 to 2.45 µM against HT-29 colon carcinoma as well as MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cells (Cisplatin: 5.75, 12.72, 5.81 µM, respectively). HR-CS MAS investigations revealed that the complexes were highly protein-bound, already after an incubation period of 10 min and accumulated more effectively in tumor cells than Cisplatin. Interestingly, the ligands were enriched in the cells, too, indicating that the salophene moiety acts as a carrier ligand and mediates the uptake of the complexes. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis proved to be dependent on the substitution pattern as well as on the tumor cell line, as evidenced from the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Most of the complexes, especially the highly active 5-Fe, showed tumor cell specific effects and no/less influence on the proliferation of T-cells generated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals.

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... This acid-base behavior is in agreement with that of related square-pyramidal Fe III complexes containing ana pical aqua ligand. [38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] Furthers tructurali nformation waso btained from crystal structure analysis. Because all our attempts failed to crystallize complex 3,wedecided to prepare the relatedhydrophobic ferric chloride:c omplex 11 (Figure 2, left). ...
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Fluorine-Substituent Effects on the Chemical, Physical and Pharmacological Properties of Biologically Active CompoundsThe Use of 19F and 18F Probes in Biophysical and Analytical Methods Relevant to Bioorganic and Medicinal ChemistrySummaryReferences
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A new water-soluble, salen [salen = bis(salicylidene) ethylenediamine]-based ligand, 3 was developed. Two of the metal complexes of this ligand, i.e., 3a, [Mn(III)] and 3b, [Ni(II)], in the presence of cooxidant magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) cleaved plasmid DNA pTZ19R efficiently and rapidly at a concentration ≈ 1 μM. In contrast, under comparable conditions, other metal complexes 3c, [Cu(II)] or 3d, [Cr(III)] could not induce any significant DNA nicking. The findings with Ni(II) complexes suggest that the DNA cleavage processes can be modulated by the disposition of charges around the ligand.
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Organometallic complexes have unique physico-chemical properties, which have been widely used in homogenous catalysis, for example, for the synthesis of lead compounds and drug candidates. Over the past two decades, a few scientists from all over the world have extended the use of the specific characteristics of these compounds (e.g. structural diversity, possibility of ligand exchange, redox and catalytic properties) for medicinal purposes. The results are stunning. A few organometallic compounds have already entered clinical trials and it can be anticipated that several more will follow in coming years. In this short review, we present the specific advantages that organometallic metal complexes have over purely organic and also coordination compounds. Furthermore, using specific examples, we illustrate how these particular properties can be put to good use in medicinal chemistry. The examples we present have an emphasis on, but are not restricted to, anti-cancer activity.
Article
The interactions of two organoplatinum complexes, [Pt(C^N)Cl(dppa)], 1, and [Pt(C^N)Cl(dppm)], 2 (C^N = N(1), C(2')-chelated, deprotonated 2-phenylpyridine, dppa = bis(diphenylphosphino)amine, dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane), as antitumor agents, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.40. The quenching constants and binding parameters (binding constants and number of binding sites) were determined by fluorescence quenching method. The obtained results revealed that there is a strong binding interaction between the ligands and proteins. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) confirmed that the binding reaction is mainly entropy-driven, and hydrophobic forces played a major role in the reaction. The displacement experiment shows that these Pt complexes can bind to the subdomain IIA (site I) of albumin. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy studies revealed some changes in the local polarity around the tryptophan residues. Finally, the distance, r, between donor (serum albumin) and acceptor (Pt complexes) was obtained according to Förster theory of nonradiation energy transfer.
Article
New complexes [Pt(C(∧)N)Cl(dppa)] (1), and [Pt(C(∧)N)Cl(dppm)] (2), (C(∧)N. deprotonated 2-phenylpyridine; dppa. bis(diphenylphosphino)amine; dppm. bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) were suggested to have pentacoordinated geometry as investigated by NMR and conductometry. Pharmacological effects of 1 and 2 were evaluated for their proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities under in vitro and in vivo conditions, showing significant proteasome-inhibitory activity against purified 20S proteasome, while 2 demonstrated superior inhibitory activity against cellular 26S proteasome. Consistently, this effect was associated with higher levels of proteasome target proteins and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells. Importantly, preliminary studies show 1 and 2 were able to exert a similar effect in vivo by inhibiting the growth of breast cancer xenografts in mice, which was associated with proteasome inhibition and apoptosis induction. Interaction of 1 and 2 with herring sperm DNA was investigated by fluorimeteric emission, suggesting that Pt(II)-containing biphosphine complexes with DNA binding capabilities can also target and inhibit the tumor proteasome.
Article
Schiff base transition metal complexes are an important class of compounds with great potential for therapeutic interventions. However, data on antileukemic and antilymphoma effects of these complexes are limited. The activity of N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine (salophene, 1), its iron(II/III) and manganese(II/III) complexes as well as rac-trans-N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (saldach, 2) and its respective iron(II/III) complexes was evaluated against U-937 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the HL-60, SUP-B15, and K-562 leukemia cell lines. The free ligands induced in all cell lines, if at all, only marginal, concentration-dependent growth inhibitory effects, and did not trigger Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) release or induce apoptosis. [Fe(II) (salophene)] (3) and [Fe(III) (salophene)Cl] (4) blocked cellular growth, caused a strong release of Cu/Zn SOD and induced apoptosis. In contrast, the manganese analogs [Mn(II) (salophene)] (5) and [Mn(III) (salophene)OAc] (6) inhibited cell growth, caused the programmed cell death only at higher concentrations and did not provoke release of Cu/Zn SOD in any of the four cell lines. Weaker cell death-promoting effects were observed when the salophene moiety of 3 and 4 was replaced with saldach (complexes 7 and 8), indicating the influence exerted by the ligand structure. In conclusion, Schiff base transition metal complexes induce strong inhibitory effects on human lymphoma and leukemia cells.
Article
We demonstrate the cytotoxic potential of the Schiff base iron complex [Fe(III)(salophene)Cl] in vitro and ex vivo and illustrate its ability to overcome multiple drug resistance in vincristine and daunorubicine resistant leukemic cells (Nalm-6). Treatment of lymphoma cells (BJAB) with [Fe(III)(salophene)Cl] led to the exclusion of unspecific necrosis, a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation and a specific apoptotic cell death. We further detected a significant loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in lymphoma cells and an up- and downregulation of various apoptosis relevant genes, respectively, indicating the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.
Article
We synthesized methoxy-substituted iron(III)-salophene complexes ([Fe(III)(OMe-salophene)Cl] with salophene = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine) and analyzed their biological activity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer as well as in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. The results obtained in a time-dependent chemosensitivity test clearly demonstrated the correlation between the cytotoxicity of the complexes and the position of methoxy substituents in the salicylidene moieties: 3-OCH(3) (4) < 5-OCH(3) (8) < H (2) < 4-OCH(3) (6) = 6-OCH(3) (10). Compounds 6 and 10 caused cytocidal effects already at a concentration of 0.5 μM. Both lead compound 2 and complex 8 showed similar time response curves, however, with a 5-fold lower activity compared to 6 and 10, respectively. Referring to [Fe(III)(salophene)Cl] (2), methoxy substitution was accompanied with the loss of tumor cell selectivity. Moreover, the free ligands (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) were inactive.
Article
The development of new metal anticancer compounds is a challenge for inorganic chemists. We have to face the fact that four decades of research in this field have only produced a small number of clinically used compounds, most often developed through serendipity rather than through rational chemical design. Nevertheless, by virtue of the wealth of knowledge acquired in these years, medicinal inorganic chemistry is probably mature for making significant steps forward and there are great expectations for future developments. With the aim of contributing to the rationalization of this field, we suggest here a categorization of metal anticancer compounds into five classes based on their mode of action: (i) the metal has a functional role, i.e. it must bind to the biological target; (ii) the metal has a structural role, i.e. it is instrumental in determining the shape of the compound and binding to the biological target occurs through non-covalent interactions; (iii) the metal is a carrier for active ligands that are delivered in vivo; (iv) the metal compound is a catalyst; and (v) the metal compound is photoactive and behaves as a photo-sensitizer. Selected examples for each category are given. The few metal anticancer drugs that are in clinical use are all believed to be functional compounds. Our classification, that is clearly focused on the metal compound and is independent from the nature of its bio-target(s)-most often still unknown-has the purpose of providing an intellectual tool that might be helpful in the rational development of new drugs.
Article
We developed N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine (salophene, 1) as a chelating agent for metal ions such as Mn(II/III), Fe(II/III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II). The resulting complexes, from which owing to the carrier ligand a selective mode of action is assumed, were tested for antiproliferative effects on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The cytotoxicity in this assay depended on the nature of the transition metal used. Iron complexes in oxidation states +II and +III (3, 4) strongly reduced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas, e.g., the manganese analogues 5 and 6 were only marginally active. Therefore, the [N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine]iron(II/III) complexes 3 and 4 were selected for studies on the mode of action. Both complexes possessed high activity against various tumor cells, for instance, MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cells as well as HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. They were able to generate reactive oxygen species, showed DNA binding, and induced apoptosis. Exchange of 1 by N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (saldach, 2) yielding complexes 7 and 8 reduced the in vitro effects drastically. An unequivocal mode of action cannot be deduced from these results, but it seems to be very likely that cell death is caused by interference with more than one intracellular target.
Article
To understand the relationship between DNA damage potential and biochemical activities, we synthesized nine different Fe(III)-salen derivatives with varying substituents, and analyzed their in vitro DNA cleavage properties and biochemical effects on cultured human cells. Our results demonstrated that Fe(III)-salen complexes affect cell viability, induce nuclear fragmentation, and activate caspases and apoptosis in cultured human cells. The nature and the position of the substituents in the Fe(III)-salen complexes play critical roles in determining their apoptotic efficiencies. Most importantly, our results demonstrated that the in vitro DNA cleavage activities of Fe(III)-salen complexes are not essential for their apoptotic activities in human cells. Instead, the lesser their DNA cleavage activity the greater is their apoptotic efficiency.
Article
A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
Article
Conventionally in vitro cytotoxicity assays are performed as single-end-point determinations. To compensate for the diversity of growth rates among different cell lines in this report we describe a computerized kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. As a prerequisite four human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47-D and ZR-75-1) were characterized with regard to oestrogen and progesterone receptor content, modal chromosome number and proliferation kinetics depending on the number of passages in culture. With prolonged time in culture for ZR-75-1 exposed to various concentrations of cisplatinum a dose-related increase in drug effect was observed. Owing to a correction of the T/C values for the initial cell mass (at the time when drug is added) a sharp distinction between cytostatic and cytocidal drug effects becomes obvious in plots of corrected T/C values versus time of incubation. The influence of the untreated control on the corrected T/C values and possible time courses of theoretical inhibition profiles (reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance) and their relationship to the corresponding growth curves of drug-treated cells are discussed. Chemosensitivity assays with diethylstilbestrol dipropionate, tamoxifen, melphalan, cisplatinum, vinblastine, Adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil prove the theoretical considerations to be true for MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47-D and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell lines in practice.
Article
In this paper we describe the microcomputer-aided determination of cell proliferation kinetics and doubling times utilizing a crystal violet assay and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay in microtitration plates. The analysis of spectrophotometric data provides the doubling times at any time of incubation. Plots of doubling time versus time of incubation give reproducible information on the exact duration of the logarithmic growth phase. This method is applicable to anchorage-dependent as well as anchorage-independent cells when colorimetric or fluorometric data are accessible.
Article
The molecular mechanism of carboplatin [cis-1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylatodiammineplatinum(II)] activation is still unresolved. We studied the binding of carboplatin to calf thymus DNA in the presence of thiourea, glutathione, and human breast cancer MCF-7 cell cytoplasmic extracts by measurement of DNA-dependent ethidium bromide fluorescence and atomic absorption spectroscopy. After a 96-hr period of reaction, the decrease in the DNA-dependent fluorescence yield of ethidium bromide due to the formation of platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts increased significantly in the presence of thiourea (6-fold) and glutathione (3- to 4-fold) as compared to the controls in the absence of the nucleophiles. There was also a marked elevation in the levels of platinum incorporated into DNA, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (2- to 3-fold and 5- to 7-fold for thiourea and glutathione, respectively). More remarkably, the Pt-DNA adducts formed in the presence of cytoplasmic extracts of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells also showed similar results in a dose-related fashion. Carboplatin, therefore, displayed a characteristic increase in DNA binding/damaging in the presence of the very same S-containing nucleophiles that showed the expected quenching effects in the case of cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II)]. We propose a nucleophile-facilitated release of the active species of carboplatin prior to binding with DNA.
Article
Twenty-six derivatives of [SalenMn(III)](+) (1) bearing halogen, nitro, amino, ether, alkyl, or aryl substituents on the aromatic rings and/or at the imine positions or containing 1,3-propylene-, 1,2-phenylene-, 1,2-cyclohexane-, or 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine in place of ethylenediamine as the bridging moiety have been synthesized. The DNA binding/cleaving properties of these complexes in the presence of terminal oxidants have been examined using DNA affinity cleaving techniques. Active derivatives produced DNA cleavage from the minor groove at sites containing multiple contiguous A:T base pairs. For aryl-substituted derivatives, DNA cleavage efficiency was found to vary with both the identity and position of attachment of substituents. The precise patterns of cleavage at A:T target sites varied with the position of attachment of substituents, but not with the identity of the substituents. The results suggest that substituents alter specificity through both steric and electronic effects. The 3,3'-difluoro and -dichloro derivatives produced cleavage patterns that match those of the parent complex, suggesting that the activated form of 1 produces cleavage from an orientation in which the concave edge of the complex faces away from the floor of the DNA minor groove. Bridge modifications yield complexes with reduced DNA cleaving activity relative to 1. DNA cleaving efficiency was found to vary with both the structure and stereochemistry of the bridge. Cleavage efficiency for the complex derived from (R,R)-cyclohexanediamine was 5 times greater than that for the (S,S) enantiomer. Cleavage patterns produced by the enantiomeric complexes at A:T rich target sites were different, demonstrating enantiospecific recognition and cleavage of right-handed double-helical DNA.
Article
IN an investigation of the possible effects of an electric field on growth processes in bacteria, we have discovered a new and interesting effect. In E. coli, the presence of certain group VIIIb transition metal compounds in concentrations of about 1-10 parts per million of the metal in the culture medium causes an inhibition of the cell division process. The bacteria form long filaments, up to 300 times the normal length, which implies that the growth process is not markedly affected.
Article
The interaction between native calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Fe(III)- N ,N'-ethylene-bis (salicylideneiminato)-chloride, Fe(Salen)Cl, was investigated in aqueous solutions by UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption, circular dichroism (CD), thermal denaturation and viscosity measurements. The results obtained from CD, UV-vis and viscosity measurements exclude DNA intercalation and can be interpreted in terms of an electrostatic binding between the Fe(Salen)(+) cation and the phosphate groups of DNA. The trend of the UV-vis absorption band of the Fe(Salen)Cl complex at different ratios [DNA(phosphate)]/[Fe(Salen)Cl] and the large increase of the melting temperature of DNA in the presence of Fe(Salen)Cl, support the hypothesis of an external electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged DNA double helix and the axially stacked positively charged Fe(Salen)(+) moieties, analogously to what reported for a number of porphyrazines and metal-porphyrazine complexes interacting with DNA.
Article
Fluorinated compounds are synthesized in pharmaceutical research on a routine basis and many marketed compounds contain fluorine. The present review summarizes some of the most frequently employed strategies for using fluorine substituents in medicinal chemistry. Quite often, fluorine is introduced to improve the metabolic stability by blocking metabolically labile sites. However, fluorine can also be used to modulate the physicochemical properties, such as lipophilicity or basicity. It may exert a substantial effect on the conformation of a molecule. Increasingly, fluorine is used to enhance the binding affinity to the target protein. Recent 3D-structure determinations of protein complexes with bound fluorinated ligands have led to an improved understanding of the nonbonding protein-ligand interactions that involve fluorine.
Article
An overview is presented of selected metal-based pharmaceuticals, either diagnostic or therapeutic, with emphasis on specific attributes and in vivo interactions of these compounds relevant to their use in medicinal applications. Both the advantages and the challenges of this approach are outlined, with possibilities for future developments accentuated.
Article
Two new alkylamine-substituted nickel(II)-salphen complexes have been prepared and their interactions with DNA investigated. FRET studies have shown that these complexes have a remarkable ability to stabilize G-quadruplex DNA. Furthermore, TRAP/Taq assays have shown that these complexes inhibit telomerase at low micromolar concentrations.
Article
The development of metal complexes with platinum central atoms such as cisplatin or carboplatin had an enormous impact on current cancer chemotherapy. However, the spectrum of cancers that can be treated with platinum agents is narrow and treatment efficacy suffers from side effects and resistance phenomena. These unresolved problems in platinum-based anti-cancer therapy have stimulated increased research efforts in the search for novel non platinum-containing metal species as cytostatic agents. Preclinical and clinical investigations showed that the development of new metal agents with modes of action different from cisplatin is possible. Thus, complexes with iron, cobalt, or gold central atoms have shown promising results in preclinical studies and compounds with titanium, ruthenium, or gallium central atoms have already been evaluated in phase I and phase II trials. This review covers some relevant examples of preclinical and clinical research on novel non platinum metal complexes.
Article
The accidental discovery of the anticancer properties of cisplatin and its clinical introduction in the 1970s represent a major landmark in the history of successful anticancer drugs. Although carboplatin--a second-generation analogue that is safer but shows a similar spectrum of activity to cisplatin--was introduced in the 1980s, the pace of further improvements slowed for many years. However, in the past several years interest in platinum drugs has increased. Key developments include the elucidation of mechanisms of tumour resistance to these drugs, the introduction of new platinum-based agents (oxaliplatin, satraplatin and picoplatin), and clinical combination studies using platinum drugs with resistance modulators or new molecularly targeted drugs.
Article
It has become evident that fluorinated compounds have a remarkable record in medicinal chemistry and will play a continuing role in providing lead compounds for therapeutic applications. This tutorial review provides a sampling of renowned fluorinated drugs and their mode of action with a discussion clarifying the role and impact of fluorine substitution on drug potency.