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Extensive modding for experimental game research

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This chapter covers the topic of extensive modding in the area of experimental game research. In simplified terms, modding a computer game means changing specific aspects of how the game looks and feels to the user. This also includes applying minor changes to the game, such as changing the appearance of just a few objects, which does not require a high degree of expertise. Solely relying on making minor changes, however, severely limits the type of research questions that can be addressed. Therefore, we advocate extensive modding, which refers to modifications of a large extent that allow researchers to examine almost any research question imaginable. Extensive modifications may range from major content extensions or replacements, like new tasks or quests, game environments, characters or game mechanics, to total conversions, like changing the game scenario or theme, or the game genre. To apply these changes, researchers have to know which modding tools are available for a given game and how to use them properly. Advanced modifications, such as changing the behaviour of the game world and its inhabitants or even the fundamental mechanics of the game, often require deep knowledge of the game, game design, the modding community and—depending on the game—a certain level of programming skills. The chapter assists researchers to make informed decisions for modding videogames and to avoid typical pitfalls, especially in laboratory experiments. Although it cannot provide all the knowledge needed to create advanced modifications, it will provide 1) a thorough discussion how experimental studies with videogames can benefit from extensive modding, 2) best practice guidelines, and 3) online supplementaries, especially a list including more than ninety modifiable games and their respective modding tools as well as web links to modding communities and tutorials in order to provide a starting point for extensive stimulus design.
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ContentsContents
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Part I. Qualitative approaches for studying games
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Part II. Qualitative approaches for studying play and players
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Part III. Quantitative approaches
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Part V. Game development for research
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Acknowledgments
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Preface
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PART V
GAME DEVELOPMENT FOR RESEARCH
19. Extensive modding for experimental game research
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FIJRG@?B@ JA OC@ B<H@ B<H@ ?@NDBI OC@ HJ??DIB >JHHPIDOT <I?v?@K@I?DIB JI OC@ B<H@v< >@M
O<DIG@Q@GJAKMJBM<HHDIBNFDGGN
1C@ >C<KO@M <NNDNON M@N@<M>C@MN OJ H<F@ DIAJMH@? ?@>DNDJIN AJM HJ??DIB QD?@JB<H@N <I? OJ <QJD? OTKD
><G KDOA<GGN @NK@>D<GGT DI G<=JM<OJMT @SK@MDH@ION GOCJPBC DO ><IIJO KMJQD?@ <GG OC@ FIJRG@?B@ I@@?@?
OJ >M@<O@ <?Q<I>@? HJ?D•><ODJIN DO RDGG KMJQD?@  < OCJMJPBC ?DN>PNNDJI CJR @SK@MDH@IO<G NOP?D@N
RDOC QD?@JB<H@N ><I =@I@•O AMJH @SO@INDQ@ HJ??DIB  =@NO KM<>OD>@ BPD?@GDI@N <I?  JIGDI@ NPKKG@
H@IO<MD@N @NK@>D<GGT < GDNO DI>GP?DIB HJM@ OC<I IDI@OT HJ?D•<=G@ B<H@N <I? OC@DM M@NK@>ODQ@ HJ??DIB
OJJGN <N R@GG <N R@= GDIFN OJ HJ??DIB >JHHPIDOD@N <I? OPOJMD<GN DI JM?@M OJ KMJQD?@ < NO<MODIB KJDIO AJM
@SO@INDQ@NODHPGPN?@NDBI
Extensive moddingExtensive modding
0><>>CD  BDQ@N < =MJ<? @SKGD><ODJI JA OC@ O@MH ?A66;@9 DI>GP?DIB  PN@M DIO@MA<>@ >PNOJHDU<ODJIN
 B<H@ >JIQ@MNDJI HJ?N  H<>CDIDH< <I? <MO HJ?N D@ >DI@H<OD>N <I? <MO >M@<O@? PNDIB B<H@N
 >PNOJH B<HDIB - N D@ - N RDOC >PNOJH ?@NDBI JM @SOM@H@ K@MAJMH<I>@ <I?  B<H@ >JINJG@
C<>FDIB D@ M@HJQDIB H<IPA<>OPM@MyN KMJO@>ODJI AMJH JI@yN B<HDIB >JINJG@ N R@ AJ>PN JI B<H@
M@N@<M>C R@ <M@ IJO DIO@M@NO@? DI OC@ G<OO@M OCM@@ FDI?N JA HJ??DIB =PO M<OC@M DI OC@ AJMH@M ORJ
I<H@GT PN@M DIO@MA<>@ >PNOJHDU<ODJIN <I? B<H@ >JIQ@MNDJI HJ?N +E7D ;@F7D8357 5GEFA?;L3F;A@E >C<IB@
OC@ R<T OC@ PN@M DIO@M<>ON RDOC OC@ B<H@ RDOCJPO >C<IBDIB OC@ B<H@ >JIO@IO DON@GA OC@M@AJM@ M@NOMD>ODIB
RCD>C <>ODJIN KG<T@MN ><I K@MAJMH RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ <I? CJR HP>C DIAJMH<ODJI <=JPO OC@ >PMM@IO B<H@
323
NO<O@ DN <Q<DG<=G@ /@N@<M>C@MN >JPG? AJM @S<HKG@ >CJJN@ OJ H<IDKPG<O@ KG<T@MNy KMJ=G@H NJGQDIB NOM<O
@BT =T KM@Q@IODIB OC@ PN@ JA R@<KJIN @B *JCN@ID < OJ H<IDKPG<O@ KG<T@MNy MDNF K@M>@KODJI =T
RDOCCJG?DIB DIAJMH<ODJI <=JPO KG<T@MNy C@<GOC <I? >JINODOPODJI JM OJ H<IDKPG<O@ I<QDB<ODJI<G >P@N
RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ =T ?@<>ODQ<ODIB OC@ JQ@MG<T JA H<KN <I? >JHK<NN DIAJMH<ODJI @B -D@ON>CH<II @O <G

3?7 5A@H7DE;A@ ?A6E JI OC@ JOC@M C<I? >C<IB@ OC@ >JIO@IO JA OC@ B<H@ I<H@GT OC@ @IQDMJIH@ION
@B >PNOJH G@Q@GN JM H<KN J=E@>ON >C<M<>O@MN N>MDKON B<H@ MPG@N <I? B<H@ H@>C<ID>N M@<ODIB
5GEFA? ?3BE <GGJRN M@N@<M>C@MN OJ >M@<O@ @IQDMJIH@ION RCD>C <M@ @NK@>D<GGT ?@NDBI@? AJM OC@ KMJKJN@?
M@N@<M>C LP@NODJI #JM NJH@ LP@NODJIN DO HDBCO =@ NP•>D@IO OJ @SO@I? NO<I?<M? H<KN <I? KG<>@ I@R
<M>CDO@>OPM<G J=E@>ON RDOCDI OC@ @SDNODIB B<H@ @IQDMJIH@ION @B %<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  NOP?T
 ,OC@M M@N@<M>C LP@NODJIN HDBCO M@LPDM@ OC@ >M@<ODJI JA G<MB@M <M@<N OC<O <M@ GJ<?@? N@K<M<O@GT AMJH
OC@ H<DI B<H@ >JIO@IO <I? A@<OPM@ >JHKG@O@GT I@R @IQDMJIH@ION @B -D@ON>CH<II @O <G 
*JCN@ID < M@<ODIB >PNOJHH<KN <GNJ @I<=G@N M@N@<M>C@MN OJ HDIDHDU@ OC@ DHK<>O JA >JIAJPI?DIB
Q<MD<=G@N =@><PN@ @Q@MT @G@H@IO DI OC@ >PNOJH @IQDMJIH@IO ><I =@ >JIOMJGG@? &I JOC@M ><N@N DO HDBCO
=@ JA DIO@M@NO OJ >C<IB@ >@MO<DI A4<75FE JM 5:3D35F7DE JA OC@ B<H@ 1C@N@ >C<IB@N ><I M<IB@ AMJH A<DMGT
NDHKG@ <KK@<M<I>@ >C<IB@N JA ! HJ?@GN @B %<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  NOP?T  OJ >C<IB@N RCD>C
<~@>O OC@ R<T <I J=E@>O JM >C<M<>O@M JK@M<O@N RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ @B *JCN@ID < #JM @S<HKG@ DA OC@
M@N@<M>C LP@NODJI DIQJGQ@N IJIQDJG@IO KMJ=G@H NJGQDIB < R@<KJI >JPG? M@K@G @I@HD@N DINO@<? JA ><PN
DIB ?<H<B@ @B "GNJI @O <G vHJM@ NJ OC@ R@<KJI ?J@N IJO @Q@I C<Q@ OJ GJJF GDF@ < R@<KJI @B
(I@@M (I<KK <I? "GNJI  *J?DATDIB @SDNODIB B<H@ N>MDKON DN <IJOC@M >MP>D<G H@OCJ? OJ >C<IB@
OC@ >JM@ B<H@ H@>C<ID>N JA < B<H@ 1CDN <B<DI ><I M<IB@ AMJH NH<GG >C<IB@N @B OMDBB@MDIB NDHKG@
@Q@ION PKJI KM@?@•I@? KG<T@M <>ODJIN OJ M<OC@M >JHKG@S HJ?D•><ODJIN AJM @S<HKG@ >M@<ODIB N>MDKO@?
LP@NON*JCN@ID<
$<H@ >JIQ@MNDJI HJ?N ><I BJ <N A<M <N zOJO<G >JIQ@MNDJIN 8>M@<ODIB9 @IODM@GT I@R B<H@N AMJH @SDNODIB
B<H@N JA < FDI? OC<O <M@ IJO @<NDGT ?@O@MHDI@? AMJH OC@ JMDBDI<ODIB B<H@{ 0><>>CD  %* 
3<GQ@ JMKJM<ODJI  DN <I @S<HKG@ JA < KJKPG<M B<H@ JMDBDI<ODIB AMJH < OJO<G >JIQ@MNDJI JA -3D
5D38F  (7;9@ A8 :3AE GDUU<M? "IO@MO<DIH@IO  RCD>C PN@N >JHKG@O@GT ?D~@M@IO B<H@ H@>C<ID>N
PGODH<O@GT>C<IBDIBOC@B@IM@JAOC@B<H@
&I JPM K@MNK@>ODQ@7JF7@E;H7 ?A66;@9 M@A@MN OJ OC@ @SO@IO <I? OC@ <HJPIO JA <KKGD@? HJ?D•><ODJIN OJ
<>CD@Q@ <I @SK@MDH@IO<G H<IDKPG<ODJI M@LPDM@? AJM < BDQ@I M@N@<M>C KMJ=G@H <I? IJO OC@ NK@>D•> OTK@
JA < HJ?D•><ODJI @HKGJT@? &O DI>GP?@N G<MB@N><G@ >C<IB@N JA OC@ PN@M DIO@MA<>@ >JIO@IO @SO@INDJIN JM
M@KG<>@H@ION<I?OJO<G>JIQ@MNDJIN
MODDING VS. CLASSIC APPROACHMODDING VS. CLASSIC APPROACH
1TKD><GGT B<H@ @~@>ON NOP?D@N PN@ JI@ B<H@ AJM @<>C @SK@MDH@IO<G >JI?DODJI RDOC KM@O@NON @INPMDIB
OC<O OC@ B<H@N JIGT ?D~@M DI OC@ <NK@>O OC<O DN OJ =@ @SK@MDH@IO<GGT H<IDKPG<O@? 1CDN DN RC<O R@ ><GG
OC@ 5>3EE;5 3BBDA35: PO RCDG@ OCDN <KKMJ<>C JIGT M@LPDM@N OC@ ODH@ OJ •I? NPDO<=G@ B<H@N HJ??DIB
<??DODJI<GGT M@LPDM@N ODH@ OJ >M@<O@ OC@ HJ? RCD>C I@>@NN<MDGT DI>GP?@N OC@ KM@>@?DIB <>LPDNDODJI JA DI
?@KOC @SK@MODN@ JI O@>CID><G B<H@ ?@O<DGN 1CDN KMJ>@NN ><I =@ M<OC@M ODH@ >JINPHDIB *JCN@ID <
 *<KN<M@QDNP<GM@KM@N@IO<ODJINJA<I<M@<RCD>CH<TDI>GP?@MJ<?N=PDG?DIBNKG<ION<IDH<GNIJIKG<T@M>C<M<>O@MN@O>
 0>MDKON<M@NCJMON@LP@I>@NJAKMJBM<HHDIB>J?@
324
AJM @S<HKG@ DIQ@NO@? <KKMJSDH<O@GT NDS H<IHJIOCN OJ >M@<O@ JI@ @SO@INDQ@ HJ? K<MO AMJH OC@
M@LPDM@? ?@Q@GJKH@IO ODH@ HJ??DIB ><I <GNJ C<Q@ ND?@ @~@>ON #JM @S<HKG@ >C<IBDIB >@IOM<G <NK@>ON
JA OC@ B<H@ DI JM?@M OJ M<DN@ DIO@MI<G Q<GD?DOT @B HJ??DIB <I JK@I RJMG? B<H@ OJ >M@<O@ < GDI@<M K<OC
R<T AJM>DIB <GG K<MOD>DK<ION OJ PN@ OC@ N<H@ K<OC H<T G@<? OJ < ?@>M@<N@ DI @SO@MI<G Q<GD?DOT <N OC@ HJ?
D•@?<I?PIHJ?D•@?Q@MNDJINJAOC@B<H@G@<?OJ>JHKG@O@GT?D~@M@IOKG<TDIB@SK@MD@I>@N
JIND?@MDIB OC@ @~JMO M@LPDM@? OJ HJ?DAT < B<H@ DO ><I NODGG KMJQ@ OJ =@ < RJMOCRCDG@ @I?@<QJPM
>>JM?DIB OJ %<MODB #M@T <I? (@OU@G  <I? OJ *>*<C<I @O <G  OC@ =@NO <KKMJ<>C AJM NOP?TDIB
B<H@N DN OJ M@<GDU@ <GG @SK@MDH@IO<G >JI?DODJIN RDOCDI OC@ N<H@ B<H@ &A OC@ N<HKG@ NDU@ DN NP•>D@IO <I?
K<MOD>DK<ION <M@ M<I?JHGT <NNDBI@? OJ OC@ >JI?DODJIN DO ><I =@ @SK@>O@? OC<O KJO@IOD<G >JIAJPI?@MN
DI€P@I>@ @<>C >JI?DODJI @LP<GGT GNJ M@<GDUDIB <GG >JI?DODJIN RDOCDI OC@ N<H@ B<H@ C<N OC@ =@I@•O
OC<O DO DN HP>C @<ND@M OJ NOP?T >JH=DI<ODJIN JA DI?@K@I?@IO Q<MD<=G@N 1MTDIB OJ <>CD@Q@ OCDN =T PNDIB
N@K<M<O@ B<H@N RJPG? M@LPDM@ OC@ M@N@<M>C@MN OJ •I? <O G@<NO JI@ B<H@ AJM @<>C @SK@MDH@IO<G >JI?DODJI
RCDG@ OC@N@ B<H@N RJPG? C<Q@ OJ =@ H<SDH<GGT ?D~@M@IO DI M@B<M? OJ OC@ DI?@K@I?@IO Q<MD<=G@N =PO
<O OC@ N<H@ ODH@ H<SDH<GGT DI?D~@M@IO DI M@B<M? OJ <GG JOC@M Q<MD<=G@N #JGGJRDIB OCDN <KKMJ<>C G@<?N
OJ N@Q@M<G LP<GDOTM@?P>DIB ?M<R=<>FN #DMNO OC@ HJM@ KJO@IOD<G >JIAJPI?@MN D@ PIR<IO@? ?D~@M
@I>@N =@OR@@I OC@ B<H@N C<Q@ OJ =@ >JIOMJGG@? <O OC@ N<H@ ODH@ OC@ C<M?@M OCDN DN OJ <>CD@Q@ 0@>JI?
KJO@IOD<G >JIAJPI?@MN HPNO =@ H@<NPM<=G@ DI <I J=E@>ODQ@ M@GD<=G@ <I? Q<GD? R<T 1CDM? PIFIJRI
>JIAJPI?@MN ><IIJO =@ >JIOMJGG@? AJM 1C@M@AJM@ OCDN <KKMJ<>C ><IIJO MPG@ JPO OC<O PIFIJRI >JI
AJPI?DIB Q<MD<=G@N DI€P@I>@ @SK@MDH@IO<G •I?DIBN G@<?DIB OJ HDNDIO@MKM@O<ODJIN JA ?<O< <I? A<GN@ >JI
>GPNDJIN JIN@LP@IOGT OC@ >G<NND> <KKMJ<>C >JH@N RDOC OC@ MDNF JA OPMIDIB B<H@N M@N@<M>C DIOJ z<
N@MD@N JA ><N@ NOP?D@N >JHK<MDIB DI?DQD?P<G ODOG@N RDOC @<>C JOC@M{ "GNJI <I? .P<I?O  K RCD>C
DN @NK@>D<GGT OMP@ AJM @SK@MDH@ION RC@M@ >JH=DI<ODJIN JA ORJ DI?@K@I?@IO Q<MD<=G@N <M@ M@KM@N@IO@?
=T ?D~@M@IO B<H@N JIN@LP@IOGT HJ??DIB KMJQD?@N OC@ =@NO LP<GDOTOJ@~JMO M<ODJ AJM CDBCLP<GDOT
@SK@MDH@IO<GNOP?D@N
MODDING VS. RELAMODDING VS. RELATTED APPROACHESED APPROACHES
&A M@N@<M>C@MN >JI>GP?@ OC<O HJ??DIB DN RJMOCRCDG@ OC@T C<Q@ N@Q@M<G JKODJIN OJ N@G@>O AMJH  !@Q@GJK
< >JHKG@O@GT I@R B<H@  >C<IB@ OC@ NJPM>@ >J?@ JA <I @SDNODIB B<H@ <I?  HJ? <I @SDNODIB B<H@
PNDIB<I@?DOJM
1C@JM@OD><GGT =T ?@Q@GJKDIB < B<H@ AMJH N>M<O>C <GG M@N@<M>C KMJ=G@HN DH<BDI<=G@ ><I =@ DIQ@NODB<O@?
-M<>OD><GGT ?@Q@GJKDIB < I@R B<H@ DN HP>C HJM@ ODH@>JINPHDIB OC<I HJ??DIB <I? ><I O<F@ < APGG
KMJA@NNDJI<G B<H@ ?@Q@GJKH@IO O@<H N@Q@M<G T@<MN 1C@M@AJM@ KMJA@NNDJI<GN NJH@ODH@N GD>@IN@ OC@
@IBDI@JA < >JHK@ODOJMyN B<H@ OJ M@?P>@ OC@DM JRI @~JMO %JR@Q@M @Q@I RC@I PNDIB <I <GM@<?T @SDNO
DIB @IBDI@ OC@ M@H<DIDIB KMJBM<HHDIB @~JMO DN NP=NO<IOD<G !@Q@GJKDIB < G@NN >JHKG@S FDI? JA B<H@
@B < NDHKG@ €<NC=<N@? =MJRN@M B<H@ JM < B<H@ PNDIB < B<H@ >M@<ODJI OJJG FDO ><I =@ < QD<=G@ NJGP
ODJI OJ APMOC@M M@?P>@ OC@ @~JMO %JR@Q@M OCDN <KKMJ<>C DIOMJ?P>@N DON JRI N@O JA KMJ=G@HN #DMNO ?P@
OJ O@>CID><G GDHDO<ODJIN OC@ NDHKGD>DOT JA OC@N@ B<H@N JAO@I M@NOMD>ON OC@ OTK@ JA DIO@M<>ODJI KMJ>@NN@N
<I? B<H@ H@>C<ID>N <I? OC@M@AJM@ GDHDON RC<O FDI?N JA M@N@<M>C LP@NODJIN ><I =@ <??M@NN@? 0@>JI?
 .P@NODJINM@G<ODIBOJQ<GD?DOT<M@?DN>PNN@?=T)<I?@MN<I?<P@M>C<KO@M<I?)D@=@MJOC4@GGIDOU<I?<B<<M?>C<KO@M
 B<H@@IBDI@DNz<G<MB@NJAOR<M@KMJBM<HDIAM<NOMP>OPM@OC<O>JJM?DI<O@N>JHKPO@MBM<KCD>NPN@MDIO@MA<>@>JIOMJGNI@ORJMFDIB
B<H@<P?DJ<>>@NNOJHD??G@R<M@GD=M<MD@NAJMB<H@KCTND>N<I?NJAJMOC{0><>>CD0JH@<Q<DG<=G@@IBDI@N><I=@PN@?AM@@GTAJM
IJI>JHH@M>D<GKPMKJN@N
325
B<H@N ?@Q@GJK@? =T NH<GG=P?B@O M@N@<M>C O@<HN <M@ G@NN GDF@GT OJ =@ R@GG=<G<I>@? MD>C DI >JIO@IO <I?
@IB<BDIB >C<KO@M  1CDM? DI O@MHN JA @>JGJBD><G Q<GD?DOT DO DN LP@NODJI<=G@ DA •I?DIBN J=O<DI@? PNDIB
NP>CB<H@N><I=@B@I@M<GDU@?OJOC@M<OC@M>JHKG@S>JHH@M>D<GB<H@N
GG KMJ=G@HN H@IODJI@? <=JQ@ ><I =@ <QJD?@? =T <?<KODIB <I @SDNODIB >JHH@M>D<G B<H@ 1CDN ><I =@
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KJR@MAPG @?DOJMN <M@ JIGT <Q<DG<=G@ AJM OC@ B@IM@N JA •MNOK@MNJI NCJJO@MN #-0 <I? MJG@KG<TDIB B<H@N
/-$ "Q@I DA <I @?DOJM DN KMJQD?@? DO H<T C<Q@ ?M<R=<>FN GDF@ M@NOMD>ODIB RC<O K<MON JA OC@ B<H@ ><I
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BM<HN DI JM?@M OJ O@NO DIO@MH@?D<O@ Q@MNDJIN JA OC@ HJ? OC@ @?DOJM C<N OJ =@ >GJN@? <I? OC@ B<H@ OJ =@
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OJ >M@<O@ OC@ NODHPGPN H<O@MD<G 1C@ KM@N@IO@? N@G@>ODJI JA NOP?D@N DN HJNOGT =<N@? JI "GNJI <I? .P<I?O
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?DN>PNN@? DI APGG ?@O<DG < OCJMJPBC NPHH<MT ><I =@ AJPI? DI OC@ JIGDI@ NPKKG@H@IO<MT &I <??DODJI OJ
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326
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?P>O@? =T %<MODB #M@T <I? (@OU@G  AJM <I "IBGDNC Q@MNDJI N@@ #M@T @O <G  RCJ R<IO@? OJ
•I? JPO DA OC@T >JPG? HJ?DAT 'G3=7  D7@3 D? 0JAOR<M@  OJ =@ PN<=G@ AJM KNT>CJGJBD><G @SK@MD
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RDOCJPO @SK@MD@I>@ DI !B<H@N R@M@ <=G@ OJ NJGQ@ O<NFN JA ?D~@MDIB >JHKG@SDOT AJ>PNDIB JI K<MOD>D
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KJDIO ,OC@M @S<HKG@N <M@ < NOP?T =T CDOO<MJ <I? 0DJID  PNDIB < 4C<>*JG@ B<H@ <I? < NOP?T
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0JAOR<M@  JI@ M@R<M?DIB FDGGN JA K@?@NOMD<IN JI@ KPIDNCDIB FDGGN <I? JI@ H<FDIB FDGGN DHKJNND
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@SO@I?@? DO RDOC OC@ BJ<G OJ >M@<O@ <I DHH@MNDQ@ CJMMJM N>@I<MDJ 1C@ HJ? <~@>O@? NK@@? JA HJQ@H@IO
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1C@ M@NO JA OC@ NOP?D@N R@M@ <GG DIQ@NODB<ODIB OC@ @~@>ON JA QDJG@IO QD?@J B<H@N =T HJ??DIB < #-0
4DOCDI OCDN BMJPK JA NOP?D@N OC@ RJMF KM@N@IO@? =T 3<I ?@I %JJB@I @O <G  NO<I?N JPO <N DO DN
JI@ JA OC@ A@R NOP?D@N ><MMTDIB JPO OC@ NODHPGPN H<IDKPG<ODJI PNDIB HJ?N <N < RDOCDINP=E@>ON A<>OJM
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A@@?=<>F 1J O@NO OCDN OC@T >M@<O@? B<H@KG<T NDOP<ODJIN OC<O <GGJR AJM @KDNJ?@N JA O@INDJI M@GD@A RDOC
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>M@<O@?<I@RH<K
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OC@DMDHK<>OJIOC@B<H@KG<T
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327
DIQ@NODB<O@? OC@ @~@>ON JA QDMOP<G QDJG@I>@ <I? HJM<G ?DN@IB<B@H@IO 1C@N@ NOP?D@N DI>GP?@ %<MOH<II
<I? 3JM?@M@M  <N R@GG <N %<MOH<II 1JU <I? M<I?JI  %<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  NOP?T
 DIQ@NODB<O@? OC@ @~@>O JA QDMOP<G QDJG@I>@ <B<DINO IJICPH<I JKKJI@ION <I? JKKJI@IO =G<H@RJM
OCDI@NN JI BPDGO I@B<ODQ@ <~@>O <I? @IEJTH@IO 1C@T HJ?D•@? <I <GM@<?T @SDNODIB H<K JA 3>8";87 
3<GQ@ JMKJM<ODJI  PNDIB 3<GQ@yN 3??7D 6;FAD  1C@ JKKJI@IONy CPH<I <KK@<G R<N H<IDK
PG<O@? =T NR<KKDIB OC@ JMDBDI<G >C<M<>O@M HJ?@GN RDOC @DOC@M CPH<I NJG?D@MN JM UJH=D@GDF@ >M@<OPM@N
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NOM@@ON <I? R@M@ JIGT KMJO@NODIB JM R@M@ NCJJODIB <O >DQDGD<IN G<H@RJMOCDI@NN R<N APMOC@M H<IDKP
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JOC@M >DQDGD<IN <O •MNO NDBCO JM OJ <OO<>F OC@ KG<T@M JIGT RC@I •M@? PKJI &I NOP?T  OC@T PN@? %B7D3F;A@
>3E:BA;@F JC@HD< &IO@M<>ODQ@  OJ H<IDKPG<O@ OC@ KJMOM<T<G JA >JIN@LP@I>@N RC@M@<N OC@T PN@?
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M@HJQ@? <BBM@NNDQ@ G<IBP<B@ =T ?@<>ODQ<ODIB OC@ Q@M=<G H@NN<B@N AMJH OC@ >JHKPO@M>JIOMJGG@? >C<M
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K@I?@IO Q<MD<=G@N =T HJ?DATDIB *:7 >67D )5DA>>E  %4>;H;A@ @OC@N?<  PNDIB @OC@N?<yN JI
NOMP>ODJI 0@O -<MOD>DK<ION C<? OJ NJGQ@ < LP@NOBDQ@I RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ 1C@ •MNO DI?@K@I?@IO Q<MD<=G@
;@93?7 H;A>7@57 R<N H<IDKPG<O@? =T H<FDIB OC@ LP@NO JIGT NJGQ<=G@ @DOC@M =T •BCODIB <B<DINO NDS =<I
?DON QDJG@I>@ >JI?DODJI JM =T NO@<GOCDGT OM<Q@MNDIB OC@ H<K IJQDJG@I>@ >JI?DODJI 1C@ N@>JI? DI?@
K@I?@IO Q<MD<=G@;@93?7 :7>B R<N H<IDKPG<O@? =T H<FDIB OC@ LP@NO JIGT NJGQ<=G@ =T @DOC@M N<QDIB OC@
LP@NO BDQ@M C@GK >JI?DODJI JM BJDIB JI < OM@<NPM@ CPIO IJC@GK >JI?DODJI 1C@N@ ORJ DI?@K@I?@IO
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 +@D73>*AGD@3?7@FI3E8AD?7D>K=@AI@3E+@D73>*AGD@3?7@F3@6;EF:7F:;@EF3>?7@FA8F:7E7D;7EFE@G?7D3F;A@;E43E76A@F:7H7D
E;A@A8F:77@9;@7
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ODJI*JCN@ID>
328
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<I? FD73EGD7 :G@F IJQDJG@I>@ <I? IJC@GK 1C@ B<H@ NO<MO@? RDOC <I DIB<H@ OPOJMD<G DI RCD>C KG<T
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OC@ LP@NO R<N NJGQ@? DI <KKMJS  HDIPO@N  IPH=@M JA H@<NPM@N R@M@ O<F@I OJ C@DBCO@I DHH@M
NDJI #DMNO <GG DIB<H@ ?D<GJBP@N R@M@ APGGT QJD>@? <I? GDKNTI>@? 0@>JI? +- N R@M@ IJO EPNO NO<I?
DIB <MJPI? =PO DINO@<? K@MAJMH@? ?D~@M@IO O<NFN GDF@ @<ODIB RCDG@ NDOODIB <O < O<=G@ K<OMJGGDIB OC@
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KJMO < LP@NO DO@H 1CDM? OM<KN R@M@ KG<>@? RDOCDI OC@ ?PIB@JI #JPMOC N@Q@M<G KM@@SDNODIB HJ?N R@M@
@HKGJT@? OJ DHKMJQ@ OC@ LP<GDOT JA OC@ BM<KCD>N #DAOC <I <??DODJI<G HJ? R<N DINO<GG@? OJ >M@<O@ QDNP<G
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F:7 3D43D;3@ -JPG@?JPMDN  &IO@MI<G Q<GD?DOT R<N <GNJ DHKMJQ@? =T N@Q@M<G H@<NPM@N #DMNO KG<T@M
>C<M<>O@M ?@<OC R<N >DM>PHQ@IO@? =@><PN@ OCDN RJPG? C<Q@ @I?@? OC@ B<H@ M@I?@MDIB DO DHKJNND=G@
OJ •IDNC OC@ LP@NO &INO@<? <N NJJI <N OC@ KG<T@M >C<M<>O@MyN C@<GOC R@IO =@GJR < >@MO<DI OCM@NCJG?
C@NC@ R@IO PI>JIN>DJPN D@ OC@ >C<M<>O@M R<N DINO<IOGT DHHJ=DGDU@? A@GG JI OC@ €JJM <I? R<N O@G@
KJMO@? OJ OC@ G<NO >C@>FKJDIO RC@M@ OC@ LP@NO R<N M@NPH@? 0@>JI? OC@ HJ? >C@>F@? DA <IT DMM@BPG<M
DOD@N J>>PMM@? @B >JPIODIB DA NDS =<I?DON R@M@ FDGG@? 1CDM? K<OCR<TN R@M@ HJNOGT GDI@<M OJ KM@Q@IO
KG<T@MN AMJH GJNDIB ?DM@>ODJI <I? OJ >M@<O@ < HJM@ >JHK<M<=G@ B<HDIB @SK@MD@I>@ #JPMOC < KGPBDI
R<N DINO<GG@? OC<O H<?@ DO DHKJNND=G@ OJ <>ODQ<O@ OC@ DIB<H@ >JINJG@ M@I?@MDIB >C@<ODIB DHKJNND=G@
#DAOC < HJ? R<N PN@? OJ KM@Q@IO KG<T@MN AMJH PNDIB B<H@ A@<OPM@N GDF@ =GJ>FDIB ><NODIB LPD>F N<QDIB
LPD>F GJ<?DIB HJQDIB <POJH<OD><GGT <I? >C<IBDIB OC@ KJDIO JA QD@R )<NO <IJOC@M HJ? •S@? FIJRI
=PBN 1CM@@ KM@O@NON R@M@ >JI?P>O@? OJ JKODHDU@ OC@ LP@NONy PN<=DGDOT @B =T M@?P>DIB OC@ IPH=@M JA
H@NN<B@ =JS@N OC<O C<Q@ OJ =@ >GD>F@? JI <I? OJ >C@>F AJM N@Q@M<G >JIAJPI?@MN I<H@GT DIO@M@NODIB
I@NN @S>DO<ODJI @IEJTH@IO AMPNOM<ODJI ?D•>PGOT K@M>@DQ@? <MJPN<G KM@N@I>@ OC@ BM<KCD>yN >GJN@I@NN
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@~@>ON JA QD?@J B<H@ $2&N <I? KG<T@M <OO@IODJI JI B<H@ @IEJTH@IO <I? KM@N@I>@ 1C@T =PDGO < I@R
H<K DI *:7 >67D )5DA>>E , )=KD;? @OC@N?<  PNDIB @OC@N?<yN D73F;A@ !;F RCD>C KG<>@? OC@ KG<T@M
DI OC@ KJNDODJI JA <I <?Q@IOPM@M OM<KK@? DI < ?<IB@MJPN OJH= OMTDIB OJ @N><K@ AMJH OJH= M<D?@MN &I
OC@ >JQ@M NOJMT OC@ KG<T@MN C<? OJ >JGG@>O BJG? OJ =MD=@ OC@ M<D?@MNy BP<M?N RC@I OC@T M@<>C@? OC@ @SDO
JA OC@ OJH= &I A<>O OC@M@ R@M@ IJ OJH= M<D?@MN <O OC@ @SDO OC@ B<H@ EPNO @I?@? RC@I KG<T@MN M@<>C@?
OC@ ?JJM G@<?DIB OJ OC@ NPMA<>@ $JG? >JDIN R@M@ KG<>@? =JOC DI H<K <M@<N OC<O R@M@ M@G<O@? OJ OC@ KG<T
@MNy BJ<GN MDNFT NDOP<ODJIN >MJNNMJ<?N <I? DI <M@<N PIM@G<O@? OJ OC@ KG<T@MNy BJ<GN OJ H<IDKPG<O@ <OO@I
ODJI KMJ>@NN@N RCDG@ K@MAJMHDIB N@>JI?<MT O<NFN 1C@ H<K M@LPDM@? KG<T@MN OJ K@MAJMH OTKD><G B<H@
O<NFN RCD>C R@M@ PGODH<O@GT <DHDIB <O NK<OD<G DIAJMH<ODJI KMJ>@NNDIB 1C@ H<K R<N ?@NDBI@? <N < OTK
D><G ><Q@MI G<=TMDIOC •GG@? RDOC OM<KN <I? KPUUG@N NDHDG<M OJ OC@ ?@NDBI JA OC@ ?PIB@JIN OC<O ><I =@
AJPI? DI OC@ JMDBDI<G B<H@ •BPM@  1C@ HJ? ??7DE;H7 +$JKC@M  R<N @HKGJT@? OJ M@I?@M
OC@ $2& NDBID•><IOGT G@NN DIOMPNDQ@ ??DODJI<GGT OC@ <POCJMN •MNO ?@>JHKDG@? <I? OC@I HJ?D•@? OC@
$2& •G@ PNDIB ?J=@ #G<NC 1J >M@<O@ OC@ @SK@MDH@IO<G >JI?DODJI RDOC OC@ $2& >JHKG@O@GT OPMI@? J~
-D@ON>CH<II @O <G NR<KK@? OC@ @SDNODIB $2& @G@H@ION RDOC OM<INK<M@IO O@SOPM@N <I? OC@I M@>JHKDG@?
OC@$2&•G@DIOJOC@>JMM@>O•G@AJMH<O
&I < OC@H<OD><GGT M@G<O@? PIKP=GDNC@? NOP?T -D@ON>CH<II <I? )D@=JG? PN@? *:7 >67D )5DA>>E , )=KD;?
 :736GB6;EB>3K+;EF:7B3DFA8F:7+F:3F6A7E@AF6;EB>3KF:7IAD>6;FE7>84GF5A@EF3@F>KBDAH;67E;@8AD?3F;A@FAF:7B>3K7D34AGF
:;E:73>F::;E3??G@;F;A@F:77@7?KWEBAI7D7F5
329
#DBPM@*<KG<TJPOM@N@H=GDIBOTKD><G1C@"G?@M0>MJGGN30FTMDH?PIB@JIN<?JKO@?AMJH-D@ON>CH<II@O<G
OJ NOP?T OC@ @~@>ON JA DH<B@ <I? BM<KCD>N LP<GDOT JI OC@ >JINOMP>ODJI JA NK<OD<G NDOP<ODJI HJ?@GN DI <
_ =@OR@@INP=E@>ON A<>OJM ?@NDBI Q<MTDIB DH<B@ LP<GDOT <I? <OO@IODJI <GGJ><ODJI JI ORJ G@Q@GN @<>C
 >PNOJH G@Q@G JA <I DNG<I? RDOC < NH<GG QDGG<B@ R<N =PDGO PNDIB @OC@N?<yN D73F;A@ !;F -G<T@MN NO<MO@?
<O OC@ =@<>C <I? R@M@ BM@@O@? =T <I +- RCJ BPD?@? OC@ KG<T@MN OJR<M?N OC@ QDGG<B@ 1C@ +- R<N
APGGT QJD>@? <I? K<MO JA < >PNOJH LP@NO OJ @SKGJM@ OC@ DNG<I? 1C@ KG<T@MNy O<NF R<N @H=@??@? RDOCDI <
I<MM<ODQ@ N < >JINPGO<IO N@IO =T OC@ GJ><G FDIB OC@DM J=E@>ODQ@ R<N OJ <NN@NN OC@ ?<H<B@ ?JI@ OJ OC@
QDGG<B@ =PDG?DIBN =T < M@>@IO =<I?DO M<D? 1C@ +- R<N OC@DM >JIO<>O JI OC@ DNG<I? <I? R<N O<NF@? OJ
NCJR OC@H <MJPI? OC@ QDGG<B@  M@>JBIDODJI O@NO JA J=E@>ON JI OC@ DNG<I? H@<NPM@? H@HJMT K@MAJM
H<I>@ <AO@M >JHKG@ODJI JA OC@ B<H@ O<NF 1CPN DO R<N DHKJMO<IO OJ >JIOMJG OC@ <HJPIO JA ODH@ @<>C
KG<T@M R<N @SKJN@? OJ >@MO<DI B<H@ J=E@>ON D@ OC@ =PDG?DIBN 1C@ N@GA?@NDBI@? LP@NO >JIO<DI@? OC@
@SK@MDH@IO<G N@LP@I>@ <I? ODHDIB NJ @<>C KG<T@M >JPG? =@ KM@N@IO@? OC@ N<H@ B<H@ J=E@>ON DI OC@ N<H@
ODH@ AM<H@ 1C@ +- BPD?@ >JHH@IO@? JI <I? KJDIO@? <O NJH@ =PDG?DIBN OCPN H<FDIB OC@H M@G@Q<IO
OJ OC@ I<MM<ODQ@ 1CDN <GGJR@? OC@ H<IDKPG<ODJI JA PN@MNy <OO@IODJI KMJ>@NN@N &I <IJOC@M @SK@MDH@IO<G
>JI?DODJI OC@ >PNOJH G@Q@G R<N HJ?D•@? OJ <>>JHHJ?<O@ < ?P<G O<NF OJ APMOC@M H<IDKPG<O@ <OO@IODJI
KMJ>@NN@N 1C@ +- BPD?@ OJG? KG<T@MN OC<O DI <??DODJI OJ OC@ =<I?DO M<D? OC@ QDGG<B@ NPAA@M@? AMJH <
M<O DIA@NO<ODJI 1C@ +- <NF@? KG<T@MN OJ C@GK CDH >JPIO OC@ M<ON JI OC@DM R<T OJ =@ <=G@ OJ @NODH<O@
CJR HP>C OM<KN <I? KJDNJI <M@ I@@?@? OJ •BCO OC@H 0@Q@M<G ?JU@I M<ON R@M@ KG<>@? <GJIB OC@ K<OC
JA OC@ KG<T@MN OCMJPBC OC@ QDGG<B@ NJ OC@T >JPG? NKJO OC@H @Q@MT >JPKG@ JA N@>JI?N @C<QDJPM N>MDKON
R@M@ <??@? OC<O H<?@ OC@ M<ON €@@ AMJH KG<T@MN RC@I ?DN>JQ@M@? 1CDN H<IDKPG<ODJI KMJQ@? NP>>@NNAPG
OJ ?M<R KG<T@MNy <OO@IODJI <R<T AMJH OC@ =PDG?DIBN JA OC@ B<H@ RJMG? 1C@ BM<KCD>N LP<GDOT >JI?DODJIN
R@M@ M@<GDU@? PNDIB KM@@SDNODIB HJ?D•><ODJIN &I OC@ CDBC LP<GDOT >JI?DODJI BM<KCD>N R@M@ OR@<F@?
RDOC Q<MDJPN HJ?N ?@Q@GJK@? <I? >JIODIP<GGT DHKMJQ@? =T OC@ B<H@yN >JHHPIDOT M@NPGODIB DI NO<O@ JA
OC@ <MO BM<KCD>N •BPM@  &I OC@ GJR LP<GDOT >JI?DODJI OC@ >JI•BPM<ODJI •G@N R@M@ HJ?D•@? OJ ?DN<=G@
NC<?JRN GDBCODIB @~@>ON <I? ?TI<HD> Q@B@O<ODJI ??DODJI<GGT OC@ O@SOPM@ ),! <?EPNOH@IO JA OC@
BM<KCD> ><M? ?MDQ@M R<N N@O OJ < Q@MT CDBC G@Q@G NJ OC<O O@SOPM@N R@M@ IJO GJ<?@? DI OC@ B<H@ M@NPGODIB
DI < Q@MT HDIDH<GDNOD> >@GG NC<?DIB GJJF ,Q@M<GG PNDIB ORJ >JHKPO@MN <I? ORJ ?D~@M@IO Q@MNDJIN JA OC@
>PNOJHG@Q@G-D@ON>CH<II<I?)D@=JG?>JPG?DHKG@H@IO<>G@<I_@SK@MDH@IO<G?@NDBI
 #JMORJA<>OJMD<G<I?=@OR@@INP=E@>ON?@NDBIM@A@MOJ)<I?@MN<I?<P@M>C<KO@M
330
#DBPM@  /@NPGODIB QDNP<G NOTG@N JA OC@ DHKMJQ@? Q@MNDJI G@AO <I? NDHKGDNOD> Q@MNDJI MDBCO JA < ?DHGT GDO @IQDMJIH@IO DI 1C@
"G?@M0>MJGGN30FTMDH=T-D@ON>CH<II<I?)D@=JG?
Best practiceBest practice
AO@M ?@N>MD=DIB N@Q@M<G NOP?D@N OC<O @HKGJT@? HJ?N OC@ BJ<G JA OC@ AJGGJRDIB N@>ODJI DN OJ KMJQD?@
DHKJMO<IO B@I@M<G BPD?@GDI@N AJM OC@ ?@NDBI JA B<H@ HJ?N <N NODHPGPN H<O@MD<G &A M@N@<M>C@MN <M@ RDGGDIB
OJ KMJ•O AMJH OC@ <?Q<IO<B@N JA HJ??DIB OC@ •MNO ?@>DNDJI OC@T C<Q@ OJ H<F@ DN RC@OC@M DO DN HJM@ A@<
ND=G@ OJ >M@<O@ < I@R B<H@ JM OJ HJ?DAT <I @SDNODIB JI@ &A OC@T ?@>D?@ OJ >M@<O@ < I@R B<H@ OC@ GDNO
JA B<H@ <I? HJ? >M@<ODJI OJJGFDON DI>GP?@? DI OC@ JIGDI@ NPKKG@H@IO<MT *JCN@ID @O <G  KMJ
QD?@N < BJJ? NO<MODIB KJDIO <N DO KMJQD?@N <I JQ@MQD@R JA OJ?<TyN B<H@ >M@<ODJI OJJGFDON /@N@<M>C@MN
<M@ <?QDN@? OJ •MNO ?@>D?@ RCD>C B@IM@ #-0 /-$ NOM<O@BT B<H@ @O> N@@ 0HDOC  =@NO M@KM@N@ION
OC@DM M@N@<M>C LP@NODJI <I? OC@I OJ KD>F < OJJGFDO NPKKJMODIB OCDN B@IM@ ??DODJI<GGT B<H@ O<SJIJHD@N
H<T =@ C@GKAPG OJ H<F@ <I DIAJMH@? B<H@ >CJD>@  IPH=@M JA O<SJIJHD@N ><I =@ AJPI? DI 'cMQ@Gc @O
<G >C<KO@M  &A M@N@<M>C@MN ?@>D?@ OJ HJ?DAT <I @SDNODIB B<H@ DINO@<? JA >M@<ODIB < I@R JI@ OC@ GDNO
JA HJ?D•<=G@ B<H@N RDOCDI OC@ JIGDI@ NPKKG@H@IO<MT H<T >JH@ DI C<I?T =@><PN@ DO KMJQD?@N < O<=G@
JA HJM@ OC<I IDI@OT B<H@N DI>GP?DIB DON B@IM@ T@<M JA KP=GD><ODJI @IBDI@ @?DOJMN <I? DIAJMH<ODJI
RC@M@OJ?JRIGJ<?OC@M@LPDM@?OJJGN
CHOOSE THE GAMECHOOSE THE GAME
0@Q@M<G<NK@>ON<M@RJMOC>JIND?@MDIBRC@I>CJJNDIB<B<H@AJM<HJ??DIBKMJE@>O
 1C@B<H@NCJPG?=@PKOJ?<O@HJ?@MIB<H@><I=@HJM@DHH@MNDQ@=POH<TI@@?=@OO@M
<I?<N<M@NPGOJAOC<OHJM@@SK@INDQ@C<M?R<M@%DBC@I?C<M?R<M@DNFIJRIOJJAO@I
KMJ?P>@PIR<IO@?IJDN@<I?C@<O<I??@<GDIBRDOCOC@N@ND?@@~@>ONH<T<GNJM<DN@OC@>JNON
 1C@B<H@NCJPG?C<Q@<I<>ODQ@HJ??DIB>JHHPIDOTQDQD?>JHHPIDOTH<TC<Q@>M@<O@?
Q<GP<=G@M@NJPM>@NRCD>C><I=@PN@?DIJI@yNJRIHJ?DIJM?@MOJHDIDHDU@?@Q@GJKH@IO
@~JMON#JM@S<HKG@*JCN@ID<<NR@GG<N-D@ON>CH<II<I?)D@=JG?PN@?N@Q@M<GKM@
@SDNODIBHJ?NOJ•S=PBNOJDHKMJQ@OC@LP<GDOTJABM<KCD>NOJKM@Q@IOKG<T@M>C<M<>O@MNAMJH
?TDIBJMOJH<F@>C@<ODIBDHKJNND=G@QDQD?>JHHPIDOTH<T<GNJ=@RDGGDIBOJ<INR@M
LP@NODJINM@B<M?DIBOC@DHKG@H@IO<ODJIJAOC@HJ?D•><ODJIN JHHPIDOTH@H=@MN><I
 4@PN@OC@O@MHDHH@MNDJIDI<>>JM?<I>@RDOC4DMOC@O<GRCJ>JI>@KOP<GDU@NK<OD<GKM@N@I>@<NOC@@SK@MD@IOD<G>JPIO@MK<MO
JADHH@MNDJIRCD>CH@<INOC<ODHH@MNDJIDN<O@>CIJGJBD><GLP<GDOTJAOC@NODHPGPNOC<O><PN@NA@@GDIBNJANK<OD<GKM@N@I>@
331
DIAJMH<=JPOPI?J>PH@IO@?API>ODJIN<I?FIJRI=PBNDIOC@@?DOJM<I?<M@NJH@ODH@N@Q@I
RDGGDIBOJC@GKGJ><ODIB=PBNDIOC@>M@<O@?HJ?1CDN><I=@@NK@>D<GGTPN@APGOJM@N@<M>C@MN
RCJ<M@JAO@IDI@SK@MD@I>@?DI>M@<ODIBHJ?N
 1C@B<H@NCJPG?KMJQD?@<N@OODIBOC<ODNNPDO<=G@AJMOC@M@N@<M>CLP@NODJI!DNKG<TDIB
QDJG@IO<>ONDI<H@?D@Q<GN>@I<MDJHDBCOC<Q@?D~@M@IO@~@>ONJIOC@KG<T@M>JHK<M@?OJ<
HJ?@MIR<MA<M@N>@I<MDJ
LEARN THE GAMELEARN THE GAME
@><PN@ z8F9IJRDIB CJR < B<H@ DN PN@? DN < I@>@NN<MT NO@K =@AJM@ PI?@MO<FDIB <IT M@N@<M>C ?@NDBI{
4DGGD<HN  K  M@>JHH@I?N M@N@<M>C@MN OJ KG<T OC@ B<H@ >>JM?DIB OJ OC@ <POCJM FIJRG@?B@
<=JPO OC@ B<H@ DN <GNJ C@GKAPG AJM @NODH<ODIB OC@ B@I@M<GDU<=DGDOT JA JI@yN •I?DIBN OC<O DN @SO@MI<G Q<GD?
DOT 'cMQ@Gc @O <G >C<KO@M  APMOC@M KJDIO JPO OC@ Q<GP@ JA FIJRDIB OC@ B<H@ AJM OC@ DIO@MI<G Q<GD?DOT JA
OC@ @SK@MDH@IO "NK@>D<GGT M@N@<M>C@MN OC<O <M@ K@MNJI<GGT G@NN A<HDGD<M RDOC B<H@N MDNF OJ JQ@MGJJF CJR
N@@HDIBGT PIDHKJMO<IO B<H@ A@<OPM@N H<T >JH=DI@ <I? DI€P@I>@ OC@ KG<TDIB @SK@MD@I>@ KJNND=GT >JI
AJPI?DIB OC@ H<DI @~@>O 1C@M@AJM@ OC@ <POCJMN M@>JHH@I? KG<TDIB OC@ KJO@IOD<G B<H@ OJ B@O < A@@GDIB
AJM OC@ O<NFN DIQJGQ@? <I? OJ NKJO A<>OJMN OC<O HDBCO DI€P@I>@ OC@ O<NFN K<MOD>DK<ION <M@ M@LP@NO@? OJ
K@MAJMH 4@ R<IO OJ <?? <IJOC@M M@>JHH@I?<ODJI JA CJR OJ G@<MI OC@ B<H@ I<H@GT OJ >JINPGO OC@
?@NDBI@MN JA OC@ B<H@ DI LP@NODJI @B QD< AJMPH DON HJ??DIB >JHHPIDOT <I? DON @SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN
1C@N@ BMJPKN C<Q@ @SO@INDQ@ @SK@MO FIJRG@?B@ <=JPO OC@ B<H@N OC@T KG<T JM @Q@I >M@<O@ RCD>C RJPG?
O<F@M@N@<M>C@MNHJIOCNJM@Q@IT@<MNOJ><O>CPKRDOC
SETUP THE PLASETUP THE PLATFORMTFORM
1C@ I@SO NO@K <AO@M G@<MIDIB OC@ B<H@ DN N@OODIB PK < ?@Q@GJKH@IO KG<OAJMH JI RCD>C OC@ B<H@ <I? OC@
@?DOJM <M@ DINO<GG@? &O DN <?QDN<=G@ OJ >CJJN@ < NTNO@H OC<O M@N@H=G@N OC@ @SK@MDH@IO<G C<M?R<M@ <N >GJN@
<N KJNND=G@ 2IR<IO@? DNNP@N NP>C <N =G<>F BM@T <I? RCDO@ N>M@@IN JA ?@<OC >M<NC@N GJR AM<H@ M<O@N
<I? GJ<?DIB ?@G<TN ><I =@ ><PN@? =T OC@ C<M?R<M@ <I? DON ?MDQ@MN =@><PN@ HJ?N JAO@I M@I?@M B<H@N
G@NN NO<=G@ >JHK<M@? OJ OC@ Q<IDGG< Q@MNDJI 1CDN HDIDHDU@N OC@ MDNF OC<O OC@ HJ? JIGT MPIN NHJJOCGT
JI OC@ ?@Q@GJKH@IO KG<OAJMH =PO IJO JI OC@ @SK@MDH@IO<G @LPDKH@IO ,A >JPMN@ OC@M@ <M@ @S>@KODJIN
OJ OCDN MPG@ "Q@I DA OC@ HJ? NCJPG? JIGT MPI JI < NDIBG@ ?DNKG<T ?PMDIB OC@ @SK@MDH@IO >M@<ODIB OC@
HJ? DN HP>C @<ND@M DA ORJ JM HJM@ ?DNKG<TN <M@ DINO<GG@? =@><PN@ HJNO @?DOJMN A@<OPM@ HPGODKG@ RDI?JRN
OC<O NCJPG? NO<T JK@I NDHPGO<I@JPNGT @B 1"0 C<N JI@ RDI?JR AJM N>MDKON JI@ AJM !HJ?@GN JI@
AJMLP@NON<I?JI@AJMOC@M@I?@MKM@QD@R
MAXIMIZE INMAXIMIZE INTTERNAL VALIDITYERNAL VALIDITY
4CDG@ >M@<ODIB HJ?N M@N@<M>C@MN NCJPG? OMT OJ H<SDHDU@ ;@F7D@3> H3>;6;FK =T >M@<ODIB >JHK<M<=G@ NODH
PGD K<MO AMJH OCDN M@N@<M>C@MN NCJPG? H<F@ DIB<H@ >C@<ODIB DHKJNND=G@ #JM @S<HKG@ HJNO B<H@N
J~@M < B<H@DIO@MI<G ?@=PBBDIB >JINJG@ RCD>C ><I =@ NO<MO@? <ITODH@ AMJH RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ 1C@N@
>JINJG@N JAO@I J~@M OC@ KJNND=DGDOT OJ M@HJQ@ J=E@>ON OJ FDGG IJIKG<T@M >C<M<>O@MN OJ OM<INKJMO OC@
KG<T@M >C<M<>O@M OJ <IJOC@M KG<>@ <I? NJ JI 1C@ HJ? NCJPG? H<F@ NPM@ OC<O K<MOD>DK<ION <M@ IJO <=G@ OJ
PN@ OC@N@ JKODJIN ?PMDIB OC@ @SK@MDH@IO ??DODJI<GGT OC@ HJ? NCJPG? H<F@ NPM@ OC<O OC@ B<H@ DN IJO
DIO@MMPKO@? ?PMDIB OC@ @SK@MDH@IO #JM @S<HKG@ < GJO JA QD?@JB<H@N ?DNKG<T < B<H@ JQ@M N>M@@I DA OC@
KG<T@M >C<M<>O@M ?D@N <I? NJH@ JA OC@H <POJH<OD><GGT M@NPH@ < KM@QDJPN B<H@ NO<O@ /@N@<M>C@MN >JPG?
332
OC@M@AJM@ KM@Q@IO KG<T@M >C<M<>O@MNy ?@<OCN @B %<MOH<II 1JU <I? M<I?JI  0OP?T  *JCN@ID
< CJR@Q@M OCDN H<T I@B<ODQ@GT <~@>O OC@ B<H@ @SK@MD@I>@ $<H@N ><I <GNJ >JIO<DI A<I>T GJ<?DIB
N>M@@IN &A OC@N@ I@B<ODQ@GT <~@>O OC@ DIO@I?@? H<IDKPG<ODJI OC@T NCJPG? =@ ?@<>ODQ<O@? JM M@KG<>@? =T
I@POM<G Q@MNDJIN GDF@ =G<>F N>M@@IN *JM@JQ@M DA KJNND=G@ OC@ HJ? NCJPG? DI>GP?@ NJH@ FDI? JA H<IDK
PG<ODJI >C@>F @B >C@>FDIB DA OC@ B<H@ R<N KG<T@? <N KG<II@? CJR H<IT IJIKG<T@M >C<M<>O@MN R@M@
FDGG@? *<IDKPG<ODJI >C@>FN RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ NCJPG? =@ BDQ@I KM@A@M@I>@ <N OC@T <M@ C<M?@M OJ >DM>PH
Q@IO =PO @SO@MI<G >C@>FN ><I =@ PN@? <N < NPKKG@H@IO RC@M@ DIO@MI<G >C@>FN <M@ IJO A@<ND=G@ #JM @S<H
KG@ <MI<B@T <I? I?@MNJI  R<O>C@? <I? M@>JM?@? OC@ IPH=@M JA FDGGN RCDG@ (I@@M (I<KK
<I? "GNJI  PN@? <I <B@ M@NOMD>ODJI M<ODIB < QDJG@I>@ M<ODIB <I? < ?D•>PGOT M<ODIB <N H<IDKPG<
ODJI >C@>FN ,OC@MN PN@? NP=E@>ODQ@ M<ODIB N><G@N AJM @S<HKG@ %<MOH<II 1JU <I? M<I?JI  %<MO
H<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  "GNJI @O <G  <I? *JCN@ID < -MJQDNDJIN GDF@ OC@N@ ><I C@GK OJ MPG@
JPO>C@<ODIBK<MOD>DK<ION=MJF@IKG<TDIBN@NNDJIN<I?JOC@MDNNP@N
CREACREATTE COMPARABLE SE COMPARABLE STIMULITIMULI
M@<ODIB >JHK<M<=G@ NODHPGD ><I =@ <>CD@Q@? =T @LP<GDUDIB KG<T@M N<HKG@N ?TI<HD><GGT <?<KODIB ?DA
•>PGOT M@?P>DIB B<H@ >JHKG@SDOT >JIOMJGGDIB Q<MD<ODJI DI >JIAJPI?@MN <I? >JI?P>ODIB KM@O@NON
'cMQ@Gc @O <G >C<KO@M  <??M@NN HJNO JA OC@N@ DNNP@N <GOCJPBC OC@DM >C<KO@M DHKGD>DOGT AJ>PN@N JI
PIHJ?D•@? B<H@N +JI@OC@G@NN OC@DM NPBB@NODJIN <M@ JA @LP<G DHKJMO<I>@ OJ OC@ PN@ JA HJ??@? B<H@
Q@MNDJIN *JNO JA OC@N@ H@<NPM@N ><I =@ >JH=DI@? DI JI@ R<T JM <IJOC@M =PO NJH@ JA OC@H ?@K@I? JI
OC@?@>DNDJIOJG@OIJQD>@NK<MOD>DK<O@DIOC@NOP?T
EQUALIZE PLAYER SAMPLEEQUALIZE PLAYER SAMPLE
&I QD?@JB<H@N DIO@M<>ODQ@ NODHPGD >C<IB@ <>>JM?DIB OJ K<MOD>DK<IO <>ODJIN "SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN GDF@GT
KMJBM@NN APMOC@M DI < BDQ@I ODH@ PN@ HJM@ ?DQ@MN@ <I? @~@>ODQ@ KG<TDIB NOTG@N JM <>>@NN HJM@ <?Q<I>@?
B<H@ DO@HN >C<KO@M  <I? C<Q@ HJM@ FIJRG@?B@ <=JPO OC@ >JIOMJGN JA OC@ B<H@ #M@T @O <G 
!@FF@M <I? C<HKDJI  M@KJMO OC<O DI@SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN <M@ NOMPBBGDIB RDOC G@<MIDIB OC@ B<H@
KG<T <I? B@O >JIAPN@? HJM@ @<NDGT =T OC@ QDMOP<G NPMMJPI?DIBN 1C@N@ NOMPBBG@N @Q@I DI€P@I>@ =DJA@@?
=<>F <NN@NNH@IO +JQD>@N I@@? < GJO JA ODH@ OJ G@<MI OC@ B<H@ <O OC@ @SK@IN@ JA OC@ ODH@ OC@T C<Q@ AJM
NJGQDIB OC@ BDQ@I O<NF %<MODB #M@T <I? (@OU@G  !@FF@M <I? C<HKDJI  'cMQ@Gc @O <G >C<K
O@M  NO<O@ OC<O DA IJQD>@N R@M@ BDQ@I OJJ GDOOG@ ODH@ OJ G@<MI OC@ >JIOMJGN OCDN RJPG? GDF@GT DI€P@I>@
OC@ LP<GDOT JA OC@ ?<O< 1C@T OC@M@AJM@ NPBB@NO M@>MPDODIB K<MOD>DK<ION RDOC NJH@ D?@<GGT B@IM@ NK@>D•>
@SK@MD@I>@ PIG@NN OC@ M@N@<M>C NK@>D•><GGT <??M@NN@N G@<MIDIB 1C@ ?M<R=<>FN OJ OCDN NJGPODJI <M@ OC<O DO
><I =@ C<M? OJ •I? @SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN @NK@>D<GGT A@H<G@N >C<KO@M  *JCN@ID < >A .P<I?O @O <G
 AJM N@S ?D~@M@I>@N DI QD?@JB<H@ PN<B@ <I? OC<O M@NPGON H<T IJO =@ B@I@M<GDU@? OJ DI@SK@MD@I>@?
KG<T@MN %JR@Q@M DA M@N@<M>C@MN R<IO OJ DIQ@NODB<O@ OC@ KJKPG<ODJI JA OTKD><G KG<T@MN OCDN DN IJ KMJ=
G@H <O <GG &A M@>MPDODIB @SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN JIGT DN IJO <I JKODJI M@N@<M>C@MN ><I  DI>GP?@ < OM<DIDIB
KC<N@ @B %<MODB #M@T <I? (@OU@G  "GNJI @O <G  <I? < OPOJMD<G @B %<MODB #M@T <I? (@OU@G
 *JCN@ID < %<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  M@NK@>ODQ@GT <I?  H@<NPM@ ?D~@M@I>@N DI B<H
DIB @SK@MD@I>@ @B 0O<P?@*nGG@M GD@N@I@M <I? )POH<II  "GNJI @O <G  *JCN@ID <
 'cMQ@Gc@O<G>C<KO@M?DN>PNNOC@KMJ=G@HNJA@LP<GDUDIBKG<T@MN<HKG@N?TI<HD><GGT<?<KODIB?D•>PGOTM@?P>DIBB<H@>JHKG@SDOT
<I?>JIOMJGGDIBQ<MD<ODJIDI>JIAJPI?@MN=POOC@T?JIJOM@>JHH@I?OJ>JI?P>OKM@O@NON1C@G<OO@MH<T=@?P@OJOC@DMNOMJIBAJ>PN
JIPIHJ?D•@?B<H@N
333
??DODJI<GGT OC@T ><I ?TI<HD><GGT <?<KO OC@ B<H@yN ?D•>PGOT M@?P>@ OC@ B<H@yN >JHKG@SDOT <I? >JI
OMJGPIR<IO@?Q<MD<ODJI=@OR@@I>JI?DODJIN
DYNAMICALLDYNAMICALLY ADAPT DIFFICULY ADAPT DIFFICULTYTY
 KMJ=G@H M@G<O@? OJ ?D~@M@I>@N DI KG<T@M NFDGGN DN OC<O JA B<H@ ?D•>PGOT >>JM?DIB OJ 'cMQ@Gc @O <G
>C<KO@M  HJ?@MI B<H@N DHKG@H@IO MJPODI@N OC<O <POJH<OD><GGT <I? >JIODIPJPNGT <?<KO OC@ ?D•>PGOT
OJ OC<O JA OC@ KG<T@MyN <=DGDOT G@Q@G 1C@ <POCJMN NPBB@NO OC<O DA OC@ BJ<G DN OJ >M@<O@ NDHDG<M @SK@MD@I>@N
M@N@<M>C@MN NCJPG? H<F@ PN@ JA <POJH<OD><GGT <?<KODIB ?D•>PGOT <N DO ><I =@ PN@APG DI >M@<ODIB @LP<GGT
>C<GG@IBDIB B<HDIB @SK@MD@I>@N *JCN@ID < AJM @S<HKG@ N>MDKO@? @I@HD@N OJ =@ OC@ G@NN >C<GG@IB
DIB OC@ G@NN C@<GOC OC@ KG<T@M >C<M<>O@M C<N 1CDN @INPM@? OC<O @Q@I DI@SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN >JPG? •IDNC
OC@ BDQ@I O<NF 1C@ ?M<R=<>F JA OCDN <KKMJ<>C DN OC<O KM@O@NON <M@ I@@?@? OJ >C@>F AJM JQ@M <I? PI?@M
<?<KO<ODJI 1C@M@AJM@ PNDIB < ?D•>PGOT N@OODIB OC<O M@€@>ON KG<T@MNy NFDGGN =PO OC<O NO<TN NO<OD> AJM OC@
RCJG@ B<H@ ><I =@ < ODH@N<QDIB <GO@MI<ODQ@ OJ ?TI<HD><G <?<KODJI #JM @S<HKG@ "GNJI @O <G 
<?EPNO@? ?D•>PGOT =T <NN@NNDIB KG<T@MNy <=DGDOD@N ?PMDIB OC@ R<MHPK MJPI?N &I >JIOM<NO OJ OC@ ?TI<H
D><G <KKMJ<>C OCDN NOM<O@BT KJN@N OC@ MDNF OC<O OC@ <NN@NNH@IO DN DI<>>PM<O@ &I KMDI>DKG@ @SK@MD@I>@?
KG<T@MN >JPG? ?DNNDHPG<O@ OC@DM NFDGGN <I? B@O < GJR ?D•>PGOT N@OODIB RCDG@ DI@SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN >JPG?
RDI HJM@ OC<I PNP<G ?P@ OJ KPM@ GP>F <I? B@O < CDBC ?D•>PGOT N@OODIB 1C@M@AJM@ "GNJI @O <G  PN@?
HPGODKG@ R<MHPK MJPI?N AJM < HJM@ M@GD<=G@ <NN@NNH@IO %JR@Q@M OCDN ?J@N IJO NJGQ@ OC@ KMJ=G@H JA
?DNNDHPG<ODJI N < M@NPGO DA M@N@<M>C@MN @SK@>O K<MOD>DK<ION OJ ?DNNDHPG<O@ OC@T <M@ <?QDN@? OJ @HKGJT
< ?TI<HD> <?<KODJI JA ?D•>PGOT ,I OC@ JOC@M C<I? DA OC@ BJ<G DN OJ PN@ OC@ N<H@ >JIO@IO AJM <GG K<MOD>
DK<ION 'cMQ@Gc @O <G >C<KO@M  NPBB@NO <QJD?DIB <POJH<OD> ?D•>PGOT <?EPNOH@ION 1CDN H<T =@ C<M? OJ
M@<GDU@<NDIO@MI<G<?<KO<ODJIMJPODI@N<M@JAO@IC<M?OJ?@O@>O<I?C<M?OJHJ?DAT
REDUCE GAME COMPLEXITYREDUCE GAME COMPLEXITY
I <??DODJI<G <KKMJ<>C OJ >M@<O@ >JHK<M<=G@ NODHPGD DN OJ M@?P>@ >JHKG@SDOT NJ OC<O IJQD>@N ?J IJO NPA
A@M AMJH OC@DM DI@SK@MD@I>@ I DIB<H@ OPOJMD<G ><I =@ >M@<O@? OJ DIOMJ?P>@ OC@ B<H@ H@>C<ID>N @NK@
>D<GGT OC@ >JIOMJGN HPGODR<T K<OCN ><I =@ >C<IB@? OJ GDI@<M K<OCN <I? DIB<H@ @LPDKH@IO <I? KG<T@M
>C<M<>O@M NFDGGN ><I =@ M@?P>@? OJ < HDIDHPH /@?P>@? >JHKG@SDOT DN LPDO@ >JHHJI DI OC@ =@BDIIDIB
KC<N@ JA HJ?@MI B<H@N RC@M@ KG<T@MN <M@ NGJRGT DIOMJ?P>@? OJ OC@ ?D~@M@IO B<H@ H@>C<ID>N DI JM?@M
OJ KM@Q@IO@<MGT AMPNOM<ODJI JHKG@SDOT M@?P>ODJIN <M@ <GNJ <>CD@Q<=G@ OCMJPBC HJ??DIB #JM @S<HKG@
%<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  NOP?T  NPMMJPI?@? OC@DM G@Q@G =T < R<GG NJ KG<T@MN >JPG? IJO B@O GJNO
%<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  <N R@GG <N %<MOH<II 1JU <I? M<I?JI  <GNJ H<?@ KG<T@M >C<M<>O@MN
DIQDI>D=G@ <I? KMJQD?@? OC@H RDOC JIGT JI@ R@<KJI RDOC PIGDHDO@? <HHPIDODJI "GNJI @O <G 
PN@? KM@@SDNODIB HJ?N OJ M@HJQ@ PIR<IO@? R@<KJIN <I? KJR@MPKN RCDG@ %<MODB #M@T <I? (@OU@G
 M@HJQ@? ?DNKG<TN JA KG<T@MNy C@<GOC <I? <HHPIDODJI <I? M@NOMD>O@? KG<T@MNy HJQ@H@ION OJ AJM
R<M?=<>FR<M?<I?OPMIDIB<MJPI?
%JR@Q@M OC@ G<OO@M NOP?T ?@HJINOM<O@N OC<O @Q@I < H<EJM >JHKG@SDOT M@?P>ODJI H<T IJO NP•>@ OJ
@I<=G@ IJQD>@N OJ KG<T OC@ B<H@ GOCJPBC K<MOD>DK<ION >JPG? JIGT HJQ@ AJMR<M? =<>FR<M? <I? OPMI
<MJPI? IJQD>@N NODGG NOMPBBG@? OJ I<QDB<O@ OC@ H<K <I? NJH@ JA OC@H @Q@I NP~@M@? AMJH >T=@MND>FI@NN
&I <??DODJI OJ OCDN <IT H<EJM >C<IB@N KJN@ < MDNF JA >JHKMJHDNDIB B<H@ LP<GDOT >A >C<KO@M  #JM
@S<HKG@ DA PIDHKJMO<IO J=E@>ON GDF@ MJJH ?@>JM<ODJIN <M@ M@HJQ@? AMJH OC@ @SK@MDH@IO<G G@Q@G NJ OC<O
KG<T@MN ?J IJO H@??G@ RDOC OC@H OCDN H<T G@<? OJ < M<OC@M =JMDIB G@Q@G ?@NDBI %JR@Q@M A@@GDIB NODH
334
PG<O@? <I? >C<GG@IB@? DN < KM@M@LPDNDO@ AJM @IB<B@H@IO 3<I ?@I %JJB@I @O <G  #JM @S<HKG@
!@FF@M <I? C<HKDJI  AJPI? OC<O OC@DM DHH@MNDQ@ <P?DJ @~@>ON C<? < G<MB@ DHK<>O JI @IB<B@
H@IO 0J DA M@N@<M>C@MN NOMDK OC@ B<H@ JA @G@H@ION OC<O N@@H NPK@M€PJPN OJ OC@H GDF@ <P?DJ @~@>ON JM
MJJH ?@>JM<ODJIN OCDN H<T M@NPGO DI M@?P>@? KG<T@M @IB<B@H@IO RCD>C DI OPMI H<T ?@>M@<N@ OC@ JQ@M
<GG @~@>O JA OC@ NODHPGPN "Q@I RJMN@ OC<I OCDN @SOM@H@ >C<IB@N H<T M@?P>@ 7JF7D@3> Q<GD?DOT <N OC@T
H<T G@<? OJ < OJO<GGT ?D~@M@IO FDI? JA B<H@ 1C@M@AJM@ RC@I <KKGTDIB @SOM@H@ >C<IB@N DO DN <=NJGPO@GT
@NN@IOD<GOJ>JI?P>OKM@O@NONDIJM?@MOJ>C@>FAJMND?@@~@>ON
CONCONTROL CONFOUNDER VARIATROL CONFOUNDER VARIATIONTION
IJOC@M R<T OJ @INPM@ < >JHK<M<=G@ KG<TDIB @SK@MD@I>@ DN OJ >JIOMJG AJM PIR<IO@? Q<MD<ODJI DI KJO@I
OD<G >JIAJPI?@MN #JM @S<HKG@ DI OC@ @SK@MDH@IO =T *JCN@ID < OC@ H<IDKPG<ODJI >JPG? C<Q@
G@? OJ PIR<IO@? ?D~@M@I>@N DI >JIAJPI?DIB Q<MD<=G@N GDF@ KG<T@M <>ODQ<ODJI 3<I ?@I %JJB@I @O <G
 JM ?D~@M@IO K@M>@KODJIN JA ?D•>PGOT (GDHHO  (GDHHO %<MOH<II <I? #M@T  >JHK@
ODODJI ?<>CD <I? 4DGGJPBC=T  AMPNOM<ODJI M@P@M 0>C<MFJR <I? .P<I?O  @IO@MO<DIH@IO
(GDHHO  KM@N@I>@ (GDHHO  1<H=JMDID <I? 0F<GNFD  K<>@ JA <>ODJI ?<>CD <I?
4DGGJPBC=T  "GNJI @O <G  <I? JOC@MN ,A >JPMN@ RDOCDI OC@ HJ??DIB <KKMJ<>C OC@ DHK<>O
JA OC@N@ >JIAJPI?@MN DN KMJ=<=GT G@NN KMJ=G@H<OD> >JHK<M@? OJ OC@ >G<NND> <KKMJ<>C +JI@OC@G@NN OC@
HJ? R<N •I@OPI@? DI KM@O@NON OJ C<Q@ <I @LP<G DHK<>O JA OC@N@ >JIAJPI?@MN JI <GG @SK@MDH@IO<G >JI
?DODJIN <I? OC@ >JIAJPI?@MN R@M@ <GNJ H@<NPM@? <O OC@ @I? JA OC@ @SK@MDH@IO DON@GA ,OC@M @S<HKG@N
<M@ <MI<B@T <I? I?@MNJI  RCJ G@O K<MOD>DK<IONM<O@ OC@ QD?@JB<H@ JI Q<MDJPN ?DH@INDJIN @B
?D•>PGOT %<MOH<II <I? 3JM?@M@M  NOP?T  RCJ <NN@NN@? OC@ IPH=@M JA JKKJI@IONy NCJON <I?
"GNJI @O <G  RCJ H@<NPM@? B<H@ @SK@MD@I>@ M@B<M?DIB B<H@KG<T BM<KCD>N <I? @HJODJI<G DHK<>O
CONDUCT PRECONDUCT PRE-T-TESESTTSS
1C@ •MNO <I? AJM@HJNO M@<NJI AJM KM@O@NON DN OJ •I? JPO DA OC@ H<IDKPG<ODJI RJMFN <N @SK@>O@? #JM
@S<HKG@ DI < zQDJG@IO{ >JI?DODJI DO DN <?QDN<=G@ OC<O OC@ HJ? C@GKN OJ H<F@ NPM@ OC<O K<MOD>DK<ION C<Q@
IJ <GO@MI<ODQ@ OJ <>ODIB QDJG@IO RCDG@ DI < IJIQDJG@IO >JI?DODJI K<MOD>DK<ION NCJPG? C<Q@ IJ JKKJMOP
IDOT OJ <>O QDJG@IOGT /@N@<M>C@MN NCJPG? H<F@ NPM@ OJ O@NO KMJOJOTK@N JA OC@ HJ? @Q@MT IJR <I? OC@I
OJ ?@O@>O €<RN <N NJJI <N KJNND=G@ 1C@ N@>JI? M@<NJI DN OJ >C@>F AJM PIR<IO@? Q<MD<ODJI DI KJO@IOD<G
>JIAJPI?@MN ><PN@? =T OC@ H<IDKPG<ODJI <N <GM@<?T H@IODJI@? 1C@ OCDM? M@<NJI DN OJ •I? KMJ=G@HN
RDOCDI OC@ @SK@MDH@IO<G N@OODIB #JM @S<HKG@ DO DN <GNJ <?QDN<=G@ OJ >C@>F AJM ND?@ @~@>ON JA OC@ C<M?
R<M@ =@><PN@ HJ?@MI B<H@N <M@ Q@MT ?@H<I?DIB &O DN KJNND=G@ OC<O CDBC@I? >JHKPO@MN KMJ?P>@ C@<O
OJ NP>C <I @SO@IO OC<O K<MOD>DK<ION DI G<O@M N@NNDJIN <M@ A<>@? RDOC <I PKC@<O@? MJJH RCD>C DI OPMI
><I G@<? OJ ?MJRNDI@NN <I? OJ <I PKC@<O@? IJDNT >JHKPO@M RCD>C H<T G@<? OJ ?D•>PGOT DI >JI>@I
OM<ODJI IJOC@M KMJ=G@H ><I =@ OC@ GDBCODIB >JI?DODJIN !<MF MJJHN JAO@I G@<? OJ =@OO@M QDNP<GN N@@
!@FF@M <I? C<HKDJI  *JCN@ID < =PO H<T <GNJ DHK@?@ DI@SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN AMJH •I?
DIB DI?DQD?P<G F@TN JI OC@ F@T=J<M? "SK@MD@I>@? KG<T@MN CJR@Q@M ><I =@ DHK@?@? =T IJMH<G OTK@
DIKPO ?@QD>@N <N OC@T <M@ JAO@I PN@? OJ KG<T RDOC NK@>D<G @LPDKH@IO GDF@ H@>C<ID><G F@T=J<M?N <I? GJR
G<O@I>T HD>@ ??DODJI<G KMJ=G@HN H<T <MDN@ AMJH PNDIB =DJA@@?=<>F ?@QD>@N #JM @S<HKG@ !@FF@M <I?
C<HKDJI  M@KJMO@? OC<O KG<T@MN R@M@ DHK<DM@? =T OC@N@ ?@QD>@N <I? >JPG? IJO KMJK@MGT PN@ OC@
HJPN@
 4DOCOC@@S>@KODJIJA>JHK@ODODJI<I?K<>@JA<>ODJI=PORDOCOC@<??DODJIJABM<KCD>yN>GJN@I@NNOJM@<GDOT<I?OC@BM<KCD>yNG@Q@GJA
?DNKG<T@?QDJG@I>@
335
COLLECT DACOLLECT DATTAA
+JMH<GGT DO DN <?QDN<=G@ OJ M@>JM? K<MOD>DK<IONy DIB<H@ =@C<QDJPM <N DO ><I KJO@IOD<GGT >JIAJPI? OC@
@~@>ON PI?@M J=N@MQ<ODJI &I NJH@ ><N@N K<MOD>DK<IONy =@C<QDJPM RDOCDI OC@ B<H@ ><I <GNJ =@ K<MO JA OC@
M@N@<M>C LP@NODJI &?@<GGT M@>JM?DIB =@C<QDJPM DN KJNND=G@ =T G@OODIB OC@ B<H@ <POJH<OD><GGT GJB @<>C
<I? <IT @Q@IO #JM @S<HKG@ 3<I ?@I %JJB@I @O <G  <POJH<OD><GGT GJBB@? B<H@ @Q@ION OJB@OC@M
RDOC OC@ NTNO@H ODH@ <N OC@T I@@?@? OJ NTI>CMJIDU@ OC@ B<H@ @Q@ION RDOC >JIODIPJPN "*$ H@<NPM@N
RCDG@ (I@@M (I<KK <I? "GNJI  M@>JM?@? KG<T@MNy K@MAJMH<I>@ PNDIB GJB •G@N AMJH RCD>C FDGGN <I?
?@<OCN R@M@ @SOM<>O@? 1C@ ?M<R=<>F JA OCDN NJGPODJI DN OC<O DO ><I M@NPGO DI G<MB@ <I? >JIAPNDIB GJB •G@N
RCD>C C<Q@ OJ =@ <I<GTN@? =T NK@>D<G OJJGN <I? OC<O HJNO B<H@N ?J IJO J~@M OCDN FDI? JA GJBBDIB #JM
@S<HKG@ "GNJI @O <G  C<? OJ DINO<GG < GJBBDIB HPO<OJM OJ <POJH<OD><GGT GJB DIB<H@ @Q@ION I
<GO@MI<ODQ@ <KKMJ<>C DN OJ DI>GP?@ N>MDKO >J?@ DI JI@yN HJ? RCD>C GJBN DHKJMO<IO @Q@ION #JM @S<HKG@
*JCN@ID < GJBB@? OC@ IPH=@M JA ODH@N KG<T@MN ?D@? <I? CJR H<IT @I@HD@N KG<T@MN FDGG@?  APM
OC@M <GO@MI<ODQ@ H@IODJI@? =T 'cMQ@Gc @O <G >C<KO@M  DN OJ PN@ @SO@MI<G GJBBDIB NTNO@HN GDF@ F@T GJB
B@MNN>M@@I><KOPM@QD?@JN<I?HJPN@>GD>FM@>JM?@MN
&A GJBBDIB DN IJO A@<ND=G@ <O <GG OC@ QD?@J NDBI<G ><I =@ M@>JM?@? >>JM?DIB OJ 'cMQ@Gc @O <G >C<KO@M 
OCDN H@OCJ? C<N ORJ ?M<R=<>FN DO KMJ?P>@N <??DODJI<G @~JMO OJ D?@IODAT >MDOD><G @Q@ION =T M@QD@RDIB
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Further readingFurther reading
| "GNJI*<I?.P<I?O1!DBDO<GB<H@NDIG<=JM<OJMT@SK@MDH@ION JIOMJGGDIB<
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!,&ssKKH
| *>*<C<I/-/<B<I"!)@<G@<OJI/'<I?JRH<I! JIND?@M<ODJIN
AJMOC@PN@JA>JHH@M>D<GQD?@JB<H@NDI>JIOMJGG@?@SK@MDH@ION @F7DF3;@?7@FA?BGF;@9
KKu!,&ssE@IO>JH
| *JCN@ID*/"GNJI*-D@ON>CH<II!<I?)D@=JG?*J??DIBAJM?DBDO<GB<H@N
M@N@<M>CQ<DG<=G@<OCOOKsRRRsH@?FJHsCMUsOP>C@HIDOU?@sHJ??DIB
| /<Q<E<+<I?(DQDF<IB<N*'!@NDBIDIBB<H@M@N@<M>C??M@NNDIBLP@NODJINJA
Q<GD?DOT&I2/DOO@MA@G?* J?T<I?-3JM?@M@M@?N )7D;AGE93?7E#75:3@;E?E3@6
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ReferencesReferences
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337
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340
About the contributors
'@NK@M'@NK@M <<B<<B<<M?M? DN < -C! A@GGJR <O OC@ !@K<MOH@IO JA -NT>CJGJBT <I? @C<QDJM<G 0>D@I>@N 2IDQ@MNDOT JA
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... Some previous research attempted to addressed this, with a modified version of a commercial game (Joeckel, Bowman, & Dogruel, 2012, 2013. Modifying commercial games allows for these preexisting games to be altered and adapted for research purposes (Elson & Quandt, 2016;Hartmann, Toz, & Brandon, 2010;Mohseni, Liebold, & Pietschmann, 2015). However, there are still some limitations to modifying commercial games such as restrictions and biases. ...
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A purpose-made video game was used to measure response time and moral alignment of in-game moral decisions, which were made by 115 undergraduate students. Overall, moral decisions took between 4–6 seconds and were mostly pro-social. Previous gameplay, in-game, and post-game experiences predicted in-game moral alignment. Real-life moral salience was not related to in-game decision-making. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of the demands of video games and in-game moral decision-making models.
... The player needs to select among four options the correct answer for the presented arithmetic fact. In Figure 2 -A, the player chooses the right answer; in At the end of each room, the player goes to the result screen where, based on their score, they can receive a golden star ( For this game implementation, the orientations of Mohseni, Liebold and Pietschman (2015) were followed. The authors suggest that instead of implementing a game from the beginning, modifications should be made to an existing game in order to reduce costs and time. ...
... This adaptation can often be achieved through modding an existing game (e.g. Elson and Quandt, (2016), Engelhardt, Hilgard, and Bartholow (2015), Mohseni, Liebold, and Pietschmann (2015)), or developing bespoke games (e.g. Zendle et al. (2015)). ...
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Background. Games are increasingly used to collect scientific data. Some suggest that game features like high cognitive load may limit the inferences we can draw from such data, yet no systematic overview exists of potential validity threats of game-based methods. Aim. We present a narrative survey of documented and potential threats to validity in using games for quantitative data collection. Method. We combined an unsystematic bottom-up literature review with a systematic top-down application of standard validity threat typologies to games to arrive at a systematisation of game-characteristic validity threats. Results. We identify three game characteristics that potentially impact validity: Games are complex systems, impeding the predictable control and isolation of treatments. They are rich in unwanted variance and diversity. And their social framing can differ from and interact with the framing of research studies or non-game situations they are supposed to represent. The diversity of gamers and their differences to general populations bring further complications. Discussion and Conclusions. The wealth of potential validity threats in game-based research is met by a dearth of systematic methodological studies, leading us to outline several future research directions.
... The game was modified (cf. Mohseni, Liebold and Pietschmann, 2015) to generate the experiment conditions, and multiple versions of the game were installed at local servers. Secondly, the goal of the study was not to study the game with or without a given design feature. ...
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Today digital games and those who make them continue to inform audiences, design, and world culture. Despite the impact of digital games, research on game designers and their design process is limited. A large majority of literature in game studies focuses on understanding games and designs from the humanistic perspective, not the designer perspective. Game production literature provides some reasons for this limitation and highlights the difficulties of entering game studios to conduct research (O’Donnell, 2014). However, game studios are not the only segment of the industry which can provide information on games and their creators. There is also a growing body work on game development through game jams (Kultima, 2015) as well as literature on indie game production (Guevara-Villalobos, 2011) that legitimizes the need to study independent game production. This chapter shortly comments on why researching game designers is key to understanding digital games, reviews the importance of the growing indie scene (including research) and proposes the use of visual methods for interrogating game designers about their work.
Book
The main goal of the field of augmented cognition is to research and develop adaptive systems capable of extending the information management capacity of individuals through computing technologies. Augmented cognition research and development is therefore focused on accelerating the production of novel concepts in human-system integration and includes the study of methods for addressing cognitive bottlenecks (e.g., limitations in attention, memory, learning, comprehension, visualization abilities, and decision making) via technologies that assess the user’s cognitive status in real time. A computational interaction employing such novel system concepts monitors the state of the user, through behavioral, psychophysiological, and neurophysiological data acquired from the user in real time, and then adapts or augments the computational interface to significantly improve their performance on the task at hand. The International Conference on Augmented Cognition (AC), an affiliated conference of the HCI International (HCII) conference, arrived at its 16th edition and encouraged papers from academics, researchers, industry, and professionals, on a broad range of theoretical and applied issues related to augmented cognition and its applications. The field of augmented cognition has matured over the years to solve enduring issues such as portable, wearable neurosensing technologies and data fusion strategies in operational environments. These innovations coupled with better understanding of brain and behavior, improved measures of brain state change, and improved artificial intelligence algorithms have helped expand the augmented cognition focus areas to rehabilitation, brain-computer interfaces, and training and education. The burgeoning field of human-machine interfaces such as drones and autonomous agents are also benefitting from augmented cognition research. This volume of the HCII 2022 proceedings is dedicated to this year’s edition of the AC conference and focuses on topics related to understanding human cognition and behavior, brain activity measurement and electroencephalography, human and machine learning, and augmented cognition in extended reality. Papers of this one volume are included for publication after a minimum of two single-blind reviews from the members of the AC Program Board or, in some cases, from members of the Program Boards of other affiliated conferences. We would like to thank all of them for their invaluable contribution, support, and efforts.
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Chapter
Both collected anecdotal evidence from video game players and the results of academic studies have shown that sexism is an issue in video game culture. More specifically, sexism has been found to be common in two areas: (1) video game content and (2) interactions between players in online games. While it might seem logical to assume that these two are causally connected, the available empirical evidence suggests that the relationship between sexist video game content and sexism in interactions between players is more complex than a simple chain of cause and effect. This chapter reviews existing conceptual and empirical work on sexism and video games to arrive at a more nuanced view of this topic. Neither sexist video game content nor sexist attitudes and behavior are monolithic things. They come in different forms, all of which are likely to have different causes as well as different effects on the players. These differences need to be taken into account when studying the relationship between sexism and video games. Importantly, results from cultivation studies on the effects of video game content on real-life attitudes and behavior show that these are extremely limited or even nonexistent. Together with reports from players and study findings on misogyny and sexual harassment among online players, this suggests that research on video games and sexism should focus more on interactions between real people and less on fictional content. This also has implications for the development of measures that aim to reduce sexism in video game culture.
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This paper describes an investigation into how real-time but low-cost biometric information can be interpreted by computer games to enhance gameplay without fundamentally changing it. We adapted a cheap sensor, (the Lightstone mediation sensor device by Wild Divine), to record and transfer biometric information about the player (via sensors that clip over their fingers) into a commercial game engine, Half-Life 2. During game play, the computer game was dynamically modified by the player's biometric information to increase the cinematically augmented "horror" affordances. These included dynamic changes in the game shaders, screen shake, and the creation of new spawning points for the game's non-playing characters (zombies), all these features were driven by the player's biometric data. To evaluate the usefulness of this biofeedback device, we compared it against a control group of players who also had sensors clipped on their fingers, but for the second group the gameplay was not modified by the biometric information of the players. While the evaluation results indicate biometric data can improve the situated feeling of horror, there are many design issues that will need to be investigated by future research, and the judicious selection of theme and appropriate interaction is vital.
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This article is a methodological examination of standards and practices when using digital games as stimulus material in laboratory experiments, particularly media effects research. It is concerned with the common lack of clean experimental manipulation and proper stimulus control in games research practices. We first discuss how scholars have addressed this issue in the past and then introduce game modifications ("modding") as a viable alternative. Successful applications of modding in experiments are outlined, and followed by a brief overview of modding tools readily available for research purposes. We demonstrate that modding is a method providing researchers with the necessary tools for powerful variable manipulations and operationalizations. At the same time, researchers maintain a thorough control over their stimulus materials, and are able to create proper experimental and control groups. Moreover, it increases studies' internal validity and replicability without necessarily impairing their ecological validity.
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The impact of video game play on player aggression continues to be debated within the academic literature. Most of the studies in this area have focused on game content as the independent variable, whereas the social context of gaming is largely neglected. This article presents an experimental study (N = 76) on the effects of game outcome and trash-talking in a competitive colocated multiplayer sports video game on aggressive behavior. The results indicate that an unfavorable outcome (i.e., losing) can increase postgame aggression, whereas trash-talking by the opponent had no such effect. We also tested the frustration–aggression hypothesis for video games and found that the effect of losing on aggressive behavior is mediated by negative affect. The results suggest that the frustration–aggression hypothesis can be applied to the use of digital games and that game characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain effects on aggression.
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Most studies investigating the effects of violence in digital games on aggression and physiological arousal feature two groups of participants either playing a violent or a nonviolent game. However, violent content is usually not the only dimension on which the games used in these studies differ. This raises the issue of possibly confounding variables. We conducted a study in which the displayed violence and the pace of action of a first-person shooter game were manipulated systematically through game modifications (modding), whereas other variables were controlled for. Dependent variables were physiological arousal (autonomic and behavioral) during play, and postgame aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior was not influenced by either of the two variables. Although both violence and pace of action did not affect autonomic arousal, there was an interaction effect of these variables on behavioral measures of arousal. Playing a fast-paced game inhibited participantstextquoteright body movement, particularly when the game was nonviolent. A higher pace of action and displays of violence also caused players to exert greater pressure on the input devices. The findings of our study support the assumption that research on the effects of digital games should consider more variables than just violent content. In sum, our results underline the importance of controlling potentially confounding variables in research on the effects of digital games.
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