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‘Gender Sensitisation in the Zambian Copperbelt’

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... Although respondents largely comprised low-income market traders, fishermen, and homemakers, this paper is also informed by my previous research with a greater socio-economic range of urban participants: domestic workers, unemployed men, teachers, wealthy business people, and parliamentarians (Evans 2014(Evans , 2015a. I use this earlier data to explain how people's experiences of the city are shaped by their socio-economic circumstances. ...
... Shifts in perceived interests have thus catalysed behavioural change, amplified exposure, and fostered a positive feedback loop. 'Abanakashi kuti babomba incito sha baume' (women can do what men can do) has become a popular urban expression of gender equality (Evans 2014(Evans , 2015a(Evans , 2015b. 'Ifitenge kuntanshi, amatoloshi kunuma' (skirts to the front, trousers to the back) is another slogan, favoured by low-income, urban political activists. ...
... Further, even when people do have radio access (e.g. the 69 per cent of rural men who claim to listen at least once a week (CSO et al. 2009: 40)), they often dismiss broadcasts about high-profile women as showcasing outliers. Egalitarian discourses appear most significant in conjunction with first-hand evidence of women's equal competence in socially valued domains (Evans 2015a). This is limited in remote rural areas. ...
... However, unpaid care work continues to be seen as the preserve of women. Evans (2015) has also explored 'what works' in relation to gender sensitisation in this area of the country. Although reporting that much work under this rubric is too quick and cursory to produce change, she suggests that abstract equality messages work well when supported by first hand evidence countering gender stereotypes, such as examples of women working outside the home and men engaged in caring and household labour. ...
... There was no comprehensive sex education (this has since been introduced). Girls were also blamed if they reported violence, such as being stigmatised in the community (CAMFED, 2011;Evans, 2015;Gari et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This report presents findings from a scoping study of policy, practice and evidence on school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) in Zambia, which was carried out in 2016. The main objective of the study was to analyse responses to gender-based violence in and around schools in Zambia, in order to inform future planning of policy and practice initiatives. The study was a collaboration between the government of Zambia, UNICEF, and researchers at the UCL Institute of Education working alongside consultant, Romana Maumbu. Its core elements consist of: analysis of legislation and policy; analysis of programming on SRGBV; mapping of stakeholders working on SRGBV; and the identification and evaluation of research and data sets. The findings presented here will be used to guide decision making for phase two of the initiative which will take place during 2017, as well as longer term planning and action on SRGBV in Zambia. The findings will provide the basis for reflection and the development of the action plan for the next phase of the EGVS initiative.
... Hence, so many women often have children out of wedlock, or become widows and do not remarry. Several scholars have shown that the high incidence of FHHs may also be linked to high levels of gender-based violence, especially in South Africa (Evans, 2014;Klasen, Stephan, Lechtenfeld, Tobias, Povel & Felix, 2014;Chant, 2015). According to Preller (2016), one out of every six women is regularly assaulted by her partner. ...
... Retention of Anchal Maas and Assistants may be improved by assessing the impact of the double burden of work and home duties. Solutions to improve conditions for Anchal Maas and Assistants at home may be brainstormed with the community, such as through gender sensitisation workshops and discussions which have been implemented in health programs internationally [41,42]. In particular, the program may consider raising the pay of Anchal Assistants to meet community expectations, although the current amount is commensurate with minimum wage in Bangladesh. ...
Article
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Background: Community-based programs in rural low-and middle-income country settings are well-placed to conduct gender transformative activities that aid program sustainability and catalyse wider social change, such as reducing gender inequities that in turn improve health outcomes. The Anchal program is a drowning prevention intervention for children aged 1-5 years old in rural Bangladesh. It provides community crèche-based supervision delivered by local trained paid-female volunteers. We aimed to identify the influence of the Anchal program on gender norms and behaviours in the community context, and the effects these had on program delivery and men and women's outcomes. Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations were conducted with program beneficiaries and providers. Gender outcomes were analysed using FHI 360's Gender Integration Framework. Results: The Anchal program was found to be a gender accommodating program as it catered for communities' gender-based roles and constraints but did not actively seek to change underlying beliefs, perceptions and norms that led to these. The program in some cases enhanced the independence and status of female community staff. This changed perceptions of communities towards acceptable levels of physical mobility and community involvement for women. Conversely, gender affected program delivery by reducing the ability of female supervisory staff to engage with male community leaders. The double burden of wage and household labour carried by local female staff also limited performance and progression. Gender-based constraints on staff performance, attrition and community engagement affected efficiency of program delivery and sustainability. Conclusions: The Anchal program both adapted to and shaped community gender norms and roles. The program has well-established relationships in the community and can be leveraged to implement gender transformative activities to improve gender-based equity. Health programs can broaden their impacts and target social determinants of health like gender equity to increase program sustainability and promote equitable health outcomes.
... Retention of Anchal Maas and Assistants may be improved by assessing the impact of the double burden of work and home duties. Solutions to improve conditions for Anchal Maas and Assistants at home may be brainstormed with the community, such as through gender sensitisation workshops and discussions (39,40). In particular, the program may consider raising the pay of Anchal Assistants to meet community expectations, although the current amount is commensurate with minimum wage in Bangladesh. ...
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Background: Community-based programs in rural low-and middle-income country settings are well-placed to conduct gender transformative activities that aid program sustainability and catalyse wider social change, such as reducing gender inequities that in turn improve health outcomes. The Anchal program is a drowning prevention intervention for children aged 1-5 years old in rural Bangladesh. It provides community crèche-based supervision delivered by local trained paid-female volunteers. We aimed to identify the impact of the Anchal program on gender norms and behaviours in the community context, and the effects these had on program delivery and men and women’s outcomes. Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations were conducted with program beneficiaries and providers. Gender impacts and outcomes were analysed using FHI 360’s Gender Integration Framework. Results: The Anchal program was found to be a gender accommodating program as it catered for communities’ gender-based roles and constraints but did not actively seek to change underlying beliefs, perceptions and norms that led to these. The program in some cases enhanced the independence and status of female community staff. This changed perceptions of communities towards acceptable levels of physical mobility and community involvement for women. Conversely, gender impacted program delivery by reducing the ability of female supervisory staff to engage with male community leaders. The double burden of wage and household labour carried by local female staff also limited performance and progression. Gender-based constraints on staff performance, attrition and community engagement affected efficiency of program delivery and sustainability. Conclusions: The Anchal program both adapted to and shaped community gender norms and roles. The program has well-established relationships in the community and can be leveraged to implement gender transformative activities to improve gender-based equity. Health programs can broaden their impacts and target social determinants of health like gender equity to increase program sustainability and promote equitable health outcomes.
... A first step would be to distinguish between different kinds of ideas -as proposed in Section 1. Donor-financed NGO campaigns usually focus on internalised ideologies: encouraging disadvantaged groups to believe they have 'human rights'; are entitled to government services; should 'say no' to corruption; abandon female genital cutting; and for men to share care work. But such interventions may be ineffective if participants lack confidence in the possibility of changeexpecting an unresponsive government, illiberal suitors, or neighbourhood condemnation (Evans, 2015b;forthcoming). Such campaigns may even be counter-productive. ...
Working Paper
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A contemporary challenge is inequality. This paper illustrates why ideas matter, and how they can change over time. Inequalities are reinforced when they are taken for granted. But this can be disrupted when marginalised people gain self-esteem; challenge hitherto unquestioned inequalities; and gain confidence in the possibility of social change. Slowly and incrementally, social mobilisation can catalyse greater government commitment to socially inclusive economic growth. This is illustrated with ethnographic research from Latin America, where income inequality has recently declined. Clearly, however, no single paper can provide a comprehensive account of political change in an incredibly diverse region. By highlighting some ways in which ideas matter (and the limitations of alternative hypotheses about increased fiscal space and democratisation), this paper merely seeks to persuade political economists to go beyond ‘incentives’. Future efforts to tackle inequality might harness the power of ideas: tackling ‘norm perceptions’ (beliefs about what others think and do); publicising positive deviance; and strengthening social movements.
... A first step would be to distinguish between different kinds of ideas -as proposed in Section 1. Donor-financed NGO campaigns usually focus on internalised ideologies: 'raising awareness'; encouraging disadvantaged groups to believe they have 'human rights'; are entitled to government services; should 'say no' to corruption; abandon female genital cutting; and for men to share care work. But such interventions may be ineffective if participants anticipate an unresponsive government, illiberal suitors, or neighbourhood condemnation (Evans, 2015b;forthcoming). Such campaigns may even be counter-productive. ...
Article
Full-text available
A contemporary challenge is inequality. This paper illustrates why ideas matter, and how they can changeover time. Inequalities are reinforced when they are taken for granted. But this can be disrupted when marginalised people gain self-esteem; challenge hitherto unquestioned inequalities; and gain confidence in the possibility of social change. Slowly and incrementally, social mobilisation can catalyse greater government commitment to socially inclusive economic growth. This is illustrated with ethnographic research from Latin America, where income inequality has recently declined. Clearly, however, no single paper can provide a comprehensive account of political change in an incredibly diverse region. By highlighting some ways in which ideas matter (and the limitations of alternative hypotheses about increased fiscal space and democratisation), this paper merely seeks to persuade political economists to go beyond ‘incentives’. Future efforts to tackle inequality might harness the power of ideas: tackling ‘norm perceptions’ (beliefs about what others think and do); publicising positive deviance; and strengthening social movements.
... The impact on people beyond those directly affected by female household headship should also be recognised. Alice Evans (2014) identifies how the encroachment of women into formerly masculinised jobs in the town of Kitwe in the Zambian Copperbelt is exerting a strong and sustainable influence on gendered attitudes and behaviours. In the case of female household headship, appreciation among others of the success of many female heads of household and their members could also contribute to growing awareness and tolerance of femaleheaded households as a more 'normal', viable, and indeed respected form of domestic organisation. ...
... NGO gender project reports often seem to focus on processes (numbers trained in ad hoc workshops), rather than outcomes (see also Desai, 2005). While there is some evidence that gender sensitisation can be effective if participatory -enabling participants to share experiences, revise their norm perceptions and apply skills taught -this seems uncommon (Evans, 2015;UNDP, 2013: 16-17, 44-47). ...
... Readers interested in the effectiveness of gender sensitisation may wish to consultEvans (2015a). ...
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... As Agnes suggests, the effectiveness of gender sensitization seems contingent upon participants' experiences of sex-differentiated practices, through which they interpret abstract messages of gender equality. Participants from across the socio-economic and generational spectrum seemed most supportive of equal competence and status when they were able to make sense of it through first-hand evidence of women demonstrating equal competence in socially valued (masculine) roles (Evans, 2015a). However, such change has been gradual, not catalysing an immediate rejection of gender stereotypes. ...
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'For practitioners and students of development, and library collections on women in development or comparative development. Highly recommended.' - J.A. Fiola, Choice.
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