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A review on nutritional and nutraceuticals properties of sesame. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences

  • Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering,
  • JSS Science and Technology Univesity, Mysore

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Sesame which is known for properties of good health consists of a plethora of nutrients viz., proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants, lignans, tocopherols and other micronutrients. Benefits of this enigmatic crop include properties of anticancer, antioxidative, antiimmunoregulation and antihypersensitivity. Covering wide agro ecological regions of the world, different varieties of sesame seeds are available. They are seen growing in different parts of the world, where India being one of the major producers. The oil from this seed can be extracted by simple processes of solvent extraction and expelling. Alternatively, as the technology has advanced, supercritical extraction can also be employed. Sesame which is considered as an extremely beneficial medicine has inherent power to cure many diseases. Sesame has a ray of health benefits in lowering cholesterol, controlling blood pressure, dermatological disease management and many more areas. This review gives an overall impact about sesame, properties and its role in various sections
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Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000127
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
Open Access
Review Article
Nutrition & Food
Nagendra Prasad et al., J Nutr Food Sci 2012, 2:2
*Corresponding author: MN Nagendra Prasad, Department of Biotechnology,
Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore -570006, India, Tel: +91-
9886480528; Fax: +91-821-2515770; E-mail: npmicro8@yahoo. com
Received January 05, 2012; Accepted February 09, 2012; Published February
14, 2012
Citation: Nagendra Prasad MN, Sanjay KR, Prasad DS, Vijay N, Kothari R,
Nanjunda Swamy S (2012) A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of
Sesame. J Nutr Food Sci 2:127. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000127
Copyright: © 2012 Nagendra Prasad MN, et al. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are credited.
A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Sesame
Nagendra Prasad MN*, Sanjay KR, Deepika S. Prasad#, Neha Vijay#, Ruchika Kothari# and Nanjunda Swamy S
Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore- 570006, India
#Equal contribution to the work
Sesame which is known for properties of good health consists of a plethora of nutrients viz., proteins,
carbohydrates, antioxidants, lignans, tocopherols and other micronutrients. Benets of this enigmatic crop include
properties of anticancer, antioxidative, antiimmunoregulation and antihypersensitivity. Covering wide agro ecological
regions of the world, different varieties of sesame seeds are available. They are seen growing in different parts of the
world, where India being one of the major producers. The oil from this seed can be extracted by simple processes
of solvent extraction and expelling. Alternatively, as the technology has advanced, supercritical extraction can also
be employed. Sesame which is considered as an extremely benecial medicine has inherent power to cure many
diseases. Sesame has a ray of health benets in lowering cholesterol, controlling blood pressure, dermatological
disease management and many more areas. This review gives an overall impact about sesame, properties and its
role in various sections.
Keywords: Gingelly; Sesame; Tocopherol; Hypocholesterolemic
Dating back to as early as 1600 BC, sesame seeds are the oldest
condiment known to man. Sesame, Sesamum indicum L. belonging
to the family Pedaliaceae, is widely cultivated in the tropical parts of
Africa and Asia and about 36 species are said to be existent [1]. eir
wild species are located mainly in Africa and only a few in India [2].
e original home of this crop is known to be Ethiopia [3]. e major
sesame producers are India, Myanmar, China and Sudan with 68% of
the total world production [4]. In the world, India ranks rst in the
production and area of sesame seeds and is grown in dierent seasons
covering practically all agro-ecological zones [3,4].
Oil extracted from sesame is honoured as a rich food because of
its high nutritive quality and stability [5]. It has many uses and it is
markedly dierent from other vegetable oils due to its high nutritional
and therapeutic values. Potential health benets of sesame include anti
oxidative, anticancer, anti hypersensitive and anti immunoregulatory
actions [6]. e seeds are used for the production of oil, paste, salads
and in various food formulations. From the chemical composition
of sesame, it is known that the seeds contain 50-60% oil, 18-25%
protein, 13.5% carbohydrate and 5% ash [7]. e noteworthy stability
to oxidation can be attributed to its endogenous anti-oxidant lignans
along with tocopherols [6]. Sesamin (0.4-1.1%), sesamolin (0.3-0.6%)
and traces of sesamol contribute to the unique properties of sesame oil
[8]. In the eastern parts of the world, sesame has long been considered
as a ‘health food’ that provides high energy and prevents ageing [9].
e oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (85%) and has a mild taste 9.
It is said to be plant breeder’s dream crop because of its great genetic
diversity [4] (Table 1).
Sesame is a rich source of calcium (approx 1%) and phosphorous
(approx 0.7%) [5]. Sesame contains ample amounts of oleic (43%),
linoleic (35%), palmitic (11%) and stearic acid (7%) which together
comprise 96% of the total fatty acids [1].
Varieties and Genetic Diversity
Sesame seeds are tiny, at, oval with a nutty taste and delicate with
almost invisible crunch. ey vary in size from small to large and come
in a host of dierent colours, depending upon the variety, including
white, yellow, black, grey, brown and red. e seeds from northeast
region of India are black; those from eastern region are brown to black
and from south are predominantly red or reddish brown. Seeds from
other regions are white [3]. White and black seeded strains, on an
average contain 55% and 47.8% oil respectively [10]. White and black
sesame seed coat fractions have considerable anti-oxidant property but
the same is better in black sesame coats [3,7]. e oil extracted from
coated seeds possesses high oxidative stability than that of dehulled
USA Light brown and brown
Palestine Brown and white
Portugal Greyish white
Turkey Light brown and brown
Japan Brown
Bulgaria White and brown
Korea White and brown
Brazil Dark grey and white
India White and dark grey
Venezuela Greyish white and light brown
Ethiopia Light brown
Tanzania Greyish white
China Black
Egypt White and light brown
Table 1: Diversity of sesame seeds [38].
Citation: Nagendra Prasad MN, Sanjay KR, Prasad DS, Vijay N, Kothari R, Nanjunda Swamy S (2012) A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical
Properties of Sesame. J Nutr Food Sci 2:127. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000127
Page 2 of 6
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000127
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
seeds [7]. Dehulling is necessary as the hull contains 2-3% oxalic acid,
which chelates calcium and has a bitter avor [11] (Table 2).
e production of sesame seeds is 170,000 tons per year in
America; Mexico, Guatemala and Venezuela which impart 60% to the
continent’s production [12]. Samples of seeds from dierent states of
India were analysed by K. Venkataramana Bhat et al. [13] sing random
amplied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Results showed the
high level of genetic diversity, which indicated the nativity of the crop.
Rajasthan and the north eastern states showed maximum diversity
[13]. roughout the world the area under the cultivation of sesame is
6 million hectares, where 65% of crop is used for extraction of oil and
35% is used as food [14].
Morphologically diverse seven genotypes of sesame are found,
which represent dierent growing regions of India. ese include CST
2002 and MT 34 from Uttar Pradesh, TKG 22 from Madhya Pradesh,
AAUDT 9304-14-4 from Assam, B 67 and Rama from West Bengal
[4]. In India, two sections of sesamum are found – S. laciniatum and S.
prostratum. Another section includes S. malabaricum which is locally
called as ‘wild gingelly of Malabar’ [15].
Extraction of Oil
e industrialization of sesame oil is very important for food,
cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. Final product quality and
environmental aspects are the desired considerations for an adequate
extraction process. Several processes for sesame oil production include
mechanical milling followed by solvent extraction using organic liquids
and solvent recuperation by distillation. Super critical extraction is an
alternative process which uses pressurized uids, minimising the use of
liquid organic solvents [16].
Sesame seed gives about 45-50% by weight of highly stable oil
aer extraction. Lignan content contributes to 32.23% in the extract
by solvent extraction. Whereas in case of supercritical extraction, the
lignan content is found to be 1.5-3.5%. e main lignans account for
about 10% of unsaponiable matter in sesame oil [6]. By products
obtained from sesame are rich sources of dietary bres [7].
Expelling is the simplest method of oil extraction by crushing,
without the intervention of any chemicals. e desired quality of seeds
for crushing is got by naturally drying, cleaning and grading the seeds.
Cleaning and grading removes physical impurities. Clean seeds are
later crushed in expellers and rotary machines by adding palm jaggery.
Raw Sesame Oil obtained is stored in tanks. e sesame cake is packed
and sold in the market as Animal Feed. Using lter press, raw sesame
oil is ltered for ne particles. e Oil-Cake sludge from the lter press
is added along with the sesame cake and crushed (Figure 1).
Solvent extraction
Distribution of the solute between two immiscible liquid phases
which are in contact with each other, due to the density dierence is
the principle behind solvent extraction [17]. In the process, unroasted
seeds are rst extracted by simple mechanical pressing followed by
solvent extraction. Solvent extraction of sesame seeds with polar
solvents and eective seed crushing generates more stable oil than non-
polar solvents and pressed seeds. Compared to n-Hexane, Heptane-
isopropanol proves to yield more stable oil. Oxidative stability of the
oil is inuenced by the extraction method. Solvent extraction can yield
approximately 52-55 % oil from the seeds [18].
e disadvantages related with solvent extraction are complex
extraction process, high cost and not suited for small scale processing.
Management of organic solvents is one of the major problems [19-23].
Supercritical extraction
e principle behind supercritical extraction is that, near the
critical point of the solvent, its properties change rapidly with slight
Location Variety Sesamin Sesamolin Total lignans
Gujarat White 6.6 4.5 11.1
Gujarat Brown 7.6 8.2 15.8
Assam Black 4.9 5.8 10.7
West Bengal White 6.5 5.3 11.8
Bengal Dehusked 8.1 4.8 12.9
Andhra Pradesh Black 6.4 6.2 12.8
Gujarat Black 3.1 3.2 6.2
Andhra Pradesh White 5.7 3.6 9.3
Orissa White 3.6 2.3 5.9
Assam White 18.6 10.0 28.6
Table 2: Varieties of seeds and their lignan prole [28].
Figure 1: Expelling: process ow chart.
Citation: Nagendra Prasad MN, Sanjay KR, Prasad DS, Vijay N, Kothari R, Nanjunda Swamy S (2012) A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical
Properties of Sesame. J Nutr Food Sci 2:127. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000127
Page 3 of 6
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000127
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
variations in the pressure involved [24]. Supercritical extraction of
sesame is usually carried out using carbon dioxide and propane as
solvents. Extraction of oil using carbon dioxide includes 313 to 333 K
temperature range, pressure variation of 19 to 25 MPa and constant
ow rate of 3cm3/min and that using propane includes 303 to 333K
range of temperature, pressures from 8 to 12 MPa and a constant ow
rate of 0.8cm3/min [6]. As the pressure and the supercritical CO2 ow
rate is increased, the extraction yield can be improved and the time of
the extraction process can also be reduced [25]. e sesame seeds used
in the process are required to be dried and milled with specied particle
diameter [6].
is process is more environmental friendly and the analytes can
be extracted faster [24]. e disadvantage in this process includes the
toxicity of the solvent and diculty in the understanding the phase
behaviour between the solvent and oil [6] (Figure 2).
Healthy Essence of Sesame
A general note
Sesame oil, queen of oils is an ingredient of varieties of food.
It is used as a substitute for olive oil, as a salad oil and for cooking
sh and vegetables in many parts of the world. Aqua hulled, double
washed and dried sesame seeds are used on hamburger buns. Roasted
natural sesame seeds are used in the preparation of bread, breadsticks,
cookies, chocolates and ice creams. Mechanically hulled sesame seeds
are the basis for candies and creamy, sweet wholesome tahini. e
antioxidant property of rened sesame oil contributing for its greater
shelf life makes it suitable for food industry. Sesame seed sprouts,
sesame broccoli rice, ginger sesame chicken, sesame granula, hummus,
sesame spread, tangerine and sesame, sesame seed sauce and sesame
pasteries are a few recipes of sesame [26]. e de-oiled meal obtained
from extraction of sesame oil is mainly utilized as cattle and poultry
feed [6,26].
Medical Uses
Regulating cholesterol
In recent times it has been important to identify the dietary com-
ponents that lower or regulate cholesterol levels. Any natural substance
interfering in the cholesterol metabolism preventing hypocholester-
olemic atherosclerosis has gained therapeutic importance. e major
lignan sesamin, present in sesame seeds is mainly related to lipid me-
tabolism through a series of biochemical actions in both humans and
animals [27].
Dietary sesamin and episesamin has shown signicant increase
in the gene expression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid
oxidation enzymes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase, acyl-CoA
dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA oxidase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase,
enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase thus increasing the
hepatic activity of fatty acid oxidation which is due to enhanced ketone
body production. is hepatic fatty acid metabolism accounts for
lowering the serum lipid level [28,29]. Sesamin also increases the activity
and gene expression of malic enzyme which has lipogenic activity [28].
Alpha-tocopherol greatly accentuates the hypo cholesterolemic action
of sesamin, although which alone does not aect the concentration of
serum cholesterol [30].
Neurological role
A characteristic feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) i.e. a
neurodegenerative disease is seen to be cognitive decline, memory
impairment and behavioural abnormalities as a result of neural loss.
is can be explained by subtle alterations of synaptic ecacy prior to
the neuronal death. Neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor
(NGF) play a vital role in neuronal dierentiation, development and
synaptic plasticity [31].
When sesamin and episesamin (sterioisomer of sesamin) are ingest-
ed, sesamin is metabolised by cytochrome P40 to SC1 (2-(3,4-methy-
lenedioxyphenyl)-6-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo Octane)
which is then metabolized to SC2. Similarly episesamin is metabolized
to EC1 and then EC2. ese compounds are further metabolized to
SC-1m, SC-2m EC-1m and EC-2m by catechol-O-methyl transferase
(COMT). e primary metabolites of this cycle exhibit the most potent
neural dierentiation activity [31].
Benets in regulation of blood pressure
It is impressive to state that sesame oil which is rich in poly
unsaturated fatty acids-PUFA, sesamin and vitamin E greatly reduces
hypertension when compared to the blood pressure lowering drugs
[32]. Sesamin feeding signicantly decreases the wall thickness and area
of aorta and superior mesenteric artery. It also decreases histological
renal damage such as the thickening of tunica intima and brinoid
degeneration of the arterial wall, a feature not observed in normal
diet [33]. Sesamin is valuable for prophylactic treatment to ght the
development of cardiac hypertrophy and renal hyper tension [34].
Antioxidant properties
e important antioxidants sesaminol, sesamolinol, sesamolin
and sesamin maintain the fats including Low Density Lipoproteins
(LDL) which cause arteriosclerosis and are believed to promote
the integrity of body tissues. ese antioxidant lignans have shown
hypocholesterolemic and immunomodulatory eect [35]. Vitamin E,
a fat soluble antioxidant, protects the body from harmful oxidizing
compounds. Sesame seed oil contains gamma tocopherols along with
sesaminol and sesamin which possesss Vitamin E like activity.
Dermatological use
UV light produces various reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the skin
causing skin damage such as sunburns, wrinkles and skin cancer [36].
Figure 2: Supercritical extraction: process ow chart [41].
Feed Expansion Value
Makeup Gas
Citation: Nagendra Prasad MN, Sanjay KR, Prasad DS, Vijay N, Kothari R, Nanjunda Swamy S (2012) A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical
Properties of Sesame. J Nutr Food Sci 2:127. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000127
Page 4 of 6
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000127
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
e antioxidants present in sesame act as a defence against these ROS.
Chen et al. [37] reported that the mutation caused by UV irradiation on
p53 gene can be prevented by topical application of alpha-tocopherol.
Dietary intake of α-tocopherol reduces photocarcinogenesis induced
by UVB light [36]. Application of sesame oil with turmeric powder in
milk on the facial skin, makes it smooth, so removing pimples [37].
Sesame in Ayurveda
Sesame oil is known since vedic times and is the most esteemed
oil in ayurveda. Sesame oil is known for its healing properties and
has a reputation as a sedative in Tibetan medicine and also used for
millennia in Chinese system of medicine [37-39]. In ayurveda, sesame
is known to cure Tridoshas [37]. During Abhyanga, a form of massage,
the oil is rubbed externally on the skin to improve energy ow and help
free the body from impurities. In ayurveda, sesame oil is regarded as
an anti bacterial mouthwash and it can also be applied to nostrils to
relieve anxiety and insomnia. e pain associated with premenstrual
syndrome (PMS) can be overcome by applying the oil on to the
abdomen region [38,39]. According to traditional system of medicines,
sesame is known to cure bleeding dysentery, burns, ear pain, headache
and impotency [37].
Other Uses
Gram negative bacteria causing nosocomial infection is a serious
concern in the developing countries. Owing to this problem sesame
kernel meals have shown the presence of novel anti microbial peptides.
rough HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis, a major peptide of
approximately 5.8 kDa (in both white and black cultivars) has been
identied to be an antimicrobial peptide having bactericidal activities
against Klebsiella species, responsible for human urinary infection [40].
us, it proves to be a potential method for hospital infection control
and also to decrease the bacterial resistance to synthetic antibiotics [14].
Sesamin, a non fat portion of sesame seed oil, curbs delta-5-
desaturase activity and cause compilation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic
acid (DGLA), which deracinates arachidonic acid, and subsequently
decreases the formation of pro inammatory mediators [14,41]. Diets
containing sesame seed oil and quilA (a spawning that emulsies fat)
exert cumulative eect that decreases the levels of dienoic eicosanoids
along with IL-1 beta, elevating the levels of IL-10 with marked increased
capacity of endurance.
Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Applications
Many plant based nutraceuticals are developed from sesame, the
intake of which is related with dietary and non dietary phytochemicals
and health [6]. e antioxidant and health promoting property of
sesame lignans (sesamin and sesamolin) increases both hepatic
mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate. Consumption
of sesame seed increases plasma gamma-tocopherol and enhances
vitamin-E activity which can prevent cancer and heart disease. Sesame
seed contains cephalin which has hemostat activity. Fibres from sesame
are used as an antidiabetic, antitumor, antiulcer, cancer preventive and
cardioprotective [26].
For pharmaceutical applications, sesame oil is used as a solvent for
intramuscular injections and has nutritive, demulcent, and emollient
properties and as a laxative. It was used to cure toothaches and gum
diseases in 4th century. It is also used for the treatment of blurred vision,
Water (g/100g) 1.60 0 6.61 5
Food Energy (Calories)
(kcal/100g) 586 884 382 567
Protein (g/100g) 18.08 0 40.32 16.96
Total Lipid (fat)(g/100g) 50.87 100 11.89 48
Ash (g/100g) 5.40 0 6.05 4
Carbohydrate (g/100g) 24.05 0 35.14 26.04
Total Dietary Fibre (g/100g) 5.5 0 N/A N/A
Total Sugars (g/100g) N/A 0 N/A N/A
Calcium (mg/100g) 960 0 150 153
Iron (mg/100g) 19.2 0 14.3 14.55
Magnesium (mg/100g) 362 0 362 346
Phosphorus (mg/100g) 659 0 810 774
Potassium (mg/100g) 582 0 425 406
Sodium (mg/100g) 12 0 41 39
Zinc (mg/100g) 7.29 0 10.7 10.23
Copper(mg/100g) 4.214 0 1.432 1.457
Manganese(mg/100g) 2.54 N/A 1.403 1.427
Selenium(µ/100g) 35.5 0 N/A N/A
Vitamin C (mg/100g) 0 0 0 0
Thiamin (mg/100g) 0.240 0 2.53 2.573
Riboavin (mg/100g) 0.200 0 0.27 0.275
Niacin (mg/100g) 6.700 0 12.6 12.816
Pantothenic Acid (mg/100g) 0.052 0 2.76 2.807
Vitamin B6 (mg/100g) 0.816 0 0.152 0.146
Folate (µg/100g) 100 0 29 30
Folic Acid (µg/100g) 0 0 0 0
Food Folate (µg/100g) 100 0 29 30
Folate (Dietary Folate
Equivalents/100g) 100 0 29 30
Vitamin B12 (µg/100g) 0 0 0 0
Vitamin A (µg/100g) 3 0 69 66
Vitamin A (IU/100g) 50 0 3 3
Retinol (µg/100g) 0 0 0 0
Vitamin E (µg/100g) N/A 1.4 N/A N/A
Vitamin K (µg/100g) N/A 13.6 N/A N/A
Alpha-carotene (µg/100g) N/A 0 N/A N/A
Beta-carotene (µg/100g) N/A 0 N/A N/A
Beta_crytoxanthin (µg/100g) N/A 0 N/A N/A
Lycopene (µg/100g) N/A 0 N/ N/A
Lutein & Zeazanthin (µg/100g) N/A 0 N/A N/A
Saturated Fatty Acid (g/100g) 1.252 14.2 1.634 6.722
Monosaturated Fatty Acids
(g/100g) 3.377 39.7 4.405 18.127
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
(g/100g) 3.919 41.7 5.113 21.039
Table 3: Nutritional aspects of sesame [39].
Citation: Nagendra Prasad MN, Sanjay KR, Prasad DS, Vijay N, Kothari R, Nanjunda Swamy S (2012) A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical
Properties of Sesame. J Nutr Food Sci 2:127. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000127
Page 5 of 6
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000127
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
dizziness and headaches. e oil is more ecient than isotonic chloride
solution in curing nasal mucosa dryness due to winter. e high
polyunsaturated fat content in oil reduces cholesterol. Sesame oil has
been used by Indians as an antibacterial mouthwash, to relieve anxiety
and insomnia. Malignant melanoma growth was selectively inhibited
due to the presence of large amount of linoleate in triglyceride form in
sesame oil [26].
Biodiesel, a fatty acid based ester obtained by transesterication of
triglycerides and low boiling short chain alcohols is a substitute for fossil
fuels. Diesel engines, boilers or other combustion equipments need
not be modied for the use of biodiesel. It is a renewable source and
does not contribute to global warming as CO2 emission can be reduced
by 78% [1]. Other advantages include excellent biodegradability, low
toxicity, outstanding lubricity and superior combustion eciency.
Present studies indicate that sesame can be used for the production
of biodiesel by the use of methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst.
Biodiesel produced by this method are under the limits of required
standards. Few undesirable properties of triglycerides which result in
severe engine deposits, injector coking and piston ring sticking have
necessitated chemical alterations thus preventing the use of sesame oil
India is the largest producer of sesame, which has high nutritive
and therapeutic qualities. Sesame is a rich source of macro and micro
nutrients including proteins, dietary lignans, vitamins, calcium,
phosphorous and others but not many value added products other
than sesame oil has been developed (Table 3). When analysed, it
is found that the by-products obtained extraction of oil contains
comparatively high nutritive value and in future, can be consumed as a
supplement for protein rich food. With the advancement in technology
sesame oil when blended with rice bran or Soya or other oil can be
of a great advantage with respect to nutritional aspects. Nutraceuticals
and pharmaceutical products of sesame can decrease the risk of
neurological, dermatological, cancer and heart disease. e future of
sesame lies in its by-products and biodiesel application.
The authors are grateful to the Principal, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of
Engineering, Mysore and the Head of the Department, Department of Biotechnology
for providing facilities for the research work. They also thank Ms. Thiagarajan Agro
Products, (P) Ltd. (Sastha oil), Madurai for their support.
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Citation: Nagendra Prasad MN, Sanjay KR, Prasad DS, Vijay N, Kothari R, Nanjunda Swamy S (2012) A Review on Nutritional and Nutraceutical
Properties of Sesame. J Nutr Food Sci 2:127. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000127
Page 6 of 6
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000127
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
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... 9 Sesame seed merupakan salah satu bahan makanan yang sudah dikenal sejak lama dan secara luas dibudidayakan di daerah tropis termasuk Asia dan Afrika. 10 Sesame seed (Sesamun indicum L.) mempunyai kandungan gizi cukup baik dikarenakan jumlah yang cukup signifikan dari serat pangan, protein, asam lemak tak jenuh, vitamin, mineral, dan antioksidan. Fraksi lipid pada sesame seed juga menunjukkan stabilitas oksidatif yang baik, yang dikaitkan dengan asam lemak essensial seperti oleat, linoleat, dan arakidonat. ...
... Sesame seed sendiri mempunyai berbagai macam kandungan mineral meliputi Fe (19,2mg/100g), kalsium (960mg/100g), phospor (659 mg/100g), zinc (7,29mg/100g), copper (4,214 mg/100g), selenium (35,5 µg/100g), magnesium (362 mg/100g), dan mangan (2,54mg/100g). 10 Sedangkan tepung labu kuning sendiri mempunyai kandungan mineral berupa Fe (10,6 mg/100g), magnesium (159 mg/100g), phospor (584mg/100g), copper (1,3mg/100g), dan selenium (4mcg/100g). ...
Latar Belakang : Penyakit tidak menural termasuk dislipidemia menjadi masalah yang terus mengalami peningkatan. Hiperlipidemia termasuk dislipidemia mengakibatkan peningkatan produksi reaksi oksigen reaktif (ROS) dan mampu mempengaruhi enzim antioksidan pada reaksi anti-oksidatif serta berperan penting pada respon inflamasi. Snak bar sesame seed dan labu kuning mempunyai kandungan makro dan mikro nutrien yang patut dipertimbangkan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis proksimat, aktivitas antioksidan, total fenol, dan tingkat penerimaan snack bar sesame seed dan tepung labu kuning.Metode : Penelitian ini merupakan jenis eksperimental rancangan acak lengkap satu faktorial dengan 3 variasi persentase sesame seed (95%, 90%, dan 85%) dan tepung labu kuning (5%, 10%,dan 15%). Analisis statistik kandungan energi, karbohidrat, lemak, protein, serat, dan air menggunakan one way anova 95% dengan uji lanjut tukey dan kandungan total fenol, abu, dan aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan uji kruskal wallis dengan uji lanjut mann whitney, sedangkan tingkat penerimaan menggunakan kruskal wallisHasil : Kandungan energi dan makronutrien (karbohidrat, protein, lemak) tidak terdapat perbedaan terhadap formulasi snack bar sesame seed dan tepung labu kuning (p>0,05). Terdapat perbedaan kandungan serat, air, abu, aktivitas antioksidan, dan total fenol terhadap formulasi snack bar (p<0,05). Tingkat penerimaan dengan parameter warna, aroma, tekstur, dan rasa tidak terdapat perbedaan (p>0,05).Simpulan: Formulasi snack bar terpilih adalah dengan persentasi 85% sesame seed dan 15% tepung labu kuning.
... Sesame seeds are well known for their high oil content (~ 58%) and protein content (~ 25%) [1]. Sesame oil is regarded as superior quality oil due to a high content of unsaturatedfatty acid (~ 85%) and the presence of antioxidants (such as sesamin, sesamolin and tocopherols) [2]. Sesame is traditionally grown in drought-prone and marginal areas with sub-optimal water and nutrients supply. ...
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Background Sesame is an important oil crop due to its high oil, antioxidant, and protein content. Drought stress is a major abiotic stress that affects sesame production as well as the quality of sesame seed. To reveal the adaptive mechanism of sesame in response to water deficient conditions, transcriptomic and metabolomics were applied in drought-tolerant (DT) and drought-susceptible (DS) sesame genotypes. Results Transcriptomic analysis reveals a set of core drought-responsive genes (684 up-regulated and 1346 down-regulated) in sesame that was robustly differently expressed in both genotypes. Most enriched drought-responsive genes are mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, plant hormone signal transduction photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Drought-susceptible genotype was more disturbed by drought stress at both transcriptional and metabolic levels, since more drought-responsive genes/metabolites were identified in DS. Drought-responsive genes associated with stress response, amino acid metabolism, and reactive oxygen species scavenging were more enriched or activated in DT. According to the partial least-squares discriminate analysis, the most important metabolites which were accumulated under drought stress in both genotypes includes ABA, amino acids, and organic acids. Especially, higher levels of ABA, proline, arginine, lysine, aromatic and branched chain amino acids, GABA, saccharopine, 2-aminoadipate, and allantoin were found in DT under stress condition. Combination of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis highlights the important role of amino acid metabolism (especially saccharopine pathway) and ABA metabolism and signaling pathway for drought tolerance in sesame. Conclusion The results of the present study provide valuable information for better understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drought tolerance of sesame, and also provide useful clues for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in sesame.
... Because of its large amounts of nutrients (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants, lignans, tocopherols, and other micronutrients), sesame has anticancer, antioxidative, anti-immunoregulation, and antihypersensitivity properties. As an extremely beneficial medicine, sesame also has the inherent power to cure many diseases, lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, and aid in dermatological disease management (Nagendra Prasad et al., 2012). Despite its long history and nutritional value, sesame is ranked low in the world production of edible oil crops. ...
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important ancient oilseed crop with high oil content (OC) and quality. The direct selection to improve OC of sesame (OCS) due to low heritability leads to a low profit. The OCS modeling and indirect selection through high-heritable characters associated with OCS using advanced modeling techniques is a beneficial approach to overcome this limitation that allows breeder to get a better idea of the plant properties that should be monitored during breeding experiments. This study, carried out in 2013 and 2014, compared the potential of artificial neural network (ANN) and multilinear regression (MLR) to predict OCS in the Imamzadeh Jafar plain of Gachsaran, Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise regression (SWR) were used to evaluate 18 input variables. Based on PCA and SWR, the 6 traits of number of capsules per plant (NCP), number of days from flowering to maturity (NDFM), plant height (PH), thousand seed weight, capsule length, and seed yield were chosen as input variables. The network with the sigmoid axon transfer function and 2 hidden layers was selected as the final ANN model. Results showed that the ANN predicted the OCS with more accuracy and efficacy (R2 = 0.861, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.563, and mean absolute error [MAE] = 0.432) compared with the MLR model (R2 = 0.672, RMSE = 0.742, and MAE = 0.552). These results showed the potential of the ANN as a promising tool to predict OCS with good performance. Based on sensitivity tests, NCP followed by NDFM and PH, respectively, were the most influential factors in predicting OCS in both models. It seems that a breeding program to select or create long sesame genotypes with a long period from flowering to maturity can be a good approach to address OCS in the future.
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This study was conducted to investigate the physiological effect of sesame seed oil (Sesamum indicum) in the case of oral treatment on post-menopause and the occurrence of surgical menopause as a result of the removal of the ovaries, by studying the changes in some hormones in the blood serum of adult female albino rats (Albino Rats). as 15 adult rats about three months old, with weights ranging from 160-180 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into three groups with five animals for each group. The first group represented the negative control, which was normal without removal of the ovaries, and the second represented the positive control that was removed The ovaries were completely removed, and the third group completely removed the ovaries and treated them orally with sesame oil at a concentration of 4 ml/ kg of body weight per day for 30 days. The results of laboratory tests for serum samples of the completely removed ovaries group compared to the negative control group showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of estrogen and progesterone, while an insignificant increase )P (0.05<in prolactin levels was observed, and significant (P<0.05) for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteal stimulating hormone (LH).
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Sesame which is known for properties of good health consists of a plethora of nutrients viz., proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants, lignans, tocopherols and other micronutrients. Benefits of this enigmatic crop include properties of anticancer, antioxidative, antiimmunoregulation and antihypersensitivity. Covering wide agro ecological regions of the world, different varieties of sesame seeds are available. They are seen growing in different parts of the world, where India being one of the major producers. The oil from this seed can be extracted by simple processes of solvent extraction and expelling. Alternatively, as the technology has advanced, supercritical extraction can also be employed. Sesame which is considered as an extremely beneficial medicine has inherent power to cure many diseases. Sesame has a ray of health benefits in lowering cholesterol, controlling blood pressure, dermatological disease management and many more areas. This review gives an overall impact about sesame, properties and its role in various sections.
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The study analyzed the cost and return among sesame farmers in Nasarawa State of Nigeria. This is with the view to describe the socio-economic characteristic of the farmers and determine the cost and return in sesame production. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from 194 sesame farmers. Descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis were used for the analysis. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age was found that the majority (94.8%) are still within their active age, majority (82.0%) of the respondents are male and 73.2% are married and 56.7 percent of them attended one form of education or the other. The mean gross margin pre hectare is N132,910, the mean total revenue is N254,000 and the mean total variable cost is N121,410 while labour cost is the highest cost incurred by the respondents. The mean output obtained by the respondents is 2155.73 kilogram. It was recommended that extension workers and other relevant organizations should provide training for sesame farmers on the best way of combining the various inputs used in sesame production, this is to enhance their efficiency level and Government should look into the inherent potential in sesame business as that will increase foreign earning and local industries for processing sesame into industrial usage.
This work is aimed to investigate the extraction of sesame seed (Sesamun indicum L.) oil using supercritical carbon dioxide and compressed propane as solvents. The extractions were performed in a laboratory scale unit in a temperature and pressure range of 313–333 K and 19–25 MPa for carbon dioxide and 303–333 K and 8–12 MPa for propane extractions, respectively. A 22 factorial experimental design with three replicates of the central point was adopted to organize the data collection for both solvents. The results indicated that solvent and density were important variables for the CO2 extraction, while temperature is the most important variable for the extraction yield with propane. The extraction with propane was much faster than that with carbon dioxide due to the fact that propane is a better solvent for vegetable oils compared to carbon dioxide. On the other hand, characteristics of extracted oil, its oxidative stability determined by DSC and chemical profile of constituent fatty acids determined by gas chromatography, were similar to both solvents. The mathematical modeling of the extraction kinetics using a second order kinetic presented good results for the extraction with both solvents.
Nutraceutical aspects of sesame oil (SO) are well reported. However, an efficient process for commercial production has not yet been reported. In this study we have aimed at separating lignans from SO aiming at use as nutraceuticals. SO was subjected to sequential extraction with methanol under selected conditions of temperature (70°C), time (100min) and solvent:oil ratio (1:1). Under the optimised conditions, the yields of pooled methanolic extract concentrate and residual oil were 10.09±1.0g and 89.2±1.0g, respectively. On HPLC analysis, the methanol concentrate showed a total lignan content of 9.32±0.19% (6.54±0.12% sesamin and 2.78±0.31% sesamolin). The concentrate was subjected to low temperature crystallization (4°C) for the separation of lignan crystals and 51% of the lignans in the oil with 94.4% purity. The crystal-removed methanolic concentrate was saponified and purified; the total lignan content (sesamin and sesamolin) in the unsaponifiable matter (USM) was 64%.The distribution of sesamin and sesamolin in the purified USM was in the proportion 46:54, unlike that in the pure crystals (84:16). Lipid classes (triglycerides, TG; free fatty acids, FFA; diglycerides, DG; monoglycerides, MG; polar lipid, PL) in SO, methanolic extract concentrate and residual oil were separated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The amounts of lipid classes were determined by relating the total area of the fatty acid peaks to the area of the peak for internal standard (methyl heptadecanoate), using gas chromatography (GC). The process reported here describes a simple and less cumbersome procedure to produce lignans with high yield and purity for nutraceutical applications.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the ancient oil crops, grown in India since over 5,000 years ago. Diversity in the Indian sesame collection (3,129 accessions), representing all eco-geographical regions, for a range of morphological and agronomic characters was studied. Wide variation in plant habit (plant height and branching pattern), pubescence of various plant parts (stem, leaf, corolla and capsule), flower colour and number of flowers per leaf axil, capsule characteristics (shape, size, number in the axil of a leaf and number of locules in a capsule), number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, mean seed weight, and yield per plant was recorded. A detailed multivariate analysis was performed on a set of 100 selected accessions representing different agro-ecological zones. The accessions were classified into 7 discrete clusters. The principal components analysis described the spatial relationship among the entities and confirmed groupings obtained through clustering. Based on the clustering pattern of 100 accessions, the entire collection was allocated to different clusters. Representation of various zones in 7 clusters gives us the opportunity to form distinct diversity groups making combined use of passport and characterisation data. These diversity groups would subsequently be used for sampling the accessions for building up a core collection of sesame, a project already operative at the NBPGR.
The effect of processing of coated and dehulled sesame seeds on the content of endogenous antioxidants, namely sesamin, sesamolin, and γ-tocopherol in hexane-extracted oils, was studied over 35 d of storage under Schaal oven test conditions at 65°C. Seeds examined were Egyptian coated (EC) and dehulled (ED) and Sudanese coated (SC) varieties. Processing conditions of raw (RW) seeds included roasting at 200°C for 20 min (R), steaming at 100°C for 20 min (S), roasting at 200°C for 15 min plus steaming for 7 min (RS) and microwaving at 2450 MHz for 15 min (M). The sesamin content in fresh oils from EC, ED, and SC raw seeds was 649, 610, and 580 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Corresponding values for the content of sesamolin in oils tested were 183, 168 and 349 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the content of γ-tocopherol, the only tocopherol present in the oils, ranged from 330 to 387 mg/kg sample. The effect of processing on changes in the sesamin content in oils from coated seeds was low and generally did not exceed 20% of the original values. On the other hand, oils from dehulled seeds underwent a more pronounced decrease in their sesamin content than the oil from coated seeds after 35 d of storage at 65°C. The corresponding changes in sesamolin and γ-tocopherol contents were more drastic. The RS treatment, which would be the optimal to prepare sesame oil with better quality, was found to retain 86, 80 and 60% of the sesamin, sesamolin and γ-tocopherol, respectively, originally present in the seeds after the storage period. The loss in the content of endogenous antioxidants present in the oils paralleled an increase in their hexanal content.
Extracted lipids from sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds of three varieties were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for endogenous antioxidants. The molecular species and fatty acid (FA) distribution of triacylglycerol (TAG) isolated from total lipids in sesame seeds were analyzed by a combination of argentation thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC), and were investigated in relation to their antioxidant distribution. γ-Tocopherol was present in highest concentration, and δ-, and α-tocopherols were very small amounts. Sesamin and sesamolin were the main lignan components. A modified argentation-TLC procedure, developed to optimize the separation of the complex mixture of total TAG, provided 12 different groups of TAG, based on both the degree of unsaturation and the total acyl-chain length of FA groups. With a few exceptions, the major TAG components were SM2 (6.5–6.7%), SMD (19.8–20.7%), M2D (15.0–26.3%), MD2 (23.6–35.0%), and D3 (7.7–10.7%) (where S denotes a saturated FA, M denotes a monoene, D denotes a diene, and T denotes a triene). It seems that the three varieties were highly related to each other based on the FA composition of the TAG as well as the distribution pattern in the different TAG molecular species. These results suggest that there are no essential differences in the oil components among the three varieties.
The range of protein in the oil-free meal and oil in 20 exotic varieties of sesame ranged from 45.0 to 53.7% and 42.2 to 52.1%, respectively; while in 26 local varieties, the ranges were 45.0 to 60.0% and 41.3 to 49.6%. The fatty acid composition showed only small variability. The local types have higher linoleic acid and lower oleic acid amounts than those of the introduced varieties. The amino acid levels of oil-free sesame meal prepared from both introduced and local varieties were examined. Nearly twofold variations in the limiting amino acids (lysine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, and valine) were found. Utilization of these variations in amino acid composition should assist the development of sesame protein of improved quality.
The oxidative stability of sesame oil, as measured by the Rancimat test, was shown to be dependent on extraction methods and seed pre-treatment. Oils extracted from whole seeds were more stable than those extracted from dehulled seeds by the same method. Extraction of the same seeds with polar solvents and effective seed crushing yielded more-stable oils (16.7–21.3 Rancimat hours) compared with extraction with nonpolar solvents and coarsely crushed or pressed seeds (4.5–6.4 Rancimat hours). Heptane-isopropanol (3:1, vol/vol) provided slightly more stable oils thann-hexane by the same method. Results are discussed in relation to some of the major anti- and prooxidants present in the oils.
The variation in the contents of sesamin and sesamolin was studied in oils extracted from 65 samples of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) from plants with shattering (n=29), semishattering (n=7), and nondehiscent (n=29) capsules. The oil content ranged from 32.5 to 50.6% and was greater in white than black seeds (P<0.001). The sesamin and sesamolin contents in seeds ranged from 7 to 712 mg/100 g (mean±SD, 163±141 mg/100 g) and from 21 to 297 mg/100 g (101±58 mg/100 g), respectively, with no difference between black and white seeds. Thus, there was a wide variation in the contents of sesamin and sesamolin, which were positively correlated (R 2=0.66, P<0.001). There were negative correlations between the contents of sesamin and the contents of sesaminol (R 2=0.37) and sesamolinol (R 2=0.36) and between the content of sesamolin and those of sesaminol (R 2=0.35) and sesamolinol (R 2=0.46) (P<0.001). Sesame seeds had an average of 0.63% lignans, making them a rich source of dietary lignans.