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Wound healing activity of flaxseed Linum usitatissimum L. in rats

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Wound healing is a complex process which requires special factors and condition. Drugs which accelerate wound healing are expanded, particularly herbal drugs which are mainly safe and effective. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate wound healing activity of flaxseed oil on experimentally induced incision wound. The therapeutic ointments were prepared according to two concentrations, 0.75 and 1.5%, and were applied to wound. 32 male rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats. Two circle-shapes, full thickness wounds with 7 mm 2 in diameters were made in both side of backbone. Tissue samples were obtained at the end of 3, 7, 14 and 21 days from all groups and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, then were reviewed under light microscope. Treated animals showed significant reduction of inflammatory cells in the period of re-epithelization. Flaxseed oil significantly accelerates wound healing process and suggested flaxseed as an effective herbal drug for wound in skin.
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African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 5(21), pp. 2386-2389, 8 December, 2011
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJPP
DOI: 10.5897/AJPP11.258
ISSN 1996-0816 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Wound healing activity of flaxseed Linum
usitatissimum L. in rats
Mohammad Reza Farahpour
1
*, Human Taghikhani
2
, Mostafa Habibi
3
and Mohammad Amin
Zandieh
3
1
Department of Veterinary Surgery, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch,Urmia, Iran.
2
Graduate of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran.
3
Young Researchers Club, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran.
Accepted 16 November, 2011
Wound healing is a complex process which requires special factors and condition. Drugs which
accelerate wound healing are expanded, particularly herbal drugs which are mainly safe and effective.
Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate wound healing activity of flaxseed oil on
experimentally induced incision wound. The therapeutic ointments were prepared according to two
concentrations, 0.75 and 1.5%, and were applied to wound. 32 male rats were divided into 4 groups of 8
rats. Two circle-shapes, full thickness wounds with 7 mm
2
in diameters were made in both side of
backbone. Tissue samples were obtained at the end of 3, 7, 14 and 21 days from all groups and were
stained with hematoxylin and eosin, then were reviewed under light microscope. Treated animals
showed significant reduction of inflammatory cells in the period of re-epithelization. Flaxseed oil
significantly accelerates wound healing process and suggested flaxseed as an effective herbal drug for
wound in skin.
Key words: Wound healing, inflammatory cell, flaxseed oil, epithelization.
INTRODUCTION
Wounds are inevitable events of life which are made due
to physical, chemical or microbiological infections. Nor-
mal wound healing response begins immediately after the
tissue is injured. Following injury, an inflammatory re-
sponse occurs and the cells below the dermis begin to
increase collagen production, later the epithelial tissue is
regenerated (Souba and Wilmore, 1999). Research on
drugs which accelerate wound healing is developing and
it is a crucial subject in biomedical science. Several
plants and herbs have been used experimentally to treat
skin disorders including wound healing in traditional
medicine (Nayak et al., 2009).
Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is one of the oldest cul-
tivated plants in the world and is cultivated for its fiber
and oil. Flaxseed and its derivatives, flaxseed oil and in-
seed oil, are rich source of the essential fatty acid, alpha-
linolenic acid, which is a biological precursor to omega-3
*Corresponding author. E-mail: mrf78s@gmail.com. Tel:
+98(441)4373676. Fax: +98(441)3460980.
fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic.
Several animal studies suggested that omega-3 fatty
acids of this plant may have potential anti-cardiovascular
disease activity, anti-renal disease, anti-inflammation and
some autoimmune disease, such as inflammatory bowel
disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The lignan found in flax-
seed is called secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)
which is a type of carbohydrate classed as a phenolic
compound (polyphenol) and it is a powerful antioxidant
and has been shown to enhance the immune system
functioning and being effective against many different
diseases, such as cancers. The present study has been
conducted to evaluate probable wound healing charac-
terization of flaxseed on experimentally included wounds
in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Oil material and preparation of the extract
The flaxseed seed found in Iran is L. usitatissimum L., in this study,
flaxseed oil was extracted by cold pressure method, then it was
blended with eucerin-vaselin to prepare treatment ointments with
different doses (0.75 and 1.5%).
Experimental animals
32 Male Wister rats (190 to 210 g) of approximately 3 months were
used as experimental animals and were divided into four groups of
eight rats. The animals were housed in standard environmental
conditions of temperature (22 ± 3°C), humidity (60 ± 5% ) and a 12 h
light/dark cycle. During experimental time, rats were given standard
pellet diet (Pastor Institute, Iran) and water ad libitum.
Surgical procedures
After anesthesia induction with xylazine 2% and ketamine 10% (I.M.
60 mg/kg) rats were fixed in ventral posture on surgery table. Then,
the dorsal area from scapula to ilium were scrubbed and prepared
to surgery. Two circle-shapes, full thickness surgical wounds with 7
mm diameters in both side of the backbone, 1 cm away from
backbone and 5 cm away from each other were made with biopsy
punch 7 mm. With this excisional wounding method, epidermis,
dermis, hypodermis and panniculus carnosus layers were removed
completely (Luisa and DiPietro, 2003).
Treatment
After surgical wounds were treated, all rats randomly were colored
with none toxic color and divided into three groups. In group 1,
ointment with 0.75% flaxseed oil and in group 2 with 1.5% flaxseed
oil were administered. Group 3 as placebo was administrated with
eucerin-vaseline and group 4 as control group did not receive any
substance. All rats were treated for 21 days. Daily observation was
performed and any wound fluid or any evidence of infection or other
abnormalities were noted.
Histopathological study
The healing tissues samples obtained during days 3, 7, 14 and 21,
from all four groups of animals were processed for histological
study. The samples fixed in formalin and installed on slides, stained
with hematoxylin and eosin, and were reviewed under light
microscope. Recorded factors were scar, inflammatory cells, kind of
inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, congestion, collagen
density fibroblast, fibrin and fibroblastic aggregation.
Statistical analysis
All values are reported as mean ± S.D, the statistical differences
among groups were assessed using Duncan multiple range test
and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A value of p < 0.05 was
considered significant. Statistical analysis was performed using
SAS 9.1 for Windows.
RESULTS
Groups A (1.5%), B (0.75%), C (control groups) and
placebo groups
In this study results of control groups and placebo groups
were almost same; in fact some insignificant differences
were seen.
Farahpour et al. 2387
3 days post-surgery
In group C, epithelization was very low. Whole tissue was
swollen inflammatory cells, especially, neutrophils were
highly seen but there was no sign of macrophages, neo-
angiogenesis collagen and fibroblast.
In group B, epithelization and inflammatory cell rate
were the same as C group but neo-angiogenesis was
high and wound was highly congested. Presence of new
collagen was acceptable and it was similar to group A.
Fibroblasts were slightly in the place as well.
In group A, epithelization was more than both B and
control groups. Macrophages were seen deep in the
wound and the number of inflammatory cells was de-
creased. Neo-angiogenesis was expanded and conges-
tion was lower than group B. Fibroblast rate increased as
compare to group B.
7 days post-surgery
Presence of neutrophils in superficial layer was
decreased in C group. Macrophages and fibroblasts were
remarkably seen in the beneath layer. Collagenation was
more than before.
In group B, the number of inflammatory cells decreased
and was only seen in beneath layer. Neo-angiogenesis
and collagenation is suitable. Epithelization was started
slightly and fibroblasts were seen.
Wound healing activity was much better in group A as
compared to groups B and C. Neo-angiogenesis in
superficial layer was good and epithelial layer were about
to form, even keratinied layer was being formed. Colla-
gen filaments had started forming cross junctions and
inflammatory cells were just under epithelial layer.
14 days post-surgery
Results on 14th day showed complete epithelization and
thin keratinized layers. Mononuclear inflammatory cells
were all over the wound. Collagen rate was acceptable,
but collagen maturation was not complete. In the super-
ficial area, neo-angiogenesis was not yet finished. Fibro-
blasts were more than fibrocytes.
There was no sign of scar tissue in group B and
inflammatory cell rate was very low. Neo-angiogenesis
which was just in superficial layer was lower than group
C. Collagen formation in superficial layers was better as
compared to beneath layers. Keratinized layers was visi-
ble and hair follicles were about to form, also, upper
layers have a bit granulation tissue. Maturation collagen
rate was much as compared to two mentioned groups.
Granulation was better; neo-angiogenesis was slightly in
upper layers. Collagen maturation was not completed
only in the upper layer.
2388 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
Table 1. Effect of flaxseed L. usitatissimum L. extract on percentage (%) wound healing in experimental rats.
S/N Group 3 days 7 days 14 days 21 days
1 control 29.28
a
± 0.80 43.85
c
± 0.57 69.58
d
± 0.63 97.86
b
± 1.01
2 placebo 29.32
a
± 0.95 44.67
c
± 0.92 76.43
c
± 0.67 100
a
± 0.0
3 0.75% 29.82
a
± 0.29 54.35
b
± 1.09 88.81
b
± 1.91 100
a
± 0.0
4 1.5% 30.38
a
± 0.96 75.54
a
± 1.52 100
a
± 0.0 100
a
± 0.0
Significance - NS ** * **
*All expressed as mean and standard deviation (S.D). Mean in columns with different letters were significantly
different (NS, Not Significant; *p < 0.05; *p < 0.01).
21 days post-surgery
Wound healing trend was almost finished in group C, col-
lagens were in maturation phase but maturation was not
ended.
Granulation
tissue
also
was
formed. Fibrocytes
were outnumbering as compared to fibroblasts which
shows collagenation process. Thick layer of keratinized
tissue had been made, but low rate of neo-angiogenesis
showed that angiogenesis was not yet finished.
There was no sign of scar tissue in B group and neo-
angiogenesis was rarely seen in middle and beneath
layers. Collagen rate was much as compared to C group.
Epithelization quality was lower than A group.
Keratinization was acceptable and granulation tissue was
low in upper layer.
In group A, collagenation had no significant difference
with groups B and C, but the quality of epithelization and
epithelium thickness were much more than the aforemen-
tioned groups. Keratinized layer was thicker than the
other
groups,
but
granulation
differences
were
insignificant.
Wound enclosure
Percentages of wound healing have been documented in
Table 1. 3 days after drug application, no statistical sig-
nificant differences were seen between groups (ns),
although treated groups showed better wound enclosure
percentage. Significant results were seen from day 7 in
which treated groups showed higher closure of wound as
compared to control and placebo, but there was no
difference between control and placebo groups. Treated
groups showed statistically significant difference as
compared to each other as well. All groups demonstrated
differences to each other, while group B had best wound
closure percentage (100%) in 14th day. Complete closure
of wounds was observed 21 days after the experiment.
DISCUSSION
The results of the present study showed that the extract
of L. usitatissimum accelerate the progression of wound
healing activity. Wound healing consists of event roughly
divided into three overlapping phases, such as inflama-
mation,
granulation
tissue
formation
and remodeling of the
extra cellular matrix (Smith and Equist, 1967; Luisa and
DiPietro, 2003). Different studies show that wound hea-
ling therapeutic agents which have anti-inflammatory
antibacterial, antimycotic, insecticidal, antiseptic and anti-
maggot properties should be externally applicable.
L. usitatissimum (flax) is an annual plant widely
distributed in mediterranean and temperature climate
zone. It is among the oldest crop plants cultivated for the
purpose of oil and fiber (Millam et al., 2005).
Furthermore, there is a report that flax products are also
recommended for treating skin disease (e.g healing of
chronic skin ulceration) (De Spirt et al., 2008). Flax oil is
one of the richest sources of α-linoleic acid (α-LA), which
includes about 44 to 57% of all fatty acids and it also
contains 15 to 29% linolenic acid and 13 to 29% oleic
acid (Muir and Westcott, 2003). Between them, α-
linolenic acid and linolenic acid are both required for cell
membrane for the structural integrity (Flaxseed oil, 2003),
so it can be effective in wound integrity as it was in the
present study. Also, flaxseeds and oil (some extent) are a
valuable source of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)
and other anti oxidative compounds, such as tocoferol,
carotenoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. SDG also
has anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties
(Muir and Westcott, 2003; Bozan and Temelli, 2008)
which were proved to be major criteria to accelerate
wound healing process in the present study. There is a
report that flax fibers with high antioxidant level would be
the perfect material for linen wound dressing. The high
level of antioxidants (e.g. phenolic acids) can stimulate
natural process of wound clarity by macrophages (Sen et
al., 2002), and this bandage can assure the perfect milieu
for effective healing by helping the natural process to
progress. This can prevent fibroma formation, and it can
also keep optimal humidity that facilitates epithelial cells
migration (Dyson, 1988). It should be simultaneously
used with fibers, transgenic oil emulsion and transgenic
seedcake extract to promote healing of chronic skin
ulceration (Magdalena et al., 2003).
REFERENCES
Bozan B, Temelli F (2008). Chemical composition and oxidative stability
of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils. Bioresour. Technol.,
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De Spirt S, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Bejot M, Maurette JM, Heinrich
U (2008). Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements
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Dyson M, Young S, Pendle CL, Webster DF, Lang SM (1988).
Comparison of the effects of moist and dry conditions on tissue
repair. J. Invest. Dermatol., 91: 434-439.
Flaxseed oil (2003). Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database Web
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Luisa A, DiPietro L (2003). Burns Wound Healing: Methodes and
protocols (Methodes in Molecular Medicine), Humana. Press. Inc., 1:
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Magdalena C, Aleksandra B, Kamil K, Anna K, Agnieszka M, Monika S,
Magdalena WK, Magdalena Ż, Jan S, Katarzyna ST (2003). The new
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Millam S, Obert B, Preťová A (2005). Plant cell and biotechnology
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Muir AD, Westcott ND (2003). Flax: The Genus Linum. Taylor and
Francis, Inc, 0-415-30807-0, New York.
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Smith M, Equist IF (1967). A quantative study of impaired healing
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with surgery, Trauma and sepsis. In: Shils M, Olson J, Shike M, Ross
AC, editor. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9. Baltimore,
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... • AloeresinA,aloeresinB [34] • Purifiedprotein(molecular weight(MW)14kDa) [35] • Glycoprotein(MW14kDa containing59%protein) [36] • Mannose-6-phosphate [26,37] • VeracylglucanBandC [38] • Sterols [39] • Gibberellins [29] • Bradykinase [20] • Carboxypeptidase [40] • Magnesiumlactate [40] • Salicylicacid [41] • Gel [42][43][44][45] • Aqueousextractofleaves [46] •Extractsofleafskin [22,47] • Aloe-emodin [31,48,49] • [20,41,56] •Hormones [41] • Gel [20,28,31,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76] • Aqueousextractofthe leaves (without the rind) [77] • Methanolextractofthe leaves [21] • Aloeemodin [78] • Glycoproteinfraction (5.5 kDa from the gel) [79] • Mannose-6-phosphate [26] • VeracylglucanC [38] • Aloeride [80] • Acemannan [20, • α-Bisabolol [85,88,91,93,[112][113][114] • Chamazulene [88,93] • Nerolidol [91,112] •Farnesol [112] • Chamomileestersandlactones [93] • Theen-yn-dicycloethers [88] • Flavonoids [93] • Umbelliferone [93] • Extracts[68, 88,90,[115][116][117][118][119][120][121] • α-Bisabolol, chamazuleneand farnesene [92] Cuttlefish bone • Extract(chitinasthemain component) [122,123] • Extract(chitinasthemain component) [122] • Polysaccharideswithatotal sugarcontentof86.2% extracted from the cuttlebone of S. aculeate [124] •Polysaccharides [125,126] • Extract(chitinas the main component) [122,123,127,128] Honey •Honey [129][130][131] •Honey [130][131][132] • Phenolics,flavonoids,ascorbic acids,andsomeenzymes (glucose oxidase and catalase) presentinhoney [131] •Honey [130,131,[133][134][135][136][137] •Honey [129][130][131]138] • Fixedoil [139] • α-linolenicacid [139,140] • Tocopherol(vitaminE) [141] •Flaxseedoil [142] •Flaxseedhulloil [143] • Pteroleumetherseedsextract containing palmitic acid, linoliec acid and oleic acid [144] •Fixedoil [145] • Fixedoil [117,141,[146][147][148] • α-Linolenic acid-rich linseedoil [149] • Oleicacid [150] • linoleicacid [146,150] • α-Linolenic acid [146,149,150] ...
... • AloeresinA,aloeresinB [34] • Purifiedprotein(molecular weight(MW)14kDa) [35] • Glycoprotein(MW14kDa containing59%protein) [36] • Mannose-6-phosphate [26,37] • VeracylglucanBandC [38] • Sterols [39] • Gibberellins [29] • Bradykinase [20] • Carboxypeptidase [40] • Magnesiumlactate [40] • Salicylicacid [41] • Gel [42][43][44][45] • Aqueousextractofleaves [46] •Extractsofleafskin [22,47] • Aloe-emodin [31,48,49] • [20,41,56] •Hormones [41] • Gel [20,28,31,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76] • Aqueousextractofthe leaves (without the rind) [77] • Methanolextractofthe leaves [21] • Aloeemodin [78] • Glycoproteinfraction (5.5 kDa from the gel) [79] • Mannose-6-phosphate [26] • VeracylglucanC [38] • Aloeride [80] • Acemannan [20, • α-Bisabolol [85,88,91,93,[112][113][114] • Chamazulene [88,93] • Nerolidol [91,112] •Farnesol [112] • Chamomileestersandlactones [93] • Theen-yn-dicycloethers [88] • Flavonoids [93] • Umbelliferone [93] • Extracts[68, 88,90,[115][116][117][118][119][120][121] • α-Bisabolol, chamazuleneand farnesene [92] Cuttlefish bone • Extract(chitinasthemain component) [122,123] • Extract(chitinasthemain component) [122] • Polysaccharideswithatotal sugarcontentof86.2% extracted from the cuttlebone of S. aculeate [124] •Polysaccharides [125,126] • Extract(chitinas the main component) [122,123,127,128] Honey •Honey [129][130][131] •Honey [130][131][132] • Phenolics,flavonoids,ascorbic acids,andsomeenzymes (glucose oxidase and catalase) presentinhoney [131] •Honey [130,131,[133][134][135][136][137] •Honey [129][130][131]138] • Fixedoil [139] • α-linolenicacid [139,140] • Tocopherol(vitaminE) [141] •Flaxseedoil [142] •Flaxseedhulloil [143] • Pteroleumetherseedsextract containing palmitic acid, linoliec acid and oleic acid [144] •Fixedoil [145] • Fixedoil [117,141,[146][147][148] • α-Linolenic acid-rich linseedoil [149] • Oleicacid [150] • linoleicacid [146,150] • α-Linolenic acid [146,149,150] ...
... • AloeresinA,aloeresinB [34] • Purifiedprotein(molecular weight(MW)14kDa) [35] • Glycoprotein(MW14kDa containing59%protein) [36] • Mannose-6-phosphate [26,37] • VeracylglucanBandC [38] • Sterols [39] • Gibberellins [29] • Bradykinase [20] • Carboxypeptidase [40] • Magnesiumlactate [40] • Salicylicacid [41] • Gel [42][43][44][45] • Aqueousextractofleaves [46] •Extractsofleafskin [22,47] • Aloe-emodin [31,48,49] • [20,41,56] •Hormones [41] • Gel [20,28,31,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76] • Aqueousextractofthe leaves (without the rind) [77] • Methanolextractofthe leaves [21] • Aloeemodin [78] • Glycoproteinfraction (5.5 kDa from the gel) [79] • Mannose-6-phosphate [26] • VeracylglucanC [38] • Aloeride [80] • Acemannan [20, • α-Bisabolol [85,88,91,93,[112][113][114] • Chamazulene [88,93] • Nerolidol [91,112] •Farnesol [112] • Chamomileestersandlactones [93] • Theen-yn-dicycloethers [88] • Flavonoids [93] • Umbelliferone [93] • Extracts[68, 88,90,[115][116][117][118][119][120][121] • α-Bisabolol, chamazuleneand farnesene [92] Cuttlefish bone • Extract(chitinasthemain component) [122,123] • Extract(chitinasthemain component) [122] • Polysaccharideswithatotal sugarcontentof86.2% extracted from the cuttlebone of S. aculeate [124] •Polysaccharides [125,126] • Extract(chitinas the main component) [122,123,127,128] Honey •Honey [129][130][131] •Honey [130][131][132] • Phenolics,flavonoids,ascorbic acids,andsomeenzymes (glucose oxidase and catalase) presentinhoney [131] •Honey [130,131,[133][134][135][136][137] •Honey [129][130][131]138] • Fixedoil [139] • α-linolenicacid [139,140] • Tocopherol(vitaminE) [141] •Flaxseedoil [142] •Flaxseedhulloil [143] • Pteroleumetherseedsextract containing palmitic acid, linoliec acid and oleic acid [144] •Fixedoil [145] • Fixedoil [117,141,[146][147][148] • α-Linolenic acid-rich linseedoil [149] • Oleicacid [150] • linoleicacid [146,150] • α-Linolenic acid [146,149,150] ...
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... They also increase membrane fluidity which leads to increase blood flow to the wound site and deliver nutrients needed for tissue repair [52]. In agreement with other studies [35,[53][54][55], administration of Henna extract and Linseed oil along with Honey Wax in the Artaderm ointment speeded up the epithelialization process by increasing the rate of collagen synthesis due to the angiogenesis and promoted re-epithelialization to shorten the healing time. Meanwhile, our findings shown that due to no irritation occurred with application of this ointment, it can be used in clinical trials which is in line with the previous studies [24,56]. ...
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The treatment of skin burns is one of the most important challenge in medical science. The aim of this study is evaluation of the efficacy of Artaderm herbal ointment containing the Henna (Lawsonia inermis) extract, Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil, and Honey Wax on wound healing in the rat with second-degree burn wounds. The Artaderm ointment had an effective role in controlling burn wound infections due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, 64 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 8). Four groups received Artaderm, 1% Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD 1%), Cod Liver Oil and Fundermol (Alpha) ointments which used in common practices for burn injuries. Another three groups received Henna, Linseed, and Honey Wax alone and a control group that just underwent a second-degree burn injury without any treatments. A second-degree burn was formed on the back of each rat and dressed daily with one of the agents. Burn wounds were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day after burn induction. Rats treated with the Artaderm ointment had significantly faster wound contraction as well as shorter healing time than the rest groups. No scar was observed in rats treated with the Artaderm ointment on the 21st day, while this level of improvement was not observed in other groups at the same time. More than 90% of wounds were healed after on the 14th day in rats treated with Artaderm (94.10 ± 0.18) and Alpha (92.05 ± 0.23) ointments. According to these findings, it can be concluded that Artaderm herbal ointment can be used as a proper alternative for healing of wounds in second-degree burns.
... The skin is the largest organ of the body and is the first line defense against injury and plays critical roles in maintaining homeostasis (1). A wound is a skin injury that is made by physical, chemical, or microbiological infections at all ages (2). The methods of managing wounds have changed dramatically in recent decades and wound healing is now a challenging global clinical problem. ...
... The wound lacking such close, intimate apposition is termed second intention healing (4,49,50). It seems some authors did not pay attention to differences between incision and excision wounds (2,26). Incision means surgical cut into body tissues, while an excision involves taking the tissue out. ...
Article
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Objectives: Wounds are physical injuries that cause a disturbance in the normal skin anatomy and function. Also, it has a severe impact on the cost of health care. Wound healing in human and mammalian species is similar and contains a complex and dynamic process consisting of four phases for restoring skin cellular structures and tissue layers. Today, therapeutic approaches using herbal medicine have been considered. Although the benefits of herbal medicine are vast, some medicinal plants have been shown to have wound healing effects in different experimental studies. Therefore, the current review highlights information about the potency of herbal medicine in the experimental surgical skin wound healing. Materials and methods: Electronic database such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Medscape were searched for Iranian medicinal plants with healing activity in experimental surgical skin wounds. In this area, some of the most important papers were included. Results: There are numerous Iranian medicinal plants with skin wound healing activity, but clinical application and manufacturing are very low in comparison to the research volume. Conclusion: In normal instances, the human/animal body usually can repair tissue damage precisely and completely; therefore, the utilization of herbs is limited to special conditions or in order to accelerate the healing process.
... The beneficial effects of flax have also been confirmed in wound healing. In wound models made in rats, it was shown that the application of linseed oil accelerates wound closure, increases re-epithelialization, and reduces inflammation [84,85]. The histopathological examination also showed the increased synthesis of collagen fibers, vascularization, and hair follicles [86]. ...
Article
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Skin disorders of different etiology, such as dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, wounds, burns, and others, are widely spread in the population. In severe cases, they require the topical application of drugs, such as antibiotics, steroids, and calcineurin inhibitors. With milder symptoms, which do not require acute pharmacological interventions, medications, dietary supplements, and cosmetic products of plant material origin are gaining greater popularity among professionals and patients. They are applied in various pharmaceutical forms, such as raw infusions, tinctures, creams, and ointments. Although plant-based formulations have been used by humankind since ancient times, it is often unclear what the mechanisms of the observed beneficial effects are. Recent advances in the contribution of the skin microbiota in maintaining skin homeostasis can shed new light on understanding the activity of topically applied plant-based products. Although the influence of various plants on skin-related ailments are well documented in vivo and in vitro, little is known about the interaction with the network of the skin microbial ecosystem. The review aims to summarize the hitherto scientific data on plant-based topical preparations used in Poland and Ukraine and indicate future directions of the studies respecting recent developments in understanding the etiology of skin diseases. The current knowledge on investigations of interactions of plant materials/extracts with skin microbiome was reviewed for the first time.
... Consumption of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena alone and in combination with Linum usitatissimum reduced the glucose level, but only the effect of 1000 mg/kg Rosa damascena extract was significant which caused a significant statistical difference between the mean serum glucose levels of rats in this group and other groups except with the group received 500 mg/kg Rosa damascena extract (Table 1). [15] reported that blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in consumers of hydroalcoholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis and Rosa damascena compared to controls. The effect of Rosa damascena extract on blood glucose level can be due to the presence of flavonoids and their glycosidic compounds. ...
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Aims: Damage to liver tissue and its dysfunction is very important and if left untreated, it can cause serious problems and even death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Linum usitatissimum and Rosa damascena on liver enzymes, total protein, bilirubin, albumin, and serum glucose levels. Materials and Methods: This is a non-randomized clinical trial conducted on 42 male rats divided into 6 groups; control group (group 1) received only sufficient water and food, groups 1 and 2 received 300 and 500 mg/ kgB.W Linum usitatissimum extract, groups 3 and 4 received 500 and 1000 mg/ kgB.W Rosa damascena, and group 6 received 100 mg/ kgB.W Linum usitatissimum plus 250 mg/ kgB.W Rosa damascena extracts intraperitoneally for 28 days. After the last injection, the rats were weighed and their blood samples were collected. The study parameters were measured using a colorimetric method by a spectrophotometer, and then were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test in SPSS V. 25 at a significance level of P0.05). In the groups received Rosa damascena extract, there was a significant difference between total protein and albumin levels compared to the control group (P
... The flax has been used as a dressing for thousands of years. Its positive effect on injuries is well known [12][13][14]. Currently, it is used in the treatment of severely healing wounds, too [15,16]. Flax is a plant that grows widely in the Middle East and temperate and Mediterranean climates. ...
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Background: Despite the wide range of medical dressings available commercially, there is still a search for better biomaterials for use in the treatment of especially difficult-to-heal wounds. For several years, attention has been paid to the use of substances, compounds, and even whole plants in medicine. Flax is a plant that has been used as a dressing for thousands of years. Therefore, we decided to test flax fibres that had previously been genetically modified as a potential wound dressing. Materials and methods: In this study, two modified flax fibres and their combinations were tested on cell lines (mice fibroblast, normal human dermal fibroblast, normal human epidermal keratinocytes, human dermal microvascular endothelial cell, epidermal carcinoma cancer cells, monocyte cells). In the tests, fibres of the traditional flax (Nike) were used as a control. Several experiments were performed to assess cell proliferation and viability, the number of apoptotic cells, the cell cycle, genotoxicity, the level of free oxygen radicals, and determination of the number of cells after 48 hours of incubation of cell cultures with the tested flax fibres. Results: The obtained results confirm the positive influence of flax on the used cell lines. Both traditional fibres (Nike) and genetically modified fibres increased the proliferation of fibroblast cells and keratinocytes, reduced the level of free oxygen radicals, and influenced the repair of DNA damage. At the same time, the tested flax fibres did not have a proproliferative effect on the neoplastic cell line. Interestingly, genetic modifications had a stronger impact on the proliferative activity of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and microvascular endothelium compared to the traditional flax fibre used. Conclusions: In this study, the positive properties of the tested flax fibres on cell lines were proved. In the next stage, it is worth carrying out in vivo tests of tested genetically modified flax fibres.
... To date, there are few studies devoted to the effective potentials of fixed oils in the wound healing process. It was reported that oils extracted from flaxseed, Pumpkin, and Pistacia lentiscus have beneficial therapeutic activities in the healing of skin wounds and laser-induced burns [22][23][24][25]. ...
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Introduction: Opuntia ficus indica L. inermis (OFI) is used in traditional medicine pharmacopeia for its richness in natural bioactive compounds. It has been proven to be effective in the improvement of the healing of laser-induced skin burns. The aim of the present study was to investigate the wound healing effect of OFI extracted oil on full-thickness skin wound. Materials and methods: The OFI seeds were firstly isolated from mature prickly pears, washed, dried, and then cold-pressed. The antimicrobial activities of OFI seed oil were estimated in vitro against bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were calculated. Skin wound healing was investigated using an excisional wound healing model in rats. The skin wounds of three experimental groups of rats were topically treated once/day with saline solution (control group), 0.15 mg/mm2 of a reference drug Esth'Elle Pharma Cicaplaie cream (reference group), and 0.6 μl/mm2 of OFI seed oil (OFI oil group). The healing process was monitored daily and the percentage of wound contraction was calculated. A histological study was carried on skin biopsies. Results: The extracted oil has shown an interesting antimicrobial effect on Enterobacter cloacae, antiyeast effect against Candida parapsilosis and Candida sake, and antifungal activity against three opportunistic cutaneous molds (Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium). Moreover, OFI oil has shown a good wound healing effect. It prevents cutaneous infections and reduces the reepithelialization phase. Conclusion: OFI extracted oil has in vitro antimicrobial/fungal properties and in vivo wound healing activity. It seems to be efficient in the treatment of cutaneous infections and the promoting of the scarring process.
Article
Infected wounds are major challenges for hospitalized patients. Phenylethyl alcohol is a plant active compound with antibacterial activity and antioxidant properties that may decrease infection in wound site. This study investigates the effects of topical application of gels prepared from Phenylethyl alcohol (PLL) and its nanoliposomes (PLL/NLPs) for the healing of infected excision full-thickness wounds in mice model. Circular wounds were induced in 72 mice, inoculated with Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria and treated with blank gel (Conl), mupirocin® (Mupn), and therapeutic gels of PLL, and PLL/NLPs. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities, antioxidant status in wound site, histopathological parameters, immunofluorescence staining for TNF-α and COL1A rate expressions, and FGF, EGF, COL1A, and NF-κB proteins expression were investigated by Western blot analysis. The results showed significant safety and antibacterial activity of Phenylethyl alcohol and its NLPs. Topical administration of therapeutics gels, especially PLL/NLPs, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased edema rate and inflammation via decreasing TNF-α and NF-κB proteins expressions, improving antioxidant status and increasing the expression of FGF, EGF and COL1A (P < 0.05). The results showed a competition between mupirocin ointment and PLL/NLPs gel. In sum, topical administration of PLL and PLL/NLPs gels accelerated the wound healing process by decreasing the inflammation and moving wound process toward proliferative phase via molecular, pathological, antibacterial and antioxidant mechanisms. PLL/NLPs gel can be used for the treatment of infected excision full-thickness wounds after future clinical studies.
Chapter
Wound healing is a complex process that consists of several phases that range from hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation (tissue remodeling). Failure in the wound healing process leads to the progression of nonhealing chronic wounds. The wound healing process is affected by many factors including age and sex hormones, nutrition, oxygenation, stress, diabetes, obesity, infection, medications, alcoholism, and smoking and it leads to the development of chronic wounds. Most of the chronic wounds are ulcers associated with diabetes mellitus, ischemia, and venous stasis disease. Also, resistance to bacterial infection, protein adsorption, and increased levels of exudates are delaying the wound healing process. Hence, the researchers are searching for new molecules for the management of nonhealing chronic wounds. The new drug candidates can be discovered from either natural resources or chemical synthesis. In this chapter, the importance of natural sources for the discovery of drug candidates for the management of wounds is discussed.
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Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002). Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing.
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Ingestion of selected nutrients modulates dermal properties. In the present study, two groups of women ingested flaxseed or borage oil for 12 weeks. The control group received a placebo containing medium-chain fatty acids. Dose was 2.2 g total fatty acids/d with alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid as major constituents in the flaxseed oil group; in the borage oil group linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid were predominant. In the flaxseed oil group, the contribution of alpha-linolenic acid to total fatty acids in plasma was significantly increased on weeks 6 and 12, whereas there was an increase in gamma-linolenic acid in the borage oil group (P < 0.05). Skin irritation was performed by nicotinate treatment, and changes in skin reddening and blood flow were monitored. Compared to week 0, skin reddening was diminished in both groups; blood flow was also lowered. Skin hydration was significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment compared to week 0, with flaxseed or borage oil (P < 0.05). Transepidermal water loss was decreased in both oil groups by about 10 % after 6 weeks of supplementation. A further decrease was determined after 12 weeks in the flaxseed oil group. Surface evaluation of living skin revealed that roughness and scaling of the skin were significantly decreased with flaxseed and borage oil comparing week 0 and week 12 (P < 0.05). Except for hydration, none of the parameters was affected in the placebo group. The present data provide evidence that skin properties can be modulated by an intervention with dietary lipids.
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Disrupted vasculature and high energy-demand by regenerating tissue results in wound hypoxia. Wound repair may be facilitated by oxygen therapy. Evidence supporting the mode of action of hyperbaric oxygen in promoting wound healing is sketchy, however. Topical oxygen therapy involves local administration of pure oxygen. The advantages of topical oxygen therapy include low cost, the lack of systemic oxygen toxicity, and possibility of home treatment. While this modality of wound care is of outstanding interest, it clearly lacks the support of mechanism-oriented studies. The search for mechanisms by which oxygen supports wound healing has now taken another step. Respiratory burst-derived oxidants support healing. Oxidants serve as cellular messengers to promote healing. Although this information is of outstanding significance to the practice of oxygen therapy, it remains largely unexplored. The search for "natural remedies" has drawn attention to herbals. Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins are a group of biologically active polyphenolic bioflavonoids that are synthesized by many plants. Proanthocyanidins and other tannins facilitate wound healing. A combination of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and resveratrol facilitates inducible VEGF expression, a key element supporting wound angiogenesis. Strategies to manipulate the redox environment in the wound are likely to be of outstanding significance in wound healing.
Book
Linum usitatissimum is a widely distributed plant that has a long history of traditional use as both an industrial oil and fiber crop. It is known as linseed in the United Kingdom, or flax in North America. For the last 15 years, there has been a steadily growing interest in the medicinal and nutraceutical value of flax, including experimental evidence for its use in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. this volume is a comprehensive review of the genus covering all aspects of the taxonomy, chemistry, cultivation, pharmacology and commercial uses of flax. it describes the disease prevention potential of these plants. with material written by leading experts, flax: the genus linum will be an invaluable reference for those interested in nutraceuticals, medicinal plants, pharmacy and agronomy.
Article
: Disrupted vasculature and high energy-demand by regenerating tissue results in wound hypoxia. Wound repair may be facilitated by oxygen therapy. Evidence supporting the mode of action of hyperbaric oxygen in promoting wound healing is sketchy, however. Topical oxygen therapy involves local administration of pure oxygen. The advantages of topical oxygen therapy include low cost, the lack of systemic oxygen toxicity, and possibility of home treatment. While this modality of wound care is of outstanding interest, it clearly lacks the support of mechanism-oriented studies. The search for mechanisms by which oxygen supports wound healing has now taken another step. Respiratory burst-derived oxidants support healing. Oxidants serve as cellular messengers to promote healing. Although this information is of outstanding significance to the practice of oxygen therapy, it remains largely unexplored. The search for “natural remedies” has drawn attention to herbals. Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins are a group of biologically active polyphenolic bioflavonoids that are synthesized by many plants. Proanthocyanidins and other tannins facilitate wound healing. A combination of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and resveratrol facilitates inducible VEGF expression, a key element supporting wound angiogenesis. Strategies to manipulate the redox environment in the wound are likely to be of outstanding significance in wound healing.
Article
The species Linum usitatissimum (flax/linseed) has been the focus of a great deal of both basic and applied research effort in plant cell and biotechnology studies in recent years. In this review we consider applications of the techniques of plant biotechnology in this species under several distinct headings. Plant cell and tissue regeneration strategies and applications are discussed, and the applications of the techniques of somatic embryogenesis, protoplast isolation, culture and fusion and cell suspension cultures in this species are described. A major area of study is the use of anther and microspore culture where clear advantages to breeding programmes could be applied. In addition, embryo and ovary culture studies have resulted in significant findings. The more recent technologies of gene transfer and expression by genetic transformation are reviewed, and a section on strategies for improvements in technological quality is also included. Finally we propose conclusions and future prospects for this ancient, but still highly relevant crop.
Article
The effects on dermal repair of moist conditions, achieved by covering excised wounds with the adhesive polyurethane dressing OPSITE, and dry conditions, achieved by exposure to air through dry gauze dressings, were compared in full thickness excised wounds on porcine skin during the period from 1 to 21 d after injury. Quantitative studies were made of changes in the populations of neutrophils, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The number of inflammatory phase cells (neutrophils and macrophages) decreased more rapidly under moist conditions than under dry conditions. There was also a more rapid increase in the number of proliferative phase cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells) in the moist wounds; by 5 d after injury 66% of the cells of the granulation tissue of the moist wounds were of this type, compared with only 48% of the cells of equivalent areas of the dry wounds. By 21 d after injury the number of fibroblasts in the granulation tissue of the moist wounds had fallen below that in the dry wounds, suggesting that progress from the proliferative into the remodelling phase of repair was more rapid in the moist wounds. It was concluded that there was an acceleration of the inflammatory and proliferative phases of dermal repair in wounds healing under moist conditions when compared with those healing under dry conditions.
Article
Three seeds of Turkish origin, flax, poppy and safflower were analyzed for their proximate, fatty acids, tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and total phenolic composition, and oxidative stability of their oil. The major fatty acid in the flax oil was alpha-linolenic acid, comprising 58.3% of total fatty acids, whereas poppy and safflower oils were rich in linoleic acid at 74.5% and 70.5% level, respectively. The amount of total tocols was 14.6 mg/100g flax, 11.0mg/100g poppy and 12.1mg/100g safflower seed. Flax and poppy oil were rich in gamma-tocopherol as 79.4 mg/100g oil and 30.9 mg/100g oil, respectively, while alpha-tocopherol (44.1g/100g oil) was dominant in safflower oil. Only alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were found in the oils. Oxidative stability of oils was measured at 110 degrees C at the rate of 20 L/h air flow rate, and poppy oil (5.56 h) was most stabile oil followed by safflower oil (2.87 h) and flax oil (1.57). There were no correlation between oxidative stability and unsaturation degree of fatty acids and tocol levels of the oils. All of the seeds investigated provide a healthy oil profile and may have potential as a source of specialty oils on a commercial scale.