Article

Nations of Joiners: Explaining Voluntary Association Membership in Democratic Societies

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Abstract

Levels of voluntary association membership for 33 democratic countries are compared using data from surveys of nationally representative samples of adults from the 1990s. Four explanations of national differences in association involvement are identified and tested: economic development, religious composition, type of polity, and years of continuous democracy. The analyses consider total and working association memberships, both including and excluding unions and religious associations. Americans volunteer at rates above the average for all nations on each measure, but they are often matched and surpassed by those of several other countries, notably the Netherlands, Canada, and a number of Nordic nations, including Iceland, Sweden, and Norway. Hierarchical linear models show that voluntarism tends to be particularly high in nations that have: (1) multidenominational Christian or predominantly Protestant religious compositions, (2) prolonged and continuous experience with democratic institutions, (3) social democratic or liberal democratic political systems, and (4) high levels of economic development. With some exceptions for working memberships, these factors, both separately and in combination, are clearly important predictors of cross-national variation in voluntary association membership.

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... Inglehart and Baker, in an extensive cross-national analysis, find economic development is associated with cultural shifts towards norms of social trust and participation (2000: 19). Curtis et al. (2001) argue that individuals within more economically developed societies have a richer network of civic activity. These findings indicate that economic conditions affect the presence of civic associations and citizen participation within them. ...
... Cross-national comparative research has shown that societies with lower economic growth have lower levels of citizen participation in voluntary associations (Curtis et al., 2001). This would suggest that in the context of an economic crisis, where many countries go into recession, participation in associations may decline. ...
... That said, the civic engagement scale provides a good indicator of associational membership that uses all the information available in the WVS. Similar operationalizations of the concept using the same battery of questions from the WVS have been used in other studies which seek to capture civic engagement (Brehm and Rahn, 1997;Curtis et al., 2001;Schofer and Fourcade-Gourinchas, 2001;Jennings and Stoker, 2004;Paxton, 2007). ...
Article
Do economic crises mobilize or depress civic engagement? This paper examines this question by analysing cross-national trends in voluntary association membership in the context of the global financial crisis. A mobilization hypothesis suggests that an economic crisis would increase membership in voluntary associations, as these associations provide citizens a channel for interest articulation and aggregation facilitating their response to the crisis. A retreat hypothesis, on the other hand, suggests that an economic crisis would depress voluntary association membership, as people have fewer resources to be involved in these associations at a time of crisis. To test these hypotheses, this paper examines data on voluntary association memberships from the World Values Survey in 14 democratic countries, fielded before and after the global financial crisis hit in 2008. The results support the retreat hypothesis. Following the crisis, there was a decline in voluntary association memberships overall and countries harder hit by the crisis were more likely to experience declines. There was no evidence of mobilization among those more vulnerable to the crisis. Rather, the profile of those engaged in voluntary associations was similar before and after the crisis, skewed towards those better off in society, including those with higher education levels, higher incomes, and in paid employment.
... Few studies on the barriers that deter immigrants from participating and engaging in the community of arrival exist. Community participation has been related to the different ideologies of nations and institutions (Curtis, Baer, & Grabb, 2001;Flanagan, Bowes, Jonsson, Csapo, & Sheblanova, 1998) and to the size of communities (Aizelwood & Pendakur, 2005). For example, Curtis et al. (2001) stated that community participation is more widespread in nations that have multidenominational Christian or predominantly protestant religious compositions and that are characterized by a long period of democracy, social, or liberal-democratic political systems, and by a high economic development. ...
... Community participation has been related to the different ideologies of nations and institutions (Curtis, Baer, & Grabb, 2001;Flanagan, Bowes, Jonsson, Csapo, & Sheblanova, 1998) and to the size of communities (Aizelwood & Pendakur, 2005). For example, Curtis et al. (2001) stated that community participation is more widespread in nations that have multidenominational Christian or predominantly protestant religious compositions and that are characterized by a long period of democracy, social, or liberal-democratic political systems, and by a high economic development. ...
... Cappelletti and Valtolina (2015) found that both traumatic experiences and homesickness can be psychological barriers to community participation. Moreover, Curtis et al. (2001) stated that community participation is more widespread in those countries with a prolonged experience of democratic institutions. Peruvians experienced oppression both in their country of origin and upon emigrating to Chile where, they experienced the legacies of Pinochet's dictatorship in Chile (neo-liberalism ideology). ...
Article
Community participation can be considered a pillar for the promotion of social justice and well‐being for immigrants in new countries. Participation may be influenced by different forms of oppression which decrease opportunities for immigrants to be engaged. The present study explores the difficulties that Peruvian immigrants encountered and still encountering to participate in Santiago de Chile through in‐depth qualitative interviews. Eighteen semi‐structured interviews were conducted with Peruvian leaders of Ethnic Community Based Organizations (ECBOs) in Santiago de Chile. Interviews focused on the community engagement of Peruvians highlighting the difficulties they encountered when deciding whether to engage and throughout the process of carrying out their commitment, along with their perceptions when trying to engage their compatriots. The present study contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, it focused on the phenomenon of South–South migration. Secondly, it delved into the psychological and structural barriers that immigrants’ experience, considering their disadvantaged conditions. Thirdly, it used Situational Analysis, along with the constructionist drift of Grounded Theory, which is widely used in critical, qualitative research, and is sensitive to producing situated knowledge. Coding and mapping analysis identified experiences related to historical trauma, transnational bonds, and dominant master narratives in both countries as well as challenges due to balancing time and priorities, surviving institutional deterrents, and inter‐organizations competitiveness. Finally, transnational commitments, mechanisms of social disconnection, and under valuated rights that Peruvians may live in Chile were pointed out. These results intend to have practical implications for immigrants and for community psychologists.
... Social participation is the group encompassing the rest of the activities studied although physical activity or volunteering do not necessarily have the social dimension. The social participation is usually supported by civic norms in society (Curtis et al., 2001;Hank, 2011;Wiertz and Lim, 2019), which stem from the cultural, political and religious tradition of a given society (Hank, 2011), and is higher in more-developed countries and more-stable democratic regimes (Curtis et al., 2001;Hooghe et al., 2016;Nikolova et al., 2017). The concept of structured ambivalence applied to social participation would mean that the activities of social participation have a more-positive effect in more-developed civic societies, in which they are more appreciated. ...
... Social participation is the group encompassing the rest of the activities studied although physical activity or volunteering do not necessarily have the social dimension. The social participation is usually supported by civic norms in society (Curtis et al., 2001;Hank, 2011;Wiertz and Lim, 2019), which stem from the cultural, political and religious tradition of a given society (Hank, 2011), and is higher in more-developed countries and more-stable democratic regimes (Curtis et al., 2001;Hooghe et al., 2016;Nikolova et al., 2017). The concept of structured ambivalence applied to social participation would mean that the activities of social participation have a more-positive effect in more-developed civic societies, in which they are more appreciated. ...
... In contrast, the care-giving within the household is expected to be more beneficial in the conditions of more-accessible formal care (Hypothesis 7), with the responsibilities for a dependent older relative shared by the family (Daatland and Lowenstein, 2005;Brandt et al., 2009;Lakomý, 2020). Finally, Hypothesis 8 also uses the argument of structured ambivalence, but this time for social participation and its higher appreciation in the conditions of stronger civic norms (Curtis et al., 2001;Hank, 2011;Wiertz and Lim, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The active ageing approach supports a set of roles or activities that are supposed to be beneficial for older adults. This paper reassesses the benefits of activities for the quality of life by (a) analysing many activities at the same time to control each other, (b) using panel data to detect the effects of activities over time, and (c) performing separate analyses for four European regions to test the context-specificity of the effects. The effects of roles in later life are tested on panel data from three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) project. The results of fixed-effects regression show that only some activities – volunteering, participating in a club and physical activity – increase the quality of life, and that care-giving within the household has the opposite effect. Moreover, the beneficial effects are much weaker and less stable than the other types of regression suggest; they are beneficial only in some regions, and their effect is much weaker than the effects of age, health and economic situation. Therefore, the active ageing approach and activity theory should reflect the diverse conditions and needs of older adults to formulate more-context-sensitive and less-normative policy recommendations.
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies, there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organisations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries -203played an important role in encouraging the growth of organisational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000;van der Veer 2001). ...
... Furthermore, in times of crisis when citizens are exposed to scarcity, relative deprivation, and socioeconomic clashes (Grasso & Giugni, 2016), solidarity is under pressure. Solidarity has been defined as a building block of CSOs (Baglioni et al., 2001;Curtis et al., 2001). Studies on solidarity have addressed volunteering, membership and support for voluntary associations, CSOs, and social movements (Baglioni et al., 2001;Curtis et al., 2001;Putnam et al., 2003;Stjerno, 2012). ...
... Solidarity has been defined as a building block of CSOs (Baglioni et al., 2001;Curtis et al., 2001). Studies on solidarity have addressed volunteering, membership and support for voluntary associations, CSOs, and social movements (Baglioni et al., 2001;Curtis et al., 2001;Putnam et al., 2003;Stjerno, 2012). ...
Article
This article examines the European Commission’s discourse to identify whether and how the Commission’s perception of the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) has evolved in the context of the refugee crisis and the rise of right-wing populism. To this end, we conduct thematic and frame analyses of a variegated data set consisting of announcements, speeches, press releases, and statements published by the Commission between 2013 and 2018. The article shows that the ‘refugee crisis’ and the populist turn have changed the European Commission’s view of CSOs, particularly concerning their democratic function within the European Union set-up as providers of input legitimacy. The lower profile given to civil society in the Commission’s discourse following the surge in populism and growing animosities towards non-governmental organisations signals a discursive turn in the Commission’s perception of CSOs as catalysers of participative and deliberative democracy as well as of policy-making informed by CSO expertise. However, the Commission has framed CSOs as important contributors to the output legitimacy of European Union policies, emphasising the role of civil society in the implementation of migration policies through socioeconomic reforms, providing services, and ‘debunking’ migration-related information.
... Tą padaryti kaip tik ir leidžia EVS duomenys, kurie rodo, kad Lietuvos gyventojų įsitraukimo į savanorišką veiklą aktyvumas perpus mažesnis nei Skandinavijos regione ir neprilygsta kitų Vakarų Europos šalių (išskyrus Italijos) lygiui, tačiau lenkia daugelio posocialistinio bloko šalių lygį (žr. 2 paveikslą). Tai atitinka kitų savanorystės tyrimų išvadas, kad į vi-suomeninių organizacijų veiklą žmonės dažniau įsitraukia pasiturinčiose ilgų demokratinių tradicijų visuomenėse, ir tai aiškinama pirmiausia tuo, jog ekonominė plėtra stiprina altruizmą ir silpnina paskatas maksimaliai investuoti (Curtis et al., 2001;Parboteeah, Cullen, Lim, 2004;Ziemek, 2006 Norint geriau suprasti savanoriškos veiklos dinamiką Lietuvoje, verta paanalizuoti, kaip keitėsi šalies gyventojų narystės skirtingose visuomeninėse organizacijose lygis 3 . ...
... Tarptautiniuose savanorystės tyrimuose vyrauja bendras sutarimas, kad savanoriškas darbas teigiamai koreliuoja su žmonių išsimokslinimu ir pajamomis (Curtis, Baer, Grabb, 2001;Wilson, 2012). Lietuvoje surinkti EVS duomenys taip pat atskleidžia, kad išsimokslinimas reikšmingai diferencijuoja įsitraukimą į savanorišką veiklą: iš žemesnio išsimokslinimo žmonių per paskutinius 6 mėnesius nemokamą savanorišką darbą teigė dirbę bemaž 15 proc. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although volunteering is not a new topic in social research, many questions about people’s motivation to engage in voluntary activities still remain open. The article analyzes the changing attitudes towards volunteering in contemporary society, the demographic profile of volunteers, their intrinsic motivation and the cultural value orientation that supports it. The main purpose of this article is to identify the impact of main sociodemographic and personal characteristics in people’s decision to volunteer. Data from European Values Surveys (1990, 1999, 2008, 2017) are used for this purpose. The presented research data provide valuable insights into long-term trends in the development of volunteering in Lithuania, important socio-demographic determinants of volunteering and changing individual motivation to engage in volunteering. As the analysis reveales, although demographic factors – gender, age, education, occupational employment – are important, they only become meaningful when analyzed along with personal characteristics of respondents (such as life satisfaction, trust in people, belief that one is in control of own life) and their value orientations (such as caring, creativity, stimulation, and the pursuit of social justice). In other words, volunteers cannot be treated as a demographically homogeneous group. This means that in order to effectively mobilize people for a specific volunteering activity, it is necessary to take into account not only which socio-demographic groups are generally more likely to be involved, but also the values that are most important to them when planning volunteering strategies and communication. Understanding the determinants of volunteering can serve as a guideline for the development of volunteer-friendly public policies and for properly motivating people to become involved in volunteering, both at the level of the state and specific public organizations.
... Aufgrund geteilter Normen und des Willens der Bewahrung innerer Homogenität wirken sie stark identitätsstiftend und bindend ("bonding") (Pickel 2011: 300, 304;Finke et al. 2006: 624); mit ihrem potenziell exklusiven Charakter können sie auch für innergesellschaftliches Konflikte sorgen (Smidt 2003b Analyse verschiedener Konfessionen -die Bedeutung verschiedener Religionen für die Ausbildung von Sozialkapital thematisiert und sind diesbezüglich zu teilweise kontradiktorischen Einschätzungen gekommen. Polarisiert gegenübergestellt werden zumeist der vertrauens-und demokratieförderliche Protestantismus, der aufgrund seiner flachen, dezentralen Strukturen Selbstbestimmung, Selbstverantwortung und freiwillige Selbstorganisationen ermögliche, während die hierarchischen Strukturen des als Weltkirche organisierten Katholizismus persönliche Selbstständigkeit, Verantwortungsübernahme und Partizipation unterdrücke und damit die Bildung von Sozialkapital behindere (Roßteutscher 2009(Roßteutscher , 2011Lam 2006;Putnam et al. 1993: 173 f., 244;Fukuyama 1995Fukuyama , 2000Curtis et al. 2001;Weber /[1920). ...
... Diese altüberkommene organisationssoziologische These wird flankiert von entsprechenden Hypothesen, dass der Protestantismus mit der Präferenz für Individualismus und für frei gewählte soziale Beziehungen auch außerhalb von Familienstrukturen seine Wirkung entfalte, während der Katholizismus mit einem streng strukturierten Kollektivismus verbunden sei, der traditionell der Pflege familiärer, verwandtschaftlicher Beziehungen den Vorrang gibt (Weber /[1920Lenski 1961: 224;Curtis et al. 2001). Diese dichotomischen Verschiedenheiten würden in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß das Interesse der Individuen animieren, sich zivilgesellschaftlich einzubringen. ...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book contributes – theoretically and empirically – to a better understanding of the characteristics and civil society positioning of religious and secular migrant self-organizations (MSOs). MSOs are examined from the perspectives of sociology of migration, sociology of religion as well as organizational sociology. Moreover, they are classified in political fields and discourses, and the respective positions are put into relation with the results of a (non-representative) survey of MSOs in nine large cities in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). The survey focused on organization-specific characteristics, resource endowments and civic attributes, which in turn encompass activities, goals, self-conceptions, the spectrum of cooperation as well as the MSOs' environmental relationships. Overall, the results for the two differentiated types of organizations (religious vs. secular) underscore many commonalities, but at the same time also specific internal and external relationships. A reduction exclusively to religious or secular characteristics does not do justice to their characterization – rather, a mixture of logics of action must be assumed. — KEYWORDS/CONTENTS: civil society — civic engagement — determining factors / political opportunity structures / societal framework conditions — migrant organizations — (religious) social capital — bonding and bridging social capital — sociology of migration — sociology of religion — organizational sociology — Sociological Neoinstitutionalism — https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-658-34298-2.pdf
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organizations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries played an important role in fostering the growth of organizational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000, van der Veer 2001. ...
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies, there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organisations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries -203played an important role in encouraging the growth of organisational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000;van der Veer 2001). ...
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies, there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organisations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries -203played an important role in encouraging the growth of organisational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000;van der Veer 2001). ...
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies, there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organisations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries -203played an important role in encouraging the growth of organisational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000;van der Veer 2001). ...
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies, there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organisations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries -203played an important role in encouraging the growth of organisational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000;van der Veer 2001). ...
Book
This book contains 11 research papers (chapters) on Haugean and Puritan influence on entrepreneurship, economic growth and development, and development of the society
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organizations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries played an important role in fostering the growth of organizational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000, van der Veer 2001. ...
... Woodberry (2004) did an extensive literature review on research on this topic and concluded that in all societies, there is strong evidence that Protestant groups are more active than other religious groups in forming and supporting non-profit organisations. Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. ...
... Curtis et al (2001) found this for the USA, Lam (2002) for Canada, Anheier (1989) for Africa, James (1986) for Japan, Pongsapich (1998) for Thailand. When (Anheier and Salamon 1998) and Curtis et al. (2001) found for other countries. According to Woodberry (2004) Protestant missionaries -203played an important role in encouraging the growth of organisational civil society, as they reformed what they saw as malfunctioning systems (Deol 2000;van der Veer 2001). ...
Book
Full-text available
Research on Haugean and Puritan impact on the economy and society of Norway
... The effect of social relationships and support networks on the well-being of men and women depends on a variety of demographic and environmental factors including age, socioeconomic status, and residence in an urban or rural environment [64]. Similarly, national differences in volunteering may be linked to differences in economic background, religious traditions, political systems, and/or democratic stability [65]. Both structural factors and cultural determinants may influence volunteering decisions [66,67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Senior volunteering is associated with improved welfare, in addition to contributing to social development. Thus, the involvement of seniors in non-profit organizations (NPO), the third sector, or the social economy is encouraged by European national governments. At the organizational level, the situation for older volunteers in the third sector has improved in recent years, mainly due to European legal regulations. Despite a certain degree of homogenization across European countries, significant national differences persist in the adoption and promotion of volunteering. The present study examines the link between self-reported health and participation in volunteering activities among European seniors, stratified by sex and generation (the Silent Generation and the Baby Boomer Generation). We focus our analysis on seniors living in Germany, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and Ukraine. Analyses were conducted using empirical micro data from the World Values Survey (WVS; 1994/98, 2005/09 and 2010/14). Our results demonstrate the positive impact of volunteering on health status among the elderly, although we observed marked differences in the associated benefits between sexes, generational cohorts, and countries. Public policies should be developed with this important source of social capital in mind, but should also seek to address existing inequity.
... Työpapereita. Curtis, James E. & Baer,Douglas E. & Grabb, Edward G. (2001). Nations of Joiners: Explaining Voluntary Association Membership in Democratic Societies. ...
... Työpapereita. Curtis, James E. & Baer,Douglas E. & Grabb, Edward G. (2001). Nations of Joiners: Explaining Voluntary Association Membership in Democratic Societies. ...
... Theoretical explanations for variation in volunteering and giving found in the empirical comparative research include macro-and micro-level factors. Such explanations include political ideologies, economic indicators, cultural beliefs, motivation, the religiosity or secularism of the country, religious participation, and individual demographics including age, sex, and income (Curtis et al. 2001;Curtis et al. 1992;Dekker and Halman 2003;Ruiter and De Graff 2006;Snyder and Omoto 2008). Parboteeah et al. (2004) found that countries with high levels of all forms of capital (country wealth, country education, religiosity, societal collectivism, and liberal democracy) are associated with higher national rates of volunteering. ...
Article
Scholars have studied the differences in pro-social behaviors among countries for over 50 years. Religious participation in the USA is one of the factors that lead to comparatively higher rates of giving and volunteering. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is known for the highest rates of pro-social behaviors in the USA, but do members of this US-based religion exhibit the same levels of giving and volunteering in other countries? Using a prior study of 2664 Latter-day Saints in the USA, we administered the same survey to 1719 Latter-day Saints in Colombia, measuring volunteer activity, charitable giving, as well as religious beliefs, and attitudes toward giving and volunteering. We found a variety of relatively small differences between the groups. However, the comparative similarities in pro-social behaviors indicate strong organizational influences that have effectively shaped high rates of these behaviors across countries.
... In addition to the above, research supports the phenomenon that economic development, religious beliefs and uninterruptedly democratic structures strengthen the willingness and volunteering of civil society to participate in preparing the higher democratic participation rate ( Curtis at al., 2001, pp. 800-801). ...
Preprint
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After the changes of regimes in Eastern Europe, joining to the western, democratic states as soon as possible, has become a cardinal issue in almost all affected states. In our study, we examine the relationship between joining to the European Union and the development of e-Government, in particular e-participation.
... As a consequence, they reinforce the 'habits of the heart' (Putnam 1993a: 23). Since most forms of associational attachment help to create reciprocity and cooperation, associations provide the social foundations for a vibrant democracy (Curtis et al. 1992(Curtis et al. , 2001Norris 2001;Putnam 1995Putnam , 2001. ...
Article
This article evaluates whether economic hardship affects social capital in Europe. Comparing 27 European countries, it evaluates the impact of personal experiences of economic hardship on engagement in voluntary associations as a cornerstone of civic and democratic life. Empirical analyses of the Eurobarometer data indicate that individual economic hardship has indeed a negative effect on associational volunteering in Europe. However, the result is qualified in two respects. First, it is found that the effect of individual economic hardship is contingent upon education. Second, this effect mostly refers to volunteering for associations providing solidarity goods (Putnam groups). These results have broader implications for understanding how economic hardship shapes the social capital within democratic societies.
... On this point Li and Ferraro make the case that both occupational and familial responsibilities "spur social engagement from union halls and fraternal organizations to support groups and soccer fields" (Li and Ferraro 2006, 497). Corresponding with findings elsewhere, it should also be noted that that the impact of life-course events on volunteering profiles remains largely unestablished (Curtis, Baer, and Grabb 2001;Wilson 2012), although Lancee and Radl also report that there is strong evidence from multiple international case studies for stable volunteering patterns over the lifecourse (2014,834). ...
Article
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This paper addresses the emergence of microvolunteering as a conceptual and practical phenomenon, as well as one which policy makers must engage with in a careful and critical fashion. Taking a lead from Smith et al. [2010. “Enlivened Geographies of Volunteering: Situated, Embodied and Emotional Practices of Voluntary Action.” Scottish Geographical Journal 126: 258–274] who specify a need to extend our analyses beyond the formal organizational spaces of volunteering, we consider the potential impact of micro-volunteering on changing patterns of civic participation over the next decade or two. With particular reference to policy ambitions and transformations in the UK, but with reference to broader international trends also, we set out how microvolunteering is being variously defined and appropriated as a means of addressing structural barriers to “traditional” volunteering. Drawing on a range of practical examples we consider how microvolunteering potentially alters the relationship between volunteering, community and identity, as well as relates to the parallel notion of “slacktivism”. Set against both positive and negative accounts of microvolunteering within the broader media, we advocate caution to policy makers looking to implement such activities, and particularly in respect to what microvolunteering can realistically achieve.
... At the core of these movements was the belief that all individuals are created equal with the ability and interest to thrive if given the opportunity, countering many of the colonial and class-specific narratives that prevailed. Protestant Christians were particularly likely to enter and positively influence civil society by enacting reforms and promoting peace [73][74][75][76]. Moreover, by promoting equality across traditional race and class structures, religious forces were more likely to create and maintain stable democracies and survive potential authoritarian regimes that take over [77]. ...
Article
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This paper studies the spatial and time series patterns of religious liberty across countries and estimates its effect on measures of human flourishing. First, while there are significant cross-country differences in religious liberty, it has declined in the past decade across countries, particularly among countries that rank higher in economic freedom. Second, countries with greater religious liberty nonetheless exhibit greater levels of economic freedom, particularly property rights. Third, using micro-data across over 150 countries in the world between 2006 and 2018, increases in religious freedom are associated with robust increases in measures of human flourishing even after controlling for time-invariant characteristics across space and time and a wide array of time-varying country-specific factors, such as economic activity and institutional quality. Fourth, these improvements in well-being are primarily driven by improvements in civil liberties, such as women empowerment and freedom of expression.
... The literature supports the premise that volunteerism varies across various age groups (Li and Ferraro 2006). Voluntary participation in a social cause increases in late middle age due to reduced family responsibilities (Curtis et al. 2001). Older volunteers have free time, but volunteerism tends to diminish with old age due to poor health (Li and Ferraro 2006). ...
Article
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The strategies that non-profit organizations choose for volunteer engagement and financial sustainability are of the utmost importance for successful work. The main purpose of this study was to investigate feasible strategies for volunteer engagement and financial sustainability. Interviews were conducted to obtain data on the experience of volunteer managers in dealing with volunteers and financial matters together. Qualitative data analysis methods were used to code and analyze the data. Significant themes emerged from the data gathered through interviews that highlighted the strategies for volunteer engagement and financial sustainability chosen by the managers of non-profit organizations. From the manager's perspective, the following strategies were considered important for engaging volunteers at non-profit organizations (NPOs): 'building the skill sets of volunteers', 'fulfilling ulterior motives', and 'administering a culture of administrative support'. Moreover, 'local fundraising preference', 'transparency', and 'building trust' were regarded as successful strategies for maintaining financial sustainability. The findings of this study showed that, to function smoothly, non-profit organizations need to follow certain strategies to be cautious about volunteers as well as finance. The findings provide fruitful implications for practitioners and policy makers, and these are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the limitations addressed in the study suggest a future direction for research in terms of study design and more focus on study informants.
... Натомість проведене порівняльне дослідження в 33 демократичних країнах виявило, що добровільне членство в асоціаціях найбільш поширене серед тих націй, які мають (1) багатоконфесійні християнські, зокрема переважаючі протестантські, релігійні утворення, (2) тривале й безперервне функціонування демократичних інститутів, (3) соціально-демократичні чи ліберально-демократичні політичні системи і (4) високий рівень економічного розвитку. Серед цих націй американці, канадці, голландці та скандинавські народи [18]. Ці результати перегукуються з теорією соціальних розколів (С.М. ...
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The author presents the results of studies of the factors of the participation of the Ukrainian citizens in voluntary associations as the cooperative practice. The hypothesis on the effect of interpersonal faith as an indicator of the social capital has not been confirmed. A partial influence of the ideological and regional distinctions, education, the interest in policy, and the political identification is fixed. However, the greatest and most stable effect on cooperative practices is produced by the active habits of leisure, in particular, the sporting ones.
... Under democratic regimes, citizens can make political demands without fear of reprisal, and decision makers are willing to listen to such demands. Studies have observed that civic activities and associations are indeed more prevalent in democratic societies (e.g., Curtis, Baer, & Grabb, 2001). Accordingly, I expect that in democratic societies, individuals with environmental demands enjoy more opportunities and face fewer barriers to express their demands through activism. ...
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When explaining engagement in environmental activism, previous psychological studies have mostly focused on motivational factors. In this investigation, considering that environmental activism is political in essence, I argue that the effect of motivations is moderated by the political context people face. Drawing upon political science theories, I hypothesize that psychological motivations (environmental concern and postmaterialist values) are more strongly associated with environmental activism engagement among individuals who trust the government less and in societies with more facilitative political opportunity structures (higher density of environmental NGOs and more democracy). With a series of multilevel analyses of data from 31 countries, I found robust support to these hypotheses. The significance of considering the psychology X politics interaction behind human responses to environmental issues is discussed.
... In newer democracies such as those in Eastern Europe, citizens need to (re)learn democratic political attitudes and behaviors after several decades under the communistic rule, when all forms of autonomous non-state activity were prohibited (Coffé & van der Lippe, 2010). As a result, the level of political participation in Eastern Europe is lower compared with that in Western Europe (Curtis et al., 2001). ...
Article
This study incorporates the examination of citizenship norms in testing the Citizen Communication Mediation Model (CCMM) in China, exploring to what extent online political expression mediates the impact of informational use of social media on offline civic engagement and how beliefs in citizenship norms moderate the CCMM. Results based on a two-wave panel survey among a national sample of 1,199 Chinese adults provide strong support for the CCMM in the Chinese context. In addition, embracing the democratic citizenship norm significantly enhances the CCMM effect, whereas embracing the pro-government citizenship norm that encourages pro-government speech does not show the same effect.
... Participation in social actions differs (Morrissey & Werner-Wilson, 2005) by regions, depending on the ideology of countries (Allik & Realo, 2004) and their institutions. Citizens' assistance supports the tradition of their participation in public organizations and voluntary associations (Curtis et al., 2001;Flanagan et al., 1998;Omoto et al., 2010). ...
... The Nordic and Anglo-Saxon countries are characterized by high levels of social welfare spending and high levels of formal volunteering. Continental countries combine higher levels of social welfare spending with medium levels of volunteering, whereas Mediterranean countries display lower levels of social welfare spending with lower 3 See more at hiips://ccss.jhu.edu/research-projects/vmp/evmp/ 3 Varieties and Changes of Volunteering: Challenges for an International Standard… In addition to differences in welfare state regimes across Europe, there is evidence (Curtis et al., 2001;Salamon et al., 2017) that economic, religious, and political factors -such as levels of economic development, religious traditions (Protestant or mixed Christian societies display higher levels of volunteering), and number of years of continuous democracy -explain variations in levels of volunteering. ...
Chapter
The chapter illustrates the traditional varieties and recent transformations of volunteering in five different cultural areas of the world (Anglo-Saxon, European, Latin American, East Asian, sub-Saharan African) and connects the peculiarities of domestic voluntary action to the different cultural and socioeconomic local patterns. It identifies in the intricate heterogeneity of local manifestations of volunteering one of the problematic challenges for the global research and policy-making agenda on the topic. Problematic aspects and cultural specificities with regard to the core elements of the common definition of volunteering – free will, unpaid, general interest – are put in focus. Opportunities and challenges of the future work with the ILO Manual are assessed.
... His argument is that in wanting to spread their faith and thus for people to read the Bible in their own language, these missionary Protestants inadvertently catalysed mass education, mass printing and the development of civil society, and hampered elites from monopolising these resources. Other research confirms his findings -Christians are active initiators of organisational civil society, and Protestant or Protestant/Catholic countries and regions have the highest levels of voluntary association involvement (Anheier 1989;Bediako 1995;Boli, Loya, and Loftin 1999;Curtis, Baer, and Grabb 2001;Salamon and Anheier 1997;Tusalem 2009). Woodberry (2012, 253) goes on to argue that '[e]ven after controls, Christians (particularly Protestants) are the most likely to volunteer and give both formally and informally …. ...
Article
In the context of the global recession of democracy, this article engages with sub-Saharan Africa’s so-called ‘democratic’ deficit. Three arguments are presented. First, sub-Saharan Africa’s challenge is less a democratic deficit than it is a liberal deficit. The political elite are content to use the electoral mechanism to gain access to power but are thereafter resistant to restraints on that power. Second, organised civil society can contribute to addressing this deficit by contending for civil liberties and holding political authority accountable. Third, sub-Saharan Africa’s deeply religious society can contribute towards the development of such a civil society. The study engages with secondary data analysis using survey data from Afrobarometer to determine sub-Saharan Africa’s ‘deficit’ and whether religion can contribute to the development of civil society in the region. From the survey data it was found that citizens of sub-Saharan African countries understand democracy in its liberal form – ensuring civil liberties and personal freedoms. Furthermore, it was noted that those who are religious are more likely to be civically engaged than those who are unaffiliated, and in time, this can contribute to addressing the liberal deficit.
... Using a national survey conducted in 2013 across Taiwanese cities and counties, this study examined the role of social capital in enhancing individuals' hazard preparedness behaviors. Among various cognitive and behavioral indicators of social capital, it focused on people's involvement in volun-tary organizations, which has been an important indicator of social capital in previous studies (Curtis, Baer, and Grabb 2001;Delhey and Newton 2003;Lee and Fraser 2019;Liu and Stolle 2017;Putnam 2001). The study examined the factors associated with individuals' hazard preparedness behaviors using a two-step process: it first examined how individuals' past experiences of three main types of natural hazards in Taiwan -floods, landslides, and earthquakes -and their perceptions of the risk of natural hazards and selfrated controllability, were associated with their social behavior, as evidenced by their membership in voluntary organizations. ...
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This study examined how individuals’ past experiences and perceptions of natural hazards, as well as their participation in voluntary organizations, were associated with their hazard preparedness. The study first explored how individuals’ past experiences of three types of natural hazards (floods, landslides, and earthquakes), and their perceptions of hazard risk and controllability, were associated with their participation in voluntary organizations – an important indicator of social capital. This study also investigated how individuals’ experiences and perceptions of natural hazards, and their participation in voluntary organizations, were associated with their adoption of preparedness behaviors for future hazards. The results of this study indicated that residents who experienced a natural hazard in the past generally reported better preparedness behaviors although the results differed according to the type of natural hazard. Both perceived risk and perceived controllability were positively associated with preparedness behavior, but perceived controllability was more strongly associated with participation in voluntary organizations.
... Volunteering is unpaid work undertaken for an organization (original emphasis) (Wilson, 2000, p. 13). 2 Yet, courts in the United States rely more on the expectations of individuals than organizational characteristics when determining the legal status of workers. That might seem odd to an international audience and those who associate volunteering only with voluntary organizations, nonprofit organizations (Boje, Fridberg, & Ibsen, 2006;Curtis, Baer, & Grabb, 2001;Oppenheimer, 2000;Salamon & Sokolowski, 2003). We will, therefore, briefly outline how U.S. courts limit the use of organizational characteristics in their reasoning and draw on the wider literature on modern organizations to show why organizational context has only a little bearing on the question of whether a person can legally be defined a volunteer. ...
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This article presents a definition of volunteering that will help organizations and workers, especially those engaged in commercial activity for a social purpose, determine when U.S. organizations can legally draw on volunteer labor. By drawing on recent U.S. court cases, the intentions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to protect vulnerable workers and the wider framing literature on organizational logics, work, and volunteering, we outline under which circumstances workers are considered employees rather than volunteers and therefore covered by the FLSA and entitled to minimum pay. We show that in order to determine the legalities of work under current law, it is necessary, but not sufficient, to consider whether activities are carried out for commercial purposes. What matters most for a legally-informed definition is the role performed within organizations and the promises made to individual workers in terms of compensation.
... Researchers have emphasized that the social and institutional contexts in which people live are significantly associated with volunteering (Curtis et al., 2001;Ruiter & De Graaf, 2006). However, a multidimensional theoretical explanation for how contextual factors of volunteering affect individual volunteering behaviours is lacking. ...
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Volunteer rates vary greatly across Europe despite the voluntary sector's common history and tradition. This contribution advances a theoretical explanation for the variation in volunteering across Europe-the capability approach-and tests this approach by adopting a two-step strategy for modeling contextual effects. This approach, referring to the concept of capability introduced by Sen (Choice, welfare and measurement, Oxford University Press, 1980/1982), is based on the claim that the demand and supply sides of the voluntary sector can be expected to vary according to collective and individual capabilities to engage in volunteering. To empirically test the approach, the study relied on two data sources-the 2015 European Union (EU) Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), including an ad hoc module on volunteering at the individual level, and the Quality of Government Institute and PEW Research Center macro-level data sets-to operationalize economic, human, political, social, and religious contextual factors and assess their effects on individuals' capability to volunteer. The results support the capability hypothesis at both levels. At the individual level, indicators of human, economic, and social resources have a positive effect on the likelihood of volunteering. At the contextual level, macro-structural indicators of economic, political, social, and religious contexts affect individuals' ability to transform resources into functioning-that is, volunteering.
... Bu açıdan bakıldığında bir ülkede sivil toplumun gelişebilmesi için eğitim seviyesinin toplumsal duyarlılığın ve dayanışma anlayışının gelişmiş olması gerekmektedir. Sivil toplum kuruluşu üyeliğinin, kişilerin bireysel özellikleri ile yakından ilgili olmasının yanında yaşanılan ülkenin özellikleri ile de ilgili olduğunu gösteren pek çok araştırma vardır (Grillo et al., 2010;Smith, 1972;Curtis et al., 2001;Janoski, 1998). Söz edilen araştırmalarda genel olarak STK üyesi bireylerin empati yeteneği yüksek, sorumluluk alabilen, farkındalığı ve eğitim düzeyi yüksek bireyler olduğu belirtilmektedir. ...
... Bu açıdan bakıldığında bir ülkede sivil toplumun gelişebilmesi için eğitim seviyesinin toplumsal duyarlılığın ve dayanışma anlayışının gelişmiş olması gerekmektedir. Sivil toplum kuruluşu üyeliğinin, kişilerin bireysel özellikleri ile yakından ilgili olmasının yanında yaşanılan ülkenin özellikleri ile de ilgili olduğunu gösteren pek çok araştırma vardır (Grillo et al., 2010;Smith, 1972;Curtis et al., 2001;Janoski, 1998). Söz edilen araştırmalarda genel olarak STK üyesi bireylerin empati yeteneği yüksek, sorumluluk alabilen, farkındalığı ve eğitim düzeyi yüksek bireyler olduğu belirtilmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışma, organik tarım ve gıda ürünlerine karşı Genetiği Değiştirilmiş Organizmalı (GDO) ürünler ile ilgili öğrencilerinin bilgi seviyelerinin, tutum ve tüketim davranışlarının karşı- laştırılması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın temel varsayımı GDO’lu ürünlere göre öğrencilerin organik tarım ve gıda ürünlerine karşı daha olumlu tutumları bulunmaktadır. Araştırmanın temel materyalini Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi’nde okumakta olan ve gayeli olarak seçilmiş ko- nuyla ilgili olabilecek farklı fakültelerin 15 farklı bölümünden 655 son sınıf öğrencilerinden 2018 yılında anket yoluyla elde edilen veriler oluşturmaktadır. Öğrencilerin sosyo-ekonomik özellikle- ri tanımlayıcı istatistikler ile sunulduktan sonra organik ve GDO’lu ürünlere ilişkin bilgi seviyeleri tutum ve tüketim alışkanlıkları Bilgi, Tutum ve Uygulama (BTU) analizi ile incelenerek karşılaş- tırılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre öğrencilerin, organik ürün tanımı ve özellikleri konusunda yeterince bilgi sahibi olmadıkları belirlenmiştir. Benzer şekilde öğrencilerin çoğunluğu GDO’lu ürünleri çevre dostu olmayan, hormonlu, kimyasal ve katkı maddeler içeren ürünler olarak nitelen- dirmişlerdir. Öğrencilerin büyük bölümü organik ürün (özellikle yaş sebze ve meyve) tükettiklerini belirtmişlerdir. GDO’lu ürünler öğrencilere sorulduğunda ise mısır cipsi, domates, hazır çorbalar, patates ve bitkisel yağlar şeklinde cevaplar alınmıştır. Öğrencilerin organik gıdalara yönelik bilgi seviyesinin artması ile beraber organik ürün satın alma niyetleri olumlu olarak artarken; GDO’lu gıdalara yönelik satın alma niyetleri azalmaktadır. Öğrencilerin gıda güvenilirliği konusundaki bilgi seviyesi organik ürünlere yönelik tutumları olumlu yönde etkilenmekte iken GDO’lu ürünlere yö- nelik tutumları olumsuz etkilemektedir. Bu durum bilgi seviyesinin önemini ortaya koymaktadır. Dolayısıyla öğrencilerin ve bireylerin bu ürünler ve özellikleri konusunda bilinçlendirilmeleri son derece önemlidir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Organik tarım ve gıda ürünü, GDO, Bilgi, Tutum ve Uygulama (BTU) analizi Behaviors of Students Against Organic and Genetically Modified Organisms: The Case of Ondokuz Mayıs University Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the knowledge levels, attitudes and consumption behaviors of the students about organic agriculture and food products versus Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). The basic assumption of the research is that students have more positive attitudes towards organic agriculture and food products compared to GMO products. The main mate- rial of the research consists of the data obtained through a survey with scale in 2018 from 655 final students from the purposefully selected 15 different departments of different faculties who were studying at Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University. After the socio-economic characteristics of the stu- dents were presented with descriptive statistics, their knowledge levels, attitudes and consumption habits regarding organic and GMO products were examined and compared with Knowledge, Atti- tude and Practice (KAP) analysis. According to the results of the research, it was determined that the students limited knowledge about the concept and characteristics of organic products. Similarly, the majority of students described GMO products as non-environmentally friendly products con- taining hormones, chemicals and additives. Most of the students stated that they consume organic products (especially fresh vegetables and fruits). When students were asked about GMO products, answers were given as corn chips, tomatoes, instant soups, potatoes and vegetable oils. With the in- crease in the knowledge level of the students about organic foods, their intention to buy organic products increased positively; while purchasing intentions for GMO foods were decreasing. The level of knowledge of the students on food safety affects their attitudes towards organic products positively, on the other hand their attitudes towards GMO products negatively affect them. This sit- uation reveals the importance of knowledge level. Therefore, it is extremely important for students and individuals to be made aware of these products and their features. Keywords: Organic agriculture and food product, GMO, Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) Anlaysis
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The article reviews a family of multilevel models that can be used to build general theories of the nonprofit sector that are still sensitive to variations in context. The comparative study of the nonprofit (or nongovernmental) sector presents formidable challenges to social scientists who are attempting to advance theory on the sector. Ostensibly, the goal is to model and test theories that are generalizable. Yet, as scholars study topics such as volunteerism, donations, governance, management, advocacy, accountability, and the like in different political, economic, and cultural contexts, they often find different patterns across cases. After reviewing the issues and introducing the idea that time (or more specifically events) can be thought of as context as well, we present an analytical approach for doing comparative research using the framework of hierarchical linear modeling.
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We explore the impact of volunteering on civic attitudes in Romania by using a double comparative perspective. Firstly, volunteering in Romania is compared across time, between 2000 and 2018, based on a series of national and international surveys, such as WVS and EVS. Secondly, volunteering in Romania in 2018 is compared to other 9 Southeast European cases: Albania, Bulgaria, the six republics of the former Yugoslavia, and Kosovo. These surveys, based on representative samples of youth (ages 14-29), allow us to evaluate the impact that engagement in different types of associations has on democratic support, tolerance, generalized trust, political interest and participation. Our analyses indicate a growing level of volunteering among the Romanian youth, both in relative and absolute terms, between 2000 and 2018. At the same time, we found no significant effects of volunteering on generalized trust, tolerance and two measures of support for democratic regimes across three age categories (14-17, 18-24, 25-29), with two notable exceptions: there is a positive effect on generalized trust among the 25-29 years old, and positive effects on tolerance among 14-17 years old. Moreover, volunteering has a positive impact on political participation and political interest. Taken together, these results suggest that youth civic engagement plays a positive role in democratic development in Romania.
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Environmental issues remain problematic, but a growing body of work shows that trust is a solution. Yet, studies offer competing arguments on what type of trust promotes cooperation, generalized versus institutional trust. Further, previous studies use a variety of measures to define environmental cooperation, including membership in environmental groups, recycling garbage, and purchasing green products. These measures are unalike but often considered as analogous. I argue that environmental measures fit within one of two frameworks: first‐order cooperation or second‐order cooperation. To address these discrepancies, I use 2000 and 2010 General Social Survey waves to determine how generalized trust and institutional trust differently affect first‐ and second‐order environmental cooperation. The findings indicate that generalized trust is strongly linked to both forms of environmental cooperation, but the relationship of institutional trust on first‐ and second‐order cooperation is inconsistent.
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Yapılan araştırmalar, sivil toplum kuruluşlarına katılımın demokrasi üstünde olumlu bir etkisi olduğunu göstermiştir. Ancak Türkiye’de sivil toplum kuruluşlarına üyelik düşüktür. Bu çalışma,Türkiye’de devlet ile sivil toplum kuruluşları arasındaki ilişkinin tarihine ve sivil toplum kuruluşlarına katılımı etkileyen faktörleri inceleyen literatüre dayanarak Türkiye’de sivil toplum kuruluşlarına üyeliğin düşük olmasının nedenlerini araştırmayı hedeflemektedir. Bu doğrultuda bu çalışmada, 2015 senesinde Türkiye nüfusunu temsil eden bir örneklem ile gerçekleştirilmiş ulusal bir anket çalışması kullanılmıştır. Yapılan analizler, Türkiye’de kişilerin sivil toplum kuruluşlarını demokrasinin önemli öğesi olarak görmediğine işaret etmiştir. Ayrıca, devletin sivil toplum kuruluşlarını dikkate alması, sivil toplum kuruluşlarının devletten bağımsız hareket etmesi ve vatandaşların çekinmeden sivil kuruluşlarına üye olması gibi konularda katılımcıların büyük bir kısmının olumsuz düşüncelere sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de sivil toplum ve devlet ilişkilerinin problemli tarihinin kişilerin sivil toplum kuruluşlarına karşı bu olumsuz yargılara sahip olmalarına ve dolayısıyla sivil toplum kuruluşlarına üyelikten kaçınmalarına neden olduğu sonuca varmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Türkiye, sivil toplum kuruluşlarına katılım, sivil toplum-devlet ilişkileri, demokrasi, ulusal anket Abstract Previous research demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between democracy and membership in civil society organizations. Turkey is considered to be a country where membership in civil society organizations is low. Relying on the literature on the factors affecting the participation in civil society organizations and the history of the relationship between civil society organizations and the Turkish state, this article aims to investigate the factors behind low civil society organization membership in Turkey. To this end, this article benefited from a nation-wide survey conducted in 2015. The analysis showed that people in Turkey do not consider strong civil society as an important dimension of democracy. In addition, analysis revealed that a large number of people in Turkey think that: civil society organizations in Turkey are not independent from the state; the state does not see civil society as a partner in policy-making; and people are afraid of being a member of civil society organizations. This article concluded that the problematic history between civil society organizations and the Turkish state is a major reason why people in Turkey hold negative views about civil society organizations, and therefore avoid membership in these organizations.
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The rise of far-right movements has accelerated in the last decade as the effects of financial crisis, intersectional social injustice and the COVID pandemics which has led to a disillusionment with politics and fostered the rise of populist actors and claims. Post-communist Central and Eastern Europe has seen radical movements and populist parties gain considerable ground by drawing on nativist and ethnic claims to call for a return to an imagined past, free present and utopian future. In Romania, populist parties have been able to capitalize on a sense of social injustice, national conservative discourse, while also playing on historically negative feelings towards ethnic minorities. These patterns have been observed through the rise of AUR (The Alliance for the Union of Romanians) party which has established a foothold over the past two years. The aims of the article are to examine the evolution of AUR and the reaction of the Roma community towards it, and to analyse the ways in which the representatives of the Roma community are polarized towards the discourse of AUR. The findings of the article show that pre-existing prejudices, long-lasting injustice and newly build conspiracies can be a powerful force that not only targets marginalized communities, but also challenges the mainstream representatives of the party. The reaction of the Roma community is trifold, partly being absorbed by the populist movement, partly reacting against the divisive message expressed by AUR, partly approving the violent discourse of AUR. The second part of article consists in the organization and the interpretation of the main results of a qualitative inquiry we conducted in October-November 2021. During the inquiry, we interviewed online 20 leaders of “Roma NGOs” (non-governmental organizations specialized in the defence of the human, social, economic, political and/ or cultural rights of the Romanian Roma ethnics). The selection of the respondents was based on the principle of reasonable balance in terms of gender, age, location and education as reported to the average Roma civically and politically active citizens. To each participant, we applied a semi-structured interview. For the analysis of the responses, we used the inductive thematic analysis described by Warren and Karner (2014). As a result of this inquiry, we synthesized three main arguments of the Roma NGO militants with regard to the AUR’s emergence’s consequences over the future of the Roma communities.
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Prevailing orthodox organisations – private and public sector organisations alike – are fairly hierarchical, anti-democratic, oppressive, unfair, and unjust. But there are viable alternatives. In fact, there is a whole range of viable alternative types of organisation that put people (and their equal rights, needs, and concerns) first and that are (potentially) democratic in their governance and management, that are non-hierarchical and participative in their organisational structures and processes, and that use multi-dimensional objectives in the pursuit and conduct of their business - e.g. associations, cooperatives, partnerships, worker-managed companies, employee-owned firms, participative organisations, collectivist organisations, self-help groups, exchange networks, community-based organisations, social and political movements, not-for-profit or non-profit organisations, non-governmental organisations, social enterprises, or fairtrade organisations. All these alternative types can be subsumed under the term democratic organisation. This paper develops a conceptual model, a systematic, consistent, and thorough general model of the democratic organisation. Particularly, it presents and describes the democratic organisation’s fundamental principles and values, governance and management, structures and processes, as well as the way(s) it functions and operates both within the organisation and towards others and the environment. And the paper shows that democratic organisations are better, do better, and perform better (than orthodox organisations).
Book
Cambridge Core - American Studies - Multilevel Democracy - by Jefferey M. Sellers
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Is a low level of civic engagement a problem for the development of the Romanian democracy? The review of a diverse array of perspectives and research in this book shows that civil society is not, indeed, “an infallible democratic miracle worker”. Social and political context matter, as well as attributes of organizations and volunteering. An even stronger Nashi in Russia would probably do little to advance democratic development in this country. However, Romania’s institutional arrangements and level of socio-economic development place it closer to the categories of countries that were found to have benefited from a strong associational sector. Coupled with the fact that the Romanian association members have a slight yet significant tendency to carry attributes that are generally associated with the ideal type of democratic citizen, chances are that a higher quantity and quality of volunteering would help its democratic development.
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Although democratic organisations have many advantages (especially compared to orthodox, hierarchical, and managerial organisations), in almost every economic system democratic organisations make up only a small percentage of all organisations. This paper interrogates this puzzle, i.e. why there are not more democratic organisations. It discusses the (alleged) disadvantages and weaknesses of democratic organisations and demonstrates that democratic organisations actually are attractive, capable, and successful. The paper also looks into the reasons why people start or join democratic organisations and provides a comprehensive and detailed summary of all the strengths and advantages of the democratic organisation.
Chapter
Sports clubs in the Netherlands have an important societal position. They play a role in the everyday life of many Dutch people, and they are increasingly asked to take up roles in public health promotion and societal integration. Given their characteristics, it is not surprising that sports clubs are ascribed these roles in policies. On average, Dutch sports clubs have a relative large organisational capacity, because they have relatively large numbers of members and volunteers and they often possess their own sports facilities. These traits make them interesting potential partners for national and local policy-makers from different policy domains. Sports clubs also ascribe this societal position and role as policy partner to themselves. However, this chapter also shows that Dutch sports clubs are still mainly focused on organising their core sports activities, which is challenging enough for many clubs. Policy initiatives aimed at strengthening sports clubs could help to enrich their societal functions. In addition, this chapter illustrates that clubs have difficulty to get their members active in democratic decision-making and volunteering. New ways of designing the volunteering positions are needed to maintain the clubs’ strengths.
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Most studies of the effect of religiosity on volunteering overlook or fail to deal adequately with the possibility that there is reverse causal relation, from volunteering to religiosity, which should be taken into account. Using four waves of the Americans’ Changing Lives study, we estimate a reciprocal relationship between church attendance and religious and secular volunteering, using dynamic panel models with fixed effects using structural equation modeling and measuring both lagged and proximate effects. Religious service attendance increases future religious volunteering via its proximate effect on religious volunteering while religious volunteering has cross‐lagged and proximate effects on both religious service attendance and secular volunteering. On the other hand, there are neither cross‐lagged nor proximate effects between church going and secular volunteering. Religious and secular types of volunteering are reciprocally related, suggesting religious people are drawn into secular work not only directly, but also via their volunteer work for religious organizations.
Book
Political sociology is a large and expanding field, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with the newest developments. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a critical survey of the state of the art and points the way to new directions in future research. The New Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, public policy, and globalization and empire. Covering all subareas of the field with both theory and empirics, it directly connects scholars with the cutting edge. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the New Handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the role of race, gender, colonialism, and knowledge production.
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Macrosocial theories of democratization point to the pluralism attendant on industrialization, class conflicts and alliances, the state and its social environment, and transnational linkages as influential in the growth of political and civil rights. Unfortunately, these theories neglect the ecological and technological histories of many contemporary states. Proto-modernity, defined as a rich demographic and institutional inheritance rooted in the preindustrial past, is theorized to lay the foundations of pluralism and class structure, in essence allowing some states to democratize more easily than others. In this longitudinal, cross-national analysis using data from a maximum of 83 countries, the author finds robust support for the importance of modernity and proto-modernity to the growth of democracy. By contrast, results are inconclusive on whether stratification affects democratization. -Author
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This article examines the crisis of the social democratic model in the four countries (Austria, Norway, Finland, and Sweden) in which social democracy was most successful in maintaining and even extending its two central achievements—full employment and the institutional welfare state—through the end of the 1980s. Four major conclusions emerge from the analysis. First, supply side measures, more so than demand management, were central to the employment and growth models pursued by social democracy prior to the early 1970s. Second, the increasing trade openness contributed little to the recent problems of social democracy. By contrast, financial internationalization and deregulation and the multinationalization of capital undermined important features of the supply and demand sides of the models. Third, changes in the international and domestic economies have weakened centralized bargaining. Fourth, governments in the three Nordic countries made serious mistakes in economic policy, which greatly aggravated their difficulties.
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Modernization theorists from Karl Marx to Daniel Bell have argued that economic development brings pervasive cultural changes. But others, from Max Weber to Samuel Huntington, have claimed that cultural values are an enduring and autonomous influence on society. We test the thesis that economic development is linked with systematic changes in basic values. Using data from the three waves of the World Values Surveys, which include 65 societies and 75 percent of the world's population, we find evidence of both massive cultural change and the persistence of distinctive cultural traditions. Economic development is associated with shifts away from absolute norms and values toward values that are increasingly rational, tolerant, trusting, and participatory. Cultural change, however, is path dependent. The broad cultural heritage of a society-Protestant, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Confucian, or Communist-leaves an imprint on values that endures despite modernization. Moreover, the differences between the values held by members of different religions within given societies are much smaller than are cross-national differences. Once established, such cross-cultural differences become part of a national culture transmitted by educational institutions and mass media. We conclude with some proposed revisions of modernization theory.
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We propose a theory of religious mobilization that accounts for variations in religious participation on the basis of variations in the degree of regulation of religious economies and consequent variations in their levels of religious competition. To account for the apparent "secularization" of many European nations, we stress supply-side weaknesses -- inefficient religious organizations within highly regulated religious economies -- rather than a lack of individual religious demand. We test the theory with both quantitative and historical data and, based on the results, suggest that the concept of secularization be dropped for lack of cases to which it could apply.
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We test the hypothesis, dating from the work of Weber and Tocqueville, that Americans are more likely to become involved in voluntary associations than people of other nations. Compared to previous work, we employ more recent data and consider more countries. We also examine several different measures of membership levels: all memberships versus working memberships as well as membership including and excluding church or union memberships. Cross-national differences are examined before and after controls for education, employment status, size of community, gender, marital status, and age. Results show Americans at or near the top on most measures of membership, although this ranking drops significantly when church membership is excluded and drops even further when only working memberships are examined. In these instances, people from several countries, including Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, and Sweden, equal or surpass the membership levels of Americans, especially when controls are introduced. Some alternative interpretations of the cross-national differences in voluntary association activity are considered.
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This article explores the application of neoinstitutional theory to religious organizations, focusing on how institutionalized myths and rituals of ecclesiastical authority influence members' behavior and attitudes toward organizational policy. Research done on hierarchical and decentralized religious polities (which are structures of church government) reveal differential processes of informing parishioners about church policy. Hierarchical (or “tightly structured”) religious institutions foster knowledge of organizational policy because of the myths and rituals of recognized ecclesiastical authority, while decentralized (or “loosely structured”) religious institutions, whose myths and rituals focus on local autonomy, rely upon members' external motivation for awareness of organizational policy. In part, this article argues for the theoretical usefulness of the application of neoinstitutional theory to various organizational fields, such as religious organizations.
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In contrast to the diverse trends that prevailed for most of the postwar period, unionization rates in the advanced capitalist countries generally declined in the 1980s. I propose a discrete-time hazard-rate model to explain this novel pattern of labor disorganization. Model estimates indicate that union decline is related to growing economic openness, unemployment, pre-existing levels of unionization, the decentralization of collective bargaining institutions, and the electoral failure of social democratic parties through the 1980s.
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Secondary analysis of data from national surveys of Americans, Canadians and adults in four other countries are offered in order to provide perspective on the "Americans as a nation of joiners" observation and related propositions in the literature. The broad hypotheses considered are that: (1) the uniqueness and scope of the American pattern of association joining have been overemphasized; and (2) previous American findings on correlates of association membership should obtain in other democracies as well. For each nation, findings on the relationship of membership to social class, sex, age level and marital status are in essential agreement with earlier American findings. Results on affiliation by community size indicate no consistent direct relationships. Subgroups of Canadians and Americans have similar, comparatively high, proportions of memberships. Analysis of membership by sex shows that the uniqueness of the affiliation patterns in these two countries may be, in large part, a result of national differences in the participatory roles of women.
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In this paper I discuss the factors and processes affecting the prospects for the institutionalization of democracy throughout the world. I survey cultural and economic variables, religious traditions, various electoral systems, the importance of a participatory civil society, and the methods through which political parties should be structured to maintain stability. I conclude that, because new democracies have low levels of legitimacy, there is a need for considerable caution about the long-term prospects for their stability. In many countries during the 1980s and early 1990s, political democratization occurred at the same time as a profound economic crises. Such conditions have already caused the breakdown of democratization in a number of countries. To attain legitimacy, what new democracies need above all is efficacy, particularly in the economic arena, but also in the polity. If they can take the high road to economic development, they can keep their political houses in order. The opposite is true as well: Governments that defy the elementary laws of supply and demand will fail to develop and will not institutionalize genuinely democratic systems.
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Despite a great deal of interest in a possible decline of social capital in the United States, scholars have not reached a consensus on the trend. This article improves upon previous research by providing a model of social capital that has explicit links to theories of social capital and that analyzes multiple indicators of social capital over a 20-year period. The results do not consistently support Putnam's claim of a decline in social capital, showing instead some decline in a general measure of social capital, a decline in trust in individuals, no general decline in trust in institutions, and no decline in associations.
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Through analyses of national surveys of 21 European countries and Israel, the authors test the conventional wisdom in Europe that modernists are to the left of the religiously orthodox on economic justice concerns. Modernists are more individualistic than the orthodox in seeing individuals, not a deity, as responsible for their fates and as the ultimate moral arbiters. The authors hypothesize that modernists are also economically individualistic in believing that the poor or jobless, not the community or state, should solve their own problems. The authors find that on economic concerns, modernists are far more likely to be to the right of the orthodox than to the left.
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We construct an integrated theory of formal and informal volunteer work based on the premises that volunteer work is (1) productive work that requires human capital, (2) collective behavior that requires social capital, and (3) ethically guided work that requires cultural capital. Using education, income, and functional health to measure human capital, number of children in the household and informal social interaction to measure social capital, and religiosity to measure cultural capital, we estimate a model in which formal volunteering and informal helping are reciprocally related but connected in different ways to different forms of capital. Using two-wave data from the Americans' Changing Lives panel study, we find that formal volunteering is positively related to human capital, number of children in the household, informal social interaction, and religiosity. Informal helping, such as helping a neighbor, is primarily determined by gender, age, and health. Estimation of reciprocal effects reveals that formal volunteering has a positive effect on helping, but helping does not affect formal volunteering.
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Movement-countermovement interaction is an ongoing feature of contemporary social movements and, indeed, of contemporary politics. Yet the interplay of contending movements is understudied and undertheorized. This article begins to remedy this deficit by arguing that new work on political opportunity structure provides important insights and significant theoretical leverage for this study. Through a review of the literatures on countermovements and political opportunity, this article argues that this interaction increases when states enable but do not satisfy challengers. This article presents a general framework of theoretical propositions for understanding the interplay of movements and their opponents to animate and guide subsequent research.
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At the macro level, the economics of religion implies that religion will be more vibrant where it is less regulated and hence more competitive. Recent attempts to support this hypothesis are weakened by the use of religious pluralism as a proxy measure for the extent to which the religious market is subsidized or regulated. This article extends the analysis of religious market structure by measuring directly the regulation of religious markets in 18 Western democracies. The analysis provides strong support for the hypothesized connection between religious competitiveness and vitality. The results show that (a) the relationship between subsidized religion and religious participation holds in both Protestant and Catholic countries and (b) its explanatory power is far superior to that of religious pluralism alone. However, certain features of the results suggest that the "economics of religion" should be supplemented with noneconomic variables to achieve adequate sociological explanation.
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in the Western world it is nor difficult to identify areas where families and family ties are relatively "strong" and others where they are relatively "weak." There are regions where traditionally the family group has had priority over the individual, and others where the opposite has tended to happen, with the individual and individual values having priority over everything else. The geography of these family systems suggests that the center and northern part of Europe, together with North American society, has been characterized by relatively weak family links, and the Mediterranean region by strong family ties. There are indications that these differences have deep historical roots and may well have characterized the European family for centuries. There is little to suggest that they are diminishing today in any fundamental manner. The way in which the relationship between the family group and its members manifests itself has implications for the way society itself functions. Politicians and public planners would do well to consider the nature of existing family systems when designing certain social policies.
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Researchers have claimed that trends in voluntary association participation provide the starting point for examinations of social capital - a reflection of the quality of social ties at the individual or community level of analysis. This research addresses the link between participation in voluntary associations and social capital by examining trends in U.S. participation levels over a 21-year period. Using data from the General Social Survey (1974-1994), the findings demonstrate that, although aggregate voluntary association participation decreased between 1974 and 1984, participation increased in the later half of the time period. Further analyses disaggregating participation by the type of voluntary association demonstrate that participation in all but four types of association either increased or remained stable over the period. The article concludes with implications for future research exploring the relationship between voluntary association participation and social capital.