Article

Anti-MRSA Compounds from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers.

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Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the most prevalent pathogens in nosocomial infections. Because hospital-acquired MRSA strains exhibit resistance to many antibiotics and are transmitted from patient to patient via transiently colonized hands of hospital personnel, MRSA infections pose a serious problem for hospitalized patients. We found that extracts of the fruiting bodies and the mycelia of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. exhibited anti-MRSA activity. Therefore, we tried to isolate the anti-MRSA compounds from the fungus. Isolation of the active compounds was guided by anti-MRSA activity. The fungus was cultivated by shaking at 30 °C for 4 weeks. The culture was centrifuged, and the resulting residue was extracted with 85% ethanol, and the extract, after evaporating the solvent, was partitioned between chloroform and water and then ethyl acetate and water. Repeated silica gel chromatography and HPLC of the chloroform-soluble and ethyl-acetate–soluble parts gave five active compounds. The fruiting bodies of the fungus were also extracted with 85% ethanol, and the extract was concentrated and fractionated by solvent partitions between chloroform and water, and then ethyl acetate and water. Repeated silica gel chromatography and HPLC of the chloroform-soluble part gave an anti-MRSA compound.

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... Only erinacine K showed anti-MRSA activity in the direct drop and MIC bioassays. This was attributed to chemical substitutions present in the three-ring skeleton of the aglycon in biologically active compounds expressing anti-MRSA activity (Kawagishi 2005;Kawagishi et al. 2006;Fig. 10). ...
... 10). In clinical tests conducted by a Japanese group, MRSA was reported to have disappeared in a percentage of patients whose diet was supplemented with extracts of both fruiting body and mycelium of H. erinaceus (Kawagishi 2005). ...
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DOI 10.1007/s11557-015-1105-4. Online Medicinal mushrooms have become a compelling topic because the bioactive compounds they contain promise a plethora of therapeutic properties. Hericium erinaceus commonly known as “Houtou” or “Shishigashira” in China and “Yamabushitake” in Japan, has commonly been prescribed in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), because its consumption has been shown to be beneficial to human health. The species is found throughout the northern hemisphere in Europe, Asia, and North America. Hericium erinaceus has been firmly established as an important medicinal mushroom and its numerous bioactive compounds have been developed into food supplements and alternative medicines. However, the correspondence of the active components that cause the observed effects is often not clear. The mushroom as well as the fermented mycelia have been reported to produce several classes of bioactive molecules, including polysaccharides, proteins, lectins, phenols, and terpenoids. Most interestingly, two classes of terpenoid compounds, hericenones and erinacines, from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelia, respectively, have been found to stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis. In this review we examine the scientific literature to explore and highlight the scientific facts concerning medicinal properties of H. erinaceus. We provide up-to-date information on this mushroom, including its taxonomy and a summary of bioactive compounds that appear related to the therapeutic potential of H. erinaceus. See http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11557-015-1105-4
... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the most prevalent pathogens in nosocomial infections. Erinacines A, B, 31 and K 32 were isolated as anti-MRSA compounds from the mycelium. A clinical trial in Japan showed that MRSA in some patients disappeared after they consumed the mushroom. ...
... examined the effects of H. erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. H. erinaceus prevented impairments of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory induced by intracerebroventricular administration of amyloid β(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35) peptide and may be useful in the prevention of cognitive dysfunction. ...
Article
We present a model case study of the activity of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fresh fruit bodies in promoting functional recovery following crush injury to the peroneal nerve in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The aim was to explore the possible use of this mushroom in nerve repair. The activities of aqueous extract were compared to activities exhibited by mecobalamin (vitamin B12), which has been widely used in the treatment of peripheral nerve disorders. Analysis of walking track indicated that return of hind limb function and normal toe spreading occurred earlier in treated groups than in the negative control (non-treated) group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates/neuromuscular junction in extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats in treated groups developed better than in the negative control group. Further, immunofluorescence studies also showed that dorsal root ganglia neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt and MAPK signaling pathways as well as c-Jun and c-Fos genes compared to the negative control group. Akt cascade plays a major role in mediating neurotrophin-promoted cell survival, while MAPK cascade is involved in mediating neurite outgrowth. Immediate early gene expression was also involved in the cascade of events leading to regeneration. Local axonal protein synthetic machinery was also enhanced in the distal segments of crushed nerves in treated groups. Therefore, daily oral administration of H. erinaceus could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.
... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the most prevalent pathogens in nosocomial infections. Erinacines A, B, 31 and K 32 were isolated as anti-MRSA compounds from the mycelium. A clinical trial in Japan showed that MRSA in some patients disappeared after they consumed the mushroom. ...
... examined the effects of H. erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. H. erinaceus prevented impairments of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory induced by intracerebroventricular administration of amyloid β(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35) peptide and may be useful in the prevention of cognitive dysfunction. ...
Article
We present a model case study of the activity of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fresh fruit bodies in promoting functional recovery following crush injury to the peroneal nerve in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The aim was to explore the possible use of this mushroom in nerve repair. The activities of aqueous extract were compared to activities exhibited by mecobalamin (vitamin B12), which has been widely used in the treatment of peripheral nerve disorders. Analysis of walking track indicated that return of hind limb function and normal toe spreading occurred earlier in treated groups than in a negative control non-treated) group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates/neuromuscular junction in extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats in treated groups developed better than in the negative control group. Further, immunofluorescence studies also showed that dorsal root ganglia neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt and MAPK signaling pathways as well as c-Jun and c-Fos genes compared to the negative control group. Akt cascade plays a major role in mediating neurotrophin-promoted cell survival, while MAPK cascade is involved in mediating neurite outgrowth. Immediate early gene expression was also involved in the cascade of events leading to regeneration. Local axonal protein synthetic machinery was also enhanced in the distal segments of crushed nerves of treated groups. Therefore, daily oral administration of H. erinaceus could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.
... Hericium erinaceus (HE), Houtou mushroom in Chinese, has been used as food and folk medicine in several East-Asia countries for centuries [20]. HE has been documented to display a wide range of beneficial properties, including anticancer, antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities, and immune modulation [21][22][23][24]. A group of diterpenoids isolated from the cultured mycelia of HE, namely erinacines, were demonstrated to be potential enhancers of nerve growth factor (NGF) biosynthesis in cultured astrocytes [25][26][27]. ...
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Antidepressant-like effects of ethanolic extract of Hericium erinaceus (HE) mycelium enriched in erinacine A on depressive mice challenged by repeated restraint stress (RS) were examined. HE at 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day was orally given to mice for four weeks. After two weeks of HE administration, all mice except the control group went through with 14 days of RS protocol. Stressed mice exhibited various behavioral alterations, such as extending immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and increasing the number of entries in open arm (POAE) and the time spent in the open arm (PTOA). Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were decreased in the stressed mice, while the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased. These changes were significantly inverted by the administration of HE, especially at the dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day. Additionally, HE was shown to activate the BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways and block the NF-κB signals in mice. Taken together, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could reverse the depressive-like behavior caused by RS and was accompanied by the modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulation of BDNF pathways. Therefore, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could be an attractive agent for the treatment of depressive disorders.
... This species shows a good potential for treating Alzheimer's disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis and even physical damages of nerves (Kolotushkina et al. 2003, Mori et al. 2009). It has been demonstrated by several studies over the last 2-3 decades that H. erinaceus possesses anticancer activities, strongly linked to immunomodulation (Liu et al. 2000, Lee and Hong 2010, Khan et al. 2013, acts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Kawagishi 2005) and even gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori (Xu et al. 1985, Yu et al. 1999 or ethanol ingestion (Abdulla et al. 2009 G. frondosa usually grows on stumps or the base of hardwood trees like oak and weights up to ten kilograms (Rogers 2011). There are 44 locations reported in Slovenia (Ogris 2013). ...
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Abstract: Slovenia with its diverse environment is home to more than 2400 fungal species out of which especially many macromycetes have for millennia been used worldwide as natural remedies. These species of mushrooms were in the past picked from the nature, but today can be cultivated as fruiting bodies or fungal biomass on different substrates. They possess immunomodulating, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activities and can be used against allergies, dementia, Alzheimer disease and in many other diseases. They represent a vast potential as natural remedies with no or very little adverse effects and can be processed into food supplement or further developed into medicines. These mushrooms are a natural treasure, which enables us to be more self-sufficient if we cultivate them for medical and certain species for nutritional purposes as well.
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The potential of ligninolytic enzymes, including lignin peroxidase (LiP) as the main enzyme from the spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus sajor-caju was evaluated for the decolourisation of five dyes from azo and anthraquinone dye groups. Among the azo dyes, reactive black 5 and reactive orange 16 were 84.0 and 80.9% decolourised respectively, after 4h of incubation with 45 U of LiP as compared to 32.1% decolourisation of disperse blue 79. Among the anthraquinone dyes, disperse red 60 was decolourised to 47.2% after 4h of incubation with 45 U of LiP as compared to 5.9% decolourisation of disperse blue 56. Increasing the LiP concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the decolourisation of anthraquinone dyes as compared to azo dyes. A 67.9% decolourisation of synthetic textile waste-water was achieved after 4h of incubation with 25 U of LiP. Increasing the incubation time significantly increased (P<0.05) the decolourisation of synthetic textile waste-water. Further, there was a 52.4% reduction in the toxicity of synthetic textile waste-water treated with 55 U of LiP for 4h. However, only 35.7% reduction in toxicity was achieved when the synthetic textile waste-water was treated with 55 U of LiP for 24h. In this study, it was shown that the spent mushroom substrate of P. sajor-caju could be a cheap source of ligninolytic enzymes for the decolourisation of dyes in textile industry wastewaters. KeywordsTextile dye decolourisation–Spent mushroom substrate– Pleurotus sajor-caju –Toxicity reduction– Artemia salina
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies (HEFB) on the rate of wound healing enclosure and histology of the healed wound. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. A uniform wound area of 2.00 cm in diameter, using a circular stamp, was excised from the nape of the dorsal neck of all rats with the aid of a round seal. The animal groups were topically treated, respectively, with 0.2 mL each of sterilized distilled water (sdH2O); Intrasite gel; and 20, 30, and 40 mg/mL HEFB. Macroscopically, those rats whose wounds were dressed with HEFB and those in the Intrasite gel-treated group healed earlier than those treated with sdH2O. Histological analysis of healed wounds dressed with HEFB showed less scar width at wound enclosure and the healed wound contained fewer macrophages and more collagen with angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with sdH2O. In conclusion, wounds dressed with HEFB significantly enhanced the acceleration of wound healing enclosure in rats.
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