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Emociones Positivas Laborales

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El estudio de las emociones positivas se encuentra en auge desde los años 90 promovido en parte por el interés renovado de algunos expertos por estudiar aquello que “funciona” y “está bien” en las personas (Seligman y Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Las organizaciones son contextos potenciales en los que los trabajadores pueden desarrollar y expresar sus capacidades y fortalezas para alcanzar un mayor bienestar personal y laboral, aunque no sólo dependa de ellos. La denominada psicología positiva ha intentado desde su fundación incorporar el estudio de lo positivo entre sus objetivos con el fin de alcanzar una visión más comprehensiva de la naturaleza humana, incluido el ámbito de las organizaciones. Un primer acercamiento derivado de este auge e interés por lo positivo es el denominado “comportamiento organizacional positivo” (POB, Positive Organizational Behaviour) que se centra en el “estudio y aplicación de las fortalezas, recursos, y capacidades psicológicas que puedan ser desarrolladas y manejadas adecuadamente para mejorar el rendimiento en el lugar de trabajo” (Luthans, 2002, pp.59; Luthans, Youssef y Avolio, 2007). Este nuevo acercamiento estudia cómo capacidades como la sabiduría, la creatividad, la afectividad positiva, el sentido del humor, el optimismo, la esperanza u otros recursos, son utilizados en el afrontamiento diario de las demandas organizacionales y para fomentar el rendimiento. Una concepción errónea de este enfoque sería centrarse exclusivamente en fomentar o desarrollar las variables del trabajador que le pueden ayudar a nivel de resistencia en condiciones adversas laborales, sin realizar los cambios organizacionales necesarios (Garrosa y Carmona, 2011). Complementariamente a este enfoque individual se encuentra aquel que estudia los aspectos positivos del contexto organizacional que influyen en la habilidad de los trabajadores para prosperar (POS, Positive Organizational Scholarship) (Cameron, Dutton y Quinn, 2003). Desde esta perspectiva se pretende desarrollar contextos laborales positivos donde el respeto y las conductas cívicas sean la norma, así como generar posibilidades de desarrollo profesional y entornos amigables donde el trabajador pueda conciliar en mayor medida su entorno laboral y personal. Estas dos vertientes han terminado confluyendo en la denominada Psicología de la Salud Ocupacional Positiva (POHP, Positive Occupational Health Psychology), que además de examinar cómo los fenómenos positivos (procedentes del contexto y de la persona) pueden ser usados para protegernos de los riesgos ocupacionales, promueve la salud y el crecimiento ocupacional (Bakker y Derks, 2010). Un enfoque de este tipo puede esclarecer como los diferentes contextos de trabajo afectan y se ven afectados por las emociones positivas (Ashkanasy y Ashton-James, 2007; Fredrickson y Dutton, 2008).

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Posted 3/2000. The previously unstudied emotion of elevation is described. Elevation appears to be the opposite of social disgust. It is triggered by witnessing acts of human moral beauty or virtue. Elevation involves a warm or glowing feeling in the chest, and it makes people want to become morally better themselves. Because elevation increases one's desire to affiliate with and help others, it provides a clear illustration of B. L. Fredrickson's (see record 2000-03082-001) broaden-and-build model of the positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
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