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Ponsaers, P. & Devroe, E. (2014), “Nationale politiebestellen in beweging in Europa”, Handboek Politiediensten , Internationaal, Afl. 111, 1-60.

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  • Flemish Peace Institute
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During the month of March 2013, some Belgian and Dutch police researchers gathered to discuss a trajectory for the study of the pluralisation of policing in European metropolises. We observed a significant amount of comparative work on different national police systems, but only a minor comparative focus on the local reality of European metropolises. According to United Nations UN Habitat, the growth of urban population was in 1970 only 37%, while the prospective for 2030 is 60% . Benjamin Barber (2013) argues consequently that the future of global governance lies with cities, and the mayors who lead them. Is the concept of the metropolis becoming increasingly important to the detriment of the concept of the national state? It was the group’s understanding that in different local settings throughout Europe policing was indeed transforming, but at the same time there was also the observation that the situation in different metropolises was not systematically documented and that such a comparative project lacked basic information. Anglo-Saxon literature was to a large extent dominating the theme of pluralisation and the group members wondered if the study of plural policing in European metropolises shouldn’t be build on more solid empirical ground. The initiative group agreed upon a few starting points: (1) a list of the biggest metropolises was drawn up to make a selection possible of these cities which were of special interest to be included in this project; (2) each one of the initiative group contacted a scholar specializing in policing in each of these metropolises with the objective of working together on a diagnostic of the policing system in the metropolis of their choice; (3) a common checklist was developed, taking in different points of interest we considered as important for this setup and we agreed that this list would be used by each of the participants of the project, without considering it as a straightjacket; (4) a first outcome of the project would be presented for publication to the European Journal of Policing Studies.
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All societies require mechanisms for preserving social order and control. Among the most prominent of these are the police and the security or intelligence services. This chapter concentrates on the work of the police, as it is the police that have the higher public profile and the greater impact in the majority of instances relating to the normal social activities of a country. Furthermore, given that within Britain there are distinct police organizational structures in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and England and Wales, this chapter will focus on the largest police body in England and Wales.
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Deze bijdrage zoomt in op de verhouding tussen politie en politiek. Peacekeeping is van oudsher de kerntaak van de politie. We beschrijven deze stelling aan de hand van resultaten van empirisch onderzoek, zowel in de Verenigde Staten als in Europa. We stellen in deze bijdrage vast dat de verwachtingen van de politieke klasse ten opzichte van de politie afgelopen drie decennia grondig transformeerden. Steeds meer kwam de klemtoon te liggen op de bestrijding van criminaliteit. Dit gegeven strookt niet met een realistische visie op het concrete politiefunctioneren, dat voornamelijk uit preventieve handelingen bestaat. Dit laatste lichten we toe aan de hand van historische inzichten, waaruit blijkt politie vooral de dagelijkse rust en kalmte in de buurten moest bewaren. In deze bijdrage lichten we een aantal oorzaken toe voor deze politieke visieverandering. Eerst en vooral is een falende overheid de indirecte aanleiding tot de vraag om een ‘sterke arm’. Een overheid die er niet in slaagt sociale rechtvaardigheid voor haar inwoners te garanderen, leidt tot oproer. De bevolking keert zich tegen de meest zichtbare vertegenwoordiging van die overheid: de politie; waarop dan wordt gereageerd met een zero-tolerance politiek. Een tweede oorzaak voor een accentverschuiving naar criminaliteitsbestrijding is de economische crisis: politie is te duur geworden. Andere veiligheidsberoepen (en zelfs de private sector) nemen het dagdagelijks contact met de bevolking over en politie blijft voorbehouden voor de grootschalige criminaliteitsbestrijding. Deze bijlage plaatst deze nieuwe verhouding tussen politie en politiek onder een kritische loep.
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During the last decades of the 20th century, crime rates rose rapidly and complex public safety problems evolved. New actors and organizations from public and private sectors have tried to help governments to satisfy an ever increasing need for public safety. This has resulted in a fragmented policy domain including multiple actors dealing with a wide variety of public safety problems. Consequently, an urgent need for interconnection has emerged. This has led to various mechanisms for coordination of actors, goals and accountability on both administrative and political levels. The chapter describes these seemingly contradictory trends of almost simultaneous fragmentation and interconnection in local public safety governance in the Netherlands, Belgium and England.
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This chapter discusses the most significant reform of the Belgian police system that occurred by law in 1998 3 . The actual implementation of the act dates from the beginning of 2001. The reform includes regrouping of the three regular police forces that existed previously. This involved the municipal police, the Gendarmerie, and the judicial police at the public prosecutor's office. These three police forces were rearranged into 'a single, integrated police force, structured on two levels'. In this chapter we will not limit ourselves to a purely formal discussion of this intervention. In the first paragraph we go back to the origin and significance of the three police forces that were grouped for the reform. The second paragraph goes into the reform and its background, and also how it worked out and how it continues to operate. We close in the third paragraph with an evaluation of the reform, which is discussed now, and also whether or not it is considered necessary to introduce new reform. Origin and significance of the Belgian system prior to the 1998 reform
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Ouvrage téléchargeable sur le site Internet : http://www.europeansourcebook.org/ob285_full.pdf
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The research reported here arose out of a comparison between different types of police harassment directed against groups of young people in the city centre and on council estates in the inner city. I had, of course, experienced the sharp end of city centre policing at 144 Piccadilly. Subsequent experience of working with young people in North Islington (described in the previous chapter) made it clear that a very different set of protocols and procedures were being applied in this case.
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A riot broke out in Brixton in 1981 that was not a rebellion in the sense of an organized attempt to overthrow the lawful government, for it was an unpremeditated outburst of anger and resentment against the police in a context of social and economic deprivation. In April 1982, one year after the Brixton riots, a conference was held at the University of Leicester to consider Lord Scarman's diagnoses and prescriptions. This chapter discusses the repercussion after Lord Scarman's Report was published. The Report itemized and stressed particular issues that arose from the disorders. There is consensus that inner city problems and unemployment must be ameliorated, for “good policing will be of no avail, unless we also tackle and eliminate basic flaws in our society.” There seems to be a common concern that racial disadvantage and discrimination must be fought and eliminated.
Les polices des villes entre local et national: l'administration des polices urbaines sous la IIIe Re´publique,thè se de sciences politiques The Chief Constables of England and Wales: The Socio-Legal History of a Criminal Justice elite
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Vogel, M. (1993). Les polices des villes entre local et national: l'administration des polices urbaines sous la IIIe Re´publique,thè se de sciences politiques. Grenoble: IEP. Wall, D.S. (1998). The Chief Constables of England and Wales: The Socio-Legal History of a Criminal Justice elite. Dartmouth: Ashgate.
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