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The development and validation of a rating scale for ESL essay writing



This article describes an empirical procedure for developing and validating a rating scale for assessing essays in English as a second language. The study was motivated by a concern for the validity of the scoring grid currently used to assess ESL essay writing at Grade 12 in the final end-of-year examination in South Africa. Following an argument-based validation framework based on the work of Kane, we describe the development, trialling and revision of a rating scale. An empirical procedure, based on an analysis of a sample of Grade 12 ESL essay writing, was followed to develop a new rating scale. The validation process is presented in four phases as part of a specification of an evaluation inference. Keywords: writing assessment, validation, scoring validity, rating scale development, ESL writing, multi-faceted Rasch measurement
The development and validation
of a rating scale for ESL essay writing
This article describes an empirical
procedure for developing and validating
a rating scale for assessing essays in
English as a second language. The
study was motivated by a concern for
the validity of the scoring grid currently
used to assess ESL essay writing
at Grade 12 in the nal end-of-year
examination in South Africa. Following
an argument-based validation
framework based on the work of Kane,
we describe the development, trialling
and revision of a rating scale.
An empirical procedure, based on an
analysis of a sample of Grade 12 ESL
essay writing, was followed to develop
a new rating scale. The validation
process is presented in four phases as
Keywords: writing assessment,
validation, scoring validity, rating scale
development, ESL writing, multi-faceted
Rasch measurement
Karien Hattingh and Johann L. van der Walt
North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus)
Journal for Language Teaching, Volume 47, Number 1, pp. 73-105. 2013.
ISSN 0259-9570. DOI:
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
1. Introduction
There is general agreement that rating scales for writing should be based on actual
samples of learner writing (cf. North & Schneider, 1998; Alderson, 1991; Fulcher, 1987,
1993, 2003; Upshur & Turner, 1995; Turner, 2000; Douglas, 2001; Weigle, 2002) as
performance levels. However, many national school examinations use scales that have
been drawn up in a non-empirical fashion by committees consisting of examiners and
teachers, and these are accepted as empirically reliable and valid. A typical example is
the rating scale used in the Grade 12 school-leaving (matriculation) examination in the
public school system in South Africa.
We argue that empirical scale development, as opposed to non-empirical development,
and standardised assessment procedures, is key to improving scoring validity (which
includes reliability), particularly in high-stakes examinations (cf. Bachman, 1990;
Alderson, Clapham & Wall, 1995; Fulcher, 2003; Weir, 2005; Shaw & Weir, 2007).
Relatively few validation studies describe the empirical process followed in the
development of a rating scale, and there is little step-by-step guidance for this process
(cf. Kane, 2001, 2004). Knoch (2009) describes the validation process of a diagnostic
rating scale. Our article contributes to closing this gap by describing the procedure
followed in the empirical development and validation of a new rating scale for assessing
essay writing in an achievement test, and focuses in particular on the reliability of ratings
given in response to the scale. The context is the assessment of Grade 12 English
(NSC) school-leaving examination.
2. Framework for the validation of writing assessment
Current conceptions of validity regard it as an argument concerning test interpretation
and use (cf. Messick, 1989; Chapelle, 1999, 2012; Kane, 2001, 2006, 2012; Bachman
& Palmer, 2010). It concerns the interpretation of test scores rather than the scores
themselves. As validity can only be accessed via validation (Davies & Elder, 2005: 796),
it is necessary to formulate a validity argument in any validation exercise.
A number of writers have argued that rating scales should have a theoretical basis and
North, 2003; Weir, 2005), but, as Knoch (2009: 73) points out, there is at present no
single theory of writing that can serve as basis for the design of a rating scale. Chapelle,
Enright and Jamieson (2010: 4) arrived at a similar conclusion with regard to a validation
of the TOEFL – they found it difcult to base their validity argument on a theory of
languageprociency,as “no agreementexistsconcerninga single bestwaytodene
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They state that Kane’s (e.g. 2001, 2006, 2012) argument-based perspective offers a
different perspective to score interpretation, and offers a solution to this problem, making
validation more accessible than it has been before. This approach does not require a
theory or construct per se, although it does not disregard applied linguistic discussion of
language ability constructs completely. Kane’s (2006:23) approach requires an explicit
statement of the proposed interpretation and uses of scores – an interpretive argument
– followed by a validity argument that evaluates the interpretive argument. Kane
(2006:23)pointsoutthat an interpretive argument laysout“thenetworkof inferences
and assumptions leading from the observed performances to the conclusions and
decisions based on the performance”. It involves the collection of evidence in support
of the proposed interpretations. The validity argument involves a critical evaluation of
the proposed interpretations, based on quantitative and/or qualitative data. In terms of
Toulmin’s (2003) argumentation model, rebuttals and counterevidence should also be
considered in this argument.
Test score interpretations are always based on inferences. Kane (2001:330) mentions
ve basic inferences in assessment: evaluation, generalization, extrapolation,
explanation and decision-making or utilization. In the assessment of essays, a rater
has to arrive at a score after reading the essay. The rater can only do so by means
of an inference; in this case, an evaluation inference. Chapelle et al. (2010:10) argue
that an evaluation inference should rest on a description of the domain of interest,
whichthey also call an inference. Inferencesshould be specied in as muchdetail
as possible, and this involves a statement of the warrants, assumptions and backing
involved. Any inference is supported by a warrant, which rests on an assumption that
in turn requires backing.
The evaluation inference in this article has the warrant that test taker essays are
evaluated to provide ratings that reect Grade 12 ESL writing ability. This warrant
rests on the assumption that the criteria in the rating scale are relevant for and critical
to scoring ESL essays in the NSC examination and that these are applied correctly
and appropriately (cf. Kane, Crooks & Cohen, 1999:9; Chapelle et al., 2010:8). This
assumption should be backed by evidence of an iterative empirical process that entails
thedevelopment,triallingand renement of thescale.Thewhole process results in
the general claim that the test-takers can communicate effectively in writing in English.
Sub-claims may include statements that test-takers can organise ideas coherently,
express their own opinions, produce extended pieces of writing, and formulate ideas
on a variety of topics.
The development of a rating scale amounts to part of what can be termed the design
validity of a writing test. It forms one part of the validity argument (viz. evaluation
about test score use (Kane et al., 1999: 9; Chapelle et al., 2008: 9). In describing the
empirical process followed in developing and validating a rating scale, this article also
demonstrates the types of evidence that can be collected to support the evaluation
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3. Background to the study
In terms of the series of inferences specied by Chapelle et al. (2010), the following
Language matriculation writing paper test-takers usually have a choice between a
narrative, descriptive, discursive or an argumentative topic on which to write an essay of
250-300 words. These options are given in order to provide for the wide variety of test
taker backgrounds, and are an established tradition in the examination. (For this reason,
the essays used in this study were not written on the same topic.) This situation requires a
generic rating scale that can accommodate all these genres. The essay counts 50 marks
out of a total of 100 for the writing paper. Test-takers are given two hours to complete the
writing paper, which, in addition to the essay, also requires them to complete two pieces
of transactional writing (e.g. a letter or report and travel directions or an agenda). The
marks for the writing paper are added to the marks for the language and literature papers
The present scale (Appendix A) for the assessment of essay writing in the Grade 12
examination assesses them in terms of levels ranging from 1 to 7. Each level is linked to
a range of marks that can be allocated to it. These ranges are indicated in the relevant
blocks where rows and columns meet. Although the essay counts 50 marks, a range of
percentages is also indicated next to the code to assist with mark allocation. This scale
was originally developed more than a decade ago by a panel of experienced examiners.
It was therefore based on expert opinion (cf. Knoch, 2009:14). No empirical data on its
scoring validity are available. It contains only two criteria, viz. language and content,
which are not clearly distinguished. It is also unlikely that two criteria can provide an
adequate representation of a complex construct like writing (cf. Knoch, 2009:73). A
rater has to consider a complex variety of features under each criterion, and it is not
very easy to distinguish among them. Some descriptors in the scale are also not very
clear,e.g.what does“criticalawarenessofthe impactoflanguage”mean,and howis
it assessed? It is also not clear whether proof-reading and editing should indeed be
assessed, as evidence of these is not stated as a requirement in the question paper.
The scale also makes imprecise distinctions such as adequate and moderate. Our
experience, supported by feedback from teachers, has been that these are vague and
unclear distinctions that cause confusion and result in inconsistent scoring, particularly
when used by relatively unskilled and undertrained raters. Marks tend to be bunched
around the average, and raters nd it difcult to discriminate between performance
levels, resulting in good essays often being assigned average marks. These poorly-
focused criteria and ill-phrased descriptors seem to contribute to rater variability, slowing
down the scoring process and, ultimately, resulting in scores that are not totally reliable
(cf. McNamara, 1996: 121; McNamara, 2000: 38; Weir, 2005: 180-198).
4. Data collection and analysis
The development and validation of the new rating scale consisted of four phases: A
benchmarking exercise to establish examples of typical learner writing at the various
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levels (Phase One); drafting a new scale by a panel of experts, based on data from
therst phase(PhaseTwo);reningit(PhaseThree);andpilotingthenewscale bya
panel of typical examiners (Phase Four). These four phases outline the procedure for
collecting relevant evidence in order to support the assumptions inherent in the validity
argument so as to support or refute the validity claim.
A randomly selected sample of 200 essays written by Grade 12 learners in a nal
examination was collected to serve as typical examples of learner performances. Based
on the mark originally assigned to each essay by examiners (using the current rating
of education uses a seven-point scale as its standard in all school subjects. The essays
were coded: Level 1 indicated essays scoring 20% or lower, and Level 7 indicated
essays scoring 80% and higher. A working sample of sixty-eight essays was selected
from the original 200, which included essays at each level, and excluded problematic
performances – e.g. essays that were much too short, or ones in which only the prompt
was copied – to ensure a representative sample for further analyses.
Quantitative analyses were conducted during each of the four phases by means of
Multi-faceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) procedures (Linacre, 2006). MFRM is an
application of Item Response Theory. It is a logistic latent trait model of probabilities
that calibrates different facets independently of each other, within a common frame of
reference. All facets are measured on a logit scale. Thus, different facets, viz. test-takers’
ability,raterseverityandtask difculty,can be compared tooneanother.Fitstatistics
give an indication of the degree to which each facet conforms to, or disagrees with,
other relevant facets when measuring the trait in question. MFRM expects variance,
There are no hard and fast rules for determining what degree of “t” (i.e. the range of
accepted variance) is acceptable (Weigle, 1998: 276). Upper- and lower-control limits
mayvary(Park, 2005: 9; Coniam,2010:428).With 1.0 considered a“perfectt”(Bond
&Fox, 2007:285-286)(t valuesgreaterthan 1.0pointingtomistandlessthan1.0 to
overt),some researchers suggest a narrow range with a lower control limit of 0.70 or
0.75 and an upper control limit 1.30 (cf. McNamara, 1996; Bond & Fox, 2001; Eckes,
2005). Others, such as Wright and Linacre (1994), Weigle (1998) and Linacre (2002),
regard lower and upper control limits of 0.05 and 1.50 respectively as acceptable. As
0.5 and 1.5 were considered acceptable for the purposes of this article. MFRM can also
provide measurements of degrees of inter-rater consistency, as well as person-item
interaction (intra-rater consistency) (McNamara, 1996: 121; Schaefer, 2008: 466). Raw
scores alone may be an under- or over-rated view of performance due to different degrees
of rater severity (Engelhard, 1992: 98; McNamara, 1996: 118). All Rasch analyses were
conducted using the FACETS version of the Multi-faceted Rasch program (Linacre, 2006).
The aim of the analysis in each phase is described in the discussion of each below.
Various panels of experts were involved in each phase, and these are also described.
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5. Phase One, benchmarking exercise
The aim of Phase One was to benchmark examples of typical learner performances
National Curriculum Statement (South Africa, Department of Education, 2005) that
writing should be assessed by means of a seven-point scale, as mentioned above.
A panel of fourteen experienced ESL raters from four provinces scored the sixty-eight
essays. They included markers, deputy chief markers, chief markers, and internal
moderators used by the department of education in order try and limit discrepancy
resulting from lack of experience or undertraining in scoring writing as these are factors
knowntoinuencescoring reliability.The original scoresassignedtotheessays by
teachers were not taken into consideration. On average, the panel had nineteen
years’ experience of marking Grade 12 ESL examination essays. All participants were
familiar with the rating scale currently in use, and had a thorough knowledge of the
context in which assessment takes place. This rating was unavoidably done with the
current scale, but we argued that these raters would be able to provide benchmarked
ratings despite any inadequacies in the rating scale because of their levels of expertise
and experience. Scoring took place in two intervals of four weeks each. Raters each
received a set of unmarked and typed copies of the essays to score at home. Each
rater scored at least thirty-two essays, and each essay was scored by at least nine of
the fourteen raters.
Results were processed statistically by means of MFRM procedures. In Phase 1,
FACETS was used to investigate the following:
• the degree to which the sample of essays represented the full range of abilities
on the scale;
• inter-rater consistency;
• criterion(item)difculty(languageandcontent);
• the accuracy of the levels at which essays were benchmarked, based on raters’
scores, and
• the appropriate benchmark level for individual essays.
The Rasch measurement procedure was repeated a total of three times to eliminate all
extreme(miss-and/orovertting)cases.Duringthersttwocalibrations, four essays
were identied as outliers – they had values greater than 1.5 (mistting) or smaller
than0.5 (overtting)–and wereremovedfrom thesample.In eachofthe fourcases,
considerable disagreement between scores was reported. Data on the remaining sixty-
fouressayswerecalibrated for a third time, and no outliers were identied. The logit
scale in Figure 1 presents the results of this calibration exercise, mapping the interaction
between learner ability (Essays 1-64, second column), rater severity (Raters 1-14, third
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column), and item difculty (Criteria 1-2, language and content, fourth column). The
seven levels of writing ability.
Essays ranged across 10 logits (-4 to +6) and all seven scale levels (column ve),
with more essays grouped around the middle than toward the ends of the scale. The
distributionoftheessaysshowedthattheselectedsampleofessayswas sufciently
representative of the range of performance levels to establish typical examples at
different achievement levels. Raters were placed between -1 and +1 logits, with the
exceptionofRater2(below-1),indicatingsufcientinter-rateragreement,with some
variation as expected.
Both language and content are placed in line next to the 0 logit mark, indicating that
these ‘items’ are not distinguished, i.e. they do not measure different aspects of the
construct in question, as argued above. Neither one was consistently scored more
harshly than the other,nor was any signicant bias towards either criterion reported.
(Data on rater bias were obtained from the FACETS analysis, but are not discussed
indetail inthisarticle.) Nosignicantint orouttmean-square valuesweretherefore
reported for the essays, raters or criteria items.
In addition to the vertical ruler report, FACETS reports a reliability index (similar to
Cronbach’s alpha) that indicates accuracy in distinction (e.g. how accurately raters
distinguish between levels of prociency or scale criteria), with values closer to 1
signifying accurate distinction between factors (cf. Myford & Wolfe, 2003, 2004). In this
case a very high reliability index of 0.98 was reported for essays (learner ability), a high
value of 0.93 for raters and a below acceptable value of 0.63 for the criteria language
and content. The fact that highly experienced and well-trained raters achieved an
evidence to support generalising claims about the not typical of the average rater in
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|Measr|+Essay |-Rater |-Criteria|Scale|
+ 6 + + + + (7) +
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | 2 | | | |
| | | | | --- |
+ 5 + 32 + + + +
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | 37 | | | 6 |
+ 4 + + + + +
| | 31 | | | |
| | 55 60 | | | --- |
| | | | | |
| | 14 19 46 | | | |
+ 3 + + + + +
| | 20 38 51 63 | | | 5 |
| | 23 | | | |
| | 34 45 48 | | | |
| | | | | --- |
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+ 2 + + + + +
| | 17 35 49 | | | |
| | 12 42 | | | |
| | 13 24 62 | | | 4 |
| | 53 58 | | | |
+ 1 + + + + +
| | | 10 | | |
| | 57 | 11 14 8 | | --- |
| | 15 36 50 52 7 | 4 | | |
| | | 1 5 7 9 | | |
* 0 * 43 * * 1 2 * *
| | | | | 3 |
| | 22 8 | 12 13 | | |
| | 16 29 33 41 44 | 3 | | |
| | 4 | 6 | | --- |
+ -1 + 30 + + + +
| | 11 5 | | | |
| | 54 59 | 2 | | |
| | 61 | | | 2 |
| | 10 27 56 9 | | | |
+ -2 + 26 39 + + + +
| | 21 40 | | | |
| | 47 | | | --- |
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| | 1 25 | | | |
| | | | | |
+ -3 + + + + +
| | 18 | | | |
| | 3 | | | |
| | 28 | | | |
| | 6 64 | | | |
+ -4 + + + + (0) +
|Measr|+Essay |-Rater |-Criteria|Scale|
Figure 1: FACETS vertical ruler report for Phase 1 benchmarking exercise
The FACETS vertical ruler report (Figure 1) indicates the estimated true level of ability
on the scale (as opposed to the observed values or true scores), with rater variance
considered. The placing of essays as indicted in Figure 1 (second column) in terms of
to the sixty-four essays.
After this analysis, the sixty-four essays were established as typical examples of Grade
12 learner writing across the seven performance levels. They were re-numbered for
procedures in the following phases.
6. Phase Two, drafting the new rating scale
A draft scale was compiled in Phase 2. In order to achieve this, the salient features
of essay writing were identied in the sixty-four benchmarked sample scripts and
categorised. Level descriptors and criteria were then formulated at each of the seven
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a departmental external moderator and one of the authors) took part in this phase. The
participants were selected on the basis of their extensive experience and expertise in the
eldsofESLassessment,L2writingandscaledevelopment.Theysharedan average
Each participant received background reading for the project and copies of the numbered
and labelled benchmarked essays to analyse prior to a workshop. Individual ndings
were reported and compared during the two-day workshop.
In their discussion of the most appropriate scale format during the workshop, the panel
rst consulted the National Curriculum Statement (South Africa, DoE, 2005) for a
denitionoftheconstructofwritingin question,butthedocumentisveryvagueinthis
regard, providing only a number of assessment outcomes to be achieved. The panel
also examined the essay questions in the Writing paper. It became apparent that the
skill of writing at this level was multi-faceted and that the scale would need to address
a number of aspects, such as topic knowledge and insight, organisation, grammar, and
sentence construction. In other words, a multi-faceted taxonomy would be needed to
ensure comprehensive assessment of Grade 12 essays. The panel also investigated
typical,established scales, such as those of Jacobs, Zingraf, Wormuth, Harteld and
Hughey (1981), IELTS (2007) and the TEEP Attribute Writing Scale (Weir, 1990).
Based on these considerations, the panel agreed on an analytic scale, and not a holistic
one, as the most appropriate means of assessing essay writing. This decision was made
in order to prevent construct over- and/or under-representation. Bachman and Palmer
(2010: 324), amongst others, also express their preference for an analytic scale as it
allows for a more nuanced scoring and ties the instrument directly to the construct.
Individual elements of the construct are stipulated, allowing for clearer delineation of
the construct, and therefore more control over whether it is being over- and/or under-
represented. Multi-faceted Rasch procedures allow for more specic identication of
The scale was drafted in the form of a seven-point Likert-type semantic differential scale
with extreme bi-polar descriptors. Semantic differential scales provide binary terms (such
as “black” or “poor” as opposed to “white” or “excellent”) at the ends of a continuum
according to which raters evaluate the degree to which a performance accords with these
extremes (Hattingh, 2009:187-188). It was argued that bi-polar descriptors provided a
they eliminated ambiguous interpretation of criteria. A total score would be calculated by
adding scores for individual features to a total out of 100.
To establish a suitable assessment taxonomy, the panel conducted an analysis of the
writing performances in the essays; rst at micro- (individual features that stood out
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typifying different performance levels) and then at macro-level (i.e. categories of features).
were indeed relevant and to ensure that all performance-distinguishing features had
beenidentied.Followinganemergent-coding approach (cf. Haney,Russell, Gulek &
Fierros,1998;Stemler,2001,2004),theyidentiedthemostsalientfeatures ofwriting
(at micro-level) to be included in the scale as items in the taxonomy, and then arranged
agreed on fteen micro-level features as the most prominent distinguishers between
different achievement levels, and then grouped related ones together. After the second
re-drafting, ve macro-categories emerged, viz. Content, Structure and development,
Grammar, Vocabulary and Editing.
The number of micro-level features in each macro-category criterion determined the
weighting of the particular criterion in the scale. The more features listed under a macro-
criterion, the heavier the weighting of that criterion in the scale. Each micro-criterion
would be scored individually on a seven-point scale, apart from Item 15 (at this stage
Presentation) under the criterion (at this stage still called) Editing, which was allotted two
marks.Thepanel formulated descriptors for the opposingpolesofeachofthe fteen
individual micro-categories. In addition to the draft scale, the panel compiled a scoring
Four weeks after the workshop, ve panel members (excluding the authors) blindly
scored thirty unlabelled benchmarked essays, representing all seven performance
levels, using the draft scale. They scored individually at home. A calibration exercise
draft scale, rater bias towards any of the criteria, and the degree to which micro-criteria
were distinct yet relevant for the assessment in question, i.e. to check the reliability of the
selection of the categories statistically. For this exercise, data were subjected to a Rasch
analysis. MFRM can accommodate items that are scored on different scales in the same
analysisaslongas thenecessary specicationsarestipulatedintheinputle.Thusit
was possible to calibrate the results for the fteenth micro-criterion − a dichotomous
item counting only 2 marks – in the same analysis as results on the other fourteen
micro-features, scored on a seven point scale. Despite the difference in weight, the
performance of micro-feature 15 could be compared to that of the other micro-features
on the same logit scale.
with all raters placed within 1 logit measure, although a negative placement (between
measures reported for raters were, however, within the acceptable range of 0.5 – 1.5.
Furthermore, the items were scored consistently and could thus be used to distinguish
different levels of ability in performances. Rasch reported a high reliability index of 0.95
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
and show little inter-rater variability. A high reliability value indicates variance between
raters, but this is not problematic – it is expected in practice and the MFRM assumes it.
As far as the individual distinctiveness of the scale criteria and their relevance were
concerned, the results were favourable. All micro-criteria, apart from Item15 (at this stage
called Presentation), were grouped closely around the 0 logit mark. This could indicate
that these individual features tap into related aspects or be interpreted as showing that
correlationof0.93for the items conrmed theapparentdistinctionbetweenthe items
intheverticalrulerreport.Furthermore, int-and outtmean-square measuresforthe
items were all within the set parameters. Item 15, the dichotomous item, was placed
as clearly distinct from the other features, which seemed to indicate that this criterion
was ‘easier’ than the others and could be addressing a different aspect. This was not
unexpected, as Presentation could be considered a surface feature of writing, rather than
an inherent feature such as organisation at sentence and paragraph level, or vocabulary
andoutt mean-squaresreportedfor Feature15were 0.72and1.48,whichfallwithin
the acceptable range of t values. These values support the panel’s decision not to
exclude this micro-criterion (at this stage Presentation) from the scale.
in Phase Three.
7. PhaseThree,renementofthenewscale
The aim of Phase Three was to rene the draft.A third panel critically evaluated the
scale in a series of scoring and discussion sessions to identify potential weaknesses,
and experienced ESL teachers from different language and cultural backgrounds
and teaching environments. They shared an average of twenty-one years’ marking
experience, and represented a range of schools from well-performing, privileged schools
to disadvantaged and underprivileged schools. Both quantitative and qualitative data
were collected.
During a two-day workshop the panel trialled the draft scale, subjected it to content
the ten teachers each scored two essays using the draft scale without any discussion of
its content.
After the blind scoring, the panel evaluated the criteria and features in the scale in terms
of the degree to which they adhered to the specications in the National Curriculum
Statement’s Language Programme Guidelines (South Africa, DoE, 2008a) and the
Subject Assessment Guidelines (South Africa, DoE, 2008b). In addition, they discussed
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the format of the scale, the criteria, and their formulation and organisation in the
scale in order to identify any aspects that may interfere with the clarity and consistent
interpretation and application of the instrument.
Following this evaluation session, the draft was revised. For this exercise, the panel
divided into three groups, which each then proposed solutions to the problems areas
revised versions were compared and differences solved through a panel discussion.
was drafted, containing adapted criteria labels, bi-polar descriptors and organisation of
the scale. Changes made to the original draft scale involved the distribution of features
to ensure a fairer weighting of criteria, and the revision of bi-polar descriptors to avoid
ambiguity by providing explicit and extreme end-scale level labels.
Revising the weighting of criteria resulted in a re-distribution of items included under
to replace Presentation (included under Editing) with Length, again weighted only two
marks. The argument was that tidy presentation could not be considered a skill indicative
of writing prociency,whereas the question paper stipulated length requirements to
which test-takers had to adhere. Their inability/ability to do so should be penalised or
Potentialambiguousdescriptorswereidentiedand revised,with afocus onproviding
descriptions that clearly reected extreme performances at the end of a continuum.
For example, the original bi-polar description Demonstrating a lack of insight into and
understanding of the topic (Level 1) versus Demonstrating insight into and understanding
of the topic (Level 7) was rephrased as No insight into and understanding of topic (Level
1) versus Outstanding insight into and comprehensive understanding of topic (Level 7).
The workshop ended with a calibration exercise in which we used MFRM to investigate
essays in this exercise. The data were subjected to a Rasch analysis to investigate the
Signicantrater variabilitywasreported fortworaters, withintmean-squares of2.36
in two essays. In such cases, the relevant datapoints should be deleted from the dataset
for further analyses. The reliability index reported for raters was high at 0.95.
Slightmistwas reportedformicro-feature7 at 1.55intand1.58 outt,andwasnot
regarded as reason for concern. Signicantly mistting and overtting values of 2.22
int mean-square and 4.51 outt mean-square were reported for Item 15 (Length).
Generally, such a misplaced item would be rejected, as such a placement may indicate
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that the feature is not a particularly good discriminator, or may be too ‘easy’. (In this
case, the length would either be appropriate, slightly too long/short, or much too long/
short) After reconsidering their previous decision concerning this item, the panel reached
consensus that it was an essential requirement in the scale. We again concluded that
theovertwas duetothe allocationofonlytwo markstothiscriterion, asopposedto
seven marks for the others. Furthermore, a high reliability index of 0.96 was reported for
each micro-criterion addressed an individual aspect of the writing skill.
Directly after scoring, each rater was asked to provide a one-page written feedback
report, responding to an open-ended question about their scoring experience and
opinion of the scale (in terms of its format, content and organisation of the items, ease
of use, clarity and comprehensibility). This feedback supported the quantitative results,
i.e. that the scale aided consistent scoring and provided an accurate and relevant
taxonomy of items relevant to the assessment of essays. The raters indicated that
the scale was clear, easy to use, and provided explicit and unambiguous guidance to
8. Phase Four, trialling the scale
TwentyqualiedESLteachers, experiencedasNationalSenior Certicate examiners,
were involved in piloting the rened scale in Phase Four. They were a convenience
sample, but were representative of the population of examiners in that they came from
a various L1 backgrounds and schools, which included examiners from historically
advantaged as well as disadvantaged schools.
Piloting occurred during a two-day workshop that followed a two-step process involving
fouron-sitescoringiterations.Duringtherstthreeiterationsraterswere trained and
intra-rater reliability in applying the scale. Seven benchmarked essays were randomly
selected from each of the seven performance levels to illustrate typical performances
across the range of the scale for an initial training session. The rst iteration then
comprised a blind scoring exercise of four essays randomly selected from the sixty-
four benchmarked ones, followed by another training session, during which raters were
asked to motivate why they had assigned a particular score to a certain feature. Any
differences were discussed. In this way any misconceptions and misconceptions about
discussion, explanation, and reference to the rating guide and exemplar benchmarked
scripts. Training and standardisation continued in this manner after the second and third
iterations, during which four and seven additional randomly selected essays were rated
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This training procedure revealed raters’ inconsistent interpretation of four micro-
categories in particular, viz. number one, insight into and understanding of the
topic, number two, originality, number three, mature ideas (Content criterion), and
number seven, paragraphing (Structure and development criterion). The distinctions
between these items were claried by emphasising the main focal aspect of each
of these items appeared to be different interpretations of the role of content in each
of these, with some raters equating mature ideas with insight into the topic. Essays
would then be penalised for both features, even though some essays, for example,
showed insight into the topic (i.e. clear understanding of the topic and providing
relevant information), but without expressing mature ideas on it. Furthermore, some
raters seemed automatically to equate criterion two (originality) with criterion seven
(paragraphing), i.e. if a penalty or credit was assigned to one of these, the other would
automatically be penalised or credited accordingly. After examining the scripts, the
panel agreed that the two criteria were in fact distinct and that such an equation was
not valid.
Two micro-criteria related to paragraphing (numbers three and seven) proved the
most problematic, with the most severe discrepancies in raters’ scoring. In this case
the degree of focus on content had to be claried. Whereas criterion three explicitly
focussed on whether ideas were organised in a logical order, number seven addressed
content in the sense of the degree to which the content of each paragraph supported
the surface structuring of paragraphs. Finally, it was agreed that ‘effective paragraphing’
entailed clear organisation of ideas within paragraphs (criterion three), but also clear
division of ideas into visible paragraphs (criterion seven). So, if ideas were presented in
a logical order, without being clearly organised into paragraphs, criterion seven would be
penalised, but not number three.
Duringthefourth and nal iteration, the raters each scored fteen randomly selected
essays individually, without any discussion.
Scores for each of the four iterations were calibrated and analysed statistically. Reliability
estimates were calculated for each by means of STATISTICA (StatSoft, Inc., 2008). To
investigate inter-rater consistency, the following calculations were done: average inter-
Kendall’s concordance coefcient, based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefcient,
and Cronbach’s alpha coefcient. Intra-class correlation coefcients were calculated
to measure the intra-rater reliability for individual raters (SAS, 2005). To measure the
generalised to other situations, i.e. may be applied consistently by the larger population
of examiners and implemented for the purpose of assessing the writing paper. Rasch
analyses were conducted for each of the four iterations to determine the reliability of
the rating procedure when applied by a single rater and by the group (cf. Stemler 2004;
Shaw, 2004).
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Scores for each of the iterations were recorded and labelled Batches One to Four. The
data generated at each iteration were used to investigate the following:
• the effects of training on inter-rater consistency across the four iterations when
participants apply the draft scale;
• inter-andintra-raterconsistencyconcerningthefteenfeaturesandtheve
• relevanceofthefteencriteria,and
• the degree to which individual criteria represent distinct aspects of writing.
Reliability estimate calculations require complete data, i.e. scores reported by each rater
for each feature on every script scored. For the purpose of reliability estimate calculations,
therefore, only those cases where all raters provided complete scores were used. The
number of observations, in terms of the number of essays and the number of raters
used for the particular calculation, are indicated in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 summarises
Cronbach’s alpha based on it.
Table 1: Results for reliabilities as calculated for each iteration
Batch 1 Batch 2 Batch 3 Batch 4a Batch 4b
Number of essays 4 4 7 12 15
Number of raters 16 17 16 19 17
Average inter-rater correlation 0.90 0.82 0.68 0.82 0.83
Kendall’s concordance 0.64 0.63 0.51 0.81 0.90
Cronbach’s alpha 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.98 0.99
Two raters, however, proved inconsistent in their scoring, assigning very low scores
where the majority of the panel assigned higher scores. They were removed from
the data set. Calculations were then repeated for the remaining data set (Batch 4b)
results for comparison.
Average inter-rater correlation coefcients reported in Table 1 demonstrate an initial
decrease in inter-rater agreement, followed by a steady increase in the nal phases,
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of the selection of scripts scored in the second and third iteration. Scripts in Batch 2
more distinctly illustrated performances at different levels, making it perhaps easier to
distinguish accurately between them than between the scripts in Batch 3, which mostly
contained adjacent performance levels (Levels 3 and 4). Closer examination of the
scores assigned by raters for Batch 3 scripts revealed that raters generally differed within
one adjacent level of each other on individual features. The increasing tendency in later
iterations may indicate that training helped to clarify certain features and standardise
interpretation and application of the scale resulting in more consistent scores.
Table 2 reports intra-class correlations, which indicate the degree to which each essay
was awarded similar scores by different raters. It also reports generalisability estimates,
which indicate the degree to which raters’ performances may be interpreted as
representative of raters in general. In other words, it provides an answer to the question
“Can the results be accepted as indicative of performance of the large population of
raters using the proposed scale?”
Table 2: Results for inter-class correlation and generalisability coefcient as calculated for
each iteration
Batch 1 Batch 2 Batch 3 Batch 4a Batch 4b
individual raters
0.37 0.58 0.30 0.74 0.82
Generalisability for the sum of
all raters
0.90 0.97 0.91 0.98 0.99
Cronbach’s alpha 0.95 0.97 0.92 0.98 0.99
raters, demonstrating that they became more standardised, i.e. more consistent in scoring
that raters were in close agreement in the scores they awarded. High generalisability
the group of markers can be accepted as indicative of typical performances of examiners
in general. There is also a general increase in Cronbach alpha values that resulted in a
high alpha value of 0.99 for Batch 4b.
All data sets were then calibrated individually with FACETS Rasch (Linacre, 2006). The
results were analysed and compared for the four iterations. In comparing the results, the
success of the training procedure became evident, with inter- and intra-rater consistency
increasing as well as improved distribution of scale features. This resulted from more
accurate interpretation and consistent application of the scale.
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Afterthe nal calibration,ahigh reliabilityindexof0.90 wasagainreported forraters.
Fit statistics identied problematic scores on three different essays for two raters
fromfurthertraining, but considering oftheaimof this phase, themis-andovertting
valuesreportedhere were not reasonforseriousconcern. Only one slightlymistting
valueformicro-criteria wasreportedfornumber 15(Length)withint mean-squareof
that the features were clearly distinguished by raters.
Four in a discussion. One point that emerged unanimously was that a zero mark option
had to be included in the seven-point scale, as well as in the Length criterion, as without
it no performance could be assigned a score lower than 15 out of 100 (15 x Level One).
Thisadjustment was made to the scale. Appendix B contains the nal version of the
Qualitative feedback from the raters on the scale was also obtained from a questionnaire
adapted from Shaw and Falvey (2008) after the nal iteration. The panel expressed
some concern about the number of criteria and the time it might take to score them.
Despite these concerns, they unanimously indicated a preference for a detailed scale
which would result in accurate scores, as opposed to a fast scoring procedure rendering
inconsistent results. The raters stated that they found the scale a clear and simple tool
that facilitated objective and consistent scoring, and an improvement on the current
scale. They felt that the proposed scale provided a means for a systematic, structured
assessment of essays, which could make assessment easier, more precise and faster
once raters have been trained in its use.
The MFRM report supported the qualitative results. There was an improvement in rater
consistency across the four iterations during training. This suggests that, although the
scale may seem complex at rst, it may be useful for scoring essays by both more
and less-experienced raters. We believe that less-experienced raters in particular may
9. Conclusion
This article contains a step-by-step description of the process followed in developing and
validating a rating scale for the assessment of writing. Our approach was that any scale
must be based on samples of learner writing, and that scale validation involves both
a priori and posteriori procedures. We adopted an argument-based validation process
instead of an accumulation-of-evidence approach, which is problematic because it is
2008:320). Phases One to Four illustrate how one aspect of an evaluation inference
prompts empirical development of a rating scale, and contributes to the backing for the
assumption and warrant of the inference. The development of the scale amounts to an
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argument-within-an-argument, as it is situated within the overall validity argument for
the assessment of writing in Grade 12. It is part of the evaluation inference, which in
turn forms part of the overall validity argument. The assessment of writing in the Grade
12 examination needs to be investigated as a whole to arrive at a complete validity
argument, and the generalization, explanation, extrapolation and utilization inferences
need to be investigated to complete a full validity argument for a writing test (for a
discussion of each of these, see Chapelle et al., 2010).
Further research on the wider implementation of the scale is, of course, necessary,
to provide further backing for its validity. Based on the results reported here, we are
condentthatthe proposed ratingscalemeetsvalidity requirementsandwouldbe an
appropriate instrument for the assessment of essay writing in the NSC examination in
South Africa.
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Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Appendix A: Current rating scale
Outstanding Meritorious Substantial Adequate Moderate Elementary Not achieved
- Language,
used. Uses
- Choice of
- Sentences,
- Style, tone,
register highly
suited to topic.
- Text virtually
- Length in
of topic.
- Language,
correct, and
able to include
- Choice of
words varied
- Sentences,
logical, varied.
- Style, tone,
suited to topic.
- Text largely
- Length
- Language and
mostly correct.
- Choice of
words suited to
- Sentences,
- Style, tone,
register suited
topic in most
of the essay.
- Text by and
large error-free
- Length
- Language
- Choice
of words
- Sentences,
might be faulty
in places but
essay still
makes sense.
- Style, tone,
with topic
- Text still
contains errors
-Length correct.
- Language
ordinary and
- Choice of
words basic.
- Sentences,
faulty but
ideas can be
- Style, tone,
register lacking
in coherence.
- Text contains
several errors
- Length – too
long / short.
- Language and
- Choice of
words limited.
- Sentences,
constructed at
an elementary
- Style, tone,
- Text error-
ridden despite
- Length – too
long / short
- Language
- Choice of
- Sentences,
- Style, tone,
in all aspects.
- Text error-
ridden and
- Length – far
too long / short
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Outstanding Meritorious Substantial Adequate Moderate Elementary Not achieved
CONTENT Code 7: 80 –
Code 6: 70 –
Code 5: 60 –
Code 4: 50 –
Code 3: 40 –
Code 2: 30 –
Code 1: 00 –
- Content shows
impressive insight
into topic.
- Ideas: thought-
provoking, mature.
- Coherent
development of
topic. Vivid detail.
- Critical awareness
of impact of
- Evidence of
planning and/or
drafting has
presentable essay.
Code 7
40 - 50 38 – 42 35 – 39
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Outstanding Meritorious Substantial Adequate Moderate Elementary Not achieved
- Content
shows thorough
interpretation of
- Ideas:
- Logical
development of
details. Coherent.
- Critical awareness
of impact of
- Evidence of
planning and/or
drafting has
produced a well-
crafted, presentable
Code 6
38 – 42 35 – 39 33 – 37 30 – 34
- Content shows a
sound interpretation
of topic.
- Ideas: interesting,
- Several relevant
details developed.
- Critical awareness
of language
- Evidence of
planning and/or
drafting has
produced a
presentable and
very good essay.
Code 5
35 – 39 33 – 37 30 – 34 28 – 32 25 - 29
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Outstanding Meritorious Substantial Adequate Moderate Elementary Not achieved
- Content:
an adequate
interpretation of
- Ideas: ordinary,
lacking depth.
- Some points,
necessary details
- Some awareness
of impact of
- Evidence of
planning and/or
drafting has
produced a
presented essay.
Code 4
30 – 34 28 – 32 25 – 29 23 – 27 20 – 24
- Content: ordinary.
Gaps in coherence.
- Ideas: mostly
relevant. Repetitive.
- Some necessary
points evident.
- Limited critical
- Evidence of
planning and/or
drafting that
has produced
a moderately
and coherent
Code 3
25 – 29 23 – 27 20 – 24 18 – 22 w15 – 19
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Outstanding Meritorious Substantial Adequate Moderate Elementary Not achieved
- Content not
always clear, lacks
- Ideas: few ideas,
often repetitive,
- Sometimes off
topic. General line
of thought
- Inadequate
evidence of
Essay not well
Code 2
20 – 24 18 – 22 15 – 19 03 – 17
Not Achieved
- Content irrelevant.
No coherence.
- Ideas: repetitive,
off topic.
- Non-existent
presented essay.
Code 1 00-29%
15 – 19 03 – 17 00 – 14
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Appendix B: Proposed New Rating Scale
Poor Adequate Very good
No insight into and
understanding of topic.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outstanding insight
into and comprehensive
understanding of topic.
Hardly any originality
and/or little interest/
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Highly original/ Fresh
perspective/ original/
engaging creativity.
Irrelevant and immature
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Matureandthought
provoking ideas.
Does not follow the
conventions of essay
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ideally follows conventions
of essay type.
Incoherentowofideas. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Highlycoherentowof
No division into
introduction, body,
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Effective division into
introduction, body and
No paragraphing. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Effective paragraphing.
Incorrect syntax. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Correct syntax.
Incorrect tense &
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Correct tense & concord.
No variety in range of
sentence types.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wide variety in range of
sentence type.
spelling & punctuation.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Error-free spelling &
Limited range. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extended range.
Inappropriate style,
diction & register.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Highly appropriate style,
diction & register.
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Poor Adequate Very good
Ineffective use of linking
devices (words &
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sophisticated use of linking
devices (words & phrases).
Deviates from
0 1 2 Adheres to requirement.
Appendix C: Rating Guide for Proposed New Scale
A. CONTENT This category concerns the ideas presented in the essay in terms of
relevance and topicality; novelty, progression and appropriateness.
1 Insight into and
understanding of the
Assess whether candidate has addressed, developed and sustained
the topic.
2 Originality and/or
Assess the e xtent to which the essay engages the reader.
Give credit for any response that provides fresh/creative
perspective on the topic.
3 Relevance and
maturity of ideas
The essay must be clearly relevant to the topic.
Ideas should be thought through and contribute to the main topic.
4 Appropriateness of
structure to text type
The main sections of the essay must follow the conventions of the
essay type (argumentative, narrative, descriptive, comparison and
contrast, cause and effect).
5 Flow of ideas
through the essay
The essay must show natural/ logical progression of ideas/
events/ facts from the introduction to the conclusion and between
This category refers to the way information is organised in the
essay in accordance to the essay type (argumentative, narrative,
descriptive, comparison and contrast, cause and effect).
6 Introduction, body
and conclusion
The essay must contain a clear introduction, body and conclusion.
7 Paragraphing The essay must be divided into paragraphs.
Each paragraph must have a main idea (usually a topic sentence).
The main idea should be developed further by the supporting
sentences in the paragraph.
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
A. CONTENT This category concerns the ideas presented in the essay in terms of
relevance and topicality; novelty, progression and appropriateness.
C.GRAMMAR This section deals with the accurate use of grammatical structures.
8 Syntax As a rule, sentences must be complete (subject & main verb), and
contain correct word order. Exceptions used for creative effect
should not be penalised if appropriate.
9 Use of tense and
Tense and concord must be used correctly and appropriately.
10 Range of sentence
The essay must demonstrate a variety of sentence types and
sentences of different lengths and structures accurately and
11 Spelling and/or
capitalisation and
Spelling must be accurate (this includes the use of the apostrophe)
Capital letters must be used appropriately.
If the entire essay is written in capital letters, award a maximum of 3
for category C11.
Punctuation (e.g. full stops, commas, colons, dashes and inverted
commas) must be used appropriately and correctly.
D. VOCABULARY This section assesses the extent, accuracy and appropriateness of
a candidate’s vocabulary.
12 Range of vocabulary Candidateshavetodemonstratethattheyhaveasufcientextent
of vocabulary to express their ideas.
Credit must be given for sophistication in words and expressions.
13 Appropriateness of
Words must be used correctly and appropriately.
Assess the candidate’s ability to use style appropriately, such as
formal and informal, narrative, descriptive and argumentative.
14 Use of linking words
and phrases
The candidate demonstrates the ability to use conjunctions,
pronouns, adverbs and other devices to link parts of sentences,
sentences and paragraphs.
E. LENGTH Thecandidatemustadheretothelengthlimitationasspeciedon
the examination question paper.
Journal for Language Teaching | Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig
Karien Hattingh
North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus)
Karien Hattingh holds a PhD from North-West University and is subject chair of the
Subject Group English at the Potchefstroom Campus. Her research interests include
second language assessment, writing and forensic linguistics.
Johann van der Walt
North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus)
Johann van der Walt is president of the South African Association for Language Teaching
(SAALT) and is emeritus professor of English at the Potchefstroom Campus. His
research interests include second language assessment, course design and evaluation,
and second language acquisition.
... There is the occasional study available on using alternative methods to assess oral proficiency (Van der Walt et al., 2008), or on the development and validation of a rating scale. In this particular case, for essay writing in English as a second language as part of the final national senior certificate examination within a South African context (Hatting & Van der Walt, 2013). ...
... It is, therefore, clear that these descriptors are at a too high level to be useful at the beginning stages of learning a foreign language. As in the study conducted by Hatting and Van der Walt (2013), it is apparent that one would have to explore alternative ways to find an appropriate rating scale for the context of the current study. ...
Full-text available
The study explored storytelling strategies used by teachers to facilitate children’s development of story comprehension. Seven educators and forty-four preschoolers, aged three to five years, participated in the study at a primary school situated in Masvingo, Zimbabwe. Learners listened to six cultural stories randomly selected from different genres that included fables, myths, and legends. A Grounded Theory approach to data gathering and analysis was used to develop the ‘recycling of knowledge’ theory. Findings suggested that ‘recycling of knowledge’ served as the primary social process, which provided teachers with the most effective strategies for improving children’s comprehension of stories. The study recommended that Early Childhood Development (ECD) educators should implement strategies involved in the recycling of knowledge theory to improve children’s early literacy and story comprehension.
... There is the occasional study available on using alternative methods to assess oral proficiency (Van der Walt et al., 2008), or on the development and validation of a rating scale. In this particular case, for essay writing in English as a second language as part of the final national senior certificate examination within a South African context (Hatting & Van der Walt, 2013). ...
... It is, therefore, clear that these descriptors are at a too high level to be useful at the beginning stages of learning a foreign language. As in the study conducted by Hatting and Van der Walt (2013), it is apparent that one would have to explore alternative ways to find an appropriate rating scale for the context of the current study. ...
Interactional oral language proficiency is a core component of modern foreign language education with ‘speaking fluently’ a central learning objective (Eisenmann & Summer, 2012). In spite of its importance, speaking is a difficult skill to assess (Tajeddin et al., 2011; Yan, 2014), and there is a gap in literature regarding the reliable and valid assessment of the very basic level of speaking skills. This paper reports on the development process of an assessment instrument, which was conducted as action research and involved both quantitative and qualitative data collection and an analysis. The learning environment and its related technology-enhanced out-of-class practice environment within which the research was conducted, focus on beginner foreign language students. Activities include computer-mediated communication and face-to-face oral activities. In order to address the need for a valid and reliable assessment instrument, a first version of the instrument was created and subsequently used to assess both computer-mediated communication and face-to-face oral activities. The reliability of the instrument was investigated during two action research cycles by means of studying the consistency, consensus estimates, and intra-rater reliability. The results from the two cycles of investigation informed changes to the instrument, and this ultimately resulted in two assessment instruments that differentiate between technology-enhanced activities and personal interaction. Similar to Gruhn and Weideman (2017), this study was of an exploratory nature and additional design principles would have to be evaluated over a longer period of time.
... In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in exploring the use of analytic scales in the field of assessment and particularly in the assessment of second language writing skills. Most of this research focuses on enhancing both validity and reliability of an analytic scale when different instructors are involved in the assessment process (e.g., Hattingh & van der Walt, 2013). ...
Language classes are marked using rubrics. Nevertheless, using the same rubric does not necessarily automate a uniform interpretation of the rubric. It is important to clearly define rubric criteria for teachers in order to counter the problem of misalignment in the usage of the rubric to mark learner essays. This article presents and explains a rubric explanation guide for the marking of Sesotho Grade 10 HomeLanguage creative writing essays based on the interpretations of nine teachers from six schools in the Metsimaholo education district. The explanation guide is presented bilingually in English and Sesotho. This article presents a more in-depth explanation guide for the rubricwhich was proposed in Sibeko (2016). The aim hereof is to ensure that teachers comparably understand rubric criteria and approach marking from the same point of view. For the purpose of this article, the rubric used by teachers in the said district is discussed. Both novice and experienced teachers stand to benefit from this explained rubric guide.
South African universities face major challenges in meeting the needs of their students in the area of academic language and literacy. The dominant medium of instruction in the universities is English and, to a much lesser extent, Afrikaans, but only a minority of the national population are native speakers of these languages. Nine other languages can be media of instruction in schools, which makes the transition to tertiary education difficult enough in itself for students from these schools. The focus of this book is on procedures for assessing the academic language and literacy levels and needs of students, not in order to exclude students from higher education but rather to identify those who would benefit from further development of their ability in order to undertake their degree studies successfully. The volume also aims to bring the innovative solutions designed by South African educators to a wider international audience.
Article is at
Writing is one of the central skills a student must master. Why should they be tested? How should they be tested? What tasks should be used? The answers to these questions are provided by this book, which examines the theory behind the practice of assessing a student's writing abilities.
This article is at
This article describes the process and discourse stances of a team of teachers involved in deriving a rating scale for writing ability. The research was carried out within a Ministry of Education of Quebec (MEQ) project whose objective was to develop empirically based rating scales for secondary-level ESL provincial exams. The study focused on instances during the process where actions of the participants and/or their use of the data sample (i.e., student writing samples) could be shown to influence the criteria for the rating scale and in turn the final ratings (i.e., areas where there was potential for variation within the two test method characteristics of scale development team and sample used). Through a qualitative analysis, it expands on earlier research (Turner & Upshur, 1999) that reports on the quantitative results of method characteristics in such empirically derived scales. This study provides a description of the nature of these test method characteristics.
This article describes a study conducted to explore differences in rater severity and consistency among inexperienced and experienced raters both before and after rater training. Sixteen raters (eight experienced and eight inexperienced) rated overlapping subsets of essays from a total sample of 60 essays before and after rater training in the context of an operational administration of UCLA’s English as a Second Language Placement Examination (ESLPE). A three-part scale was used, comprising content, rhetorical control, and language. Ratings were analysed using FACETS, a multi-faceted Rasch analysis program that provides estimates of rater severity on a linear scale as well as fit statistics, which are indicators of rater consistency. The analysis showed that the inexperienced raters tended to be both more severe and less consistent in their ratings than the experienced raters before training. After training, the differences between the two groups of raters were less pronounced; however, significant differences in severity were still found among raters, although consistency had improved for most raters. These results provide support for the notion that rater training is more successful in helping raters give more predictable scores (i.e., intra-rater reliability) than in getting them to give identical scores (i.e., inter-rater reliability).
The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions and require extensive evidence for their support. Simpler interpretations do not claim much, and therefore, may not require much evidential support. The evaluation of score based decisions generally requires an evaluation of the consequences of the decision rule. In any case, the claims that are being made need to be justified.