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This work aimed to produce jellies with the collagen extracted from chicken feet. Jelly samples were prepared with flavors of pineapple (GAB) and white chocolate (GCB). Using a hedonic scale, 30 untrained tasters evaluated sensory acceptance and willingness to consume the jellies. Results showed that GCB and GAB samples, respectively, scored 7.8 and 7.4 in the hedonic scale for all sensory attributes; indicating that both products had good acceptance. In relation to the willingness to consume the GCB and GAB samples, 85 and 74% of consumers, respectively, declared that they would consume once a week.
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http://www.uem.br/acta
ISSN printed: 1679-9275
ISSN on-line: 1807-8621
Acta Scientiarum
Doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.10602
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 34, n. 3, p. 345-351, July-Sept., 2012
Collagen extraction from chicken feet for jelly production
Poliana Fernandes de Almeida1,2, Marleide Guimarães Oliveira de Araújo2 and José Carlos
Curvelo Santana1*
1Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Nove de Julho, Av. Francisco Matarazzo, 612, 05001-100, Água
Branca, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 2Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
*Author for correspondence. E-mail: jccurvelo@uninove.br
ABSTRACT. This work aimed to produce jellies with the collagen extracted from chicken feet. Jelly
samples were prepared with flavors of pineapple (GAB) and white chocolate (GCB). Using a hedonic scale,
30 untrained tasters evaluated sensory acceptance and willingness to consume the jellies. Results showed
that GCB and GAB samples, respectively, scored 7.8 and 7.4 in the hedonic scale for all sensory attributes;
indicating that both products had good acceptance. In relation to the willingness to consume the GCB and
GAB samples, 85 and 74% of consumers, respectively, declared that they would consume once a week.
Keywords: chicken feet, sensory attributes, jelly.
Obtenção de colágeno a partir de tarsos de frangos para produção de geleias
RESUMO. Este trabalho objetivou a produção de geleias a partir do colágeno extraído dos tarsos de frango.
Prepararam-se amostras com sabor de abacaxi (GAB) e chocolate branco (GCB). Trinta provadores não-
treinados avaliaram, em escala hedônica, a aceitação sensorial e a disponibilidade em se consumir as geleias.
Os resultados mostraram que as amostras GCB e GAB obtiveram uma média, respectivamente, de 7,8 e 7,4
em escala hedônica, para todos os atributos; indicando que ambos os produtos foram bem aceitos. Quanto
ao consumo das amostras GCB e GAB, 85 e 74% dos provadores, respectivamente, indicou que
consumiriam uma vez por semana.
Palavras-chave: pés de frango, qualidades sensoriais, geleia.
Introduction
The development of new food products has been
studied, through the discovery of new sources of
food or the reuse of by-products or wastes. For this,
nutritional and sensory aspects should be taken into
account, so they could supply some vitamin or
minerals without rejection the product by the
consumers. In this context, there are the so-called
functional foods (BARCELOS et al., 2002;
BARIMALAA; OKOROJI, 2009; LENTZ, 2008;
RODRIGUES et al., 2011).
In this way, new products have been developed
in our country, such as the yeasts of cashew, iamb
and mangaba (ALMEIDA et al., 2005); guava-based
drinks (SANTOS et al., 2007), drinks of acerola
enriched with nutrients of cassava leaves
(ALMEIDA et al., 2003); cassava spirit
(CURVELO-SANTANA et al., 2010; FERREIRA
et al., 2005; SUMAN et al., 2011); liquor from
tangerine peel (VIANA et al., 2011); wines of
mandacaru fruits (ALMEIDA et al., 2006), of acerola
(ALMEIDA et al., 2008, 2010; SANTANA et al.,
2010; SANTOS et al., 2005), of hog plum
(NARAIN et al., 2004; SEVERO JÚNIOR et al.,
2007) and of cashew (COSTA et al., 2006); essential
oil from orange rind (EVANGELISTA et al., 2010);
snacks of pupunha and cassava (CARVALHO et al.,
2009); chocolate-based drink produced with water-
soluble soybean extract and cheese whey
(MOREIRA et al., 2010); cereal bars with jackfruits
(SANTOS et al., 2011) and malt and beer of corn
(BIAZUS et al., 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2009; SEVERO
JÚNIOR et al., 2005).
The waste generated in industries of meat
products are frequently very large and represent a
serious problem due to the high content of organic
matter, and these wastes can serve as sources of
microorganisms’ proliferation. Thus, according to
Pardi et al. (2001) and Pelizer et al. (2007), the
environmental problems are worsened by
inadequate treatment of industrial solid waste. In
this way, it is necessary to minimize these wastes,
even before they reach the grease and rendering
plants.
The increasing concern for the environment has
been mobilizing several segments of the market.
346 Almeida et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 34, n. 3, p. 345-351, July-Sept., 2012
Numerous government agencies and industries are
preparing to implement an environmental policy
that reduces the negative impacts on nature
(GIRAÇOL et al., 2011; PELIZER et al., 2007).
Accordingly given the current situation where the
competitiveness reigns, a special attention is being
given to minimize or reuse solid wastes generated
during industrial processes (LAUFENBERG et al.,
2003; PASSARINI et al., 2012).
According to Barbieri (2004), a new attitude is
required from the entrepreneurs and managers to
obtain the solution or minimization of
environmental problems. These actors must
consider the environment in their decisions,
adopting administrative and technological
conceptions that contribute to increase the carrying
capacity of the planet.
Therefore the competition has influenced the
industries to develop new sources of competitive
advantages, requiring a continuous innovative
process. This has led the companies to generate and
use technologies and tools to create opportunities
for new products, services and industrial processes
(QUADROS et al., 2010). Pressured by the new
challenges, the aviculture aims to fit itself to the new
world of intense competition and environmental
protection laws. The waste generated become part of
the production process, emphasizing the importance
of choosing the best destination of these, aiming an
activity with higher sustainability.
In this context, the practices to minimize wastes
are economically advantageous, since they offer
possibilities to save products and processes to treat
them, considering the environmental control.
Several by-products considered as waste are used to
manufacture meals, such as skin, feet, bones, blood,
among others. This is confirmed by Padilha et al.
(2006) and the fate of industrial waste generated in
the slaughtering and processing of chickens without
commercial purposes, such as viscera, head, feet,
skin, fat, bone, and disqualified carcasses may be the
factory of by-products, or depending on the manner
of the process of pet food industrialization (the raw
material is a by-product from a secondary process
obtained when manufacturing a core product), they
can be processed raw or cooked.
Despite of commercial purposes of the waste
generated in the slaughter of chickens, the studies in
this area have not advanced much in order to
identify other forms and/or technologies of
treatment and disposal, which are of concern to the
Brazilian poultry industry. Some companies have
gradually developed technologies to solve these
bottlenecks in the environmental scope related to
the production (PADILHA et al., 2006).
According to Laufenberg et al. (2003), the waste
may contain many substances with high values. If
employing an appropriate technology, this material
can be converted into commercial products or raw
materials to secondary processes. In this way, several
food wastes disposed previously as useless currently
are transformed into by-products with wide
commercial acceptance. An alternative to take
advantage of the waste is the development of new
products, providing a better destiny with higher
commercial value to them.
With the increasing world population, it is
necessary to search for alternative foods to meet
demand. However these alternative sources should
have not only nutritive food produced at large scale
with low cost, but also should present good sensory
characteristics (COSTA et al., 2008). The raw
material considered as waste in some regions can be
the base of traditional by-products with high added
value in other regions. For instance, in some Asian
countries, chicken feet are a delicacy, but in Brazil,
the consumers do not have much interest in these
products. The sale of a ton of chicken feet is below
1.0 R$ ton-1. These characteristics of national market
are crucial to define its low sale price.
Alves and Prudêncio-Ferreira (2002) obtained
collagen from skin and feet of chicken. The yield of
dehydrated collagenous materials was around 16% in
relation the weight of skin and tendon in nature.
Dehydrated materials were obtained with high
content of collagen. The lyophilisation process was
more efficient for removing water from the material
and resulted in a product with higher content of
lipids. They exposes that, on average, 5.5 kg of skin
can be taken from a normal pig carcass, and it is
obtained a solution with only about 5% of gelatin in
the extraction process.
Food and pharmaceutical industries throughout
the world are observing a growing demand for
collagen and gelatin. The most popular and used is
the gelatin of mammals (pigs and cattle) that are
subjected to greater restrictions and skepticism
among consumers, by socio-cultural and health
concerns (KARIM; BHAT, 2009).
This demand for new gelling agents to replace
the gelatin of mammals has guided several studies
on different raw materials, such as for example the
gelatin of marine origin (fish skin, bone, and fins)
(HAUG et al., 2004), and other surveys focusing the
extraction and classification of gelatin from fish as
verified in Badii and Howell (2006), Haug et al.
(2004), Arnesen and Gildberg (2007), Gómez-Estaca
et al. (2009), Soung-Hun et al. (2006), however it is
an underused source.
In this context, the present study aimed at
producing jellies with the collagen extracted from
low cost raw material, in order to verify the
Jelly manufacture from chicken waste 347
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 34, n. 3, p. 345-351, July-Sept., 2012
acceptability of the product and adjust the
processing method, and evaluates it according to its
sensory attributes.
Material and methods
Development of jellies
In general, jellies are develop from fruits, but
there are also the calf’s foot jellies from animal
origin, in this sense we opted to designate the
product as jellies, since they have in their
formulation raw materials of animal origin, such as
the feet of chicken and milk, and we also sought a
final consistency similar to calf’s foot jelly.
The raw material used in the processing of jellies
was feet of freshly slaughtered chicken from the
Federal Institute of Education, Science and
Technology of Mato Grosso – Campus São Vicente.
The jelly production, using chicken feet, is a
relatively easy and fast process, but requires lots of
care during the manipulation because it is a product
whose raw material is excellent for the development
of microorganisms. Therefore, the adoption of
Good Manufacturing Practices since the processing
until the storage of the final product is indispensable
for the safety of the final product. Firstly, the
chicken feet were washed; the nails were removed,
again washed with cold water to remove any residue
of dirt. Afterwards they were subjected to the
cooking process at 120ºC for 20 min. in order to
extract the collagen, following the procedure steps
listed in the Figure 1 (ALVES; PRUDÊNCIO-
FERREIRA, 2002; ARNESEN; GILDBERG, 2007).
The content of moisture, ash, fat and proteins were
determined according to the methods from AOAC
(1996), Silva et al. (2011) and Stroher et al (2012). The
conversion factor used for proteins was 5.36, and the
collagen content was determined through the
hydroxyproline analysis, in which a factor of 8.0 is used
in the conversion to collagen (ASCAR, 1985).
To produce experimental jellies according to the
Figure 1, we ground the chicken feet to a higher yield
of collagen along with milk, which besides enriching
nutritionally the final product, as it is protein-rich, also
contribute to disguise the odor of chicken.
After cooking, the liquid part was separated,
filtered, and the sample was put in a glass container
then subjected to cooling. After that, the fat
accumulated on the surface, due to the low density,
facilitating the removal and disposal. Because it is an
experimental pilot project we used a mixture of 500
mL of collagen and water, heating with 200 g of
sugar and additives as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 1. Flowchart of collagen extraction from chicken feet and
jelly production.
Figure 2. Separation of the fat (a) and cooking of chicken feet (b).
Two samples of jellies were prepared, called
GAB and GCB. The first was prepared with
pineapple flavor, and the second with white
chocolate flavor. In the GAB sample, we added
yellow tartrazine dye, artificial pineapple flavor,
citric acid and ascorbic acid. In the GCB sample, we
added 10 g of Siber® (white chocolate), a mixture
that includes dyes, starch, acidulant, acidity regulator
and anti-wetting agent. Also, powdered pectin was
added to both samples, which is a soluble fiber with
a high nutritional contribution and it also increases
the final consistency of the jelly, contributing to the
gelling and nutritional action of the collagen
extracted from the chicken feet.
Sensory analysis
Sensory analysis was performed with 30
untrained tasters, students of the IFMT Campus São
Vicente. The team included individuals of both
sexes, aged between 15 and 25 years. The procedure
occurred in the Laboratory of Sensorial Analysis of
the Foods. Samples were served in individual cabins,
in disposable coded plastic cups. The tasters had a
water cup at their disposal, which was used to rinse
348 Almeida et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 34, n. 3, p. 345-351, July-Sept., 2012
the mouth between the samples. The following
attributes were evaluated: appearance, flavor, aroma,
texture and even the willingness to consume the
product. We used the affective test with 9-point
structured hedonic scale, ranging from 1 (really
disliked) to 9 (really liked) for the attributes color,
aroma, flavor and texture (ALMEIDA et al., 2010;
ANDRAE-NIGHTINGALE et al., 2009;
BARIMALAA; OKOROJI, 2009; FAKHOURI et al.,
2007; KARACA et al., 2009; MOREIRA et al., 2010;
SANTOS et al., 2007, 2011).
The 9-point structured hedonic scale is the most
employed to evaluate the acceptance of food, with
the main advantage of understanding ease and use
by untrained tasters, making them the preferred
options in trials with consumers (TEIXEIRA et al.,
1987). Of the relative values of acceptability, we can
infer the preference, i.e., the most accepted samples are
the most preferred and vice versa (ANDRAE-
NIGHTINGALE et al., 2009; FERREIRA et al., 2005).
The test of consumption frequency was also carried
out with scale of 1 - would not consume, 2 - would
consume once a month, 3 - would consume twice a
month, 4 – would consume once a week, to 5 – would
consume twice a week. The results obtained with the
questionnaires were tabulated considering the
frequency of the responses (TEIXEIRA et al., 1987).
Both the affective test with 9-point structured hedonic
scale and the frequency test were accomplished in the
same moment, and the questionnaire was distributed
to the tasters in a single sheet.
Results and discussion
The samples of jellies distributed to the tasters in
the sensory evaluation are shown in Figure 3, where
one can see the difference in color, the jelly samples
flavored white chocolate were darker that those with
pineapple flavor.
Figure 3. Samples of experimental jellies with flavor of
pineapple, GAB (A) and white chocolate, GCB (B).
Table 1 presents the yield in the material
extracted from the chicken feet. The material able to
be used in the production of jelly is around 36% of
the total weight of chicken feet used. Thus, from 1
ton of chicken feet, we can obtain up to 355.4 kg of
jellies, which is a quite significant yield, mainly
considering that the price is very low in the Brazilian
market.
Table 1. Chemical composition of chicken feet in nature.
Constituents Mean values (g 100 g-1)
Moisture (g) 64.46
Dry basis
Proteins (g) 62.90
Lipids (g) 34.04
Minerals (g) 0.66
Source: Alves and Prudêncio-Ferreira (2002).
The Table 2 lists the mean values of sensory
analyses of jellies of chicken feet, and although the
main focus of this study is to verify the acceptance of
jellies produced with collagen extracted from
chicken feet, we also compared the samples using
the Student’s t-test. The Figure 4 presents the
sensory values in hedonic scale for the better
understanding of the results.
The sensory attributes of the jellies received high
scores in the evaluations. The lower score was close
to 7 points in hedonic scale (corresponding to: I
liked), while the majority received scores close to 8
points (I really liked), indicating that both jellies
were well accepted by the consumers. Similar values
were also obtained by Valduga et al. (2009) using
probiotics, gelatin (collagen), and wheat fiber in the
composition of light cheese. Karaca et al. (2009)
found similar values when evaluating sensorially ice
creams with different fat contents.
For the attributes flavor, aroma and texture, the
t-test showed no significant differences between the
samples, but, for the appearance of the samples,
there were considerable differences.
Table 2. Evaluation of sensory attributes of jellies of chicken feet.
Mean sensory values
Samples Aroma Appearance Flavor Texture
GAB 7.6a 7.8b 7.9d 7.9e
GCB 7.5a 6.8c 7.7d 8.0e
t 95% = 1.67 0.28 2.6 0.78 0.01
OBS: same letters indicate no significant difference between the samples.
In relation to the appearance, the GCB sample
(gelatin with white chocolate flavor) had an average
slightly lower than GAB sample (gelatin with
pineapple flavor), probably due to the darker color
of the first sample, as shown in Figure 3. According
to Almeida et al. (2008) and Santana et al. (2010),
the color is one of the main sensory attributes that
can influence decisions, including those related to
foods. In this way, the appearance, safety, acceptance
Jelly manufacture from chicken waste 349
Acta Scientiarum. Technology Maringá, v. 34, n. 3, p. 345-351, July-Sept., 2012
and sensory attributes of foods are all affected by the
color. Although these effects are associations
inherent to psychological characteristics, they
interfere on the choice of the products.
It is highlighted that in this research, the main
intention was to verify the acceptance of a gelatin
produced with collagen extracted from chicken feet,
and not to perform a comparison between them. In
this way, we can observe that both jellies were well
accepted by the consumers.
Figure 4. Distribution, at hedonic scale, of the values obtained
for the sensory attributes of the jellies.
The Figure 5 presents the results for the
responses of consumers about the willingness to
consume the jellies of chicken feet. The
frequency of consumption was considered high,
because only 3% of the tasters said that they
would not consume the pineapple jelly (GAB). At
least 22.2% would consume once a week the same
jelly (GAB), and 37.03%, the white chocolate jelly
(GCB); 51% would consume twice a week the
GAB formulation, while 48.14%, the GCB
formulation. In general, around 74 and 85% of the
consumers would consume once or more times a
week the gelatins with flavors of pineapple and
white chocolate, respectively, confirming the
acceptance of these products.
In this way, the results pointed out that the
consumers of the samples GAB and GCB ‘liked’
or ‘really liked’ the product, and 50% of them
would consume the jellies more than once a week.
Some consideration can be made from the
jellies produced with collagen extracted from
chicken feet. The raw material used has low cost,
since 1 ton only costs R$ 1.00, and still receives a
nobler destiny.
Fre
q
uenc
y
of the Atributed Values
(
%
)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5
1 – It would not consume; 2 – It would consume a time
for month;
3 - It would consume two
times for month;
4 - It would consume a time
per week;
5 - It would consume two times per week;
Figure 5. Frequency of the values assigned to consume the jellies.
Conclusion
The present study presented a proposal of reuse
of a waste from the aviculture in obtaining a high
quality food. The results indicated that the
consumers of the samples GAB and GCB ‘liked’ or
‘really liked’ the product, and from 74-85% would
consume at least once a week. Thus, we concluded
that the production of jelly using chicken feet would
add value to this poultry industry waste, because the
same have good acceptance from the consumer.
Given the complexity of the proposed
experiment, further studies should be accomplished
in order to identify a better formulation using
factorial planning and sensory analysis with a greater
number of tasters comparing them to a trademark
consolidated in the market.
Acknowledgements
The authors express their gratitude to Uninove,
for its financial support to develop this research.
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Received on July 6, 2010.
Accepted on May 26, 2011.
License information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... The people of Brazil have been estimated to consume approximately 97.6 kg per capita of meat, comprising 47.3 kg chicken, 36.3 kg beef, and 14.1 kg pork (accounting for 48.5%, 37.2%, and 14.4% of the total, respectively) [1]. However, the Brazilians usually do not consume the chicken by-products (carcasses, chicken feet, viscera, etc.); therefore, these are commonly discarded as industrial waste [2,3]. ...
... Hence, with the increased meat production, a significant amount of organic waste is generated in the different stages of the production chain of chicken and beef, in particular, and the residue leads to economic and environmental problems. It is a serious concern as the high organic matter content in these wastes can serve as sources for proliferation of microorganisms [2]. ...
... For preparation, the chicken feet were washed, the nails were removed, and washed again with cold water to remove any residue of dirt, cleaned with chlorine (2 ppm active Cl 2 ) water, and then cut and stored in a refrigerator. Then, 200 g of chicken feet was placed in a thermal bath of 4% acetic acid solution at 60 • C for 4 h, to extract the collagen [2,4,5,11,14]. ...
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With the increasing global population, it has become necessary to explore new alternative food sources to meet the increasing demand. However, these alternatives sources should not only be nutritive and suitable for large scale production at low cost, but also present good sensory characteristics. Therefore, this situation has influenced some industries to develop new food sources with competitive advantages, which require continuous innovation by generating and utilising new technologies and tools to create opportunities for new products, services, and industrial processes. Thus, this study aimed to optimise the production of gelatin-base gels from chicken feet by response surface methodology (RSM) and facilitate its sensorial classification by Kohonen’s self-organising maps (SOM). Herein, a 22 experimental design was developed by varying sugar and powdered collagen contents to obtain grape flavoured gelatin from chicken feet. The colour, flavour, aroma, and texture attributes of gelatines were evaluated by consumers according to a hedonic scale of 1–9 points. Least squares method was used to develop models relating the gelatin attributes with the sugar content and collagen mass, and their sensorial qualities were analysed and classified using the SOM algorithm. Results showed that all gelatin samples had an average above six hedonic points, implying that they had good consumer acceptance and can be marketed. Furthermore, gelatin D, with 3.65–3.80% (w/w) powdered collagen and 26.5–28.6% (w/w) sugar, was determined as the best. Thus, the SOM algorithm proved to be a useful computational tool for comparing sensory samples and identifying the best gelatin product.
... The experimental work was developed at a partner company of the Sorocaba technology park. 1 78 samples were bleached and dyed using a Mathis Alt-1 according to the process described by Rosa et al. [11]. The dyeing experiments were supported by a 2 6 central composite rotational design (CCRD) and the studied independent variables (parameters that affect the coloristic intensity) were: temperature T, NaCl concentration [NaCl], Na 2 CO 3 concentration [Na 2 CO 3 ], NaOH concentration [NaOH], processing time Time, and RB5 concentration [RB5] [13,[43][44][45]. All parameters were varied according to the dyeing formulations recommended by the manufacturer from Sky Blue (K/S ffi 6) to Oxford Blue (K/S ffi 31). ...
... The RSMÀCCRD model, which considered the linear, hyperbolic, and square interaction effect of the process variables (Table 1), was used for the preliminary regression fit using Equation (1), where: y is the response variable; X i is the coded experimental level of the factors; β 0 is a constant coefficient; and β i , β ii, and β ij are, respectively, the coefficients of linear, quadratic, and interaction effects [13,43,44,46]. ...
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... All 78 samples, presented in Appendix 1, were bleached and dyed (Mathis Alt-1) according to the process described by Rosa et al. (2015). The dyeing experiments were supported by a 2 6 central composite rotational design (CCRD) and the studied factors were temperature, T; NaCl concentration, [NaCl]; Na 2 CO 3 concentration, [Na 2 CO 3 ]; NaOH concentration, [NaOH]; processing time, Time and RB5 concentration, [RB5] (Almeida et al. 2012;Benvenga et al. 2016;Klepa et al. 2019). These factors went through variable coding as shown in Table 1. ...
... variables was used for the preliminary regression fits using Eq. 1, in which y is the response variable; X i is the coded experimental level of the factors; β 0 is a constant coefficient; β i , β ii and β ij are the coefficients of linear, quadratic and interaction effects, respectively (Almeida et al. 2012;Benvenga et al. 2016;Mehrizad and Gharbani 2016;Klepa et al. 2019). ...
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This work explores the modeling and optimization of the conditions to obtain blue color intensities in the dyeing cotton process with Reactive Black 5 (RB5), by means of an approach that combines the techniques response surface methodology (RSM), artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). By means of RSM technique, the interactions and the effects of the main process variables (factors) on the behavior of coloristic intensity (K S⁻¹) were investigated. For this, a 2⁶ central composite rotational design was carried out considering the factors temperature, NaCl, Na2CO3, NaOH, processing time and RB5 concentration. The investigation conducted with RSM was used to indicate which process variables would compose the input layer of a multilayer perceptron ANN (MLP-ANN), which was trained with the data produced in the dyeing experiments to predict K S⁻¹ values. Then, the PSO and MLP-ANN techniques were combined to determine the optimized condition for obtaining a desired K S⁻¹ value at the lowest production cost. The results achieved by RSM show that all investigated factors have a considerable effect on the behavior of K S⁻¹. In addition, the determination coefficient obtained (R² = 0.942) in the predictions made by the MLP-ANN confirms its effectiveness in modeling the nonlinear behavior of dyeing with RB5. Finally, the combination of PSO with MLP-ANN proved to be a very useful computational tool for providing optimized conditions to obtain colors of the blue palette using RB5 dye with the lowest production costs, facilitating the assembly of the dyes in the textile industry and promoting the saving of chemical inputs and the reduction of process time and economic costs. Graphic abstract
... All 78 samples were bleached and dyed (Mathis Alt-1) according to the process described by Rosa et al. (2015). The dyeing experiments were supported by a 2 6 central composite rotational design (CCRD) and the studied factors were temperature, T; NaCl concentration, [NaCl]; Na 2 CO 3 concentration, [Na 2 CO 3 ]; NaOH concentration, [NaOH]; processing time, Time and RB5 concentration, [RB5] (Almeida et al., 2012;Benvenga et al., 2016;Klepa et al., 2019). These factors went through variable coding as shown in Table 1. ...
... The response variable (K.S -1 ) of the experimental planning (Table 1) was tted to a second order polynomial equation, aiming to correlate the response variable with the independent variables (factors). The RSM-CCRD model which considered the linear, hyperbolic, and square interaction effects of the process variables was used for the preliminary regression ts using the Equation 1, in which y is the response variable, X i = term of independent factor, b 0 = intercept, b I = linear model coe cient, b ii = quadratic coe cient for the factor i, and b ij = linear model coe cient for the interaction between factors i and j. (Almeida et al., 2012;Benvenga et al., 2016;Klepa et al., 2019). ...
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This work explores the modeling and optimization of the conditions to obtain a set of blue pigments for dyeing reactive cotton, by means of an approach that combines the techniques response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). By means of RSM technique the interactions and the effects of the main process variables (factors) on the behavior of coloristic intensity (K.S ⁻¹ ) were investigated. For this, a 2 ⁶ central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out considering the factors temperature, NaCl, Na 2 CO 3 , NaOH, processing time and RB5 concentration. The results obtained show that all investigated factors have considerable effect on the behavior of K.S ⁻¹ . The data produced in the dyeing experiments were used to build and train a Multilayer Perceptron ANN (MLP-ANN) to predict K.S ⁻¹ , being the input layer of the MLP-ANN designed according to the results achieved by the RSM. The non-linear behavior of dyeing with RB5 was successfully modeled by a three-layer MLP-ANN comprising 6 input neurons, 15 hidden neuros, and 1 output neuron to indicate the value of K.S ⁻¹ . The results achieved in the performed simulations confirmed the ANN effectiveness to predict K.S ⁻¹ values in RB5 the dyeing process, with high coefficient of determination (R ² =0.942). The developed approach allowed the composition of a table containing optimized conditions to obtain a set of colors of the blue palette using RB5 dye, varying from sky blue to oxford blue, which will facilitate the assembly of the dyes. Finally, the experiments conducted in this work allowed the development of a computational tool to support the dyeing process, saving chemical inputs and time in cotton dyeing with specific dyestuff.
... This study demonstrated that both products have good sensory acceptance by tasters, and consumers can willingly consume them. 121 However, another study on the acceptability of cookies enriched with antioxidant fiber using a blueberry pomace byproduct was conducted. The tasters were given a reference vanilla cookie and a new cookie elaborated with blueberry pomace. ...
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Worldwide, a huge amount of agricultural food wastes and byproducts containing valuable bioactive compounds are generated, especially throughout the entire supply chain. Minimizing food wastes and byproducts is the first option to avoid environmental problems, and to help the economy and the society. Although many countries implement policies to reduce food wastes and byproducts, and different management methods are available to utilize agricultural food wastes, they are still produced annually. Nanotechnological and biotechnological approaches are recently used as novel and green applications to valorize agricultural food wastes and improve their stability and applicability. In this Review, these approaches are covered in detail with given examples. Another valorization way of consumable food waste is using it for functional food production. This Review focuses on specific examples of functional foods with food waste as an ingredient. In addition, the problems and limitations of waste management and valorization methods are investigated, considering future perspectives.
... 9 The functional properties of chicken claw collagen indicate its potential application area in not only food but also the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. 10 In the past few years, a significant increase in the production and trade of this poultry byproduct has been reported. In 2007, broiler claws were in the 15th position of agricultural products most imported by China, while the United States exported about 2.72 million metric tons in 2013. ...
... In this study, a survey was conducted from 2016 to 2018, and waste cooking oil was collected from the surveyed restaurants and residences in São Paulo city. A number of questionnaires were distributed in different regions of São Paulo city, according to the population and restaurant distributions [7,22,[54][55][56]. Restaurant managers and residents were interviewed using a previously standardized and validated questionnaire. ...
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Renewable energies are cleaner forms of energy, and their use, has intensified in recent decades. Thus, this work presents a proposal for reducing the emissions, fuel cost, and respiratory disease hospitalizations using environmental cost accounting principles to produce biodiesel production from waste frying oil. In our methodology, we conducted surveys, and collected waste cooking oil samples from local households and restaurants in São Paulo city, Brazil. Then, we produced biodiesel using these samples. Data on air pollutants were collected and correlated with the number of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases and their costs. Our results indicate that 330,000 respiratory disease hospitalizations were recorded in São Paulo city between 2009 and 2018, and the total cost for the Brazilian government reached US $117 million. Improving the city air quality by switching from fossil fuels to biodiesel could reduce the annual number of hospitalizations to 9880 and cost US $3.518 million, because the amount of pollutants emitted from burning fossil fuels was positively correlated with the number of respiratory disease hospitalizations and their costs. Moreover, the emission rates of particulate matter with particles less than 10 and 2.5 µm in diameter exceeded the World Health Organization limits throughout the study period. Using the survey data, we estimated that the average monthly quantity of waste cooking oil was 9794.6 m3, which could generate 9191.2 m3 of biodiesel and produce 239,713 t CO2 of carbon credits. Environmental cost accounting revealed that it would be possible to achieve an annual profit of approximately US $300 million from the sale of excess biodiesel, carbon credits, and glycerine, and fuel acquisition savings which could improve the image of São Paulo city and quality of life of its residents. Thus, we present this as a way to reduce cost and hospitalizations, and increase the number of available hospital beds for other diseases, such as COVID-19.
... It was acceptable to add the pea protein and collagen at the same time to bread, as the non-gluten proteins could help in improving the color, structural properties, and shelf life of the bread (Rafa et al. 2013). Also, there are a few reports stating that collagen could be used in jellies (Almeida, Ara ujo, and Santana 2012), functional candies (Pongboripat), and other foods, but the addition of collagen to candies may lead to allergic reactions, and hence, using these products may require special attention (Abe et al. 2020;Gungor and Tahan 2013). ...
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In 2020, the world’s food crisis and health industry ushered into a real outbreak. On one side, there were natural disasters such as the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), desert locusts, floods, and droughts exacerbating the world food crisis, while on the other side, the social development and changes in lifestyles prompted the health industry to gradually shift from a traditional medical model to a new pattern of prevention, treatment, and nourishment. Therefore, this article reviews animal by-products collagen and derived peptide, as important components of innovative sustainable food systems. The review also considered the preparation, identification, and characterization of animal by-product collagen and collagen peptides as well as their impacts on the food system (including food processing, packaging, preservation, and functional foods). Finally, the application and research progress of animal by-product collagen and peptide in the food system along with the future development trend were discussed. This knowledge would be of great significance for a comprehensive understanding of animal by-product collagen and collagen peptides and would encourage the use of collagen in food processing, preservation, and functional foods.
... Nigerian consumers are less interested in that particular poultry cuts hence, it is often not valued because it has less or no meat. However, chicken feet contain a large amount of protein 22.46%, essential minerals and collagen is the major component of protein [6]. Sittikulwitit et al. [7] reported chicken bone extract as being a good source of calcium and also an alternative calcium fortificant when added to bakery products. ...
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Annually, the chicken processing industries generate significant quantities of chicken feet which are often discarded because they are undervalued and underutilized. However, this study was done to add value to chicken feet by evaluating the functional and pasting properties of high quality cassava-defatted tigernut-chicken feet composite blend. Tigernut seeds and chicken feet were processed into flour respectively. Simplex centroid mixture design was used to generate fourteen (14) blends based on the HQCF (70-90%), CFF (5-45%) and DTNF (5-45%). Standard laboratory procedures were used to determine the functional properties (swelling power (SP), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), bulk density (BD), least gelation concentration (LGC) and pasting properties of the blends. Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the functional properties of composite flour in terms of swelling power, water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), bulk density (BD) and least gelation concentration (LGC) ranging from 3.83-5.72 (g/g), 90.43-110.40 (%), 87.86-107.23 (%), 0.51-0.75 (g/ml), and 2.00-10.00 (%w/v) respectively. The pasting profile (peak viscosity, trough, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, peak time and peak temperature) of the high quality cassava-defatted tigernut-chicken feet flour blends had significant differences (P<0.05) with values ranging from 76.50-434(RVU), 52.17-157.09 (RVU), 20.33-262.96 (RVU), 76.71-215.13 (RVU), 24.55-59.25 (RVU), 4.17-4.90 (Min) and 94.28-95.88(0C). As CFF and DTNF inclusion increased, the peak, trough, breakdown, final and setback viscosities decreased. This study revealed that chicken feet flour could be a good food ingredient in food formulations such as short crust pastries, sauces, weaning foods and gravies to reduce their paste thickness.
Chapter
The production and consumption of chicken meat is growing constantly worldwide, for economic and nutritional reasons. With the evolution of this market, the industry intensifies the volume of carcasses, cuts, and meat products, generating a greater number of by-products that, in most cases, are used for the production of flours for animal feeding or even discarded into the environment, causing serious damage to water and soil, primarily. The by-products of chicken industrialization have a very similar composition to the muscle. They are, therefore a source of proteins. In addition to the adoption of sustainable techniques, recent trends in the use of these by-products contemplate not only their reuse, but also the importance of the proteins that are in these matrices, so that they can be used in the future in food or drugs. The literature reports that these proteins, when isolated or hydrolyzed, may contain bioactive properties, of relevant importance for the health of consumers. This chapter discusses the main proteins found in each by-product generated during broiler processing and the latest techniques used to obtain these bioactive compounds, with potential applications in foods.
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In the present work, an attempt has been made to standardize the processing conditions for the manufacture of wine from acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) by RSM optimization. A central point design was used to evaluate the effect of soluble solids (°Brix) and the concentration of fruit pulp on sensorial quality attributes (color, flavor and aroma) of wine which were measured on hedonic scale. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used for fermentation. Acerola wines were found to be suave, sweet and 11°GL of alcohol concentration. Flavor and color of wines were characteristic of acerola fresh fruit. Sensorial analysis revealed that these were different among wines and optimization showed that wines produced with high °Brix and low fruit mass were the best products. This work supports the usage of acerola for obtaining high quality wines which possess pleasing aroma and shiny red color.
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The objective of this study was to elaborate a homemade and alternative cereal bar using dehydrated jackfruit and seed meal as fiber source, due to the availability of this fruit in the region, without reducing the nutritional values if comparing to those already existent in the market. In order to evaluate the centesimal content and the acceptance of the homemade bars, both light and traditional bars were used as reference. The results showed that the elaborated bar presented protein values very close with products already found in the market. However, the new bars presented higher content of fibers. Formulations of 30 and 40% of seed meal were the ones with the best acceptance.
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