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Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000116
J Textile Sci Eng
ISSN: 2165-8064 JTESE, an open access journal
Research Article Open Access
Maity and Singha, J Textile Sci Eng 2012, 2:4
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
Review Article Open Access
Textile Science & Engineering
Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions
Subhankar Maity* and Kunal Singha
Department of Textile Technology, Panipat Institute of Engineering & Technology, Harayana, India
*Corresponding author: Subhankar Maity, Assistant professor, Department of
Textile Technology, Panipat Institute of Engineering & Technology, Harayana,
India, E-mail: maity.textile@gmail.com
Received March 14, 2012; Accepted May 31, 2012; Published June 02, 2012
Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions.
J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
Copyright: © 2012 Maity S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Keywords: Earthquake; Environmental attack; Fiber reinforced
cement; Electro-mechanical; Masonry structure
Introduction
Many un-reinforced wood and steel reinforced masonry structures
are widely present around the world. ese structures are designed
for gravity loads and are not able to withstand seismic forces during
earthquake and caused wide spread damages. To conserve the historic
structural heritage of the country it is necessary to develop innovative
techniques for rehabilitating deteriorating structures. Aer earthquake
other than life concern, the removal and transportation of large
amounts of concrete and masonry material causes concentrations of
weight, dust, excessive noise, and requires long periods of time to gain
strength before the building can be re opened for service [1-3].
Repair of these structures with like materials is oen dicult,
expensive, hazardous and disruptive to the operations of the building.
Most of these structures need strengthening or seismic upgrading
work in order to ensure their conservation and functional use. Fiber
Reinforced Cement (FRC) Composite materials, originally developed
for the aerospace industry, are being considered for application to
the repair of buildings due to their low-weight, ease of handling
and quick implementation [2]. Review of literature indicates that
numerous studies were conducted in the past to study the behavior of
Fiber Reinforced Cement (FRC) Composite materials. Research and
developments are going on to adapt these materials to the repair of
buildings and civil structures. Appropriate congurations of ber and
polymer matrix are being developed to resist the complex and multi-
directional stress elds present in building structural members. At the
same time, the large volumes of material required for building repair
and the low cost of the traditional building materials create a mandate
for economy in the selection of FRC materials for .building repair [1-6].
Structural damages due to earthquake
Earthquake is seismic vibration which generates ground motion
both in horizontal and vertical directions. Due to the inertia of the
structure this ground motion generates shear stress and bending
moment in the structural framework. In earthquake resistant design
it is important to ensure ductility in the structure, i.e. the structure
should be able to deform without causing failure. Strength and ductility
of structures depend mainly on proper detailing of the reinforcement
in beam-column joints. e ow of forces within a beam-column joint
may be interrupted if the shear strength of the joint is not adequately
provided. Under seismic forces, the beam-column joint region is
subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitudes are
many times higher than those within the adjacent beams and columns.
Conventional concrete looses its tensile resistance aer the formation
of multiple cracks. So, the joints need to be more ductile to eciently
bear or dissipate the seismic forces. Most failures in earthquake-
aected structures are observed at the joint. A construction joint is
placed in the column very close to the beam-column joint. is leads to
shear or bending failure at or very close to the joint as shown in Figure
1a. e high compressive stress in concrete may also cause crushing of
concrete as shown in Figure 1b. If the concrete lacks connement the
joint may disintegrate and the concrete may spall, shown in Figure 1c.
All concrete structure create a hinge at the joint and more will be the
number of hinge higher will be the probability of collapse. If the shear
reinforcement in the beam is insucient there may be diagonal cracks
near the joints, shown in Figure 1d. is may also lead to failure of the
joint. Again the high bending moment may cause yielding or buckling
of the steel reinforcements as shown in Figure 1e.
However, in many structures these details have not been followed
due to perceived diculties at site. In most of the structures lack of
connement and shear cracks have been found to be most common
causes of failure. Rehabilitation and retrotting strategy must alleviate
these deciencies from the structures [1,6-12].
Fiber reinforced polymers and composites
Fiber Reinforced Cement (FRC) Composite materials are
widely used in many structural applications where their mechanical
performances are of primary importance. e stiness and the strength
of composites are dependent upon the mechanical properties of the
constituents, but also upon the stress transfer processes occurring at
the ber/matrix interface [13]. Fiber Reinforced Cement (FRC) or
Abstract
The present paper reports some of the important developments in the eld of application of textile materials
in earthquake resistance constructions. Cement concrete reinforced with steel rods and rings are very popular in
ordinary construction material. One major drawback of using steel is its susceptibility to environmental attack which
can severely reduce the strength and life of concrete structures. Recent developments in the eld of ber reinforced
cement (FRCs) composites have resulted in the development of highly efcient construction materials. The FRCs
are unaffected by electro-mechanical deterioration and can resist corrosive effects of acids, alkalis, salts and similar
aggregates under a wide range of temperatures. The bers used in FRCs, their properties and their applications
have been reported here. The various techniques of application of FRCs on the new and existing masonry structures
to protect them from earthquake have been discussed here.
Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions. J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
Page 2 of 7
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000116
J Textile Sci Eng
ISSN: 2165-8064 JTESE, an open access journal
Concrete composites are generally dened as composites with two main
components, the ber and the matrix as shown in Figure 2 [13,14].
Fiber reinforced cement based composites have made striking
advances and gained enormous momentum over the past four decades.
is is due in particular to several developments involving the matrix,
the ber, the ber-matrix interface, the composite production process, a
better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling their
particular behavior, and a continually improving cost performance
ratio.
e FRCs are unaected by electro-mechanical deterioration and
can resist corrosive eects of acids, alkalis, salts and similar aggregates
under a wide range of temperatures. FRCs thus holds a very distinct
advantage over steel as an external reinforcing device. Moreover,
FRCs are available in the form of laminas and dierent thickness and
orientation can be given to dierent layers to tailor its strength according
to specic requirements Figure 3. Again, FRCs as post-reinforcements
possess high specic strength (strength/weight ratio) as well as they are
very light and easy to handle. e FRSc are available as unidirectional
bers of a huge length. erefore, joints in the reinforcement can be
avoided very easily. Moreover, the corrosion of the reinforcements
can be avoided completely. Research work is gaining momentum on
the application of composite materials as post-reinforcement. Some
potential applications of FRCs in earthquake resistant construction are
shown in Figure 4 [13-20].
FRCs can be used in the concrete structures in the following forms:
Plates - at a face to improve the tension capacity.
Bars - as reinforcement in beams and slabs replacing the steel
bars.
Cables - as tendons and post tension members in suspension
and bridge girders.
Wraps - around concrete members to conne concrete and
improve the compressive strength
Materials for strengthening of structures
Fiber reinforced cement compositeis consist of high strength fibers
embedded in a resin matrix. e fibers generally used in construction
are Carbon (C FRCs), Glass (G FRCs) or Aramid (A FRCs). ese
bers are suciently strong, even many times stronger than steel in
the longitudinal direction but generally weak laterally. Typically these
fibers show very less or no ductility. So the stress–strain behavior of
most FRCs can be taken as linear elastic to failure. C FRC posses the
highest Young’s modulus, generally around 150–200 GPa, with some
Ultra High Modulus C FRCs being available with moduli up to 600 GPa.
Strengths are generally in the range of 2500–3500 MPa. FRCs not only
have the advantage of very high strength over conventional materials,
but are also light weight and highly durable in many environments.
e properties of bers for FRCs have been shown in Figure 5 [14-21].
Figure 6 and Table 1 present a comparison of mechanical behavior
of materials that are available for strengthening of structures. It can be
seen that the non- metallic bers have strengths that are 10 times more
than that of steel. e ultimate strain of these bers is also very high.
In addition, density of these materials is approximately one-third that
of steel. Due to its corrosion resistance FRCs can be applied on the
surface of the structure without worrying about its deterioration due
to environmental attack. ey in turn protect the concrete core from
environmental attack. FRPC sheets, being malleable, can be wrapped
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
Figure 1: (a) Failure at construction joint, (b) Crushing of concrete, (c) Spalling of
concrete, (d) Diagonal shear crack, (e) Bending of steel [1].
FIBER
FIBER
MATRIX
Cement Paste
Mortar
Concrete
Slurry
BOND
Figure 2: Composite model considered as a two-component system, namely
ber and matrix.
Figure 3: Fiber Reinforced Concrete [13].
APPLICATIONS OF FIBER REINFORCED CEMENT
COMPOSITES
STAND
ALONE
In light
struct ural
elements
e.g.: cement
board s, pipes,
sheet s, slabs,
pavements,
shells, piles.
Poles light
beams etc.
HYBRID
In co mbination
with PC PC or
steel structure
e.g.: seismic and
blast resistant
structure,
offshore
structure, super
high rise
structure, space
craft launching
platform, long
bridges, etc.
HYBRID
In selecti on
zone of
structures
where
enhanced
properties are
required.
e.g.: beam
column joint in
seismic frames,
coupling
beams,
anchorage zone
in PC beams,
etc.
REPAIR &
REHABILIT
ATION
e.g.: tunnel
lining,
jacketing
around
column, fire
protection etc.
Figure 4: Classes of applications of ber reinforced cement composites [17].
Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions. J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
Page 3 of 7
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000116
J Textile Sci Eng
ISSN: 2165-8064 JTESE, an open access journal
around the joints very easily. e light weight makes rehabilitation
techniques much easier as heavy handling equipment is not needed
in constricted spaces. e strength and stiness of a structure can be
increased with very little increase in mass, distinctly advantageous
from the seismic perspective. e high durability is attractive for
applications where steel deteriorates rapidly. However, one drawback
of FRCs is the susceptibility of the resin in exposure to ultraviolet light.
e resin slowly becomes brittle – oen seen in plastic objects as they
weather over the years when exposed to sunlight. us, FRCs must be
protected from exposure to direct sunlight. It can easily be achieved in
indoors and with paint. New resin formulations are being developed
which will not suer from this problem [14-21].
FRC plates as reinforcement to concrete beams
FRCs for strengthening of structures can be glued to an old and
deteriorated concrete surface to improve its strength. is method is
more convenient and durable than epoxy bonded steel plates. Meier
(1987) has examined the suitability of carbon ber reinforced epoxy
laminates for rehabilitation of concrete bridges [22-23].
e rst repair work of a concrete bridge using CFC laminates has
been carried out at Ibach Bridge, Lucerne, Switzerland. e 228 m long
bridge was designed as a continuous beam of span 39 m several pre-
stressing tendons of the bridge were accidentally severed preventing
the bridge to operate at its full capacity. e bridge was repaired with
a 2 mm thick 150 mm wide C FRC laminate. It was found that the
repair work became particularly easy due to the use of composite
materials. Owing to its light weight 175 kg steel could be replaced by
only 6.2 kg of CFC. As a result the work could be carried out from a
traveling hydraulic li and the cost of scaolding could be avoided.
e composite is held in position by means of a vacuum bag, thereby
avoiding pressers required in case of steel plates. Although CFC was 40
times more expensive than steel plates, it was estimated that the process
saved 20% in cost [24-27].
FRCs as wrapping on concrete elements
e tensile strength of concrete is much less in comparison to
its compressive strength As a result; even the compression members
oen fail due to the tensile stress that develops in the perpendicular
direction of the compressive load as shown in Figure 7. If such a
concrete element is conned using a wrapping (Figure 8), the failure
due to tensile crack can be prevented. e compressive strength of the
wrapped concrete element is several times higher than the unwrapped
Hybrid application
with reinforced
concrete or pre-
stressed concrete
Energy or
toughness
Stand alone
application
Hybrib application
with steel
FIBER CHARACTERISTICS
Mechanical
properties
Cracking
Control
tension, shear
bending
Impact, ductility
seismic
Impact, ductility
seismic
Thin sheet, pipe,
boards, shells
etc.
Repair,retrofit,
rehabilitation.
Encased trusses
and beams, fire
resistance.
Serviceability,
durability
Figure 5: Fiber Characteristics for FRCs [17].
Extension [%]
Carbon
Aramid
Glass
Steel
Stress [%]
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
5
10
15
Figure 6: material for strengthening of concrete [23].
Material Density g/m3Initial
Modulus
Tenacity (mN/
tex)
Decomposition
melt (°C)
Aramid standard 1.44 55 2065 550
Carbon HT 1.78 134 1910 3700
Carbon HM 1.83 256 1230 3700
E-Glass 2.58 28 780 825
Steel cord 7.85 20 330 1600
Table 1: Properties of commercially representative reinforcement bers [23].
Wrapping
Concrete section
Tension
crack
Figure 7: FRC Wrapping Around Concrete Elements [25].
existing
column
existing
column
carbon fiber
strand
csrbon fiber
sheet
Figure 8: Wrapping of Column [33].
Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions. J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
Page 4 of 7
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000116
J Textile Sci Eng
ISSN: 2165-8064 JTESE, an open access journal
concrete element. Although this is known for a long time eective
application of connement could not be achieved due to a lack of
suitable wrapping material. If the wrapping is torn the capacity of
the element reduces dramatically. erefore, the durability of the
wrapping material is of utmost importance. In addition, the wrapping
material remains exposed to environmental attack. erefore, steel is
unsuitable for this purpose. FRCs due to their non-corrosive nature
oers an attractive alternative. Moreover, the light weight FRC bers
can be very easily wrapped around an old concrete column. However,
typical stress-strain curve of cylindrical specimens wrapped with FRC
of varying number of layers is presented in Figure 9. It may be noted
that with one layer of FRC wrap the ultimate strength of the specimens
increased by a factor of 2.5. e ultimate strength went on to increase
up to 8 times when 8 layers of the wrap were used. [24-25,28-32]
e ultimate strain increased by 6 times with one layer of wrap. is
feature is particularly attractive for earthquake resistant structures. Due
to higher ultimate strain the ductility of the structure also increases. It
may be noted that the ultimate strain of the specimens is insensitive to
the number of layers of wrap. erefore, for earthquake resistance a
thin wrap that oers high ultimate strain but low stiness is desirable.
Glass bers that have considerably lower stiness than the carbon bers
and higher ultimate strain is desirable. e unfavorable creep behavior
of glass ber poses little adversity in earthquake resistant applications
as earthquake forces are seldom encountered. Moreover, glass ber is
much less expensive than carbon ber [16-20,25,33].
Glass ber retrotting to protect bridge from earthquake
Older concrete columns are reinforced with ring and rods of steel.
ese concrete columns crack and spall during seismic vibrations. ey
are also vulnerable to corrosion. Seismic upgrades have traditionally
involved retrots with concrete or steel jackets, but these techniques
are expensive and time-consuming, and the jackets also require
maintenance over time. An easier, more cost-eective technology
for strengthening concrete columns has recently been developed, the
Snap Tite Composite Column Reinforcement. Snap Tite consists of
an external composite berglass jacket, approximately 1/8 inch thick,
that literally “snaps on” to the concrete column as shown in Figure
10. is composite is comprised of glass bers and corrosion resistant
isopolyester resins, manufactured into a single-seamed cylindrical
jacket that encloses the column, which must be even and uniform in
shape. e jacket contains the column, preventing the concrete from
expanding due to seismic stress or temperature variations. ousands
of bridges columns in California are to be wrapped with jackets
containing high performance glass ber in order to protect the structure
from severe earthquakes. e jacket are made from industrial glass
bers & isotophthalic polyester resin in contrast to the conventional
sheet steel wraps and are designed to reduce the risk of serious seismic
damage. [7,9,29,31,32,34].
Snap tite technology for column reinforcement
e Snap Tite Composite Column Reinforcement strengthens
a concrete column by conning it in an external composite jacket,
which prevents the concrete from expanding during seismic activity
or prolonged freeze-thaw cycles. e pre-manufactured berglass
jacket is comprised of glass bers and corrosion resistant isopolyester
resins. e resin completely encapsulates the reinforcing ber network,
which, for most applications, is conventional E-glass woven roving and
bi-directional fabric. Each Snap Tite component is a single-seamed,
cylindrical jacket that snaps on the column as shown in Figure 11. e
column is cleaned and prepared with a high performance urethane
adhesive before the rst jacket is applied. More jackets are applied until
the desired thickness for the job is achieved. Adhesive is applied between
layers, and the vertical and horizontal jacket seams are symmetrically
alternated. A typical column will require 3 to 4 layers of jackets, with a
“t” is thickness of wrap
t=3.2 mm
t=1.6 mm
t=0.8 mm
t=0.4 mm
Bare
200
150
100
50
0
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Axial Strain [%]
Stress [MPa]
Figure 9: Axial strength of circular columns with different levels of connement
[25].
Figure 10: Installing Prefabricated Fiberglass jacket [34].
Figure 11: Snap tite applied beam surface [14].
Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions. J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
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Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000116
J Textile Sci Eng
ISSN: 2165-8064 JTESE, an open access journal
nominal jacket thickness of around 1/8 inch thick. Each nested jacket is
bound with belt clamps until the adhesive cures [7,9,14,33].
Benets of snap tite
Snap tite is recognized as one of the most cost eective and
user friendly solutions for rehabilitating or upgrading existing steel
reinforced concrete columns or structures. Snap Tite replaces steel,
the conventional material used for column reinforcement, reducing
installation and long-term maintenance costs. For example, Snap Tite,
because of its light weight, can typically be installed in three hours vs.
three days for steel, and can be lied in place by workers using only a
few pieces of light, mobile equipment. Snap Tite won’t rust and never
needs to be painted, even when installed in corrosive environments.
e other market challenge to Snap Tite is the epoxy resin
composite column wrap. Although this composite does meet
performance requirements, it is much more expensive to manufacture.
e current manufacturer of this resin also uses extensive equipment
for installation, Snap Tite does not. Full-scale tests at two major
universities have veried that columns reinforced with Snap Tite
withstand three-to-eight times the deection of columns without
reinforcements. Preliminary tests indicate that Snap Tite can improve
earthquake capability three times beyond that of a steel jacket. Snap
tite jackets work by increasing the resistance to the phenomenon of
spalling which occurs when an earthquake causes the concrete columns
to shatter. is expose the steel reinforcement bars which then bend
outward. e jacket also allow for greater deection when a bridge
column bends, so reducing the risk shear failure [7-9,17,24,25].
Retrotting walls for seismic loads using aramid bers
High strength bers and elastometric polymer bonded to walls can
signicantly strengthen walls against wind, seismic and blast loads.
is System uses woven aramid ber sheets as the reinforcing material.
Aramid bers are arranged to the axial direction of the sheets as shown
in Figure 12. Aramid ber sheets are characterized by light weight, high
strength, no corrosion, and non-conductivity.
High strength aramid ber can be applied to the inside (i.e., non
blast loaded side), or to both sides of masonry walls. In the case of load
bearing walls, high strength aramid bers must be attached to both
sides of the wall to prevent wall failure during rebound. Figure 13 shows
a typical construction procedure of aramid retrotting system. Epoxy
resin is used for matrix of the sheets. Figure 14 shows a test wall with
aramid matting. Aramid bers are encased in a 0.03 inch thick layer
of resin and placed parallel to the direction of the wall span between
supports. E-glass or carbon bers are optional high strength bers that
can be used in place of aramid [1,25].
Developments in ber reinforced concrete for earthquake
resistance
Signicant progress in research and development in ber
reinforced concrete has been seen. Generally, concrete is strong
against compressive force, but weak against tensile force. As a result
conventional concrete elements tend to suer brittle shear failure.
e beam columns joints are critical region for the seismic safety of
buildings as discussed before. A new FRC has been developed with
embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ber in the matrix, which is
called PVA-ECC [7]. It has been claimed that this concrete realized
unprecedented ductility by way of optimization of matrix, ber,
and ber/matrix interface through a micromechanical approach.
Controlling the interaction between PVA bers and calcium ions
in the cement is important to obtaining the optimal frictional bond,
which leads to excellent strain hardening behavior. e PVA-ECC has
superior ductile property as compare to conventional FRCs as shown
in Figure 15, which makes it more suitable for creating earthquake
proof buildings. e PVA-ECC wall itself absorbs energy from the
Figure 12: Aramid ber sheet [16].
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Figure 13: Typical construction procedure: (a) Surface treatment, (b) Coating
primer and epoxy resin, (c) Wrapping sheet and removing air with roller, (d)
Coating epoxy resin Finishing with mortal or painting [25,33].
Figure 14: Attachment of Kevlar Mat with Epoxy [25,33].
15
10
5
0510 15 20 25
PVA-FRC
Conventional FRC
Deflection [mm]
Stress [N/m2]
Figure 15: High-exural deformability of PVA-ECC [17].
Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions. J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
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Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000116
J Textile Sci Eng
ISSN: 2165-8064 JTESE, an open access journal
earth quake and save buildings from seismic force. Again PVA oers
cost eectiveness compared to other aramide and carbon bers. And it
has good workability as well [17,35-41].
Base isolation for earthquake resistance
During earthquake the building which have xed bases tends to
displaced in opposite direction of the ground motion due to their
inertia. So, the inertia forces acting on a building are the most important
of all those generated during an earthquake. Figure 16 shows three
dierent possible cases of deformation in the building frame whose
bases are xed. Due to these deformations the building may collapse
during earthquake.
To mitigate these kinds of deforming fore of inertia base isolation
method has been introduced. e concept of base isolation is explained
through an example building resting on frictionless rollers. When the
ground shakes, the rollers freely roll, but the building above does not
move. us, no force is transferred to the building due to the shaking of
the ground. Simply, the building does not experience the earthquake.
Now, if the same building is rested on the exible pads as shown in
Figure 17, that oer resistance against lateral movements, then some
eect of the ground shaking will be transferred to the building above.
If the exible pads are properly chosen, the forces induced by ground
shaking can be a few times smaller than that experienced by the
building built directly on ground, namely a xed base building. e
exible pads are called base-isolators, whereas the structures protected
by means of these devices are called base-isolated buildings. e main
feature of the base isolation technology is that it introduces exibility
in the structure [34,41].
Due to the exibility in the structure, a robust medium-rise
masonry or reinforced concrete building becomes extremely exible.
e isolators are oen designed, to absorb energy and thus add damping
to the system. is helps in further reducing the seismic response of
the building. Many of the base isolators look like large rubber pads,
although there are other types that are based on sliding of one part of
the building relative to other. Also, base isolation is not suitable for
all buildings. Mostly low to medium rise buildings rested on hard soil
underneath; high-rise buildings or buildings rested on so soil are not
suitable for base isolation [34-41].
Conclusion
Textile materials are successfully applied for earthquake resistant
construction. e actual choice of ber type, composite type, and
number of layers of composite tiles for an earthquake resistance
construction particular depends on the collaborative expertise of
textile technologist and structural engineers. Fiber reinforced cement
composites are found eective in construction and rehabilitation of
masonry structures. Fibers used are high performance bers such as
aramid, carbon or glass. ese bers are judged more ecient than
steel. Developments in resins are also going for getting long lusting
eectively with performance. Various methodologies are also tried for
applications of textile reinforced composited to strengthen the existing
beams, columns and walls to protect them from seismic force. Base
isolation method has been proposed for mitigating the eect of seismic
shaking on low rise building.
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Citation: Maity S, Singha K (2012) Textiles in Earth-Quake Resistant Constructions. J Textile Sci Eng 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-8064.1000116
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... In addition, density of these materials is approximately one-third of that steel. Due to its corrosion resistance FRPs can be applied on the surface of structure without worrying about its deterioration and also they protect the concrete core from environmental attack [11]. ...
... The typical application consists of textile reinforced mortars in which fibre filaments act in place of steel rebars (see Section 2 and [4][5][6]). The actual result can take the form of efficient technical solutions that are suitable especially for existing (and often historical) buildings needing massive, structural retrofit interventions, especially in regions with high seismic hazards ( [7][8][9][10]). Major advantages are represented by reduced weight, lack of corrosion phenomena, durability, etc. [11][12][13]. ...
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