Esquisse d'une histoire de la C.G.T.

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In this paper, we present the monetary debates in Europe from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries from the viewpoint of the problem of good and sound money. The framework of the paper is built on a typology of monetary systems, by which a dualist system is distinguished from a metallic one. Under the dualist system, the value in units of account of the specie in circulation was defined by monetary proclamations (Einaudi locates this era from Charlemagne to the French Revolution). Metallist proponents aimed at preventing any kind of manipulations with a radical transformation of the system of payment, which gave birth to a metallic monetary system from the very end of the seventeenth century. The purpose here is not to propose an evolutionary view of monetary systems, which would reduce history to stages to be superseded by the advent of some higher stage; we wish to work on the difficulties of monetary systems and their interweaving, which partake of evolving forms of pluralistic money. Eventually, the advent of an era of monetary stability was a necessary precondition for an effective and sound credit system to develop, which in turn proved to be a precondition for the deployment of industrial capitalism—what has been called the “monetary revolution”.
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Présentation des sources et données utilisées pour reconstituer les effectifs, l'organisation et l'audience de la CGT entre 1945 et 1995. Implantation géographique (départements et régions) ; Implantation sectorielle (les fédérations avec le nombre de salariés compris dans leurs champs d'action) ; organisation de la confédération et organigrammes de la direction (1965-1992) : audience aux élections administratives (par départements ministériels) ; chronologie détaillée (1945-1995). Bibliographie critique.
Historians of medieval Islamic society have not paid the same attention to night activities as a topic for social history, as have specialists of the medieval west. Examining cases and narrative sources in Cairo and Damascus, this paper presents the complex reality of a Mamluk city that cannot be reduced to the dangers felt by its inhabitants at nightfall. A public lighting system and night markets in the Mamluk city facilitated circulation throughout the evening and for a great part of the night. Public spaces were monitored and controlled by authorities and neither Cairo nor Damascus should be seen as enclosed and partitioned spaces. Commercial exchanges, public entertainment and traffic contributed to extend daytime activities beyond nightfall and to cast the urban space as a place of socialization. Besides, Mamluk power and religious authorities also invested the city through celebrations and ceremonies performed by night which often turned into popular festivals and outlets while urban elites considered night-time as an opportunity to perfect their social role in a more intimate way and to provide evidence of their elevated status. This paper describes the broad range of individual and collective night practices and restores these activities to their rightful place in Cairene and Damascene daily life.
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