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The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods.

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... Triangulation has been extensively described by Denzin (2009) [70] as a framework for combining methods, data sources, theories, and observations in an investigation. The term also refers to the process of gathering, comparing, and combining information from different sources [26,49]. ...
... Triangulation has been extensively described by Denzin (2009) [70] as a framework for combining methods, data sources, theories, and observations in an investigation. The term also refers to the process of gathering, comparing, and combining information from different sources [26,49]. ...
... During social research, both data and methods can be triangulated [71,72]. Denzin (2009) [70] recommends the use of triangulation since every research method reveals a specific aspect of empirical reality. Interviews, for example, are almost never sufficient to acquire enough data, since people have only partial and local understanding of the system. ...
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In the past 30 years, there has been a significant increase in drought events in Europe. It is expected that climate change will make droughts more frequent and intense. This situation is particularly concerning for areas with no drought management culture. This study focuses on North East Lower Saxony (NELS), an important agricultural region in northern Germany. We implement a novel approach to Group Model Building to assess the preparedness of NELS to deal with climate change and droughts. Our novel approach includes the creation of a preliminary model based on individual interviews and a triangulation of information after the workshop. We conclude that stakeholders are aware of climate change, but insufficient attention is given to adaptive solutions mainly because they require high initial investments. Given its existing political infrastructure, the region has the potential to adjust. With efficient government bodies are already in place, beneficial updates could be made to established water withdrawal regulations.
... Of the three metapositions/models outlined by Denzin (1978)-natural science, social science, and humanitiesthe vast majority of JA articles fit into the middle ground of the social sciences. Examining communication, information, persuasion, and influence with respect to humans involves the rigorous methods employed by the natural sciences, the middle ground of the social sciences, and the narrative nature of the humanities. ...
... However; it is quite clear that explanation and heuristic value are central components. Scholars in both the natural and social sciences have long held the view that good theory provides explanation for the phenomenon under investigation and heuristic guides for future thought (Denzin 1978;Stinchcombe 1987;Hemple and Oppenheim 1989;Kuhn 1996). Theoretical explanations require an understanding both of how basic internal entities operate and the empirical bridges used to investigate those entities (Hemple 1989a(Hemple , 1989b. ...
... Middle-range theory is limited to one area of human experience, conceptually abstracted and emphasizing an empirical database. Substantive theory uses interrelated propositions and concepts lodged in particular aspects of populations, settings, or times (Denzin 1978). ...
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ABSTRACT Viewed through three meta-positions, the works published in the Journal of Advertising (JA)are primarily in the middle ground of the social sciences with a strong drift to quantitative measures and a transmission-influence approach. JA has made a meaningful effort to encourage other approaches. The rise of the communication scientist has played an important role in furthering the field and theory. Explanation and heuristic value are discussed with respect to JA’s contents. A distinct call is made to value level of explanation and heuristic contribution when evaluating the quality of articles. Finally, JA is highly valued within universities and in the public policy arena.
... Qualitative data were analyzed using both open and closed coding methodologies and triangulation (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). Researchers incorporated grounded theory open coding to identify emerging themes in the narrative data (Angen, 2000;Denzin, 1978;Denzin & Lincoln, 2008;Patton, 1999). Categories were generated through the emic process with which experiences can be understood and captured from the individual's point of view. ...
... The second author randomly selected units of texts from each question and developed a coding schema to independently code the data. Investigator triangulation was used to provide multiple observations and reach consensus with the process (Denzin, 1978;Patton, 1999). Triangulation is important to check perception, understand the data, and to discuss discrepancies if disagreement occurs (Angen, 2000). ...
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Experiences of Black social work faculty with Black administrators is understudied. This mixed-methods study used a phenomenological approach to explore the experiences of Black social work faculty and staff (N = 55; Mage = 44.26, SD = 12.07) currently or previously supervised by a Black administrator. The main findings were that participants had more autonomy and positive interactions, formal or informal visible supports, and support and understanding from their administrators. Several respondents identified more affective perceptions and feelings rather than actual behaviors to describe negative experiences. Future research should expand the instrument to include more characteristics of administrators, the context of the respondent, and collect information from Black administrators on how they view their roles when working with Black faculty.
... The current study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-method design to examine the risk factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety in Australian fathers. The emphasis of the mixed methods design is placed on seeking convergence, corroboration, and confirmation between the qualitative and quantitative data (Bryman, 2006;Denzin, 1978;Johnson et al., 2007). In doing so, the mixed-methods design can compensate for the weakness of a single strategy, either quantitative or qualitative research and result in richness of data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018;Johnson et al., 2007;Ramprogus, 2005). ...
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The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with paternal perinatal mental distress in a sample of Australian men. A mixed-methods design was used. The qualitative component ( N = 13) using thematic analysis identified maternal depression, marital distress, masculine gender role stress, unplanned pregnancy, work–family conflict, and sleep disturbance as risk factors for paternal perinatal mental distress. The quantitative component ( N = 525) expanded on the qualitative findings and examined the associations between the identified risk factors and mental distress of fathers in the perinatal period measured by Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed six significant predictors of paternal perinatal mental distress with masculine gender role stress being the most significant risk factor for paternal perinatal mental distress. The results from this study provide an insight into how masculine gender role may affect the expression and experience of mental distress in fathers within the perinatal period. Implications of research findings are discussed.
... We used the triangulation of data method [28], which appeared to be an effective way for providing us an insight into individual experiences during surf therapy. ...
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Surf therapy is an increasingly popular method of mental health intervention. Although previous research documents the benefits of surf therapy for mental health, it is unclear how to navigate the organization structure of said program. This research project is a case study, where the case is an organization of our choice, in which we selected several respondents for each position. The primary study objective was to identify the principles of the surf therapy structure and describe its personnel make-up. The aim was to identify the processes in the organization, to establish their interconnectedness and outline the positives and negatives of their functioning. The respondent sample (n = 11) was composed of participants of a surf therapy program held in Great Britain, including staff (coordinator, surf instructor), volunteers, and clients. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four main thematic clusters were identified (organization of surf therapy, surf therapy staff, surf session, and situations that may arise in surf therapy), as well as several other categories based on participants’ experiences. The information obtained provides a new, as yet unexplored view of surf therapy, and can be used particularly in the development of new surf therapy programs.
... Impact assessment is often based solely on document analysis, and researchers tend not to compare their results with experience of actors involved in the political follow-up. 4 This lack of triangulation undermines the reliability and quality of their results, because we cannot know whether or not the corresponding public policy is the result of a CPM's genuine influence (Denzin, 2009;Richardson et al., 2019). One way to address this deficiency is to triangulate methodologies: to decrease the deficiencies and biases of the congruency approach (i.e., context-insensitivity) with the strength of another (i.e., interviews of different actors who have a contextualized experience of the follow-up), thereby constituting a mixed method (Flick, 2004). ...
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As academic and political interest in citizen participation and democratic innovations is growing, the question of their impact on public policy remains essential to assess their genuine contribution to the normative project of democratization. Impact assessments of consultative participatory mechanisms are commonly conducted with a congruency approach-a desk-based research method which assesses impact based on the textual correspondence between a citizen-created idea and public policy documents. This method, however, lacks reliability and uniformity, and this paper therefore seeks to standardize its application and ways to improve the accuracy of its results by proposing two methodological add-ons. First, a sequential impact matrix that considers the preferences of decision-makers before a consultative participatory mechanism to see the extent to which decision-makers take up citizen ideas that align with or diverge from their own agenda. Second, a mixed method that combines a congruency approach with interviews of actors involved in the follow-up of the participatory process to balance their experiences with the congruency approach's main findings. The variants of the congruency approach are then applied to a deliberative minipublic-the citizen panel 'Brussels-Make Your Mobility'. This analysis shows how these methodological strategies alter the impact assessment's results, and its findings suggest that the use of a sequential impact matrix with a mixed method not only produces an accurate and reliable measurement but also generates valuable insights into the diffuse ways in which minipublics can exert substantial influences on the institutional structures and the political decision-making. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11077-022-09450-w.
... The methodology followed to fulfil the purpose and goal of this research is qualitative and quantitative research through the technique of triangulation. According to Denzin (1978) by the term 'triangulation', we mean the 'mixing of many methods in the study'. In other words, it is the use of more than one research technique in the study of the same research field, where each is used to verify the results of the other. ...
... A análise de dados envolveu dois momentos sequenciais e interdependentes: primeiro, a análise de cada caso individualmente; e segundo, procura de padrões ou semelhanças entre os vários casos analisados (Eisenhardt, 1989). Como forma de validar os resultados obtidos durante a categorização e identificação de padrões aplicou-se um processo de triangulação com recurso a diferentes investigadores conhecedores do fenómeno em análise (Denzin, 2009 (Lavrador et al., 2012). Esta predominância da paisagem vitícola é bem visível na sua representação nos materiais promocionais que é muitas vezes associada a imagens de elementos naturais como vinhas, vinho e campos cultivados assim como árvores, flora, floresta, montanhas e pedra . ...
Conference Paper
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O turismo rural tem suscitado muito interesse, devido ao seu potencial contributo para o desenvolvimento sustentável dos territórios em que ocorre. A experiência em turismo rural é bastante complexa, integradora de recursos, atrações, serviços, pessoas e ambientes, sendo vivida de modo grandemente subjetivo. Do ponto de vista do turista, esta experiência integra uma diversidade de experiências antes, durante e depois da visita, expetativas e desejos, bem como experiências concretas no local, com dimensões sensoriais, emocionais, comportamentais e sociais, associadas a significados específicos. A compreensão da experiência turística, também na sua dimensão sensorial, é muito relevante para a sua otimização e, consequentemente, para o desenvolvimento de produtos e destinos rurais inovadores, apelativos, envolventes e distintivos que contribuam positivamente para o desenvolvimento sustentável do destino. Esta comunicação visa compreender sobretudo a experiência sensorial vivida na Aldeia Vinhateira de Favaios e a sua ligação a outras dimensões da experiência turística e ainda as respectivas implicações para o desenvolvimento deste destino.
... The research design was a multi-method approach which documented and measured the impact of the Case of Place problem-solving intervention on crime outcomes. Researchers served as participant observers, supporting the police department through ongoing observation, formal and informal interaction and data collection, participation, and reflection (Denzin, 1978;Patton, 2015;Van Maanen, 2011). This approach allowed researchers and practitioners to identify and understand current challenges and problems to be solved, and to observe and study a new way to address these challenges (Patton, 2015). ...
Article
Police problem-solving is one of the most recognized innovations of recent decades, and evidence provides practitioners with hope in their challenges to affect crime. Yet, practitioners need more than hope as they struggle to implement and institutionalize this innovation. This paper shares the results of an integrated problem-solving intervention situated within a comprehensive approach. A Case of Place intervention served as an instrument of problem-solving, which became institutionalized through analytical and Compstat changes. The intervention guided police and crime analysts through problem-solving processes, ensuring attention to each problem-solving step. Using interrupted time-series, post-intervention results revealed a significant reduction in aggravated assaults, motor vehicle breaks, and robberies, as compared to pre-intervention patterns. Additionally, organizational shifts moved the department towards the goal of holistic problem-solving. This study reveals positive results from the Case of Place problem-solving instrument and may offer a path to address the analytical and institutionalization shortcomings of problem-solving.
... Triangulation is a way to enrich the quality of the study and increase the trustworthiness/reliability (Noble & Heale, 2019). One of the ways to provide triangulation in the scientific research is using a variety of data collection methods (Denzin, 2009). As regards the data collection techniques used in the study, the majority of studies (n=10) used at least one of the data collection methods such as interview, observation, document analysis, and standardized measurement tools, and only the interview technique was used in five of these studies (Sanagavarapu, 2010;2017;Sanagavarapu et al., 2016;Schischka et al., 2012). ...
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Transition to school can be described as an opportunity for children to experience a new social and educational environment. However, it also includes a loss of security area and fear of the journey into the unknown and it can be more difficult for children with disadvantages and their families. It is necessary to address the recent studies conducted on this period, in order to present different perspectives and to determine the tendency of the studies carried out on the transition to primary school in the current literature. In this way, it is possible to look at the transition to school for children with disadvantages from a broad perspective. The aim of this study is to review the research that addresses the transition process of children with disadvantages to primary school. Following the inclusion and exclusion processes carried out in this context, 15 studies related to the subject were examined and the studies were analyzed descriptively. According to the findings, it is seen that the studies mostly focus on revealing the existing situation. The findings of the studies examined in this context are interpreted under the themes of (a) factors affecting the transition of children, (b) problems experienced in the transition, (c) collaboration in the transition, and (d) advices for the process. Findings reveal the importance of each individual in a community at the same risk having their own characteristics, and of considering individual differences while addressing cultural differences. It is thought that new research is needed to improve the transition in terms of inclusivity.
... METODOLOGÍA Con el fin de responder las principales preguntas de investigación, realizamos un análisis de contenido basado en la movilización de fuentes secundarias como artículos de prensa, artículos científicos, documentos legales, textos de leyes y tratados e informes de investigación. Nuestro texto se basa en una búsqueda extensiva de fuentes documentales y en la triangulación que permite la integración de documentos de diversa índole (Denzin, 1973;Rothbauer, 2008;Heath 2011;Carter, Bryant-Lukosius, DiCenso, Blythe y Neville, 2014). La búsqueda sistemática de fuentes a través de varios buscadores informáticos se ha ido enriqueciendo mediante la identificación de palabras clave fundamentales (Pochet, 2005;Paillé y Mucchielli, 2012), según el enfoque de análisis de contenido (Negura, 2006). ...
Article
RESUMEN Nuestro objetivo es analizar desde un punto de vista geopolítico y jurídico los principales desafíos de la gobernanza de los Grandes Lagos de Norteamérica. El análisis se basa en una búsqueda bibliográfica extensa y una triangulación del análisis del corpus producido. La primera parte del artículo identifica preocupaciones de las poblaciones ribereñas de los últimos años. La segunda, presenta los desafíos que impone la protección de la cuenca frente a los cambios climáticos y la incertidumbre política. El artículo contribuye a mejorar el entendimiento para la construcción de un modelo de gobernanza transnacional del agua basado en una comunidad de intereses, lo que parece dejar atrás la antigua teoría Harmon acerca de la soberanía absoluta. Finalmente, nos preguntamos si se requerirá atribuir un nuevo estatus jurídico a esta cuenca, a fin de proteger los ecosistemas de los desafíos que imponen los cambios climáticos. Palabras claves: 1. gobernanza, 2. derecho al agua, 3. Grandes Lagos, 4. Norteamérica. SUMMARY Our objective is to analyze, from a geopolitical and legal point of view, the main challenges of water governance in the Great Lakes of North America. The analysis is based on an extended bibliographic search and a triangulation analysis of the corpus thus produced. The first part of the text identifies the concerns of riparian populations in recent years. The second presents the challenges of protecting the basin from climate change and political uncertainty. Overall, the text provides a better understanding of the construction of a transnational water governance model based on the community of interests, which seems to leave behind the old Harmon theory of absolute sovereignty. We will finally ask ourselves, if it will be necessary to attribute a new juridical status to this basin to protect these ecosystems from the challenges raised by climate change.
... La observación participante facilita al investigador aproximarse al contexto de estudio de modo directo, pudiendo contrastar lo que se dice y/o se escribe con lo que hace la comunidad, logrando, de esta forma, redefinir y redirigir el proceso investigador durante la obtención de los datos (Denzin, 1979;Jorgensen, 1989;Vallés, 1999). Whyte (1984). ...
... We try to incorporate different points of view and data sources to enhance qualitative research validity in its own context [77]. This can be done through researcher triangulation, theoretical triangulation, or methodological triangulation. ...
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Biomedical engineering, engineering, and design in health programs around the world have involved human-centered design as part of their undergraduate curriculum. The disparities evidenced during the COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid developments of biotech startups have highlighted the importance of preparing professionals in the health areas for undertaking rigorous, empathetic, and ethical research. In addition to working with human-driven information, students in the health areas are challenged to deal with technical developments that involve legal and ethical concerns deeply rooted in sociopolitical issues and human rights. Concerned with how to achieve a better understanding of behavior in designing for healthcare, this article describes the rationale behind teaching qualitative research in healthcare for biomedical engineering and engineering design education. Through portraying different healthcare designs resulting from an engineering design course, it describes the instruction of qualitative-driven concepts taught to biomedical engineering, design, and premed undergraduate students. Using a design-based research approach, we look to increase the chances of adoption of the presented qualitative research concepts in educational design in health programs. We deliver five tested research tools that better prepare students to carry out more rigorous, respectful, and aware qualitative research in health areas for the development of novel solutions.
... While this did include trainees with differing levels of commitment to the specialty, the data remains vulnerable to selection bias and as such may not be fully representative of the entire senior trainee population. 45 This may explain why issues relating to race did not clearly emerge, as only two participants were from a Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) background. While demographic data relating to age, ethnicity, marital status and dependents were not explicitly gathered in this study to avoid participants being identified and to protect the confidentiality of their responses in this study. ...
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Objectives Workforce retention among UK-based Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) trainees has been a particular concern for a number of years, with 30% trainees reportedly leaving specialty training. With specialty focused research being limited and tending to analyse the training programme as a whole. The aim of this study was to explain why senior O&G trainees within reach of completing training were leaving the specialty. Design Qualitative study based on Constructivist Grounded Theory methodology using semi-structured interviews. Data collection and analysis continued until theoretical saturation was achieved. The key themes were used to build an explanatory model, in the form of a concept map for attrition. Setting London. Participants Nine senior O&G trainees (ST5-7) of which six were committed to the specialty, two were not going to pursue a consultancy post once training was complete and one ex-trainee. Results Five major themes emerged from the study, of which four; ‘Just get on with it’, ‘Just a number’, ‘Tick-box exercise’ and ‘It has not happened to me but…’ were described by all participants. However, the final theme, relating to the lack of professional identity, ‘I did not see myself as an Obstetrician and Gynaecologist’ was only demonstrated among those who had left or were not going to pursue a consultancy post once training was complete. Potential strategies for facilitating professional identity development were focused into three areas; establishing meaningful connections, adequate support mechanisms and regional initiatives. Conclusion Previous research on attrition in the medical profession have suggested burnout and the lack of resilience as being the key factors for leaving training. However, based on this study’s findings, an alternative pathway related to the lack of professional identity has been proposed for senior O&G trainees. Ethics This study was registered at King’s College London, Kings Reference: LRU-18/19-10632 and was awarded ethical approval through the Research Ethics Committee (REMAs).
... The final storyline (Dent, 1991) emerged from our analysis using data triangulation (Denzin, 2009) which involved linking the interviews with the company documents we had collected. We then used Simons' (1995) LoC framework and Kunisch et al.'s (2017) processual dynamics of strategic change to carry out additional theoretical probing to understand how the MCS designed and used in the company influenced the innovation practices of organization members. ...
Article
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Purpose - In this paper we seek to understand the strategic management of innovation by examining the effect that management control systems (MCS) have on innovation activities during the strategic change process. Design/methodology/approach - We carry out a case study at an innovative company as they undertook a strategic change from closed innovation to open innovation. We use Simons' levers of control to frame the ways in which MCS were designed and used by managers and the effect MCS have on the innovation activities of organization members. Findings - We found that while managers designed and used MCS to support a drive towards open innovation, organization members did not change their innovation activities. Instead, we found that the MCS that were developed enabled improvements to their closed innovation strategy. This led to a decrease in the time taken to develop new products which resulted in increased customer satisfaction which contributed to the achievement of organizational goals. Originality - By focusing on the relationship between MCS and innovation activities in the strategic change process we shed new light on the ability of MCS to change the innovation activities of organization members. Even though the innovation activities at our case company did not change the interactions between the MCS enabled organizational goals to be achieved as they provided the necessary information infrastructure and motivated goal congruence.
... Multiple sources of data were used to interpret the lived experience of the participants through the method of data triangulation and method triangulation. Data triangulation (Denzin, 2009) has been used to gather data from different players, and method triangulation (Bauwens, 2010) has been used for data gathering and analysis. The different methods of data collection include the interviews of the participants, the observation of the participants' gameplay in the laboratory, and the gameplay recordings. ...
Article
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This paper explores the implications of youths’ out-of-school gaming practices for teaching and learning in formal and informal learning contexts. We report on a study where we examined the video game play of two youths using a case study approach. User experience approaches, e.g. the think-aloud protocol and interviews, were grounded in the theoretical framework of social semiotics to analyse the gameplay videos and to discuss the implications for the youths’ learning. The paper contends that youths are demonstrating critical thinking, empathy, and multimodal literacy through their gameplay. We offer suggestions for how adults can use video games for youths’ learning.
... Long-term interaction in the field helped the researcher to recognize the culture and lifestyle of the participants, to establish a trusting relationship with them and to develop a common life experience with the participants (Maggs-Rapport 2000). Secondly, both researchers tried to represent the phenomenon in the broadest and deepest way by collecting data from different groups, different environments or at different times, by diversifying the data collection methods used, by involving other researchers in the research and using different theoretical perspectives (Denzin 1978;Merriam 1995). Another way of eliminating threats to credibility in qualitative research is to provide detailed descriptions. ...
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This ethnographic study aimed to investigate children’s transition from home to preschool education in a traditional village in Turkey. The data were collected through participant observation, interviews, document analysis and researcher diary. Descriptive and content analyses were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that physical conditions, sociocultural and religious structure, and family characteristics in the village created difficulties for children during the transition to school and reduced the frequency and quality of communication between families and school. It was concluded that joint efforts of families, schools, communities and policy-makers would provide an opportunity for children to make a successful transition from home to preschool education.
... There are, however, both strengths and limitations to this approach. Firstly, the research uses triangulation of researchers' perspectives [40] with the objective of increasing the research reliability and validity by defining a guiding research question first [41,42]. Therefore, a specific strength of this research is that it provides insights from multidimensional and pluralistic perspectives. ...
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This paper presents and analyses solutions where open education and open science were utilised to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education. The COVID-19 outbreak and associated lockdowns created huge challenges in school and higher education, demanding sudden responses which aimed to sustain pedagogical quality. Responses have varied from conservative to radically innovative. Universally, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted and shocked societies worldwide, and education systems were on the front line. The lockdowns largely stopped face-to-face and formal education in almost all countries, and in most cases, distance learning soon became the ‘new normal’. A central challenge concerned sustaining educational visions and ideals in such circumstances. To better understand the state of the art in the educational landscape, we collected case studies from 13 countries during the first year of the pandemic starting on 11 March 2020 (when the World Health Organization declared a pandemic). This paper presents summaries of the full country reports that were collected and describe lessons learned. Our overall aim was to identify good practices and recommendations from the collected case studies that can be taken forward in the future. We categorised the responses on the three generic educational levels (macro, meso and micro) and identified seven key aspects and trends that are valid for all or most countries: (1) formal education at a distance for first time; (2) similar approaches for formal education; (3) missing infrastructure and sharing open educational resources; (4) diverse teaching and learning methods and practices; (5) open education and access to open educational resources; (6) urgent need for professional development and training for teachers and (7) assessing and monitoring learning environments, teachers and students. Finally, we identified key recommendations on how open education and open science can benefit formal education in schools and universities in the future, namely, improved awareness of open educational practices, provision of ICT infrastructure, embracing and sustaining the practice of open access publications and OERs, capacity building for stakeholders and finally encouraging research and development in the area of open education and open science. We found significant evidence for the proposition that open education and open science can support both traditional face-to-face and distance learning.
... Data from the two projects were analysed using a hierarchical coding frame, with codes related to the research questions, that is, the displacement, productivity or reinstatement effects and the implications for job quality. Data from each study were triangulated using a complex approach of method, investigator and data triangulation (Denzin, 2009). The findings were cross-checked with empirical studies from the wider academic literature, which was more challenging for the second project focused on an emergent area of policy and practice, with a correspondingly nascent evidence base. ...
Article
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In the United Kingdom and further afield, policy discourse has focused on the efficiencies technology will afford the care sector by increasing workforce capacity at a time when there are recruitment and retention issues. Previous research has explored the impact of telecare and other technologies on roles within the care sector, but issues related to job quality and the consequences of newer digital technologies that are increasingly being deployed in care settings are under researched. Through an exploration of the literature on robotics and empirical studies of telecare and mainstream ‘smart’ digital technology use in UK adult social care, this paper examines how these technologies are generating new forms of work and their implications for job quality, arguing the tendency to prioritise technology results in the creation ‘machine babysitters’ and ‘fauxtomatons’.
... • Triangulation: There are some forms of triangulation (Denzin, 1978). Data triangulation is used in this research. ...
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Considering the role and importance of innovation in the performance of organizations in general and banking institutions in particular, the current work aims at identifying effective factors in the success of innovation management system in Iranian Banks, about which exists a scarcity of research in comprehensively identifying these organizational factors. Having examined several potentially suitable research methodologies, the Grounded Theory is chosen as a suitable approach to determine a comprehensive understanding of the main drivers of innovation management success in Iranian Banks. Theoretical and snowball sampling are used to recruit fifteen participants from across the country. The result of this study is a theory that explains the main drivers of innovation management success in Iranian banks. Innovation supportive leadership, market and customer orientation, information technology management, intellectual opportunities, as well as innovation opportunities and process management are the main factors for innovation management success in Iran's banking industry. These factors contribute to the common factors mentioned by other studies, including communication, cost, and HR management, and offer a more specific approach to innovation management. Findings can help banks in the evaluation of effective factors in innovation management and provide the necessary ground for designing practices for improvement.
... Dual coding was used until thinking was synced and minimal discrepancies occurred across coders. Coding was complete when all transcripts had been thoroughly coded and themes began to repeat without presenting any new information (saturation) (Denzin, 1978). ...
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Purpose:Reproductive coercion (RC) is a type of intimate partner violence that involves interference in contraceptive and reproductive decisions. A multi-methods design explored correlates (quantitative) and contributors (qualitative) of partner-perpetrated RC across the socioecological framework among intimate partner violence survivors (IPV) in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Quantitative analyses utilize baseline data from the myPlan Kenya trial (n=327). Multivariable Poisson regression examined the association between postulated correlates and overall RC (range: 0-9), and sub-types of pregnancy coercion (range: 0-5) and condom manipulation (range: 0-4). In-depth interviews (IDIs; n=30) conducted at three-month follow-up among women indicating RC experience at baseline explored women's perceived contributors to RC via inductive thematic analysis. Results: Within the past three months, over 80% of IPV survivors experienced any RC, and IPV survivors experienced 3.8 RC behaviors on average. Factors associated with overall RC included not wanting their last child at all (aIRR =1.28; p=0.009), partner's concurrent partnership (aIRR=1.33; p<0.001), and inconvenient contraceptive method use (aIRR=1.36; p=0.01), whereas increased couple communication was protective against RC (aIRR=0.96; p<0.001). IDIs revealed potential contributors to RC, including partner's desire for children; partner fear of contraceptive side effects; cultural norms surrounding family planning use within marriage; decision-making power disparities reinforced by economics; partner's fear of abandonment; and presence of children from previous relationships. Conclusions: Results indicate individual-and couple-level characteristics are crucial for understanding RC for Nairobi's IPV survivors. Knowledge of RC risk factors can assist practitioners in mitigating against reproductive interference, and ensuring women are using contraceptive methods most suited to their circumstances and aligned with their reproductive preferences.
... This study aimed to increase the trustworthiness of its findings by careful scrutinization and reporting of each phase of the analysis process (Elo et al., 2014) as well as by employing two types of triangulation, theory triangulation (i.e., utilizing more than one theoretical position in interpreting the data, namely self-efficacy and self-concept) (Denzin, 1970) and investigator triangulation (i.e., four researchers participated in data analysis) (Denzin, 2012). ...
Article
This qualitative study analyzes first-year university students’ conceptions of their second language (L2) self-concept and self-efficacy for academic writing in English. The data consist of learning journals (N = 74), collected at a Finnish university in an English as a medium of instruction (EMI) context. L2 self-concept descriptions included positive, mixed, and negative ends of the continuum as well as stories of change. These descriptions encompassed various contextual mentions including grades, the current EMI context, and social comparison. The self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing reflected a stage of change among the students. The students reporting more positive, emerging self-efficacy described sensations of familiarity with academic writing. In turn, the students reporting low self-efficacy emphasized that academic writing was new and that they needed more guidance and feedback. An analysis of how the L2 self-concept conceptions and self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing co-occurred on an individual level revealed further variation among this group. Nevertheless, the negative L2 self-concept conceptions seemed to co-occur more with low self-efficacy for academic writing. Furthermore, the findings suggest that positive L2 self-concept conceptions may be of help when building self-efficacy for academic writing in English. The implications are discussed on theoretical and pedagogical levels.
... Furthermore, data triangulation method was employed to study the data from multiple theories, data sources and/or methods to analyze data and present the findings of a common phenomenon (Denzin, 1989). Methodological triangulation, which is data gathered from multiple data collection methods, was employed, such as self-reflective journals and observation notes, to ensure reliability and validity of the data and results (Denzin, 2009;P. Fusch, G. Fusch & Ness, 2018). ...
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The objective of the study is to facilitate and understand how design thinking is used to develop creative thinking skills and understand how the students apply these skills to make meaning. Collaborative activities which are integrated into the existing curriculum and daily-life activities and interactions with in the class setup serves as the perfect precedent for students to move out of their comfort zones, work together solving problems and engage themselves in the process of meaning making. It examines the effect on student learning in small work groups, and multidisciplinary group dynamics. The integrated curriculum will offer an experience and culture of empowerment in a unique setup intended for self-organized learning, in order to apply and use the process of design thinking to solve problems and practice the idea of working in various group dynamics. It also provides a unique space for the students to build networks that will enable opportunities for future collaborations as well. The integrated curriculum is divided into two parts; consisting of the personal growth module and the second catering to developing skills for a professional environment. The students learn to expand their ideas of what they believed could be possible and learn to move out of their comfort zones. They are to find solutions to design problems within their environments and are taken through the steps of design thinking; exploration, ideation, prototyping or testing, and implementation of their projects. The aim of the study is to offer insights into Design Thinking as a tool to develop creative thinking skills and students application of skills to meaning-making through the doing of design, integrated in an undergraduate visual arts education. The educational perspective and aim of this study is to provide analysis of student collaborations and how they can be employed to the existing art and design curricula. Moreover, this study may not be cliché; it provides teaching strategies and new interventions for fostering dialogue, empathy building and collaboration within the scope of design education study programs in undergraduate visual arts education.
... The authors acknowledge the limitations of this study that personal subjectivity and reflection strongly influence the analysis. Hence the authors used various data to triangulate the findings and minimize bias (Denzin, 2017). ...
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Updating mastery of mathematics scholarly knowledge is vital for mathematics teachers' professional development in Indonesia. External transposition refers to the transposition of mathematics scholarly knowledge to the school curriculum. During the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning becomes the primary strategy for strengthening the external transposition knowledge of mathematics teachers in Indonesia. This study aims to describe the process of providing online learning situations in lifting the in-service mathematics teachers' external transposition knowledge during the COVID-19 pandemic. The online learning involved 57 in-service high school mathematics teachers in Indonesia as participants. The scholarly knowledge to be delivered was the visualization of matrix multiplication. This qualitative study is a didactical design research that includes a prospective learning situation analysis, a meta-technopedadidactic analysis, and a retrospective analysis. In the prospective learning situation, the solutions for re-situating face-to-face learning to online learning were disclosed. Moodle was used as the Learning Management System, and GeoGebra Classroom was used as the Task Response System. A meta-technopedadidactic is an educator's ability to comprehensively analyze pedagogic interaction, didactic interaction, and didactic pedagogy anticipation in using technology in a learning situation. The finding in the meta-technopedadidactic analysis showed the role of technology as a visualization tool in online learning, evidence of participants' external didactic transposition, constraints, and collaboration in learning. Finally, the retrospective analysis suggested some future improvements for better online learning situations. This study contributes to the comprehensive organization of e-learning courses in Indonesia for mathematics teachers' professional development based on pedagogic interaction, didactic interaction, and didactic pedagogy anticipation in the use of technology. Despite some of the study's limitations, the findings have the potential to be an advantage for the long-term sustainability of e-learning as a new norm for teachers' professional development programs, rather than just a foreshadowing of the pandemic.
... Çalışmanın dış geçerliğini sağlamak için ise, çalışmanın katılımcılarını belirlemede takip edilen işlem yolu, katılımcıların özellikleri ve araştırmada veri toplama süreci açık bir şekilde tanımlanmış, bulguların yazımında katılımcılara ait doğrudan alıntılara yer verilmiştir. Çalışmanın güvenirliğini sağlamak üzere araştırmanın verileri birden fazla araştırmacı tarafından toplanarak, kodlanarak ve yorumlanarak üçgenleme türlerinden biri olan araştırmacı üçgenlemesi (Denzin, 1978) kullanılmıştır. ...
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Bu çalışma, uzak mesafe evlilik ilişki dinamiklerini ve özelliklerini derinlemesine incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Nitel desenle yapılandırılan bu çalışmaya, evliliklerini yaklaşık dört yıldır (x=50.60, Ss=27.36 ay)uzak mesafeli olarak sürdüren 15 evli birey (10 kadın, 5 erkek) katılmıştır. Araştırmada veriler yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu aracılığıyla toplanmış olup, elde edilen verilerin değerlendirilmesinde içerik analizi tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. İçerik analizi sonrasında uzak mesafe evliliğe geçiş ve uzak mesafe evlilik süreci kategorileri ve bu kategoriler içinde geçişe hazırlık, rol ve sorumluluklar, çatışmayla baş etme stratejileri, aile rutin ve ritüelleri, uzak mesafe evliliğin avantajları, uzak mesafe evliliğin dezavantajları, uzak mesafe evliliği kolaylaştırıcı etmenler, uzak mesafe evlilikteki fedakârlık davranışları ve yakın mesafe evliliğe bakış açısıtemaları belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın sonuçları, uzak mesafeye rağmen etkili iletişim, teknoloji kullanımı, yapıcı çatışma çözme stratejileri, olumlu kişilik özellikleri ve ilişkisel kaynaklar gibi faktörlerin, eşler arasındaki duygusal yakınlığı sürdürmeyi desteklediğini ortaya koymuştur.
... Notifying all meeting participants that they would be invited to participate in a survey (DeLeeuw, 2018), the anonymity guaranteed to all respondents, and the avoidance of personal contact by opting for a self-administered web-based survey (Hunter, 2012;Moy & Murphy, 2016;Richman et al., 1999;Tourangeau & Yan, 2007) should have mitigated social desirability bias (Couper, 2017). Additionally, for those respondents who opted for the gamified version of the survey, the perception of the power relation between researcher and respondent (Denzin, 1989) and the feeling of being evaluated (Armstrong et al., 2016) should have been further ameliorated because playing a game creates a cognitive load that reduces respondents' concern over social desirability. Accordingly, gamified surveys are less prone to faking and distortion (Georgiou et al., 2019;Stodel, 2015). ...
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The topics of ethical conduct and governance in academic research in the business field have attracted scientific and public attention. The concern is that research misconduct in organizations such as business schools and universities might result in practitioners, policymakers, and researchers grounding their decisions on biased research results. This study addresses ethical research misconduct by investigating whether the ethical orientation of business researchers is related to the likelihood of research misconduct, such as selective reporting of research findings. We distinguish between deontological and consequentialist ethical orientations and the competition between researchers and investigate the moderating role of their perceived autonomy. Based on global data collected from 1031 business scholars, we find that researchers with a strong deontological ethical orientation are less prone to misconduct. This effect is robust against different levels of perceived autonomy and competition. In contrast, researchers having a consequentialist ethical orientation is positively associated with misconduct in business research. High levels of competition in the research environment reinforce this effect. Our results reveal a potentially toxic combination comprising researchers with a strong consequentialist orientation who are embedded in highly competitive research environments. Our research calls for the development of ethical orientations grounded on maxims rather than anticipated consequences among researchers. We conclude that measures for ethical governance in business schools should consider the ethical orientation that underlies researchers’ decision-making and the organizational and institutional environment in which business researchers are embedded.
... Afterwards, data were analysed through the transcription and coding of the interviews, using the qualitative data analysis software MAXQDA. For higher quality of the procedures, triangulation was also employed (Denzin, 1978). For example, by using documents and information from the companies' websites (Yin, 2009), using a diversity of informants for a more complete vision of the environment and for guarantying the construct validity , and using a study protocol to repeat the data collection procedures that facilitates the reliability and the research audit of the study (e.g., Yin, 2009). ...
... "High impact" learning experiences in terms of retention and depth of learning (Kuh, 2009) The approach under this purview is thus mixed in nature, combining inductive and deductive reasoning to research that fuse objective and subjective reality to enhance fuller understanding of phenomena. The metaphor of a triangle signals the use of multiple reference points to locate a singular position (Denzin, 1978;Phoenix et al., 2013). Crucially, it is this act of seeking an objective, singular truth through the processes of triangulation, which differentiates the post-positivist from the interpretive paradigm (Phoenix et al., 2013). ...
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The article explores reconfiguring the concept of academic success in Zimbabwe, now premised on the attainment of benchmark Doctrine Education 5.0 pillars set by the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Innovation, Science and Technology Development and enforced by Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education (ZimCHE) as a quality assurance agency. It reviews academic success standards based on teaching and learning; research, community engagement; innovation; and industrialisation. Targeting, HEI quality assurance officers, managers, and students as the population, the study purposively selected three HEIs based on stated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) mandates drawn from Zimbabwe's 20 registered public and private universities. Questionnaire-elicited data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists and presented in graphs derived from descriptive statistics to enhance meaning in findings. Findings show the five-fold Doctrine Education 5.0 remains news to HEI students although they passively participate as recipients, reflected in students-as-consumers rather than 'students-as-partners' among HEIs and later industry. Without students' voice as HEI partners, success would be analogous to a maternity centre rating its success based on 'state of the art equipment' and high calibre staff without mention of babies delivered as core business therein. The article recommends the reconfiguration of the academic-success matrix to reflect the student-interests involvement, and the industrial perspective as end-line users of HEI graduates. A one-size fits-all approach to academic success is not tenable for HEIs, and their divergent mandates call for differentiated methodological approaches to achieve success. HEIs continue to rate their success in terms of student enrolment figure, infrastructural development at the expense of student-centred success criteria that assesses innovative skills capacity and industrial appraisals post-graduation. The shift to a business approach in higher education has been unmanaged, with telling implications for HEIs visions and stated missions, necessitating change. Consolidating HEI success requires Chief Executive Officers' whose proven mandate espouses all education 5.0 deliverables, particularly innovation and industrialisation through research and community engagement, except for teaching and learning. Nothing in academia prepares Professors as Vice Chancellors for this task, reducing them to duds as their grasp of the five-fold mandate largely remains superficial. HEIs' success criteria and students' involvement continue to reflect education 3.0 scope when they should functionally be operating at 5.0, which is just on paper and tick-a-box-kind-of compliance to satisfy minimum quality assurance expectations. A danger of leaving important stakeholders behind until too late lingers, with potentially telling negative ramifications therefrom for all. KEYWORDS: Academic-success; student-involvement; student-as-partners; quality-assurance; HEI
... uantitativen Forschungsmethoden im Rahmen von Mixed Methods-Studien zu beobachten (siehe Abschnitt4.1). Eine zunehmende Zahl von Untersuchungen und Diskussionen auf dem Gebiet der Forschungsmethoden zeigen die Möglichkeit zur Anwendung der jeweiligen Techniken bei verschiedenen Analyseschritten. So bestehen auf der Grundlage der Triangulation (vgl.Denzin 1970) verschiedene Möglichkeiten, qualitative und quantitative Analyseschritte bzw. Datensätze und Methoden miteinander zu kombinieren (vgl. Flick 2004; Flick 2014, S. 418; Gläser-Zikuda 2013, S. 136, 150f;Gläser-Zikuda et al. 2012; Mayring und Fenzl 2014, S. 551). ...
Book
Die Debatte um Bildungsstandards im Zusammenhang mit internationalen Vergleichsstudien führte vor etwa 20 Jahren zur Fokussierung auf Kompetenzen und Kompetenzmodelle als Konstrukt zur Leistungsmessung. Unter Kompetenz ist dabei die Summe individueller Dispositionen erlernbarer Fähigkeiten zu verstehen, die in unbekannten Situationen erfolgreich eingesetzt werden können. Individuelle Performanz, Motivation, Volition und Performanz ergänzen das als kontextspezifisch zu begreifende Konstrukt. Um Kompetenzen sichtbar und messbar zu machen, bedarf es daher der Berücksichtigung des speziellen Kontexts und der Verknüpfung mit fachspezifischen Inhalten, um systematisch aufeinander aufbauende Kompetenzen entlang verschiedener Dimensionen abbilden zu können. Für die Informatik als anspruchsvolles Studienfach wurde bisher kein derartiges, empirisch begründetes Kompetenzmodell entwickelt. Dasselbe gilt für die grundlegende Programmierausbildung als Kern eines jeden Informatik-Studiums, aus der eine Vielzahl bekannter Herausforderungen, wie etwa hohe Leistungsanforderungen an Lernende, resultieren. Auch in Anbetracht von zunehmend heterogener werdenden Zielgruppen besteht auf verschiedenen Ebenen Handlungsbedarf. Ein Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, für den Kontext der grundlegenden Programmierausbildung als abgrenzbaren und übertragbaren Inhaltsbereich eine erste Version eines Kompetenzkatalogs zu modellieren, und dabei verschiedene Stufen kognitiver Komplexität sowie Wissensdimensionen einzubeziehen. Eine derartige Matrix zur Klassifikation der kognitiven Domäne liegt durch die Anderson Krathwohl Taxonomie (AKT) zwar bereits vor, die abstrakten Beschreibungen führen allerdings zu Schwierigkeiten in deren Anwendung. Ein durch die Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI) entwickeltes Kompetenzmodell für Bachelor und Master-Studiengänge illustriert beispielhaft zahllose solcher Missverständnisse. Zudem fehlt dem GI-Modell die empirische Basis. Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit untersucht daher die Anwendbarkeit der AKT als anerkannten Rahmen zur Kategorisierung kognitiver Kompetenzen in der grundlegenden Programmierausbildung. Durch die Erhebung und qualitative Inhaltsanalyse von Informatik-Curricula 35 deutscher Hochschulen sowie der qualitativen Auswertung von sieben durchgeführten Leitfaden-gestützten Expertinneninterviews erfolgt eine Klassifizierung aktuell erforderlicher Kompetenzen im Bereich der grundlegenden Programmierausbildung. Als Ergebnis der beiden qualitativen Analysen werden die angestrebten Kompetenzen der grundlegenden Programmierausbildung während der ersten drei, respektive vier Semester an deutschen Hochschulen entsprechend der Wissensdimensionen und kognitiven Prozessdimensionen der AKT zusammengefasst, und durch nicht-kognitive Kompetenzen ergänzt. Die entstandene Übersicht der empirischen Programmierkompetenzen zeigt zum einen die grundsätzliche Anwendbarkeit der AKT für die Basisausbildung der Programmierung sehr deutlich. Darüber hinaus wird die Vielzahl der zum Programmieren benötigten Kompetenzen bezogen auf deren Breite und Tiefe sichtbar. Aus der vorgenommenen Klassifizierung resultiert zum anderen das Potenzial, Programmierkompetenzen durch didaktische Maßnahmen schrittweise und operationalisiert aufbauen und folglich testen zu können. Ein derartiges Vorgehen kann Lehrende und Lernende durch zunehmende Transparenz und vereinfachte Messbarkeit von Lernergebnissen unterstützen, sodass Lehre, Lernen sowie die Konstruktion von Assessments verbessert werden können. Ein weiteres Ziel der Arbeit bezieht sich auf die Unterstützung des studentischen Kompetenzzugewinns in der grundlegenden Programmierausbildung durch informatives Feedback. Aktuell sind Übungstools zum Selbstlernen in vielfacher Gestalt für Lernende über das Web verfügbar. Das angebotene Feedback beschränkt sich dennoch in der Regel auf allgemeine Hinweise, die Verfügbarkeit von Musterlösungen etc. Kaum ein Tool gibt Rückmeldung auf die Eingaben der Nutzerinnen hin, außer z. B. durch angezeigte Ergebnisse von Unit-Tests. In dem Fall wird der eingegebene Code der Lernenden zumindest für einige vorbereitete Werte getestet. Aus diesem Grund stellt sich die Frage nach den verschiedenen Herausforderungen im Zusammenhang mit der Feedback-Konzeption und Umsetzung im Rahmen von Online-Tools zum Selbstlernen in der Programmierausbildung. Durch die selbstständige Übung zu Hause könnten Studierende immens profitieren, vorausgesetzt sie erhalten angemessenes Feedback zu ihren Fehlern bzw. Lösungen. Im Kontext dieser Arbeit wurden zunächst bestehende Angebote u. a. auf die genutzten Feedback-Typen hin analysiert und Hochschullehrende wurden bzgl. der Herausforderungen der Feedback Nutzung befragt. Daraufhin baut die Entwicklung eines Feedback-Prototyps mit einer Übungsaufgabe zur Rekursion auf, bei der diverse Feedback-Typen in Form von Animationen, Pseudo-Code und vor allem durch individuelle Hinweise zu studentischen Eingaben implementiert sind. Die Herausforderungen der Feedback-Entwicklung beziehen sich u. a. auf situative Faktoren bezogen auf Kompetenzziele einer jeden Aufgabe sowie auf individuelle Faktoren der einzelnen Lernenden. Darüber hinaus bestehen weitere Herausforderungen bei der inhaltlichen, funktionalen und formalen Gestaltung von informativem Feedback, da einzelne Feedback-Typen und die damit angestrebten Wirkungen in der Praxis nur schwer voneinander unterschieden werden können. Durch derartige Überschneidungen von Feedback-Typen und angestrebten Wirkungen bleibt die Gestaltung, auch mit Blick auf die kognitive Belastung der Lernenden, ein anspruchsvoller Spagat zwischen standardisiertem, kurzem Feedback und individueller Rückmeldung. Letztere bedarf außerdem enorme Ressourcen für die vorherige Analyse der Determinanten von Feedback und z. B. die Identifikation typischer Fehlermuster. Weiterhin wird der anhaltende Bedarf zur Differenzierung von Feedback-Typen erkennbar, die in den Kontext der Programmierausbildung passen. Unter Anwendung der Methode Lautes Denken werden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit zwei Testreihen mit je fünf bis sechs Probandinnen zur Exploration des Feedback-Prototyps und einem weiteren Online-Selbstlerntool (CodingBat) durchgeführt. Der Fokus liegt dabei vor allem auf der Beobachtung verschiedener Feedback-Wirkungen sowie der Feedback-Nutzung insgesamt. Die Beobachtungen liefern weitere Hinweise zur Gestaltung von lernförderlichem Feedback im Zusammenhang mit Programmierübungen, indem genutzte Feedback-Typen und deren Auswirkungen auf kognitiver, meta-kognitiver und motivationaler Ebene deutlich werden. Darüber hinaus legen die Ergebnisse nahe, dass automatisch generiertes Feedback nicht vollständig auf den individuellen Lösungsansatz eingehen muss, um helfend wirken zu können, auch Musterlösungen können z. B. unter gewissen Bedingungen unterstützen. Aus der Zusammenführung der beiden Teilstränge dieser Arbeit der Modellierung von Kompetenzen einerseits und Feedback andererseits, ergeben sich konkrete Empfehlungen zur Anwendung einzelner Feedback-Typen in Abhängigkeit der angestrebten Kompetenzen bzw. Wissensarten einer jeweiligen Übungsaufgabe. Diese Passung spiegelt den zunehmenden Bedarf an Feedback-Typen bei komplexer werdenden Aufgabenstellungen wider. In zukünftigen Forschungsarbeiten sind die Ergebnisse des Kompetenzmodells in der Breite weiter zu untersuchen, um die identifizierten und klassifizierten Programmierkompetenzen noch zu ergänzen oder die Kompetenzmodellierung auf andere Themenbereiche der Informatik auszudehnen. Darüber hinaus sollten die identifizierten Kompetenzen durch die Entwicklung zugehöriger Test-Items ergänzt werden, um deren Schwierigkeitsgrade messen zu können. Dafür bedarf es ggf. groß angelegter Anstrengungen im Rahmen eines Universitäts-übergreifenden Verbundprojekts. Im Zusammenhang mit der Entwicklung von Items zu Übungszwecken ist der adäquate Einsatz der identifizierten Feedback-Typen weiter zu testen bzw. deren explorierte Wirkungen zu quantifizieren. Durch die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit wird eine Basis geschaffen, Kernkompetenzen des Programmierens entlang ihrer kognitiven Komplexität identifizieren zu können. Weiterhin wird die Bedeutung nicht-kognitiver Kompetenzen im Lernprozess hervorgehoben. Daneben werden Empfehlungen für den angemessenen Einsatz von informativem Feedback und den zu erwarteten Wirkungen formuliert. Die Arbeit leistet damit einen Beitrag zur Konzeption von Curricula, Lehrveranstaltungen, Übungsaufgaben und Feedback in der grundlegenden Programmierausbildung, indem Lehrende durch eine Handreichung zur Klassifikation von Kompetenzen sowie Empfehlungen zur Feedback-Nutzung differenziert nach Wissensarten unterstützt werden.
... We also collected a second corpus consisting of 1750 images (mainly photographs) and a third corpus consisting of field notes. These three distinct corpora made it possible to triangulate (Denzin, 2009) the data to assist validation, with different data sources, produced at different times, places or with different people. ...
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This paper proposes an epistemological transition based on Edgar Morin's complexity paradigm to analyse authenticity in a complex tourism environment, avoiding fragmentation, and integrating relevant actors and relationships. The results show that storytelling is an important element of these tourism experiences, legitimising and unifying the authenticity of the experience and relating objects, social environment and individual experiences. The size of the tour groups and the rigidity of the itinerary were important elements for constructing authenticity. Tourists, service providers and government bodies all directly or indirectly participate as co-creators, making the perception of authenticity a constant negotiation between the elements of the experience and the actors involved in it.
... Credibility was defined as the match between the conceptions of participants and the representations of these conceptions by researchers. In order to satisfy the credibility of the study through data triangulation (Denzin, 1978), the specific conclusions were derived from the responses of multiple teachers rather than a single teacher. In order to enhance the credibility of the conclusions through peer debriefing (Guba & Lincoln, 1989), the results were submitted to a disinterested colleague to get her/his opinion whether the responses of the teachers are connected fairly with the specific conclusions. ...
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The demarcation problem as one of the most prominent topics in the philosophy of science deserves a higher profile in science education literature as a part of the discussions about the instruction of the nature of science (NOS) concepts to generate a scientifically literate society. In this qualitative survey research study, the views of the practicing elementary, physics, and science teachers were investigated in regard to the demarcation of science from pseudoscience within the specific context of astronomy and astrology. The content analysis approach was employed in the study to analyze the open-ended responses of a total of 780 participant teachers. The teachers utilized the following six distinct dimensions in order to distinguish science from pseudoscience: universality, source, verification, methodology, aims, and progressiveness. The teacher responses about the demarcation of science from pseudoscience and non-science included the several elements of the logical positivism as a dominant philosophical framework. The conceptions of many teachers about science were not necessarily aligned with the contemporary representations of NOS in science education. In professional development programs, teachers should be allowed to refine their NOS conceptions by examining a pluralistic view of science reflecting the perspectives of multiple scholars from different disciplines.
... The differences and similarities between coding were reviewed and discussed till common agreement on final set of codes was reached. The data were then triangulated (Denzin, 2017). Field notes, publicly available reports by national, international and humanitarian organisations, as well as internal documents such as training content and statistical data collected by organisations were analysed. ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand how humanitarian service triad members contribute to value co-creation, and how they assess the continuity of services in humanitarian supply chains (HSCs) to ensure support for beneficiaries. Design/methodology/approach: The study applied a qualitative methodology through a single case study of a humanitarian service triad composed of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), service providers and beneficiaries. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The findings confirm that the humanitarian service triad perspective in HSCs allows better understanding of humanitarian assistance. The findings indicate six components grouped into a humanitarian service triad framework, namely: service design, service reachability, training serviceability, collaboration, synergy, ethical considerations and after-service care. Research limitations/implications: This research contributes to understanding of humanitarian services provision by studying service triads in humanitarian settings. It also confirms the need for cooperation between practitioners in services provision. The findings are limited to the context of refugees in Turkey, specifically humanitarian service triad located in Izmir area. Practical implications: The Humanitarian Service Triad Framework for Service Provision proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for policy makers and practitioners involved in service design in HSC contexts, stressing the need for including all the framework components in practice. Originality/value: This study is one of the first to focus on a humanitarian service triad, which includes beneficiaries as triad members in long-term humanitarian service provision.
Article
Building green retrofit is an effective means of energy-saving and achieving sustainable development goals. The success of a building retrofit is highly dependent on the decision-making of retrofit strategy selection, and its process is affected by multi-dimensional factors. The importance of interdependent relationship between each factor is emphasized, however existing quantitative models are difficult to reflect building green retrofit in practice. To address this problem, the interdependent relationships among occupant impact, environmental impact, institutional characteristics, economic feasibility, technical practicality and government conditions of 52 completed green retrofit projects in China were analyzed by fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) combining Causal-Loop Diagram (CLD) method. Four distinct pathways in achieving successful building green retrofit projects were identified. The CLD highlighted the role of government and the contradiction between economic feasibility loop and environmental impact loop. The findings can help decision-makers examine the relevant factors and choose appropriate retrofit strategies according to the project priority. Based on previous frameworks, the accuracy and applicability of the factors are promoted in this study. Moreover, the improved theoretical framework can be adopted to worldwide green retrofit projects. Author keywords: Building green retrofit; Decision making; fsQCA; Causal-Loop Diagram; Causal relationship
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Esta investigación explora la valoración de la opinión pública sobre la información que recibe, los medios de comunicación y la influencia que ejercen los políticos sobre ella. En la actualidad existe una carencia importante de datos empíricos accesibles para diagnosticar dicha percepción. Aquí se han utilizado los datos procedentes de tres encuestas internacionales para indagar cómo se percibe la función social de los medios y la información que transmiten. Desde un punto de vista comparativo, aporta información sobre cuatro países en la medida en que existe información. Por dichos motivos, debido a la mayor disponibilidad de datos, se estudia más en detalle el caso de la sociedad española. Las conclusiones indican que los ciudadanos son conocedores de la importancia para la democracia de una información libre y veraz, si bien en su opinión esta situación está lejos de la realidad. La creencia en la abundancia de noticias falsas muestra una elevada sensibilización a la toxicidad de la desinformación. Se realiza una reflexión sobre los datos y su significado, debatiendo las limitaciones para integrar explicaciones alternativas, así como la necesidad de diseños que permitan investigar más en profundidad las motivaciones. | This research explores the assessment of public opinion about the information it receives, the media and the influence that politicians exert on it. Currently there is a significant lack of accessible empirical data to diagnose this perception. Here the data from three international surveys have been used to investigate how is perceived the social function of the media and the information they transmit. From a comparative point of view, it provides information on four countries to the extent that information exists. For these reasons, due to the greater availability of data, the case of Spanish society is studied in more detail. The conclusions indicate that citizens are aware of the importance for democracy of free and truthful information, although in their opinion this situation is far from reality. The belief in the abundance of fake news shows a high awareness of the toxicity of misinformation. A reflection is made on the data and its meaning, debating the limitations to integrate alternative explanations, as well as the need for designs that allow further investigation of the motivations.
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Η παρούσα έρευνα, ακολουθώντας το ανανεωμένο ενδιαφέρον για την έννοια του δικαιώματος στην πόλη (Merrifield, 2011∙ Petropoulou, 2014∙ Τσαβδάρογλου, 2016), επιχειρεί να συνθέσει θεωρητικές συζητήσεις σε σχέση με το χώρο, τη μετανάστευση και τα δικαιώματα, που εκκινούν από διαφορετικές αφετηρίες. Μέσα απ’ αυτήν τη σύνθεση, αμφισβητούνται βασικές κωδικοποιήσεις της μετανάστευσης που συναντώνται συχνά στο δημόσιο λόγο και κυρίως αυτές που αντιλαμβάνονται τους πρόσφυγες ανταγωνιστικά σε σχέση με την κατανομή κάποιων υλικών και συμβολικών πόρων (εργασία, στέγαση, υπηρεσίες και υποδομές πρόνοιας, εθνική ταυτότητα κοκ.) (Schuster, 2003˙ Lentin, 2003) ή τους αναπαριστούν ως θύματα ώστε να ευαισθητοποιηθεί η κοινή γνώμη και να διεκδικηθούν δικαιώματα. Μέσα από τη συγκριτική εξέταση των χαρακτηριστικών της στέγασης στα κρατικά κέντρα φιλοξενίας και στις αυτοοργανωμένες καταλήψεις στην Αθήνα, τη Θεσσαλονίκη και τη Μυτιλήνη καθώς και τηςπρόσβασης των προσφύγων στην πόλη, επιδιώκεται να αναδειχθεί το δικαίωμα στην πόλη, καθώς και ζητήματα χωρικής δικαιοσύνης και ορατότητας των προσφύγων. Η μεθοδολογία περιλαμβάνει αρχειακή και επιτόπια έρευνα στους παραπάνω χώρους και αφηγήσεις προσφύγων.
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Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience difficulties that affect their social and academic functioning. The aim was to triangulate qualitative and quantitative data on students with ADHD, their teachers, and their families. The present work is part of a larger study with a multimethod design. Participants were 43 students with ADHD, 43 parents, and 38 teachers. Data collection was conducted in public schools located in the city of São Paulo. The instruments used were the Social Skills Assessment System (SSRS-BR), Conners’ Scale, Family Resources Inventory, questionnaires, and test scores. Triangulation analyses were performed using the IRaMuTeQ software. The triangulation between thematic classes of the students’ narratives and quantitative variables indicated associations between classes of resources and difficulties mentioned by the students and the experience of teachers, family resources, and not using medication. The triangulation between thematic classes in the teachers’ report and quantitative variables showed significant associations to the teachers’ experience, students’ social skills, school year, and sex and age of the student. These results highlight the importance of support for teachers, through continuing education or other forms of assistance.
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Through community-engaged research, we investi­gate how political and economic practices have cre­ated food apartheid and the ways in which this legacy complicates efforts toward equitable urban agriculture in Salt Lake City (SLC). The study takes place in SLC’s Westside, where an ample number of farms and gardens exist, yet food insecurity is a persistent issue. We partner with a small urban CSA farm operating in a USDA-designated food desert in SLC’s Westside to explore the farmers’ own questions about whom their farm is serving and the farms’ potential to contribute to food jus­tice in their community. Specifically, we examine (1) the member distribution of this urban CSA farm and (2) the underlying socio-political, eco­nomic, and geographic factors, such as inequitable access to land, housing, urban agriculture, food, and transportation, that contribute to this distribu­tion. GIS analyses, developed with community partners, reveal spatial patterns between contempo­rary food insecurity and ongoing socioeconomic disparities matching 1930s residential redlining maps. These data resonate with a critical geo­graphic approach to food apartheid and inform a need for deeper and more holistic strategies for food sovereignty through urban agriculture in SLC. While resource constraints may prevent some small farmers from attending to these issues, partner­ships in praxis can build capacity and engender opportunities to investigate and disrupt the racial hierarchies enmeshed in federal agricultural policy, municipal zoning, and residential homeownership programs that perpetuate food apartheid.
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W tekście przedstawione jest narzędzie badawcze opracowane z myślą o badaniu ubierania się jako działania społecznego. Celem artykułu jest szczegółowy opis techniki (zwanej w artykule „moja szafa”), która stanowi połączenie wywiadu i obserwacji dotyczących zawartości szafy i sposobów użytkowania znajdujących się tam ubrań. Technika ta, poprzez specyficzny dobór materiałów zastanych (ubrania w szafie) oraz etapowy scenariusz badania, umożliwia inny niż tylko dzięki zastosowaniu samego wywiadu dostęp do rzeczywistości społecznej, która toczy się bez udziału badacza. W wyniku jej zastosowania wiedza spekulatywna badanych dotycząca znaczenia ubrania zostaje skonfrontowana z wiedzą pragmatyczną wynikającą z doświadczenia użytkowania ubrań.
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The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare. Our aim was to identify how amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care in the UK has been affected by the pandemic by exploring the experiences of people living with ALS (plwALS), healthcare professionals (HCPs) working with plwALS, and ALS care centers. Three surveys were carried out to explore the experiences of plwALS, HCPs and ALS care centers during the pandemic. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and triangulated with the qualitative data which were analyzed thematically. Responses from 53 plwALS, 73 HCPs and 23 ALS care centers were analyzed. Five main themes were identified: keeping safe, losses, negative emotions, delivering care and alternative care delivery in a pandemic. PlwALS and HCPs felt that care was sub-optimal as a result of the pandemic. Changes to care included longer waiting times and face-to-face appointments being canceled or replaced by virtual consultations. While benefits of virtual consultations were reported, concerns were raised about incomplete clinical assessments and the disruption of provision of testing and interventions. ALS care has changed as a result of the pandemic. Patients have had a lack of face-to-face contact with HCPs and have experienced delays to investigations and treatments. PlwALS and HCPs were concerned about the impact of this change, but the long-term implications remain unclear. We propose recommendations for HCPs caring for plwALS, that will promote continuity of evidenced based care in the context of a pandemic.
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Micro-enterprises and self-employed individuals have been hit particularly hard by the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, but few studies have tackled the issue. This paper is based on four in-depth case studies of self-employed people from different sectors who have been greatly affected by measures taken to control the pandemic. By capturing shifts in the perception of institutional and economic pressures, as well as precarity after the outbreak of COVID-19, we gained profound insight into crisis management among entrepreneurs working in niche or marginalized fields of business. We found parallels in their biographies and attitudes, but their perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic differ. We observed paradoxes and hybrid logic, as well as different ways of coping with the crisis. Having a “plan B” helped in some cases, while all of them benefitted from the solidarity of networks and communities.
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In this paper, a "3-Star Analysis,” commonly used in cluster mapping studies in the European Union (E.U.), was conducted, and manufacturing sectors with clustering potential in Turkey were determined across the 26 regions (NUTS 2). This study first introduces a novel concept of “cluster density index” for the manufacturing sectors in Turkey and then analyzes the relationship between the cluster density index and openness, economic development level and public incentives for investment. In this analysis, we used the non-parametric spearman’s rank correlation to test the relationships between the variables of interest.
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Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt in zweifacher Hinsicht einen Beitrag zur Erforschung von Geschichtslehrerkompetenzen und zur Überprüfung der Wirksamkeit der Geschichtslehrerbildung dar. Zum einen werden die Vorstellungen davon, welche fachspezifischen Fähigkeiten Geschichtslehrerinnen und -lehrer zur Planung von Unterricht brauchen, auf Basis der bislang vorliegenden theoretisch-normativen Vorgaben und der vorliegenden empirischen Erkenntnisse aus der geschichtsdidaktischen Forschung modellhaft präzisiert. Zum anderen wird die Ausprägung des so definierten Unterrichtsplanungswissens als angenommenem dispositionalen Teil von Planungskompetenz bei angehenden Geschichtslehrerinnen und -lehrern empirisch überprüft. Auf Basis der erlangten Daten lassen sich erste empirisch gestützte Hinweise zur Wirksamkeit der Geschichtslehrerbildung bezogen auf die Vermittlung des für die Unterrichtsplanung als relevant erachteten Wissens ableiten.
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Background: Studies on the writing of students with intellectual disabilities have been scarce and unrepresentative. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to analyse this group of students' abilities to plan their texts METHOD: A collective case study was carried out, with an eminently qualitative approach, although aided by an initial quantitative analysis. Fifteen students with unspecified intellectual disabilities were interviewed using open-ended questions. For data interpretation, content analysis and quantification of responses were used. Results: The results revealed the abilities and limitations of these students regarding the knowledge and use of one of the key processes of written expression (writing planning). Conclusion: The cognitive operations of planning, in which these students admitted the greatest problems, were the ordering and recording of ideas, and textual structuring.
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Due to the centrality of race and racism in social, economic, and political life, coupled with the racially privileged position of White people, the assessment of White racial attitudes is an ongoing concern. There is a great deal of survey-based, quantitative work that demonstrates a compelling case of White attitudinal polarization—a grouping of authoritarian, racist attitudes versus another alliance of progressive, antiracist attitudes—an increasingly racialized culture war. However, other studies, largely qualitative and open-ended, demonstrate the heterogeneous, shifting, and hypocritical nature of White discourse about race. To resolve this paradox, I refrain from the assumption that White racial “attitudes” are essentially bifurcated, while I also refuse the contention that White people produce spontaneous narratives whole-cloth. Rather, I argue that with sustained attention to time, context, and triangulation, we can better understand how and why White people speak of People of Color in positive ways one moment and negative the next, marshaling both to defend, rationalize, or improve their racialized subject position. I argue that these contradictions are—à la Schrödinger’s famous thought experiment—“superposition strategies.” Both racist and antiracist attitudes are simultaneously alive and dead in the same individual or group. Contradictory White discourse helps maintain a sense of self-efficacy and coherent White racial identity within conflictual and politically supercharged social situations, as well as within racially unequal social structures.
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Archaeological practice in Taiwan, an island located in East-Asia, is deeply influenced by Han Chinese culture and by the implementation of capitalistic approaches to dealing with archaeology that developed thanks to the ideological influence of the United States or the United Kingdom. This article aims to introduce a case study of an experimental approach to public archaeology carried out in Taiwan, which invested substantial effort to being self-reflexive. Since the 1980s, archaeological practice and the preservation of archaeological heritage in Taiwan has been practiced within the framework of contract archaeology. However, although the number of instances of commercial archaeology increased exponentially, the number of trained archaeologists remains scarce. In this context, archaeologists were trapped within an extractivist economic system that only served the interests of developers. Overwhelmed by massive amounts of work, the quality of the archaeological practice inevitably decreased. In reaction, some archaeologists are now seeking an alternative by adopting more reflexive approaches, which include public archaeology and community engagement. This article presents a brief introduction to the development of cultural heritage, archaeology, and public archaeology in Taiwan, followed by a case study from the site of the Old City of Zuoying (zuoying jiucheng, 左營舊城) (Southern Taiwan). By sharing our experiences, we aim to emphasise the significant positive aspects that emerged from a community-based and experimental approach, but at the same time to highlight the difficulties and failures we faced with this approach.
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Статья представляет собой анализ вызовов, с которыми столкнулись ав- торы в ходе многолетнего полевого исследования (2012–2020 гг.) крайне чув- ствительной темы жёстких форм криминальной экономической деятельно- сти в регионах Каспийского водного бассейна. Авторы коснулись следующих тем: персональные риски и вопросы безопасности, связанные с деятельно- стью силовых структур; рекрутирование и тренинг местных ассистентов и студентов вуза; межпоколенческий и гендерный разрыв между респон- дентами и исследователем; влияние предыдущей работы исследователя на развитие дальнейшей работы в местах исследования; сетевая плотность рыночных звеньев и скорость передачи информации между ними; влияние смены правовых режимов на текущие исследования. Авторы подчеркива- ют влияние плохой исследовательской инфраструктуры в регионе изучения и слабую осведомлённость местного населения о научной и академической работе в целом и об экономико-социальных исследованиях в частности, про- водившихся когда-либо в конкретной местности. Результаты показывают, что успешное изучение разных форм нелегальной экономической деятель- ности зависит, во-первых, от приемлемой в локальном сообществе (леги- тимной) идентичности исследователя, когда он воспринимается как член сообщества; во-вторых, от необходимости принимать во внимание гендер- ные особенности проведения полевых работ, что продиктовано в том числе усложнением структуры социального взаимодействия в разных социально- культурных условиях. Кроме того, важнейшее место занимают затрачен- ные на проведение полевых экспедиций время и финансирование, что связано со степенью нелегальности экономической деятельности, осуществляемой конкретной социальной группой или группами. This article presents the authors’ self-reflections on the challenges they faced as researchers during their long-term study of the illegal wildlife trade of sturgeon meat and caviar and Caspian seals’ skins and oil that they carried out from 2012 to 2019. The authors focus on the following main topics: personal health and security issues resulting from the activities of the police and the Federal Security Service, the recruitment and training of local assistants and university students, intergenerational and gender gaps that exhibit a strong influence on the development of trust between researchers and respondents, the network density of market dynamics and speed of communication through the market, and the shift in environmental legal regulations as an influence on current studies. In addition, the authors stress the lack of appropriate infrastructure to conduct systemic data collection and local populations’ unawareness of research fieldwork on social and economic issues ever undertaken in the areas under study. The authors show that for the study of informal economy activities to prove successful, several points should be identified: first, the formation of identity to be considered acceptable in the local community so that the researcher is perceived as a member of the community; second, the influence of gender boundaries on research driven by the ever-increasing complexity of social interactions set in different social and cultural contexts; and, third, time and funding as two of the most important things that should be taken into account when planning field studies, depending on how strong the illegality is and whether assistants are ready to face “others” from their own community.
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The benefits of the six sigma approach are recognized since the 1990s and six sigma project selection is pointed out by researchers as being a key success factor in its implementation. Six sigma project selection approaches have been proposed but it not exhaust the research. This study contributes in that direction, having aiming to propose a method for six sigma project selection. The methodological procedures used were literature review and action research applied in a company of the metal mechanic sector, national leader in supply of fasteners for a wind energy industry, located in the interior of the state of São Paulo. As a result, gaps related to six sigma project generation and selection and requirements for six sigma project approaches were identified. The proposed method contemplate portfolio generation using the voice of customer, the voice of business and the voice of process, and also meet requirements of six sigma project selection approaches and, in doing so, can assist management teams in charge of leading a six sigma initiative. The proposed method incorporates advances when compared to existing approaches and is based on propositions drawn from the project selection literature rescuing the principles of the six sigma initiative such as customer focus and key organizational processes. KEYWORDS: project selection; project generation; six sigma; method; action research.
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Promoting learners’ interest in learning is very important for learning to be effective. This action research study was conducted to find the answer to the issue ‘To what extent does activity-based language teaching (ABLT) affect teenage EFL learners’ motivation?’ In this study, 74 teenagers using the same level with a course book, Smart Choice 2, were divided into two groups: the control group was taught in a traditional way with lectures; and the experimental group was taught with ABLT. Participants were required to complete questionnaires and invited to join in interviews. Classroom observations were also made. Data were analyzed and synthesized using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The results showed that ABLT had a positive effect on teenage EFL learners’ motivation. In addition, it helped to raise learners’ confidence and provided insights into factors which distracted students throughout the experimental period.
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The aim of the book is to get to know, describe and understand the contexts of the meaning in the life of a child with apallic syndrome (unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and the meaning of caring for this child. Since his/her existence depends mainly on the involvement of his/her parents, the author includes their statements in considerations of a medical, philosophical, bioethical, legal and pedagogical nature. The book consists of six chapters. The first chapter presents the medical context of the life of a child with apallic syndrome. The reader gets acquainted with the terminology and health situation of the book's "hero" and the assumptions of comprehensive rehabilitation and therapy aimed at awakening him\her. In the next chapter, the author presents the parents' concern for their child in an apallic state, the difficulties associated with their involvement, and the forms of support that parents need. Chapter three is a presentation of a discussion on whether a child with apallic syndrome is a person and the ethical and legal repercussions of these reflections. In the fourth chapter, the author presents the approach of bioethicists and doctors to the situation of a child with apallic syndrome, as well as the widespread image of this child in the media, literature and film. In chapter five, the author deals with the anthropological aspect of the meaning of the life of a child with apallic syndrome, explaining how the child's consciousness functions and who he/she is in the perception of his/her parents. In the last chapter, the author draws attention to the existential context of the sense of caring for a child with apallic syndrome, using the philosophy of Lévinas and Frankl, who support the unconditional meaning of life, and therefore can be treated as allies of parents who care for their child. In the appendix, the author defines her research perspective and the assumptions of the monograph.
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Children’s opportunities for outdoor play have declined (Nash, D. 2018. The Construction of the Decline of Children’s Outdoor Play as a Social Problem in the UK. Canterbury: Canterbury Christ Church University) whilst opportunities for online play are increasing (Berrett, B., J. Murphy, and J. Sullivan. 2012. “Administrator Insights and Reflections: Technology Integration in Schools.” The Qualitative Report 17 (1): 200–221). This study investigated early years/key stage 1 teachers’ attitudes towards outdoor and online play utilising (Rosenberg, M. J., and C. I. Hovland. 1960. “Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioural Components of Attitudes.” In Attitude Organization and Change, edited by M. Rosenberg, C. Hovland, W. McGuire, R. Abelson, and J. Brehm, 1–14. Connecticut: Yale University Press) tripartite model of attitudes. An online survey was employed with 30 early years/key stage 1 teachers, gaining an understanding of teachers’ attitudes towards outdoor and online play. In summary, results show there is significant variation in teachers’ attitudes towards outdoor and online play, whilst children’s opportunities for outdoor and online play within UK early education also remain infrequent and varied. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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