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Pedagogy of The Oppressed

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... As such, this article has much to offer readers concerned with positional and power differentials between not only tutors and students but also between students of differing backgrounds. In fact, we argue that a pedagogic approach which harnesses fun and creativity as much as discomfort and conflict is one through which not only the 'oppressed' (Freire, 2005) but also perhaps the 'oppressing' might feel transformed. We open this article with the design of this pedagogical approach and then the methods of its evaluation. ...
... We had several motivations for this particular approach. First, we were concerned with how power is reproduced through the 'banking' conceptualisation of knowledge as something to be 'deposited' into students' minds (Freire, 2005). We realised the need for a transformative teaching design that would expand our conceptualisation of knowledge and also locate it within a critical dialogue between students, tutors, and their/our everyday lives -echoing also Kelly's (1988) continuum of sexual violence, with its linkages between the 'horrific' and the 'everyday'. ...
... In doing so, we wanted students to become critically aware of ideologically-informed understandings of abuse, and relocate these into scrapbooks and classroom sharing where they could be safely and critically contextualised and challenged -the personal being the political and the academic. Indeed, we wanted to support them in developing a critical consciousness and language for oppression (Freire, 2005) that would allow them to apply a sociological lens to GBV outside the classroom and participate in social change. ...
Article
This article introduces and evaluates ‘scrapbooking’ as a critical pedagogic approach to gender-based violence (GBV). This approach is inspired by the rapid development of conceptual and methodological tools for researching violence and abuse and the need for their translation into transformative teaching. Drawing on a feminist methodology of ‘research conversations’, but original in its development of ‘pedagogic conversations’, this research advocates further empirical attention to GBV teaching and presents its own four ‘lessons learnt’ from experimenting with scrapbooking. Scrapbooking is argued to facilitate not only the translation of GBV research into teaching, but also affective and embodied consciousness-raising and continuum-thinking in both students and tutors.
... However, the study wanted to focus on the whole community, including students' home environment, academic success, and shifts in teaching to embody the sociopolitical reality that was currently occurring. The necessity of focusing on current COVID-19 conditions is vital to the philosophical understanding of critical pedagogy, in that students were directly impacted and teaching should reflect that as well (Freire, 2000.) Teachers, administrators, and policy makers are responsible for radically reimagining education and need to have a solid understanding praxis (Freire, 2000). ...
... The necessity of focusing on current COVID-19 conditions is vital to the philosophical understanding of critical pedagogy, in that students were directly impacted and teaching should reflect that as well (Freire, 2000.) Teachers, administrators, and policy makers are responsible for radically reimagining education and need to have a solid understanding praxis (Freire, 2000). As of early-2021, many schools were still conducting virtual learning whereas others have adopted hybrid models, and even fewer have transitioned completely to in-person. ...
... Critical pedagogy, a framework introduced by Paulo Freire, encourages critical conversations, deep systemic probing, and social investigation, which challenges institutional structures and system designs' roles in upholding power dynamics and the status quo (Freire, 2000.) It is vital to understand the sociopolitical context in which our students are learning as well as the social construction of knowledge, as the spaces in which we exist and understand our world make up the knowledge that we hold (Freire, 2000;Darder & Mirón, 2006.) ...
Chapter
COVID-19 has caused the word "unprecedented" to be the word of 2020. Across multiple disciplines, radical changes have occurred, upending much of what we thought we knew prior to the global pandemic. Educators had to shift urgently into new territory, scrambling to figure out ways to stay engaged with students. Teachers at a K-12 charter system in the central San Diego area were no different when they began their contingency plan on March 4, 2020. This action research study on this charter system was conducted to inform future research and initially sought to understand students' lived experiences through their educational journey during school closures from COVID-19. However, this qualitative investigative study revealed significant obstacles and the need for teaching innovations that extended beyond their necessities through COVID-19 online learning. Students' experiences were not necessarily new, but the social barriers they were experiencing were exacerbated and transformed through the unique circumstances of the global pandemic. I utilized action research in this pilot study, where I identified three areas of focus as a problem of practice within the charter, focusing on one per the recommendations of administration. In addition, I center the data in a critical pedagogy philosophy and pose recommendations for future research and action, capable of being applied at this institution and transferable to others. This research is the beginning stages of a larger research project, which will center student focused critical inquiry and community engagement as an ongoing process to focus on the dismantling of institutional and systemic barriers and the problems of practice students experience organizationally.
... Rather, this is an African with a liberation philosophy purpose: one who sees liberation beyond not only the conflict between the coloniser and the colonised, but also beyond the identities and positionalities of the oppressor and the oppressed. Paulo Freire (1993) refers to such liberation thinkers and political activists as great humanists who have the task not only to liberate themselves, but also to free their oppressors from the existential and systemic prison of being oppressors. The oppressors, Freire notes, by virtue of being oppressors do not have the power to free their victims or themselves. ...
... The tragedy of the South African democratic and constitutional experiment, therefore, as expressed by Mbeki in the 'South Africa: Two Nations' speech, is that the perpetrators and beneficiaries of apartheid did not only find home in post-apartheid South Africa, but also kept their power and privileges. As canonically described by Enrique Dussel (1969) and Paulo Freire (1993), the burden of the philosophy of liberation is that its humanist vocation compels it to look after not only the victims of oppression, but also the oppressors. Liberation philosophers practice politics not as a profession of opportunists and tricksters, but as a vocation of liberators who are determined to make the world a shared place where people of different historical and political positionalities can co-exist. ...
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In this essay, I deploy a liberation philosophical perspective in order to understand Thabo Mbeki’s decolonial imagining of an African in the African Renaissance. It is my understanding that the African of the African Renaissance is one who has awakened to the task of undoing coloniality in the African postcolony. For instance, that an African has to declare that ‘I am an African’ in Africa, as Mbeki does, reflects the troubled and also troubling idea of being African in the African postcolony. It might seem that being human, and African in Africa, is an idea under question that must still be declared or defended. Whether one is an African or not in the postcolony is not a given, as colonialism succeeded in changing the being and belonging of Africans in Africa. Through colonialism, settlers became local in Africa and Africans became aliens in their own native territories. Colonialism, especially in its apartheid expression in South Africa,questioned the humanity of Black Africans, displaced them, and dispossessed them of their land. It is the uprooted, displaced, and dispossessed African represented in Mbeki who makes the remark that: ‘At times, and in fear, I have wondered whether I shouldconcede equal citizenship of our country to the leopard and the lion, the elephant and the springbok, the hyena, the black mamba and the pestilential mosquito.’ This dehumanised African is the subject who travels from the dystopia of colonialism to the utopia of reconciliation and a renaissance of Africa. This is the African who was caught in the tragic optimism of the liberation ‘dreamer’, but was later to concede that after the end of juridical colonialism, South Africa remained ‘two nations’ racially and socially. Even a globally celebrated democratic Constitution did not come close to solving the political and social equation, the paradox, where South Africaremains the ‘most unequal country in the world’. For the African of Mbeki’s representation and observation, the dream of liberation from colonialism collapsed into a nightmare of coloniality, and the starting point of an African renaissance is the decolonial effort todare dream and imagine another Africa and other Africans built from the ashes of the colonisers and the colonised. This essay is also an observation of the dilemma of a philosopher of liberation who was torn in between the necessity of justice for the victims of colonialism and the importance of reconciliation with the colonisers in the African postcolony.
... Initially, PAR was aimed to "break the monopoly" of scientific knowledge held by Western academy, making this knowledge accessible and producible by other, non-academic stakeholders (Hall 1982;Fals-Borda & Rahman 1991a). Paulo Freire's work on critical pedagogy had a crucial influence on formulating the principles and goals of PAR, having generated the ideas of 'subject-subject' relationship and 'conscientization' (Freire 1970). In PAR, 'subject-subject' relationship implies that the external (academic) and the internal (community) researchers collaborate on equal terms 7 , in contrast to the 'subject-object' dichotomy that characterizes the positivist paradigm. ...
... 'Conscientization' in the context of PAR means a process in which members of an oppressed group acquire self-awareness "through collective self-inquiry and reflection", which "permits exchange of information" instead of the "indoctrination" of one side by another (Rahman 1991a: 17). Freire 1970, Fals-Borda 1987, Rahman 1991a, Reason & Torbert 2001, Blake 2007 Mallona 2008 and author's own considerations). 7 Interestingly, (Fals-Borda (1987) seemingly abstains from using the word 'researcher' in this context, instead referring to external and internal 'animators' or 'agents of change', thus further emphasizing the difference between PAR and traditional models of scientific research. ...
Thesis
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The use of Indigenous languages of Americas in health services is a subject of concern both for the speakers of these languages, many of whom are deprived of adequate health care, and for medical professionals, who seek to overcome linguistic and cultural barriers in order to provide such health care for Indigenous communities. According to the policies projected by UNESCO and WHO, access to health services in person’s first language is one of key linguistic human rights, however, little is being done to enact this right worldwide, especially when it concerns ethnic groups that have been long marginalized by mainstream Westernized society. Furthermore, the functional expansion of a language to such an important domain as health care should contribute to the prestige and usefulness of the language, which is crucial in the case of languages that face endangerment issues. However, the adaptation of an Indigenous language for the use in health services is quite a complicated task that requires close collaboration between researchers and members of the speech community, and a truly interdisciplinary approach that would include feedback from linguistics, sociolinguistics, social medicine and medical anthropology: concepts of health and illness that are present in Indigenous cultures usually differ significantly from those accepted in Western medicine, whereas the attitudes of the community towards their own health and well-being can be based on these concepts. Elderly members of the community in such a case are of major concern, since they: a) usually in greater need in effective health care; b) often insufficiently proficient in the language of majority; c) can possess Indigenous medical knowledge that is of imminent value for communal well-being but is often discredited by biomedical practitioners. My dissertation is based on the participatory action research (PAR) that has been taking place in San Miguel Tenango, a Nahuatl-speaking community in Sierra Norte de Puebla, a region in Central Mexico. Both the dissertation and the PAR focus on three main issues. The first one is indigenous medical knowledge and practices in Tenango: their status and current use in the community, the attitudes of both community members and locally employed medical professionals towards them, as well as the linguistic and conceptual characteristics of such knowledge and practices, with a focus on the points of conceptual divergence between the indigenous and Western medicine. The second issue concerns the current practices related to the use of Nahuatl in public health services in Sierra Norte de Puebla; it includes, on the one hand, the analysis of current representations of Nahuatl in health education and language ideologies of health authorities and medical professionals who work in Indigenous communities. And finally, the third issue is the practical or ‘action’ aspect of the PAR: the preparation of educational materials in Nahuatl (written, audio and video) that deal with the most acute health problems in Tenango: diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, child malnutrition and dehydration and, in the view of recent developments, Covid-19 pandemic. The research draws theoretical feedback from such fields as language policy and planning, applied linguistics, medical anthropology and health communication. On the other hand, it aims to contribute to these fields by testing in practice a number of ideas and assumptions about the role of language in health, language revitalization and semantic nature of health-related knowledge. The dissertation is meant to present interest as to researchers who work in the above-mentioned fields as to grassroots activists concerned with the situation of human rights, health, and language vitality in their communities.
... Importantly, however, we can situate this sort of 'counter-mapping' within two related theories. The first of these follows Paolo Freire (1968;Johnson et al, 2006), and his philosophy of "critical consciousness". In Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1968), Freire explains that in order to resist colonial oppression, there must be an ability to conceptualise oppression, and adopt the skills necessary to resist -in Freire's teaching this primarily takes the form of literacy. ...
... The first of these follows Paolo Freire (1968;Johnson et al, 2006), and his philosophy of "critical consciousness". In Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1968), Freire explains that in order to resist colonial oppression, there must be an ability to conceptualise oppression, and adopt the skills necessary to resist -in Freire's teaching this primarily takes the form of literacy. In this case, however we can see that the conceptualisation of a pan-Arctic indigenous identity can be related to Freire's critical consciousness as a way of conceptualising oppression by a the cultural hegemony. ...
Thesis
This thesis examines historical and contemporary debates surrounding the way in which knowledge traditions interact in the Arctic. This is done through examining the theoretical and practical history of cartography, both as a discipline, and as applied to the Arctic. In doing so, I make the argument for an inextricable link between cartography and knowledge production across supposedly different ‘knowledge traditions’, through the privileging of performativity as the primary way of making knowledge, and an understanding of human cognition as inherently spatial and narratological. Based on these understandings, I examine debates within geography and wider social science that might assist the practising of cartography under this philosophy – the possibilities for ‘working with multiple ontologies’. For example I explore the opportunity for working with complex adaptive systems, and suggest that a contemporary understanding of how cyberspace is produced in the Arctic fits in with these philosophies. I also examine those debates that might stand in the way of practice that acknowledges these philosophies of complexity – for example debates about the nature of digital materiality, and of the epistemological / ontological divide. These theories and debates are anchored in the Arctic through the use of historical and contemporary examples concerned with the mapping of space and knowledge primarily in the North American Arctic. Ultimately debating a future for practising cartography in the Arctic is situated within the confines of post-colonial critique, so I examine how we define “counter-mapping”, and where the philosophies outlined above fit into this politically strong tradition. In conclusion I suggest that whilst contemporary theory has much to offer an increasingly digital indigenous Arctic, there remains a partial disconnect between theory and practice that can be addressed through reading this debate.
... In dialogical, emancipatory education as a practice of freedom, action, reflection and action imbricated in the transforming praxis are inseparable (FREIRE, 1987). ...
... "Teaching is not transmitting knowledge." It is a process of (re)elaboration and/or new constructions of knowledge in communion; a "co-laborative" process (FREIRE, 1987). Teaching and learning, in the Freirian sense, is an integrative relationship, inseparable acts in the processes of critical apprehension and construction of new knowledge. ...
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This research seeks to expand and strengthen the theoretical and methodological subsidies of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy in its application to education. In this way, we will bring to reflection three concepts that are interrelated in Paulo Freire's Pedagogy, especially in the Pedagogy of Autonomy: epistemological curiosity, methodical rigor and right thinking. Methodological is a qualitative study with bibliographic research on Paulo Freire's pedagogy. Paulo Freire warns that by recognizing ourselves as human beings, we must also contribute to the humanization of other human beings. For this, it is necessary to face contradictions in order to combat the disqualification of life and the acts of injustice that aggravate cultural and social inequalities. Paulo Freire's research on Pedagogy is revealed as a political, ethical-critical call: it is education that must be constituted as a way of life, as social praxis, synthesizing reflection, the action of deciding, and transforming action. It cannot be left for later or for certain formal moments; it has to be made vital experience every day, at all times.
... So pervasive are heterosexist ideals and assumptions that a commitment to respecting and normalizing sexual diversity is not enough. What it illustrates is the importance of the Freirian concept of praxis (Freire, 1970), the continual act of action and transformation that results from critical reflection. By critically examining our practices, we can better understand whether they match our commitments. ...
... The term queer literacy pedagogy evokes-and is informed by-several fields. It brings to mind queer pedagogy (Britzman, 1995;Bryson & de Castell, 1993;Pinar, 1998;Winans, 2006), which draws from queer theory (Butler, 1990(Butler, /2006Foucault, 1976Foucault, /1998Sedgwick, 1990;and others) and critical pedagogy (Freire, 1970;Giroux, 2005Giroux, , 2011Kincheloe & Steinberg, 1997; and others). Queer pedagogy was perhaps first described by Bryson and de Castell (1993) as "a radical form of educative praxis implemented deliberately to interfere with, to intervene in, the production of 'normalcy' in schooled subjects" (p. ...
... He targeted not only those with resources and power but, more essentially, the marginalized and the poor, who, through decades of neglect, had come to accept their condition as natural and were resistant to structural change. Drawing on the emancipatory pedagogic theories of the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire (1970) designed to reclaim the humanity of the colonized, Mockus believed that restoring urban dignity, a sense of possibility, a right to the neighborhood, and a belief in collective agency are all essential to a just and equitable urban agenda. ...
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Contributions by urban planners, sociologists, anthropologists, architects, and landscape architects on the role and scope of urban design in creating more just and inclusive cities. Scholars who write about justice and the city rarely consider the practices and processes of urban design, while discourses on urban design often neglect concerns about justice. The editors of Just Urban Design take the position that urban design interventions have direct and important implications for justice in the city. The contributions in this volume contextualize the state of knowledge about urban design for justice, stress inclusivity as the key to justice in the city, affirm community participation and organizing as cornerstones of greater equity, and assert that a just urban design must center and privilege our most marginalized individuals and communities. Approaching spatial and social justice in the city through the lens of urban design, the contributors explore the possibility of envisioning and delivering social, spatial, and environmental justice in cities through urban design and the material reality of built environment interventions. The editors' combined expertise includes urban politics and climate change, public space, mobility justice, community development, housing, and informality, and the contributors include researchers and practitioners from urban planning, sociology, anthropology, architecture, and landscape architecture. Contributors: Rachel Berney, Rebecca Choi, Teddy Cruz, Diane E. Davis, Fonna Forman, Christopher Giamarino, Kian Goh, Alison B. Hirsch, Jeffrey Hou, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Setha Low, Matthew Jordan Miller, Vinit Mukhija, Chelina Odbert, Francesca Piazzoni, and Michael Rios
... Dengan metode penelitian aksi diharapkan subjek penelitian dapat memperoleh pengalaman dan manfaat secara langsung dari proses serta hasil penelitian (Freire, 1977). Proses mengembangkan minat baca yang akan dilakukan dengan metode SAS (Structural, Analytic, Syintatic) sekaligus akan menjadi proses pendidikan bagi subjek sehingga diharapkan akan langsung memberikan dampak bagi kehidupan mereka. ...
... Strategi merdeka belajar benar-benar menjelma menjadi budaya baru dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan dan inovatif sesuai dengan kebutuhan hidup (Arifin & Muslim, 2020). Kebebasan ini tidak terpenuhi ketika ada pengecualian (Freire, 2013) Seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh pelopor pendidikan Indonesia Ki Hajar Dewantara, Ki Hajar Dewantara biasanya menekankan pembelajaran dari dan ke siswa. Ide merdeka belajar tidak jauh berbeda dengan intisari kmerdekaan yang memiliki ciri utama yaitu mandiri secara pribadi dan sosial. ...
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Merdeka Belajar adalah sebuah gagasan yang dicanangkan oleh Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Nadiem Makarim, untuk menghasilkan sumber daya manusia yang unggul dengan pendidikan karakter. Merdeka Belajar diharapkan mampu menciptakan individu yang kritis, kreatif, kolaboratif, dan terampil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penerapan prinsip Merdeka Belajar bagi calon konselor untuk menambah khasanah keilmuan calon konselor. Merdeka Belajar adalah sebuah gagasan yang dicanangkan oleh Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Nadiem Makarim, untuk menghasilkan sumber daya manusia yang unggul dengan pendidikan karakter. Merdeka Belajar diharapkan mampu menciptakan individu yang kritis, kreatif, kolaboratif, dan terampil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penerapan prinsip Merdeka Belajar bagi calon konselor untuk menambah khasanah keilmuan calon konselor.
... Theories of critical pedagogy imagine a problem-posing model of education. This means students raise their own questions about social injustice and work alongside their teachers to address those questions, using the most appropriate disciplinary content (Freire, 1970). Translating this vision to mathematics education suggests that students critically interrogate causes of and remedies to social injustice through powerful forms of mathematical reasoning and inquiry that builds on their knowledge of mathematics and their community to ask questions, solve problems, and explain ideas-that is, critical mathematical inquiry (CMI). ...
... 81). My inner Black girl compels the Black woman I've become to foreground pedagogies like code-meshing in my work as a teacher educator because I need my students to realize that teaching is an inherently political act in which they are uniquely complicit (Freire, 2000;Gilyard, 1996;hooks, 1994). In a classroom that "promotes linguistic democracy," Black girls are encouraged to "blend language and identities" (Young, Martinez, & Naviaux, 2011, p. xxiv) instead of being surveilled relentlessly when they embrace the "skin that (they) speak" (Delpit, 2002, p. xvii). ...
... Critical pedagogy argues that it is the role of the classroom teacher not only to understand this but also to help students understand it, and perhaps most importantly, to help students learn how to resist and push against these societal phenomena. Freire (1970) argues that a critical stance begins with love; poet, scholar, and feminist Audre Lorde argues that self-love is a political act (Duncan-Andrade, 2007;Shor, 1992). Love is an important part of both teaching and learning-the love of self and the love of others. ...
... Greater access to information supports a focus on critical literacy in schools. Critical literacy, as a social practice, can contribute to emancipatory participation in the contemporary world (e.g., Freire, 1970). Specifically, critical literacy can be used as a tool in the emancipation of oppressed people or to reconstruct existing social power structures (Giroux, 1984). ...
... CAHN specifically facilitates this process of consciousness-raising (i.e. Paulo Freire's "conscientisation", Freire, 1973 or more specifically decolonial thinking; see . ...
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This book provides an interdisciplinary analysis of UK African Diaspora health seekers and their sustained health inequalities in the health market. It translates their often-silenced voices into a decolonial praxis, where their experiences illuminate the hidden factors that have blighted change in health outcomes for these communities. The book excavates and breaks down the nature of these hidden factors, as historical patterns of behaviour that comprise whiteness over the longue durée. Using the lenses of decolonial and critical race studies, the book places whiteness within an ethical and moral framework in order to examine the hidden factors behind health inequalities. The book also looks at intersectionality and discusses whether it is actually fit for purpose as an analytical framework for discussing the health seeking behaviours of both Black men and Black women in relation to their unequal access to the health market.
... 4 relations with the surrounding environment and, above all, with other people" (Martín- Baró, 1994, p. 42). This perspective echoes Freire (1993), who defined critical consciousness as the achievement of an in-depth awareness of social and political contradictions and acting against oppressive influences that are revealed through this realization. We have found the ongoing development of critical consciousness, described as both a cognitive and affective process which leads to engaged discourse, a strengthening of collaborative problem-solving, and a deepening of relationships (Kumagai & Lypson, 2009), to be one that dovetails beautifully with the aims and potential of supervision. ...
Article
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic, the murder of George Floyd as well as other Black Americans, waves of violence against Asian American communities, and the 2020 presidential election created a national climate in the United States that almost defies description with regard to historical significance, collective emotional pain, and the urgency of the resulting calls for justice-focused action. This article explores the experience of three White psychologists/psychologists-in-training within this national context, and specifically, the impact on psychology training and supervision in the wake of the Executive Order on Combatting Race and Sex Stereotyping released in September 2020. Consistent with the extant literature in our field, we understand supervision to be an essential space for in-depth attention to trainee development around cultural humility and critical consciousness wherein we as supervisors also grow and deepen our own practice (Falender et al., 2013; Hook et al., 2016). As we navigated 2020, we found several key supervision processes particularly salient, including antiracism in supervision as mindful practice, facilitating learning while doing our own learning, supervisor consultation, and recognizing the impact of privilege on these processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
... Namun kecenderungan ini dikritik oleh kalangan sosiolog pendidikan kritis, di mana mereka berpandangan bahwa pendekatan yang demikian itu justru menimbulkan stagnasi sosial, melanggengkan otoritarianisme, penindasan sosial dan sebagainya (e.g. Freire, 1970Freire, /2005. Dalam sistem sosial yang sudah demikian terkooptasi oleh kepentingan-kepentingan kelas atas, sebagai contoh, akan sulit bagi masyarakat yang berada di kelas bawah untuk bisa melakukan mobilisasi status sosial-ekonomi mereka karena mereka tidak atau kurang memiliki akses dan aset, yang misalnya didapat dari pendidikan yang baik. ...
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This paper tries to show how objectification tends to occur in family, community and school education. Theoretically, objectification is opposed to subjectification. Objectification means positioning children, students or individuals as objects of education. On the other hand, subjectification is their positioning as subjects or active agents of learning. For this reason, a ‘middle way’ conceptualization is needed so that a conception of education in families, schools and communities is obtained that is oriented towards facilitating the natural development of students’ potential or nature
... Realizing this promise requires pedagogical approaches that are congruent with it. Drawing on Freire (2005), Giroux explains that these approaches must provide "the knowledge, skills, and social relations that enable students to expand the possibilities of what it means to be critical citizens" so they can effectively participate in a "substantive democracy" (Giroux, 2010, p. 192). In the context of food systems education, Classens and Sytsma (2020) argue that post-secondary institutions have a responsibility to increase food literacy in order to address food insecurity and unsustainable social and ecological outcomes in the food system. ...
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Current crises in the food system have amplified and illuminated the need for urgent social change to increase equity and survivability. Global crises such as climate change, environmental degradation, and pandemics increasingly disrupt everyday lives and limit possibilities in the food system. However, the prevalence of these crises has not yet engendered commensurate rethinking on how to address these increasingly evident and desperate social problems. Food and food systems are at the core of survival and food systems issues are deeply intertwined with and inextricable from the structures and operating principles of society itself. Effective and equitable change requires new ways of thinking, ways that are different than those that led to the problems in the first place. This requires identifying, conceptualizing, and addressing social problems through critical inquiry that places social justice at the center in order to render visible and explicit the social injustices in problem causes and consequences, as well as transformative pathways toward social justice. One of the most important domains for this work is that of higher education, an arena in which crucial conceptual thinking can be supported. In this brief article we review why critical pedagogy should be a priority in higher education; discuss critical pedagogy for food systems equity; and illustrate how we apply critical pedagogy in the Food Systems and Society online Master of Science program at Oregon Health & Science University.
... However, while this analysis does depress the extent to which social transformation may be possible through teachers in education, teachers are not agents of peace and social justice as many hope to be (Sayed et al. 2017;Pantic 2015); they are agents of pedagogic authority who legitimate inequality within the South African education system rather than transform the nature thereof. Critical pedagogies (Freire 1970;Giroux 1988;Apple 2006) do not disrupt the position of teachers as pedagogic authorities because they do not disrupt the pedagogic action of education systems. The aim of critical pedagogies is to expect teachers to undermine the authority with which they have been vested. ...
Article
The quality of an education system and the quality of its teachers and teaching are interconnected. Learning to teach and teach meaningfully and equitably is a core priority of education reforms. In this article we reflect on what the process of learning to teach might mean for teachers in an education system. We ask how and to what extent initial teacher education mitigates and reduces education inequities. In particular, we examine the relationship between teaching practice as a core component of initial teacher education and education inequities. The article draws on data examining the nature of student teachers’ experiences of teaching practice in the Western Cape of South Africa. We argue that the data illustrates that teaching practice does indeed invest future teachers with pedagogic authority. As such, it does indeed legitimate the position of student teachers in the classroom and within the education system, albeit with varying and differentiated outcomes for equity. Zahraa McDonald, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Email: zahraamcdonald@hotmail.com Yusuf Sayed, University of Sussex and Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Email: sayed.cite@gmail.com Tarryn de Kock, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), South Africa. Email: tarryngabidekock@gmail.com Nimi Hoffmann, University of Sussex and Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Email: nimi.hoffmann@gmail.com
... UNESCO (2009, p. 7) further identified the application of two distinct pedagogical approaches to ESD: (1) ESD as a means to transfer the 'appropriate' sets of knowledge, attitudes, values and behaviour; and (2) ESD as a means to develop people's capacities and opportunities to engage with sustainability issues so that they themselves can determine alternative ways of living. Sterling (2001) makes a similar distinction between a transmission and transformation approach, as does Freire (1973) between a banking and problem-solving approach. Didham and Ofei-Manu (2012) also contrast transformative to traditional transmissive teaching approaches to ESD (the former shown in brackets): ...
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Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a global project championed by UNESCO. This article surveys the literature on ESD and highlights its aims and objectives, actions and outcomes. Firstly, I introduce the international history of ESD which emerged from the UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. A decade later a Rio+10 conference took place in Johannesburg in 2002 which subsequently led to the UN
... The pedagogical approaches adopted by pre-service teacher educators are mostly discussion, debate, case studies, and activity-based approaches in order to integrate human rights within different curricular areas. Few elements of critical pedagogy (Freire, 1970) are also evident in their responses especially when they said, ...
Chapter
This paper asks whether datafication practices are dehumanising international development and if a human-centred and participatory datafication is possible. The paper uses Habermas’ theory of the different ‘knowledge interests’ that constitute different forms of social action. Three kinds of datafication projects are explored: humanitarian AI, digital-ID and community mapping. The authors argue that data-science and participatory practices are forms of social action that are shaped by different knowledge-interests. It is argued that the technical knowledge interests shaping datafication projects conflict with high-level policy commitments to participatory development. Ethical Principles of AI are assessed as a route to more human-centred practices of datafication for development. The authors argue that avoiding tokenistic forms of participation will require the incorporation of practical and emancipatory knowledge interests and the use of new monitoring and evaluation tools to trace the achieved levels of participation of different actors at each stage of the project cycle.
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This chapter challenges mainstream friendship theory from philosophy and psychosocial studies that seems to suggest that at school friendship is based on hierarchized types of relationship. Drawing on data from parents of trans and gender-diverse children, this chapter demonstrates that friendship and friendship bonds cannot be universalized and that we must acknowledge the different desires, choices, and lived experiences through time and space, the roles, and the desires that are produced in an ongoing way within friendship relationships and that they are constantly moving. I argue that by looking at these friendship affects through a Deleuzian lens we are able to enunciate how friendships are, according to the parents, affective and becoming minoritarian and thus producing new ways to think about friends and friendship bonds.
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Educational Charismic traditions, like Marist Education in the Champagnat tradition, among many other charisms, are different ways of ‘enfleshing’ and ‘flavouring’ the Gospel of Christ. They are about the incarnation of the Christian message, a particular expression of what it means to be Christian within the context of one’s own time, place and culture. What are the characteristics, and particular emphases, of such ‘enfleshments’? The Charism Scale is a new empirical survey instrument designed to assist schools to explore the degree to which their foundational charisms exist and the way they take shape. The multi-variate attitude scale is based on five empirically confirmed dimensions to which various educational charismic traditions respond in different ways. It is ‘in the mix’ that the particularities of each charismic tradition emerge. This empirical data enables school communities to identify and strengthen the particular charismic flavour they bring to the Catholicity of the school.
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What makes bureaucracy work for the least advantaged? Across the world, countries have adopted policies for universal primary education. Yet, policy implementation is uneven and not well understood. Making Bureaucracy Work investigates when and how public agencies deliver primary education across rural India. Through a multi-level comparative analysis and more than two years of ethnographic field research, Mangla opens the 'black box' of Indian bureaucracy to demonstrate how differences in bureaucratic norms - informal rules that guide public officials and their everyday relations with citizens - generate divergent implementation patterns and outcomes. While some public agencies operate in a legalistic manner and promote compliance with policy rules, others engage in deliberation and encourage flexible problem-solving with local communities, thereby enhancing the quality of education services. This book reveals the complex ways bureaucratic norms interact with socioeconomic inequalities on the ground, illuminating the possibilities and obstacles for bureaucracy to promote inclusive development.
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This article explores the rationalities advanced by 18 higher education institutions, located across eight countries, for developing and delivering employability provision. The article uses Sultana’s Habermasian-derived framework to categorise rationalities as either technocratic, humanistic or emancipatory. Based on a series of semi-structured dialogic interviews, the article explores how key strategic and operational personnel within higher education institutions articulate their rationality for engaging with employability. It finds that the rationalities advanced to support employability within different institutions vary through a conversation between institutional culture and priorities and the demands of different stakeholders who the institution seeks to engage. The technocratic and humanistic rationalities dominate, with the emancipatory rationality weakly represented in the data. However, in many cases, the different rationalities are woven together, often for tactical reasons, to create bespoke institutional rationalities.
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Artikkeli perustuu kirjoittajan tekemään tutkimukseen, missä hän kokosi elämänkertahaastatteluin koulutuskertomuksia sekä lapsuuden- ja nuoruudenaikaisista koulunkäynnistä että aikuisopiskelusta. Tutkimukseen osallistui kymmenen maaseudun pienissä kylissä elävää, 1950-luvulla ja 1960-luvun alussa syntynyttä lappilaista naista. Tutkimuksessaan kirjoittaja jäljitti valtautumisen ideaa ja prosessia, missä hän ymmärtää valtautumisella emansipoitumista sekä yksilöllisesti että yhteisöllisesti. Kirjoittaja jäsentää naisten aikuiskoulutuskokemukset kolmeen valtautumisen mahdollistamaan piirteeseen: 1. myönteiseen vuorovaikutukseen opiskelija-opettaja suhteessa, 2. kokemuksien jakamiseen ja opiskelijaryhmän tukeen sekä 3. uuden suhteen luomiseen omaan itseen ja oppimiseen.
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Drawing from a yearlong literacy ethnography conducted at a high school in a Midwestern U.S. city, this article extends queer literacies and queer pedagogies scholarship by exploring the frictions and resonances between strategies of inclusion and queering. While inclusion strategies emphasize using expanded representations of sexuality and gender, such as of LGBTQ+ life, queering approaches often trouble inclusion through, for instance, questioning normativities and epistemologies and embracing partiality, uncertainty, and crisis in learning. To unpack interconnections between inclusion and queering, I present an ethnographic case of a lesson in a sophomore humanities course, focusing on the teacherly moves of an English language arts educator leading an instructional conversation about a nonfiction article describing intersections among sexuality, gender, race, ethnicity, and class with respect to food insecurity. Engaging Ahmed's (2006) queer theorization of orientations, I develop the heuristic of literacy (dis)orientations to describe the layered mixture of classroom literacy performances challenging and reifying oppressive values regarding intersections among sexuality, gender, race, ethnicity, and class. The teacher disoriented students away from (homo)normativities regarding knowledge of LGBTQ+ communities and reoriented them toward and around nuanced, intersectional understandings of queer and trans life. However, these anti‐oppressive possibilities were limited by orientations around a banking model of education and binaries. This ethnographic case suggests that educators sanctioning literacy orientations toward intersectional LGBTQ+‐inclusive curriculum presents possibilities for liberatory social change insofar as they disorient students away from education‐as‐banking and epistemological binaries and reorient them around alternative ways of knowing, specifically intersectionality as a queering epistemology. Drawing from a yearlong literacy ethnography conducted at a high school in a Midwestern U.S. city, this article extends queer literacies and queer pedagogies scholarship by exploring the frictions and resonances between strategies of inclusion and queering. While inclusion strategies emphasize using expanded representations of sexuality and gender, such as of LGBTQ+ life, queering approaches often trouble inclusion through, for instance, questioning normativities and epistemologies and embracing partiality, uncertainty, and crisis in learning.
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Las sociedades del siglo XXI afrontan el desafío de reconciliar los límites físicos de la biosfera con los procesos de desarrollo, desiguales e insostenibles, que genera un modelo civilizatorio hegemónico que parece ya agotado. Aceptar este reto obliga a repensar las respuestas educativas a las crisis socioambientales, asumiendo la necesidad de educar para otros modos de ser y desarrollarnos, individual y colectivamente. Una tarea en la que, con fortuna dispar, la Educación Ambiental viene comprometiendo sus prácticas desde los años sesenta del pasado siglo. En esta coyuntura, la Pedagogía Social y la Educación Social no pueden eludir sus responsabilidades en la formación de una ciudadanía social y ecológicamente consciente, crítica y proactiva. Con esta convicción, la Sociedad Iberoamericana de Pedagogía Social convocó los días 28-29 de octubre y 4-5 de noviembre de 2021, en la Ciudad de Lugo (Galicia-España), la celebración del Congreso Internacional de la SIPS 2021 y del XXXIII Seminario lnteruniversitario de Pedagogía Social, con el lema Educación Ambiental y Cultura de la Sostenibilidad: construyendo la transición ecológica. El objetivo de esta convocatoria era reflexionar y dialogar en torno a cuestiones como las siguientes: ¿Qué papel puede y debe jugar la Pedagogía/Educación Social en la transición ecológica? ¿Qué significados cabe atribuirle a una cultura de la sostenibilidad desde el punto de vista pedagógico-social? ¿Qué lugar ocupa la Educación Ambiental en el campo de la Pedagogía/Educación Social y viceversa? ¿Qué enfoques y que metodologías pedagógico-sociales se pueden movilizar en y para la transición socio-ecológica? ¿Cómo contribuir desde la Pedagogía/Educación Social a conformar una eco-ciudadanía? Estas Actas compilan las ponencias y las comunicaciones allí presentadas y debatidas. La diversidad teórica, metodológica y práctica que recogen refleja el compromiso de la comunidad de la Pedagogía-Educación Social en la transición socio-ecológica, así como las múltiples líneas de reflexión y acción que abre la convergencia transdisciplinar característica del campo de la Educación Ambiental.
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The title of the essay is “In Nesha’s Classroom.” This work examines the importance of teaching and the hard decisions that have to be made to really put race and gender at the center. Somehow, race constantly gets sidelined by the discomfort of white students and the balance between truth-speaking and the need to hear appeasement rather than the tough dialogues that deal with the injustices of race in America. This may be a primer on how to teach race in the classroom at the university level, which is still elusive. Mathew’s analysis is a light that can open new ways of thinking.
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As of 2017, American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) had the highest prevalence of illicit drug use of any ethnic group in the United States, with 17.6% of the population aged 12 and older reporting using illicit drugs in the last month. Studies have shown the positive correlation between a history of trauma and substance use disorder. In fact, the majority of youth in treatment for substance misuse reported a history of trauma. Intergenerational trauma, systematic discrimination, and displacement are downstream effects of colonization, and experiences of racism often define the life experiences of AI/ANs who use substances. This paper describes the process of designing a developmentally and culturally appropriate primary prevention supplement for an evidence‐based program to prevent substance use and increase cultural identity among AI/AN youth.
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The many factors affecting the participation of black students in study-abroad programs to Africa are explored in this chapter. Institutional policy and personal beliefs affecting the travel of minority students as a part of their education were a major undertaking. Here all the challenges are examined in detail as well as the great work that the students did in their own communities in the U.S. teaching the module. A detailed look at how the entire program works is covered in the section “The Pedagogy Of Action in Action” where the module and the translation from English to South African languages are analyzed. The academic, cultural, and behavioral requirements of the students while in South Africa display a very rigorous curriculum with very high expectations.
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Renee Pitter examines how the Pedagogy of Action shaped her eyes to see a Jamaica differently from the one that she saw with her parents. It was a challenge to change the perception of Jamaica to that of a country as a real place with pressing problems like high rates of HIV in the gay community at that time. And so Renee and her cohorts worked with Jamaica Aids Support, JFLAG, and one of the tourist hotels—with staff who served the tourists. That students must never think that their first priority is to view their time abroad as a vacation, and that their work is secondary, was an important principle in all the places where we worked. Indeed, it was the opposite. Renee’s paper reveals the struggles of young students thrown into communities with the task of teaching the HIV module. Most importantly she shows how these obstacles of teaching in the community were resolved. This required the building of a consciousness of becoming the person who is not afraid to meet the people or enter into dialogue with them.
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Rodney Brown’s paper explores the way in which the module has been transformed. Translating it into the language of dance is no different than teaching the module in Spanish or German or Xhosa. His work pushes us to see with new eyes, and when we can see with new eyes, we see that communication is not simply about words but also about vision. This is the purpose of Rodney’s story—to show us the HIV module choreographed as dance, as something new, innovative, and educational.
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Rocky Block’s paper discusses race and his place in POA—often the only white person in the group. This was an important experience in his life and he returned many times because he loved the camaraderie and the trust that allowed him to be a part of conversations about race that people of color rarely have in the presence of white people. In this paper you get a front seat into the life of a POA participant—their daily conversations about their teaching successes and failures, their challenges in managing their privilege, and their Americanness outside of the United States. He frames the experience as a series of epiphanies which in the end will reveal one way to change the world.
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The prison system is a place in which the expression of interculturality takes on even more complex characteristics, especially in recent years, when the number of foreign inmates in Italy has increased significantly, representing 32.7% of inmates. This chapter focuses on cross-cultural communication within penitentiary contexts from the standpoint of intervention research aiming to develop and raise awareness concerning community mediation from the perspective of intercultural dialogue. The project involved both prison staff and inmates in their cultural heterogeneity, to equip groups with community mediation tools in order to develop greater skills in dealing with potential pragmatic and communicative conflicts. The qualitative methodology of this study relied on mixed tools, such as, reflective and diaries, group discussions and addresses to inmates, prison staff and moderators of training and awareness courses. The data, which were collected in the field by researchers, were analysed in accordance with grounded theory. The first results of the study highlight the specific and situated challenges of the penitentiary context in dealing with mutual interpretation of the pragmatic and cultural codes used by actors involved in the process in terms of their encounters or clashes with the Other in forced daily life.KeywordsCommunity mediationIntercultural dialoguePenitentiary contextItaly
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Each iteration of the HIV module begins with a short story about the fear of infectious blood. While this can be simplified as a narrative device, the paper argues that storytelling is a key liberatory praxis for Pedagogy of Action (POA). Through theory on the politics of oral tradition, this paper examines how the opening story lays the groundwork to reject hierarchies of pedagogy and research. Sharing my experiences with houseless newspaper vendors in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and HIV community educators in Johannesburg and Durban, South Africa, I challenge whether epistemological binaries like success-failure are appropriate to assess community-centered engaged learning. She shows that listening to the story of the participant was critical to her own transformation and an undervalued element of liberation.
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Beginning with her childhood in Guyana, the author traces the experiences that spurred her awareness of Marxism, colonization, and the cultural forces that shaped her ideas of gender and race. She outlines the influences of her early ideas—from Gramsci, Paulo Freire, and Thomas Kuhn, to feminist writers like Audre Lorde, bell hooks, and Chandra Mohanty. But it is Ela Bhatt and the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) that were the inspiration for the HIV low-literate module, since illiterate women workers built SEWA whose very existence makes the case for modernizing the construct of the proletariat. Here the workers are not male, not literate, not white, not in a factory. SEWA did this in the 1920s, helping street hawkers grow into organic intellectuals.
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Food systems education is a critical component of contemporary global struggles for more just economic, political, and ecological systems.
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Zakiyah’s first trip to South Africa was 2006. She has been my assistant officially and unofficially since that time. I have now known her for over 15 years, and she has become one of the main reasons for the success of the Pedagogy Of Action. I could not have continued a project as intense and exhausting as the Pedagogy Of Action without her commitment and passion for the transformative work of this project. She was present for every POA study abroad since 2006. It was her spirit and her radical love for the communities with whom we worked and the many students who never traveled or went to another country that made everyone feel connected that they were not alone and that we were a family. With Zakiyah, we were able to live the principles that we espoused.
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Ke rena baeng, re kgopela go raloka le lena: Of uninvited help and other audacities. It is his insistence on his authenticity and his celebration of the language of his home in Limpopo, and an honoring of the value of this section of the book. He writes about help and how both the need and the offer of help become a continued struggle to extricate from that help knowing that it is “umbilically linked to imperialist civilization.” He evaluates POA in this context of help.
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The many challenges, mostly financial, that represent the struggles of many Black students whose first response is “How can I afford this?” is one that the author writes about in his chapter, and he also shares his discovery about art in Africa and the similarities and differences between African American music and South African music. His chapter traces also the difficulties of teaching opera as a young Black man in his community in the U.S. His tale is about his evolution as an artist and teacher who sees art as a tool for social change.
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Education has long been considered a force for social transformation, influencing teaching-learning approaches and policy, including the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. This article sets out to problematise the relationship between education and social change, proposing a theoretical framework around social transformation as an alternative to the usual development lens. A historical analysis of an education for rural development project implemented in Nepal in the 1980s reveals that curriculum and training approaches were strongly influenced by the assumption that education could initiate economic and cultural change. The paper argues that this focus on educational interventions as facilitating planned development outcomes limited analysis not only of the project’s impact, but also of the broader changes that have taken place in these communities over the past four decades. By contrast, a social transformation lens can help shift attention from formal educational providers to investigate political and commercial actors, amongst others. Such an approach can offer rich insights into informal learning spaces and new communicative practices which have transformed people’s lives.
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Citizen generated data can play an important role in enhancing community resilience. However, the relationship between data and community resilience has only been partly addressed in existing resilience scholarship, predominantly from the perspective of data utilisation in response to unfolding crises. Yet, in this study we attempt to highlight a different pathway for data-enabled contributions to community resilience, focusing on the process of data generation and its capacity to constitute a transformative moment itself. By exploring the case of the marginalized flood-prone community of M'Boi Mirim in São Paulo, Brazil, we introduce the concept of dialogical participatory mapping, and we argue that the process of generating geospatial data can empower local communities and assist in nourishing a resilience spirit among community members.
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In light of recent changes within Norway’s teacher education and its perceived global position as a champion of human rights and equality, this exploratory study had two pursuits. First, we put forth a cognitive mapping heuristic for what we refer to as “critical/neoliberal” Global Citizenship Education (GCE), using a semiotic square that encourages greater nuance between and among two commonly used terms (“neoliberal” and “critical”) and their “contraries”. Second, based on ideas brought forth by our heuristic, we engaged in conversations with teacher educators in Norway who have published on global- and citizenship-related topics. We asked them to share their thoughts on how GCE is currently viewed and enacted across Norway, as well as what tensions and prospects exist. Our conversations highlighted that teacher educators in Norway have the freedom to incorporate global dimensions into their teaching and curriculum on an individualized and value-driven basis. However, there is a need to explicitly incorporate education about political economy when teaching GCE in order to ensure that the principles of a critical, not-neoliberal approach become known.
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Football carries a deeply embedded paradox. On the one hand, it was a cultural element of oppression that was imposed on dominated cultures during the colonial period in South and Central America. On the other hand, by using elements of their own cultures to transform the game, the colonised regained their voices and built a different football culture. This chapter explores the idea of a feminist decolonisation of football. The authors ask whether such a commodified game can still be a feminist tool for inclusion and social justice, rather than another asset of the neoliberal entertainment industry. Using a philosophical metaphor that traces parallels with the oral language of the colonisers, and the body language of football, we investigate whether it is still possible to consider football a revolutionary tool that can create new and more equitable ways to live a feminist life in South America. The chapter concludes that a feminist football must be continuously crafted in support of the Latin America’s freedom venture.KeywordsFeminismRevolutionDecolonisationTransgender bodies
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