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Connections and Exchanges in European Thematic Cartography. The case of XIXth century choropleth maps

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In the beginning of the 19th century, thematic cartography was enriched with subjects related to the human world. In particular, the enthusiasm for statistics put on the foreground several topics drawn from what we would call today “social sciences”: demography, political economics, and moral statistics. In this context, most of the methods of quantitative mapping were invented within a short period, between 1826 and 1850. This article deals with the first and the most popular among these methods, the shaded map, which is credited to the Frenchman Charles Dupin. We explore the circumstances in which it was imagined, and its modes of diffusion in European cartography. Dupin’s shaded map became quickly famous and was imitated by scholars in the field of vital and moral statistics, then of medicine and anthropology. We suggest that these thematic maps were not neutral illustrations, but were primarily conceived as arguments in scientific or ideological debates, and that their sign system played a major role in their persuasive effect.
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... The cartographic method of visualizing statistical values (Greek: plethosmultitude; circumference) via map area (Greek: chorosarea, place, space) is known since Charles Dupin's 1826 published Carte figurative de l'instruction populaire de la France [1]. As indicated by their name, these choropleth maps (CPM) are used to depict quantitative (incl. ...
... Pros: Already Dupin, when presenting his first CPM, put their advantages in a nutshell: "To make visible the main difference, I had the idea to give the various departments shades […]" (Dupin 1826, quoted after [1]). To support this visibility of differences in the data and to facilitate comparison between different regions, information on CPM is usually generalized, i.e. subdivided into a few class intervals. ...
... Considering his maps, he concluded that there was no link between crime and education: the less educated part of France was not the most criminal." [1]. Even today, the idea of presenting a series of CPM side by side for comparison reasons is quite popular, for example in atlases or as small multiples. ...
Conference Paper
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Since their appearance two centuries ago, choropleth maps have become the most widely used map type for quantitative thematic cartography. Basic principle is the – typically classified – aggregation of data over regions previously defined (e.g. administration districts, distribution areas, etc.). While usually just a single aspect of a single variable is being visualized, a few special forms can be distinguished, e.g. unclassified or bivariate choropleth maps. The latter, being used to depict geographical relationship, will be the focus of this article. Based on a quick review on choropleth mapping, we will dwell on bivariate choropleth mapping both from a theoretical-empirical and practical-constructional perspective. Against this background, we shall show by means of a series of exemplary applications, how bivariate choropleth mapping is increasingly applied in a multidisciplinary field of research.
... maps showing the connection between themes and specific geographic areas) emerged in the 19 th century, when events such as the industrial revolution, the launching of great topographic surveys, the instauration of censuses, and the proliferation of investigation and education of physical and social science provided an opportune environment to the development of geographical cartography (Robinson, 1955). The first choropleth map was conceived in 1826 by Charles Dupin to illustrate the theme of primary education by département in France (Palsky, 2008). The "Carte figurative de l'instruction populaire de la France" was conceived to verify the connection between people's education and prosperity (Dupin, 1827), and uses color intensity to encode education level (Figure 1.1.1). ...
Thesis
The research field of urban mobility aims at the observation and design of human trips within an urban environment, which information supports decision-making and problem solving within public policies. In this context, there are many experts -- not necessarily transportation specialists -- that need to handle more or less standardized urban data to extract synthetic and easily exploitable knowledge. Hence, public transportation agencies commonly conduct trip-based surveys to collect information about day-to-day travel of the population within a particular territory (i.e. where and when we travel), resulting in large and complex datasets which analysis requires crossing spatial, temporal, thematic and socioeconomic dimensions to enable discoveries of daily urban mobility patterns. This way, information visualization is a suitable approach to support the analysis of urban mobility data, since analysts do not have to learn sophisticated methods to interpret the data visualizations that come to reinforce their cognition and enable the discovery of unstructured insights within the data. Thereby, we propose a visualization framework to assist the analysis of urban mobility through indicators describing complementary objects of interest within the data that allow to address three categories of questions underlying the urban mobility phenomenon. A first question seeks to understand the daily traveling routine of a population and the resulting processes of exchange between places, which can be studied through the exploration of amounts, modalities, direction, and variation of travel flows and trips according to different socioeconomic aspects of individuals and land types. A second questioning concerns the temporal variation of population presence throughout a territory, which allows to understand the use of distinct locations by taking into account the socioeconomic characteristics of the people visiting it and the activities they carry out there. The third question seeks to explain the individuals' need of traveling by studying the temporal ordering of trips and activities of individuals (i.e. daily trajectories) within the spatial context of the territory. Our framework supports the derivation and visual exploration of indicators describing the territory, travel flows and trips, and daily trajectories, over multiple spatio-temporal resolutions and thematic attributes. Our visualization interface allows to disperse visual representations over multiple analytical displays, enabling users to customize the spatial arrangement of visualizations and indicators in meaningful ways according to the ongoing analysis. Furthermore, we propose a movement-based interaction based on the tilting of a tablet that allows to explore the temporal variation of indicators leveraging tactile and tangible input. The conception of our visualization approach followed an interactive evaluation process that consists of successive user-based evaluations aiming to refine a prototype in order to achieve user performance and satisfaction.
... A.H. Robinson's (1982) book, dedicated to thematic maps, is captivatingly written and richly illustrated, and I. Kretschmer's (1989) study also deserves a mention. The studies of G. Palsky (1999Palsky ( , 2008 contain interesting information on the origins of quantitative methods in the French language area and ...
Article
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The discovery in the cartographic collections of the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw of an original map by Charles Dupin - the first choropleth map - provided an opportunity to conduct a closer methodological analysis of the map and to investigate the subsequent development of this presentation method during the first half of 19th century. From relatively early on, the accepted principle was for choropleth map presentations to use statistical data still imprecisely referred to as relative, as well as using a distribution series as a method of generalizing data.
... Consequently, both Keppen's and Rittikh's maps visually extenuated the presence of ethnic groups inhabiting a wide geographical area in a low density, and diminished the graphical impact of ethnic groups concentrated in a more compact territory. The so-called choropleth map, which depicted intervals of statistical variables in various shades to denote their concentration, had been developed by the French mathematician Pierre Charles Dupin (1784-1873) in 1826 to depict the distribution of illiteracy in France (Palsky 2008). Dupin's approach was subsequently widely adopted as a method of visualizing statistical data. ...
Article
This article explores the role of maps in the construction and development of ethnographic taxonomies in the mid-century Russian Empire. A close reading of two ethnographic maps of “European Russia” produced by members of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, Petr Keppen (1851) and Aleksander Rittikh (1875), is used to shine a spotlight on the cartographical methods and techniques (lines, shading, color, hatching, legends, text, etc.) employed to depict, construct, and communicate these taxonomies. In doing so, this article draws our attention to how maps impacted visual and spatial thinking about the categories of ethnicity and nationality, and their application to specific contexts and political purposes within the Empire. Through an examination of Keppen’s and Rittikh’s maps, this article addresses the broader question of why cartography came to be regarded as such a powerful medium through which to communicate and consolidate particular visions of an ethnographic landscape.
Thesis
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The current research consists on the Geography of (In) Security, in the context of crime prevention, applied to the areas of jurisdiction of the Public Security Police (P.S.P.) in municipalities from the Urban Quadrangle.
Book
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Estudio promovido por la Fundación Centro de Estudios Andaluces (CENTRA), con la colaboración del Instituto de Estadística y Cartografía de Andalucía (IECA), realizado por el historiador Fernando Olmedo Granados y el médico epidemiólogo Francisco Javier García León. Su objetivo es proporcionar una panorámica de los progresos de la cartografía en relación con las pandemias desde la antiguedad hasta el día de hoy, en combinación con una visión contextualizada de sus testimonios y repercusiones en Andalucía a lo largo del tiempo, a través de imágenes cartográficas de sus territorios y ciudades. Trata sobre las pandemias de: peste, cólera, fiebre amarilla, gripe, VIH/sida y covid-19.
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From a rare map of yellow fever in eighteenth-century New York, to Charles Booth’s famous maps of poverty in nineteenth-century London, an Italian racial zoning map of early twentieth-century Asmara, to a map of wealth disparities in the banlieues of twenty-first-century Paris, Mapping Society traces the evolution of social cartography over the past two centuries. In this richly illustrated book, Laura Vaughan examines maps of ethnic or religious difference, poverty, and health inequalities, demonstrating how they not only serve as historical records of social enquiry, but also constitute inscriptions of social patterns that have been etched deeply on the surface of cities. The book covers themes such as the use of visual rhetoric to change public opinion, the evolution of sociology as an academic practice, changing attitudes to physical disorder, and the complexity of segregation as an urban phenomenon. While the focus is on historical maps, the narrative carries the discussion of the spatial dimensions of social cartography forward to the present day, showing how disciplines such as public health, crime science, and urban planning, chart spatial data in their current practice. Containing examples of space syntax analysis alongside full colour maps and photographs, this volume will appeal to all those interested in the long-term forces that shape how people live in cities.
Article
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Paying tribute to the 190th anniversary of choropleth mapping, this article aims to summarize the state of the art of a method that, since its beginnings in 1826, has become one of the most popular approaches of thematic cartography. In a typological manner, we will review pros and cons of the standard version compared with alternative choropleth methods. As we shall see, the fundamental characteristics inherent to this technique, i. e. enumeration area improvement and data classification, have been a constant driver of cartographic innovation for almost two centuries.
Chapter
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Before the journal of the Statistical Society of London (now the Royal Statistical Society) was first published in 1838 there were 4 years of the Society's existence in which contributions by members were recorded in its, Proceedings, and a selected number in a single volume of, Transactions. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the, Proceedings which, together with the, Transactions, lead seamlessly into the early journals.
Parent-Duchâtelet even asked Guerry, in 1834, to bring him back some information about the London prostitutes, from his travel to England
  • Ami M Mon
  • Guerry
Mon ami M. Guerry " (Parent-Duchâtelet, 1836, 1st vol., 32), Parent-Duchâtelet even asked Guerry, in 1834, to bring him back some information about the London prostitutes, from his travel to England.