Article

The Protective Effects of Parental Monitoring and Internet Restriction on Adolescents’ Risk of Online Harassment

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Abstract

With many adolescents using the internet to communicate with their peers, online harassment is on the rise among youth. The purpose of this study was to understand how parental monitoring and strategies parents use to regulate children’s internet use (i.e., internet restriction) can help reduce online harassment among adolescents. Online survey data were collected from a nationally representative sample of parents and their 12–17 year old adolescents (n = 629; 49 % female). Structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring and internet restriction on being a victim of online harassment. Potential mediators included adolescents’ frequency of use of social networking websites, time spent on computers outside of school, and internet access in the adolescent’s bedroom. Age and gender differences were also explored. Adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring and efforts to regulate specific forms of internet use were associated with reduced rates of online harassment. Specifically, the effect of parental monitoring was largely direct and 26 times greater than parental internet restriction. The latter was associated with lower rates of harassment only indirectly by limiting internet access in the adolescent’s bedroom. These effects operated similarly for younger and older adolescents and for males and females. Adolescents’ perceptions of parental monitoring and awareness can be protective against online harassment. Specific restriction strategies such as regulating internet time and content can also help reduce the risk of online harassment.

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... Along with positive mental health, online parental supervision is key in helping children avoid online risks while improving their resilience. Although parental restrictions and parental monitoring have been shown to be effective in mitigating against online risk (Livingstone and Helsper, 2008;Khurana et al., 2015) and building young people's resilience (Green et al., 2019), online safety practices are falling behind (Phippen, 2009;Green et al., 2019). There is disconcerting evidence that current e-safety education or initiatives are neither evidence-based nor evaluated (Jones et al., 2013), are out of date and fail to fully include vulnerable children and young people (Annansingh and Veli, 2016;Badillo-Urquiola and Wisniewski, 2017;El-Asam and Katz, 2018). ...
... This research does not adopt a specific theoretical framework, however, mental health and e-safety are key factors in our rationale. Research among children showed evidence of the protective effects of psychological wellbeing Wisniewski et al., 2015;Vissenberg and d'Haenens, 2020) and parental e-safety support (Livingstone and Helsper, 2008;Khurana et al., 2015) in keeping young people safe online. However, vulnerable young people are unlikely to benefit from these protective factors in the same way as their peers, due to the increased likelihood of mental health difficulties and poor social wellbeing (Emerson, 2003;Raphael et al., 2006;Taanila et al., 2009;Ryan and Tunnard, 2012;El-Asam et al., 2021a), and observations of poor, maladapted e-safety provision for this cohort (Annansingh and Veli, 2016;Badillo-Urquiola and Wisniewski, 2017;El-Asam and Katz, 2018). ...
... Poorer parental e-safety support was also found to be associated with higher psychological distress (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and poor self-esteem), and increased exposure to online risks and perceived negative impact. In addition to highlighting the moderating role of parental e-safety guidance in protecting young people against risk online, supporting the importance of parental guidance described in the literature (Khurana et al., 2015;Schilder et al., 2016). These results indicate that mental health is associated with poorer online experiences and emphasise the central role of parental, school, and peer support. ...
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There is strong evidence showing that vulnerable children and adolescents, such as children who are carers for their family, in care themselves, or who have a physical disability or special educational needs, are at greater risk of mental health problems and poor social wellbeing. Recent research indicates this heterogenous but vulnerable group is also disadvantaged online and may be at greater risk of harm. This study aimed to examine participants’ vulnerability (vulnerable vs. non-vulnerable), psychological distress, parental e-safety support, and online lives, specifically their experiences of online risk. The roles of psychological distress and parental e-safety support were explored as possible mediators and moderators, respectively, for the relationship between vulnerability and online risk. Survey data was collected from 15,278 participants (11–17 years old; M = 12.60, SD = 1.44), 46.6% identified as females, 46.6% identified as males and 6% identified as “other”. Participants were recruited from schools/colleges in different parts of England, of whom 3,242 were categorised as vulnerable. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) the results showed that, when compared to the non-vulnerable participants, the vulnerable groups (single or multiple vulnerabilities) experienced more psychological distress and online risks. They also received less e-safety support from parents or carers. Furthermore, mediation and moderated mediation analysis showed that the relationship between vulnerability and online risk was significantly and partially mediated by psychological distress. Parental e-safety support was found to moderate the relationship between psychological distress and online risk and between vulnerability and online risk. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that vulnerability offline is mirrored online. Psychological interventions and parental e-safety support are required to navigate the internet safely. Children’s services and practitioners should consider online risks in their assessments and interventions.
... Online harassment or cyberbullying is one of the issues that adolescents engage in, are victims of, or witness in their time spent online. In a study of 629 adolescents ages 12-17, Khurana (2014) found that 25% of adolescents reported experiencing some form of online harassment. This percentage was higher for females (31.8% of females reported experiencing online harassment, while 19.3% of males reported the same experience). ...
... Research on the area of parental involvement in children's digital lives reveals two kinds of parental involvement in this area; active mediation and restrictive mediation (Appel et al., 2014;Chang et al., 2015;Hinduja & Patchin, 2013;Khurana et al., 2014;Lee, 2012;Mesch, 2018;Soldatova & Rasskazova, 2016;Symons et al., 2016). Active mediation is when parents talk to their children and have an ongoing conversation about what to do online. ...
... This research suggests that ongoing communication between parents and adolescents is a protective factor against negative online behavior, such as verbal aggression. Parental online monitoring is associated with lower rates of online harassment among adolescents (Khurana et al., 2014). "Parents who are more involved in their children's lives may be better able to monitor their involvement with harmful peers" (Khurana et al., 2014(Khurana et al., , p. 1043. ...
Research
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A qualitative case study investigation into the role played by ten parents in the digital citizenship development of their adolescent children.
... While there is accumulated knowledge about parental monitoring in the case of cyberaggressors, cybervictims, and cyberaggressor-victims (Khurana et al., 2015;Kowalski et al., 2014;Mishna et al., 2012), little is known about the effect of parental monitoring on cyberbystander roles (Wright & Wachs, 2018). The current study seeks to address this research gap by exploring the effect of parental monitoring on cyberbystander roles and how the interactions of parental monitoring with individual characteristics (adolescent age and gender, and parent gender) affect these roles. ...
... Findings regarding the effects of parental monitoring on reducing cyberaggression are inconsistent. For example, several studies have indicated that parental monitoring reduces children's aggressive behavior on the internet (Khurana et al., 2015;Shapka & Law, 2013), while others did not find such an association (Mesch, 2009;Sengupta & Chaudhuri, 2011). Khurana et al. (2015) found an indirect association between parental monitoring and cyberaggression, mediated by restricting internet access in the child's bedroom. ...
... For example, several studies have indicated that parental monitoring reduces children's aggressive behavior on the internet (Khurana et al., 2015;Shapka & Law, 2013), while others did not find such an association (Mesch, 2009;Sengupta & Chaudhuri, 2011). Khurana et al. (2015) found an indirect association between parental monitoring and cyberaggression, mediated by restricting internet access in the child's bedroom. Several studies found the effect of parental monitoring to be dependent on the type of participation in cyberaggression. ...
Article
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The digital world has created new opportunities for aggression through cyberaggression. Despite growing research interest in cyberaggression, little is known about the various bystander roles in the digital interaction. This paper examines the effect of parental monitoring practices (parental restriction, youth disclosure, and parental solicitation) on five bystander roles: aggressor-supporter, defender, help-seeker, outsider, and passive bystander. Data were derived from self-report questionnaires answered by a sample of 501 adolescents in Israel. The findings indicate that adolescents who share their experiences of cyberaggression with their parents are more likely than others to defend the cybervictim. Interaction effects were found between adolescent gender, installing warning applications, parent gender, and the aggressor-supporter role. Boys whose parents installed warning applications and whose fathers monitored their online activities were positively associated with the aggressor-supporter role, while girls who were higher aggressor-supporter reported that their parents used warning applications but did not monitor their online activities. The discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of the effectiveness of parental monitoring on the cyberaggression bystander's role.
... 320). Examples are receiving upsetting or embarrassing content or becoming the target of the intentional spread of rumors or unfounded claims (Khurana et al., 2015). Although online harassment and cyberbullying are often used interchangeably, cyberbullying represents a more severe form of harassment that involves repeated acts of harm-doing over time (Smith et al., 2008), whereas online harassment can also refer to one-time incidents. ...
... Thus far, several studies have examined the role of parents in children's exposure to online risks. These findings suggest that lower parental monitoring is associated with more problematic Internet use among adolescents (Bleakley et al., 2016), parents' underestimation of their children's exposure to online risks (Byrne et al., 2014), as well as children's (Korchmaros et al., 2014) and adolescents' (Khurana et al., 2015;Sasson and Mesch, 2014) risk of becoming victims of online harassment. Yet, these studies either assessed specific parental monitoring techniques or parental control from the children's perspective (e.g. ...
... Drawing from the concept of parental self-efficacy, parents who perceive a lack of control over their child's smartphone behavior are more likely to employ ineffective strategies in protecting their child from harmful behavior overall (Jones and Prinz, 2005;Malm et al., 2017). If parents sense a loss of control over their children's smartphone use, they might have a lower awareness of the child's potentially harmful online behavior and a lower ability to discourage their children from such behavior (Khurana et al., 2015). Thus, it can be assumed that if parents do not feel in control over their children's frequency, intensity, and content of smartphone use (i.e. ...
Article
As a consequence of children’s nearly ubiquitous smartphone use, many parents experience resignation or frustration due to a perceived loss of control over their child’s excessive smartphone activities. This perceived lack of control may not only increase children’s risk of exposure to online harassment but also affect the relationship between parents and children—both crucial influence factors for children’s self-esteem. We tested these relationships using a two-wave panel study of children between 10 and 14 years ( N T2 = 384) and one of their parents. Findings revealed that parental lack of control over their child’s smartphone use increased the risk of children becoming victims of online harassment and decreased children’s perceived parental support over time. However, while lower perceived parental control decreased children’s self-esteem over time, exposure to online harassment did not. We discuss implications of these findings for intervention and prevention of parental lack of control over children’s smartphone use.
... The awareness that parents have about their child being the victim of cyberbullying is less, and this is unfortunate as it leads to significant long-lasting negative effects such as anxiety, depression, increased stress, and suicidality (Cassidy, Faucher, & Jackson, 2013) [8] . Parents can protect their children from cyberbullying by cutting down on internet use and monitor on the content accessed (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . Language and cognitive development can be impaired if children of age 2 are exposed to electronic devices (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . ...
... The awareness that parents have about their child being the victim of cyberbullying is less, and this is unfortunate as it leads to significant long-lasting negative effects such as anxiety, depression, increased stress, and suicidality (Cassidy, Faucher, & Jackson, 2013) [8] . Parents can protect their children from cyberbullying by cutting down on internet use and monitor on the content accessed (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . Language and cognitive development can be impaired if children of age 2 are exposed to electronic devices (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . ...
... Parents can protect their children from cyberbullying by cutting down on internet use and monitor on the content accessed (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . Language and cognitive development can be impaired if children of age 2 are exposed to electronic devices (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . When children have background exposure to TV, can hamper the development, as the child must choose in paying attention between playing with toys and interacting with others and the background exposure to TV. ...
... The awareness that parents have about their child being the victim of cyberbullying is less, and this is unfortunate as it leads to significant long-lasting negative effects such as anxiety, depression, increased stress, and suicidality (Cassidy, Faucher, & Jackson, 2013) [8] . Parents can protect their children from cyberbullying by cutting down on internet use and monitor on the content accessed (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . Language and cognitive development can be impaired if children of age 2 are exposed to electronic devices (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . ...
... The awareness that parents have about their child being the victim of cyberbullying is less, and this is unfortunate as it leads to significant long-lasting negative effects such as anxiety, depression, increased stress, and suicidality (Cassidy, Faucher, & Jackson, 2013) [8] . Parents can protect their children from cyberbullying by cutting down on internet use and monitor on the content accessed (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . Language and cognitive development can be impaired if children of age 2 are exposed to electronic devices (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . ...
... Parents can protect their children from cyberbullying by cutting down on internet use and monitor on the content accessed (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . Language and cognitive development can be impaired if children of age 2 are exposed to electronic devices (Khurana, et al., 2015) [26] . When children have background exposure to TV, can hamper the development, as the child must choose in paying attention between playing with toys and interacting with others and the background exposure to TV. ...
Article
Sports is an activity involving physical exertion and skills in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment. Sports is losing its momentum due to rise in number of children and adolescents engaging in using gadgets. Gadgets have ill effects on children as the research show that there is delay in learning and social skills, obesity and sleep problems. Technological evolution has given rise to sedentary behavior. Research show that excessive use of technology results in social anxiety, depression, eating disorder, loneliness, Nomophobia, seflieitis, phantom ringing syndrome and other technology addicted disorders. It has a huge negative impact on not only physical health but also affecting psychological and social health. Outcome of technological evolution is that fewer number of children and adolescents are interested in engaging themselves in sports. Research evidence shows that participating in sports assists in better social skills, assertiveness, higher self-esteem, self-confidence, self-control, self-concept, and competence. Further it also helps in having fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. This implies that participating in sports has positive impact on mental health as it improves overall quality of life. Despite these benefits there are only handful of mental health professionals who recommend children and adolescents to engage in sports. Extensive research needs to be done on how sports is helpful in alleviating symptoms of various mental disorders so that the findings can help the mental health professionals to include sports as part of intervention of mental disorders.
... Online harassment or cyberbullying is one of the issues that adolescents engage in, are victims of, or witness in their time spent online. In a study of 629 adolescents ages 12-17, Khurana (2014) found that 25% of adolescents reported experiencing some form of online harassment. This percentage was higher for females (31.8% of females reported experiencing online harassment, while 19.3% of males reported the same experience). ...
... Research on the area of parental involvement in children's digital lives reveals two kinds of parental involvement in this area; active mediation and restrictive mediation (Appel et al., 2014;Chang et al., 2015;Hinduja & Patchin, 2013;Khurana et al., 2014;Lee, 2012;Mesch, 2018;Soldatova & Rasskazova, 2016;Symons et al., 2016). Active mediation is when parents talk to their children and have an ongoing conversation about what to do online. ...
... This research suggests that ongoing communication between parents and adolescents is a protective factor against negative online behavior, such as verbal aggression. Parental online monitoring is associated with lower rates of online harassment among adolescents (Khurana et al., 2014). "Parents who are more involved in their children's lives may be better able to monitor their involvement with harmful peers" (Khurana et al., 2014(Khurana et al., , p. 1043. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research presents a case study on the parent role in adolescent digital citizenship in the Southeastern United States. This study involved ten parents of middle school students who are exemplars of involvement in their children’s digital lives. Research shows that teens are using technology at a rapid rate and there is a need for positive digital citizenship among youth. Research studies have been conducted on adolescents, teachers, media specialists, and administrators regarding digital citizenship. There is a need for research to be conducted involving parents and what role they play in the development of their child’s digital citizenship skills. This research study seeks to understand parent definitions of digital citizenship, concerns about digital citizenship, and ideas about what adolescents need to learn about digital citizenship. Findings include mediation strategies, both active and restrictive, that parents are using to help guide their teenager through the digital world. Findings also include resources and support identified by the participants as being needed to help them with parental guidance. Suggestions for future research and parent resource development are included.
... The strongest predictor of Internet addiction was low selfcontrol. Khurana, Bleakley, Jordan, and Romer (2015) investigated the protective effects of parental monitoring and parental Internet restriction on adolescent's Internet use, use of social networking websites, and likelihood of online harassment (N 5 629 adolescents, age 12À17 years). They found significant associations in the expected directions, although traditional monitoring appeared to be a stronger predictor than parental Internet restriction. ...
... It is also not clear whether the rural developmental context had an effect on these observed relationships, where something is simply systematically different among rural youth in comparison to nonrural adolescents. In fact, these findings are inconsistent with most previous work (Chang et al., 2015;Khurana et al., 2015;Park et al., 2008;Van den Eijnden et al., 2010;Xu et al., 2014) and call for further empirical examination. ...
Chapter
It is well established that parental supervision reduces the chance of adolescent problem behaviors. As the Internet has become a near-constant part of daily life, for communication, for leisure, or for education, it has led to new concerns about healthy adolescent development. Based on previous research and theory, the present study hypothesized that parental vigilance, assessed as maternal closeness and monitoring, and parental Internet monitoring would be negatively associated with Internet dependency, and that these links would be mediated by low self-control. Based on a school-based sample of adolescents (N=620; 14–19 years, 46% male) residing in a rural county in the Southeastern United States, results provided partial support for the study hypotheses. Only indirect effects of parenting were supported by the data. More specifically, findings provided evidence that parental vigilance acted as a protective factor for Internet dependency mediated through low self-control. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Dentro del contexto familiar, se ha reconocido el importante rol que madres y padres pueden desplegar para proteger a sus hijos e hijas de ser víctimas de ciberbullying (Miranda et al., 2019). Concretamente, la supervisión parental ha sido reconocida como un factor de protección relevante (Elsaesser et al., 2017;Khurana et al., 2015). No obstante, revisiones sistemáticas recientes (Elsaesser et al., 2017;Machimbarrena et al., 2019;Nocentini et al., 2019) han mostrado resultados inconsistentes entre los no muy numerosos estudios que analizan los factores parentales como protectores de la cibervictimización. ...
... Claramente la extimidad, el uso de RRSS y la supervisión parental, por este orden, explican en gran medida implicarse como cibervíctima o no, lo que confirma la cuarta hipótesis del estudio. Esto es, la supervisión parental es necesaria para prevenir la cibervicitimización (Sasson y Mesch, 2017), pero además ésta debe acompañarse de cambio en las prácticas online de los y las menores (Baldry et al., 2015, Khurana et al., 2015. Este hallazgo es especialmente relevante dado que apunta la necesidad de seguir indagando sobre qué factores, además de la supervisión parental, están explicando las prácticas online de los menores, como parece ser el contexto de iguales, ya que tiende a ganar relevancia en los años adolescentes (Casas et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Resumen La supervisión parental online se considera un factor protector frente a la cibervictimización, pero parece que esta relación es mediada por las prácticas de los y las menores en las redes sociales (RRSS). Este trabajo pretende avanzar en esta línea de investigación. Primero, analizando la relación directa entre ambas variables en víctimas de ciberbullying. Segundo, considerando la extimidad y el uso de RRSS como variables mediadoras. Tercero, analizando las posibles diferencias de sexo y grupos de edad en esta relación. Y, por último, conociendo si estas variables influyen en la posibilidad de ser o no víctima de ciberbullying. La muestra está formada por 6.408 (49% chicas) estudiantes de educación Primaria y Secundaria, con edades entre los 10 y 16 años (M = 12.60, DT = 1.65). Tras seleccionar a las víctimas de ciberbullying (n = 817), se han realizado análisis descriptivos y comparativas de medias entre sexos y grupos de edad. Se han calculado dos modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) con dicha submuestra de cibervíctimas. El primero con la relación directa entre supervisión parental y cibervictimización sin hallar ajuste, y el segundo que confirma esta relación mediada por la extimidad y el uso de RRSS. Este modelo no muestra diferencias de ajuste entre sexos y grupos de edad. Igualmente, se ha encontrado que las variables estudiadas son importantes en la posibilidad de convertirse en cibervíctima. En base a estos resultados se puede concluir que una supervisión parental positiva puede reducir la cibervictimización si ésta promueve supervisar la extimidad y el uso de RRSS.
... For cyberbullying perpetration, Alvarez-Garcia found that gender differences may have indirect effects on cyberbullying perpetration (55), while others disagreed (42,61,(68)(69)(70). Specifically, some studies revealed that males were more likely to become cyberbullying perpetrators (34,39,56), while Khurana et al. presented an opposite point of view, proposing that females were more likely to attack others (71). In terms of time spent on the Internet, some claimed that students who frequently surf the Internet had a higher chance of becoming perpetrators (49), while others stated that there was no clear and direct association between Internet usage and cyberbullying perpetration (55). ...
... If difficulties are encountered, open communication can contribute to enhancing the sense of security (73). In this vein, parents should be aware of the importance of caring, communicating and supervising their children, and participate actively in their children's lives (71). In order to keep a balance between control and openness (47), parents can engage in unbiased open communication with their children, and reach an agreement on the usage of computers and smart phones (34,35,55). ...
Article
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Background: Cyberbullying is well-recognized as a severe public health issue which affects both adolescents and children. Most extant studies have focused on national and regional effects of cyberbullying, with few examining the global perspective of cyberbullying. This systematic review comprehensively examines the global situation, risk factors, and preventive measures taken worldwide to fight cyberbullying among adolescents and children. Methods: A systematic review of available literature was completed following PRISMA guidelines using the search themes “cyberbullying” and “adolescent or children”; the time frame was from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st, 2019. Eight academic databases pertaining to public health, and communication and psychology were consulted, namely: Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Communication & Mass Media Complete, CINAHL, and PsycArticles. Additional records identified through other sources included the references of reviews and two websites, Cyberbullying Research Center and United Nations Children's Fund. A total of 63 studies out of 2070 were included in our final review focusing on cyberbullying prevalence and risk factors. Results: The prevalence rates of cyberbullying preparation ranged from 6.0 to 46.3%, while the rates of cyberbullying victimization ranged from 13.99 to 57.5%, based on 63 references. Verbal violence was the most common type of cyberbullying. Fourteen risk factors and three protective factors were revealed in this study. At the personal level, variables associated with cyberbullying including age, gender, online behavior, race, health condition, past experience of victimization, and impulsiveness were reviewed as risk factors. Likewise, at the situational level, parent-child relationship, interpersonal relationships, and geographical location were also reviewed in relation to cyberbullying. As for protective factors, empathy and emotional intelligence, parent-child relationship, and school climate were frequently mentioned. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of cyberbullying has increased significantly in the observed 5-year period, and it is imperative that researchers from low and middle income countries focus sufficient attention on cyberbullying of children and adolescents. Despite a lack of scientific intervention research on cyberbullying, the review also identified several promising strategies for its prevention from the perspectives of youths, parents and schools. More research on cyberbullying is needed, especially on the issue of cross-national cyberbullying. International cooperation, multi-pronged and systematic approaches are highly encouraged to deal with cyberbullying.
... Specifically, parental supervision has been recognized as a relevant protective factor (Elsaesser et al., 2017;Khurana et al., 2015). However, recent systematic reviews (Elsaesser et al., 2017;Machimbarrena et al., 2019;Nocentini et al., 2019) have shown inconsistent results among the not very numerous studies analysing parental factors as protective against cybervictimization. ...
... Clearly extimacy, SMP use and parental supervision, in this order, largely explain being involved as a cybervictim or not, which confirms the fourth hypothesis of the study. That is, parental supervision is necessary to prevent cybervictimization (Sasson & Mesch, 2017), but it must also be accompanied by a change in the online practices of minors (Baldry et al., 2015;Khurana et al., 2015). This finding is especially relevant given that it points to the need to continue investigating what factors, in addition to parental supervision, are explaining the online practices of minors, such as the peer context, since it tends to gain relevance in the adolescent years (Casas et al., 2020). ...
Article
Online parental supervision is considered a protective factor against cybervictimization, but it seems that this relationship is mediated by the practices of children in social networks (RRSS). This work aims to advance in this line of research. First, analyzing the direct relationship between both variables in victims of cyberbullying. Second, considering the extimacy and the use of RRSS as mediating variables. Third, analyzing the possible differences in gender and age groups in this relationship. And finally, knowing whether these variables influence the possibility of being a victim of cyberbullying. The sample is made up of 6,408 (49% girls) students in primary and secondary education, aged between 10 and 16 (M = 12.60, SD = 1.65). After selecting the victims of cyberbullying (n = 817), descriptive and comparative analyses of means between sexes and age groups were carried out. Two structural equation models (SEM) have been calculated with this sub-sample of cybervictims. The first one with the direct relationship between parental supervision and cybervictimization without finding an adjustment, and the second one that confirms this relationship mediated by extimacy and the use of RRSS. This model does not show differences in adjustment between sexes and age groups. Likewise, it has been found that the variables studied are important in the possibility of becoming a cybervictim. Based on these results, it can be concluded that positive parental supervision can reduce cybervictimization if it promotes monitoring of extimacy and the use of RRSS.
... Noteworthy is the observation that fathers of adolescents with severe PIU have low education level. Studies indicate low level of parental monitoring (Brighi et al., 2019;Khurana et al., 2015) and increased parent-child conflict as risk factors for PIU (Siomos et al., 2012) while good parental communication can lower the risk (van den Eijnden et al., 2010;Yu & Shek, 2013). Only a few studies indicate association between risks for PIU and low level of parental education. ...
... Potential explanation might be the environmental factors when parents with lower education are less aware of disadvantages and negative effect of Internet use and as a result, the parental control is missing. Protective effect of parental monitoring for younger and older adolescents of both sexes was confirmed by previous studies (Brighi et al., 2019;Khurana et al., 2015). ...
... Given the range of adverse short-and long-term health outcomes linked to the early initiation of alcohol use, identifying early influences, as well as the means through which alcohol uptake may be delayed, remain public health priorities. The parental monitoring of general child and adolescent media use has been associated with a reduction in associated adverse outcomes such as aggression, online harassment, poorer sleep, and academic performance [30][31][32]. Importantly, however, the efficacy of parental monitoring in ameliorating negative effects of general media use has been found to vary according to monitoring style [33,34]. In this context, distinctions are made between active (critically discussing media content with children) and restrictive (placing limits around the amount of media time or type children are permitted to engage with) monitoring styles [33,35]. ...
... Gender: Differential effects of gender have been observed in the frequency of both social media and substance use. Namely, male adolescents are more likely to drink than their female counterparts [38,39], and females report more frequent engagement with social media sites than males [32,40,41]. As such, gender was entered as a covariate in the models. ...
Article
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(1) Background: More time spent on social media has been linked to increased alcohol use, with exposure to peer alcohol-related content on social media (content exposure) named as a critical factor in this relationship. Little is currently known about whether early content exposure may have lasting effects across adolescent development, or about the capacity of parental monitoring of social media use to interrupt these links. (2) Methods: These gaps were addressed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal contexts among a longitudinal sample of Australian secondary school students (n = 432) across the ages of 13–16. (3) Results: Evidence was found for links between social media use and alcohol use frequency in early development. Social media time at age 13 was significantly associated with concurrent alcohol use frequency. At age 13, alcohol use frequency was significantly higher among those who reported content exposure compared to those who reported no exposure. Longitudinally, the frequency of alcohol use over time increased at a faster rate among participants who reported content exposure at age 13. In terms of parental monitoring, no longitudinal effects were observed. However, parental monitoring at age 13 did significantly reduce the concurrent relationship between alcohol use frequency and content exposure. (4) Conclusion: The impact of social media content exposure on alcohol use in adolescence may be more important than the time spent on social media, and any protective effect of parental monitoring on content exposure may be limited to the time it is being concurrently enacted.
... To measure inadequate parental behavioral control of students' social media activity, we revised and used the scales developed by Khurana et al. (2015) and Doty et al. (2018). Poor parental guardianship was designed to evaluate ineffective parental monitoring to protect students against potential cyber risks. ...
... The works of Reyns et al. (2011) and Bossler and Holt (2009) have shown that decreased levels of social guardianship (e.g., having cyberstalker friends) were positively and significantly associated with cyberstalking victimization, and our results support this link. Previous studies have also suggested that the lack of parental control over children's social media use can increase the likelihood of children's online victimization (Choi, 2008;Doty et al., 2018;Khurana et al., 2015). Our findings indicate that the risk of cyberstalking victimization increases when students use social networks without their parents' effective control or guidance. ...
Article
The role of routine activity theory (RAT) as a guiding theoretical approach to understand online victimization has been well documented. However, the recent emphasis in criminology on its applicability to online victimization has largely been based on evidence from Anglo-American studies. This study fills this gap by testing the predictive utility of RAT for cyberstalking victimization, using data from a sample of female Iranian students. Our structural equation model showed that online exposure to motivated offenders, target suitability, and ineffective online guardianship were positively and significantly associated with cyberstalking victimization. Our results provide strong support for RAT, indicating its generalizability to a different sociopolitical context.
... Cyberbullying can harm children, young people, or adolescents without the attention of parents or teachers, and adolescents often have to deal with this situation alone (Bai et al., 2021;Borawski et al., 2003;Khurana et al., 2015;Martín-Criado et al., 2021). Therefore, it is critical to examine the role of parents in preventing cyberbullying. ...
... Children's perceptions of their parents' knowledge and awareness of cyberbullying help to protect them from online bullying (e.g. Khurana et al., 2015;Mesch, 2009). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Parental Awareness and Supervision to Prevent Cyberbullying scale developed by Martín-Criado, Casas, and Ortega-Ruiz (2021) to Turkish and to carry out validity-reliability studies. The questionnaire includes five factors and 27 items in total: (a) parental knowledge of cyberbullying, (b) perception of parental competence in this regard, (c) parental perception of online risks, (d) the attribution of parental responsibility in digital education, (e) family supervision. The data were collected from 208 parents who voluntarily participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis evidenced that the fit indices are acceptable and/or perfect fit. Cronbach’s alpha values for the factors were between 0.744 and 0.874 and the composite reliability values were between 0.754 and 0.857. These findings proved sufficient evidence for the reliability of the questionnaire. The study also investigated that parents’ perceptions of the adapted questionnaire and their variation according to the demographic variables. A significant difference was observed between the parents for the parental supervision dimension. In addition, there were differences according to the age level of the parents, the school level of the child, and the education level of the parents for the dimensions of parental competence and parental supervision. The suggestions were presented for theory and practice within the framework of the findings.
... Other studies strengthen these findings, demonstrating that positive parental supervision that includes monitoring the adolescent's use of social networks can reduce cybervictimization (Martin-Criado et al., 2021;Wright & Wachs, 2018). A study by Khurana et al. (2015) investigated the relationship between these variables from the adolescents' perspective and found a significant difference between the effects of parental monitoring compared to parental restriction of Internet use, leading to the conclusion that adolescents' perceptions of parental monitoring and awareness can be protective against online harassment (Khurana et al., 2015). Other studies have not found statistically significant relationships between parental control and adolescent children's involvement in cyberbullying, cybervictimization, or witnessing of cyberbullying, whether parental control was conceptualized as the use of restrictive methods, such as installing filters or software that blocks websites; supervisory methods, such as checking the web pages that children visit on the Internet (Navarro et al., 2013); or direct parental monitoring of Internet use (Mishna et al., 2012). ...
... Other studies strengthen these findings, demonstrating that positive parental supervision that includes monitoring the adolescent's use of social networks can reduce cybervictimization (Martin-Criado et al., 2021;Wright & Wachs, 2018). A study by Khurana et al. (2015) investigated the relationship between these variables from the adolescents' perspective and found a significant difference between the effects of parental monitoring compared to parental restriction of Internet use, leading to the conclusion that adolescents' perceptions of parental monitoring and awareness can be protective against online harassment (Khurana et al., 2015). Other studies have not found statistically significant relationships between parental control and adolescent children's involvement in cyberbullying, cybervictimization, or witnessing of cyberbullying, whether parental control was conceptualized as the use of restrictive methods, such as installing filters or software that blocks websites; supervisory methods, such as checking the web pages that children visit on the Internet (Navarro et al., 2013); or direct parental monitoring of Internet use (Mishna et al., 2012). ...
Article
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This paper examines the relationship between parental monitoring and control, parents’ perceived knowledge of their adolescent’s online activities, and parents’ perceived knowledge of their adolescent’s involvement in cyberbullying, among Israeli Jewish and Arab parents of adolescents. The 407 participants consisted of two groups: Jewish (n = 194) and Arab (n = 213) parents of adolescents in Israel, who were recruited via online social networks and completed an online survey. The self-report questionnaire included the Stattin and Kerr Parental Control and Parental Monitoring Questionnaire (Stattin & Kerr in Developmental Psychology 36:366, 2000), as well as parental knowledge of child online activities and witnessing and experiencing cyberbullying. Parental monitoring and control were perceived as higher by Jewish than Arab parents, while no group differences were found for perceived child disclosure or parental knowledge of adolescent online activity. Parental knowledge of the adolescent witnessing cyberbullying was higher among Arab than Jewish parents, while the opposite was found for parental knowledge of the adolescent experiencing cyberbullying. Parental knowledge of the adolescent both witnessing and experiencing cyberbullying was related to group affiliation, lower parental education, and higher parental perceived knowledge of the adolescent’s online activities. Parents’ perceived knowledge of the adolescent witnessing cyberbullying was further related to higher perceived adolescent disclosure. The study increases our understanding of perceived parental involvement and its relationship with parents’ perceived knowledge of the adolescent’s involvement in cyberbullying in a diverse and multicultural society.
... A fourth practice, monitoring, may protect young people from abusing drugs (Dishion & McMahon, 1998), excessive screen use (Gentile, Reimer, Nathanson, Walsh, & Eisenmann, 2014), and online harassment (Khurana, Bleakley, Jordan, & Romer, 2015). In our review, though, monitoring was not consistently associated with any pattern of problematic screen use by adolescents. ...
Thesis
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In my work as family therapist I have been seeing many adolescents with alcohol, drug and/or delinquency issues. About fifteen years ago, an additional group of teens sought treatment, this time because their online gaming behaviour was deemed problematic, if not by themselves then by people close to them (parents, school staff). Like in cases of substance abuse and delinquency, parent and family (PF) factors appeared to play a role in the problems that had led the adolescent and his or her parents to seek guidance and help. I decided to examine the impact of PF factors. Is adolescent problematic gaming indeed associated with PF factors? If one could modify these factors in positive ways, would that have a beneficial therapeutic effect? The current thesis reflects the research work I have done since I joined the evolving field of gaming research. This work includes two systematic reviews and one randomised controlled trial. Parents of adolescents with gaming problems often expect the therapist to teach them rules and strategies – collectively known as ‘parental mediation techniques’ – that they could use to keep their teen on the right track, away from indulging too much in playing games. In the first literature review (Study 1), four forms of parental mediation were assessed: (1) no mediation, i.e., refraining from action; (2) co-viewing or co-gaming with the adolescent; (3) active mediation (talking to the adolescent about gaming); and (4) restrictive mediation (limiting access to games). Nine publications relating data on the prevalence of problematic gaming (PG) to parental mediation practices were analysed. The study participants were mostly school pupils. The review concluded that none of the major parental mediation techniques can be considered to be an established risk or protective factor for problematic gaming. That is, none of the mediation practices was consistently linked to lower or higher rates of PG (or, in another set of studies, to problematic use of the Internet in general). Refraining from parental mediation tended to be harmful, increasing screen use problems. Restrictive mediation worked out negatively or positively, depending on the type of restriction and on family attachment and functioning. In contrast to the parental mediation techniques, family cohesion and family conflict had consistent effects on PG rates (beneficial and harmful, respectively). The apparent importance of family cohesion and conflict was reason to carry out a second systematic literature review, this time focused on cohesion and conflict variables (parent and family factors). This review (Study 2) identified 27 research publications relating problematic gaming rates to parent and family factors. Six categories of PF factors were distinguished: problems faced by the parents; child abuse; co-parental teamwork; parenting style; family attachment; and family functioning. These categories comprise both risk and protective factors, which were disentangled by regrouping the factors into four classes: 1. positive parenting (positive parenting style and positive co-parental teamwork); 2. negative parenting (negative style and teamwork; child abuse; problems of the parents); 3. positive family dynamics (positive family attachment and family functioning); and 4. negative family dynamics (negative family attachment and functioning). The review showed positive parenting and positive family dynamics to be associated with lower rates of PG, and negative parenting and negative family dynamics to be linked to higher PG rates. Most effect sizes reported in the reviewed studies were statistically significant, although rather small. The effect sizes for the PF factors, which are interpersonal factors, were compared with those for a range of intrapersonal adolescent risk and protective factors and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Having established that PF factors are linked to adolescent problematic gaming, the next step was to examine if decreasing the impact of PF risk factors and increasing the impact of PF protective factors would have a beneficial effect on problematic gaming behaviour. One form of treatment that explicitly addresses PF factors is family therapy. Family therapy has been found effective in treating adolescents with substance use disorders and delinquency. One treatment programme with a particularly good track record in this respect is multidimensional family therapy (MDFT). The outpatient treatment centre where I worked, Centre Phénix-Mail in Geneva, mounted a randomised controlled trial comparing MDFT with the other form of family therapy offered in the centre, family therapy as usual (FTAU) (Study 3.a and 3.b). Study participants were 42 adolescents meeting the criteria for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), as defined – provisionally, for the moment – by the DSM-5 classification system. Measures included IGD symptoms, mental health symptoms, quality of life, parental supervision and school functioning. Assessments were made at baseline, at 6 months (after completion of the treatment) and at 12 months. With one exception, all adolescents recruited for the trial were boys. They were rather young (on average 15 years) and about half of them came from broken families. Most adolescents met 6 or 7 out of the nine IGD criteria, the most often endorsed criteria being ‘Continued gaming despite problems’ and ‘Impaired control over gaming’. Several findings indicated that the adolescents had issues with family and school. Most of them had been referred to the treatment centre by their parents and/or school. There were frequent episodes of youths being absent from school. The adolescents and the parents held discordant views as to the severity of the gaming problems and the mental health problems of the youth. At baseline, the parents rated their child’s gaming problems as being large, in contrast to their teens, who considered the gaming problems to be small. This discrepancy in judgment diminished across the study period as parents became milder in rating problem severity. Both family therapies decreased the prevalence of IGD across the one-year period. They also reduced the number of IGD criteria met, with MDFT outperforming FTAU. The amount of time spent on gaming remained stable throughout the trial. MDFT better retained families in treatment than FTAU. The IGD outcomes confirm the hypothesis that family therapy, especially MDFT, was effective in treating adolescent IGD. Improvements in family relationships may contribute to the treatment success. The findings are promising but need to be replicated in larger study. In some respects, such as defining criteria, gaming disorder is still ill-understood and in need of further examination. The results reported in this dissertation render it likely that, at least in some cases of IGD (DSM-5) or Gaming Disorder (GD; WHO, ICD-11), gaming disorder should be seen in social context. The adolescent knows that his or her gaming is problematic in the eyes of others, such as the parents, but not unbearably so in his or her own perception. This discordance in views may lead to conflicts and distress, which may aggravate the gaming problems and increase the therapeutic challenges. Quality of relationships is a core target of family therapy. Therapists work hard to transform hate and rejection into love and inclusion. Family therapists are convinced that behavioural problems occurring during the crucial period of adolescence are intimately linked to deep issues of bonding, sense of meaning and identity. This may be part of the explanation of why these approaches appeared to work in mitigating gaming problems.
... Nonetheless, studies indicate that parental monitoring (Low & Espelage, 2013; can potentially affect CB levels. Particularly, Khurana, Bleakley, Jordan, and Romer (2015) informed that parental monitoring through communication and efforts to regulate specific forms of Internet use were associated with reduced rates of CB. Likewise, Fousiani, Dimitropoulou, Michaelides, and Van Petegem (2016) revealed that parental psychological control directly predicts CB, and parental autonomy support is associated with lower levels of CB. ...
... Second, school-based socio-emotional learning programs (Durlak et al. 2011), with a particular focus on ER skills, can contribute to the development of students' social skills, emotional competence, and conflict resolution skills, thereby reducing negative outcomes in adolescents exposed to peer victimization, stimulating psychosocial adjustment, and ideally preventing future incidents of victimization. Finally, educating parents in how to provide appropriate monitoring and support to their adolescents may serve to prevent exposure to adverse peer experiences (Khurana et al. 2015), and strengthen ER abilities, limiting negative outcomes. To illustrate, extant literature has demonstrated that parental monitoring and autonomysupportive parenting (characterized by clear limits, a warm and responsive climate, and autonomy support) guides and reinforces the acquisition of adaptive ER abilities (Brenning et al. 2015;Farley and Kim-Spoon 2017). ...
Article
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Adolescence is a developmental period marked by changes in cognition, emotion, and social relations. For example, sensitivity to social feedback increases as peer relationships become more important yet less stable, leaving adolescents vulnerable to experiences of peer victimization and rejection. Given that prefrontal brain regions responsible for regulatory abilities continue to mature during adolescence, the brain is especially susceptible to environmental influences. As such, exposure to adverse peer experiences may undermine emotion regulation development. Thus, the present review sought to elucidate the association between adverse peer experiences and emotion regulation in adolescence (i.e. age 12–17 years). Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review of the literature assessing adverse peer experiences (victimization and rejection) and emotion regulation (including neurobiological, behavioral, cognitive levels of analysis) was conducted (Narticles included = 27). Results demonstrate that adverse peer experiences are negatively associated with emotion regulation processes, behaviorally and neurally. Although variability in definitions and measurement of constructs make nuanced comparisons between studies difficult, the present systematic review organizes this body of literature and discusses how promising theoretical perspectives, including the cognitive control of emotion model and social information processing theory, may help to explain this association. Finally, recommendations for future work to expand our understanding of these processes, and for intervention and prevention efforts (e.g., school-based violence prevention and socio-emotional learning programs, parenting practices) that may serve to ameliorate outcomes for youths facing adverse peer experiences and emotion dysregulation, are discussed.
... In many studies, parental active mediation-for example, discussing with children issues such as cyberbullying, sexting, and online frauds-is more effective than restrictive mediation in reducing risks [16,55]. Conversely, the efficacy of restrictive mediation must be considered relatively, since in literature both positive and negative associations with online risks emerge [56]. Mascheroni et al. [57] comment, "While restrictive mediation can be effective in reducing children's exposure to online risks, it has numerous side-effects, because it limits children's opportunities to develop digital literacy and build resilience and discourages children's agency within the childparent relationship. ...
Chapter
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Digital media have quickly changed ways in which parents and children communicate, enjoy themselves, acquire information, and solve problems daily (both in ordinary and exceptional circumstances such as COVID-19 home confinement). Very young children are regular users of smartphones and tablet, so their early digital engagement poses new challenges to parent-child relationships and parental role. First, the chapter introduces the “digital parenting” construct, moving through the literature from “traditional” parenting styles to more recent studies on “parental mediation,” that is, the different behaviors parents adopt to regulate children’s engagement with the Internet and digital media. Second, the chapter reviews empirical researches on different parental mediation practices (active or restrictive behaviors) and how they are adjusted according to the child’s characteristics (age, digital competences, etc.) or parent’s media competence and beliefs. Finally, from a bidirectional perspective of parent-child relationships, the chapter discusses the role of youths’ social involvement, communication, self-disclosure, and digital skills on parent’s beliefs and practices. Implications for parent education and prevention of risks for early and excessive exposure to digital technologies are discussed.
... In relation to this second line, it has been pointed out that less competent parents tend to be less involved in active mediation, regulate inconsistently, and use more restrictive than communicative techniques [23]. Parental supervision has been recognized primarily as a protective factor [24,25]. However, recent systematic reviews [13,24,26] have shown inconsistent results among the not-so-numerous studies analysing parental factors. ...
Article
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From an increasingly early age, parents face the challenge of educating their sons and daughters to act in the world of offline and online relationships. If for professional educators it is not proving easy, the involvement and guidance of parents in their children′s use of the internet seems to be a complex and unexplored challenge. This work aims to analyse the variables that influence digital education and determine a predictive model of positive parental involvement. This study was done with a representative sample consisting of five hundred and ninety-six families (596), representing the parents of children from schools with similar socio-cultural indexes. To do this, and using self-report instruments convertible into independent scales, four predictor variables were analysed: (1) parental knowledge of cyberbullying; (2) perception of parental competence in this regard; (3) parental perception of online risks; and (4) the attribution of parental responsibility in digital education. A structural equations model (SEM) examined the predictive value of these variables with respect to positive parental involvement. The structural equations model confirmed direct and mediated relationships between the independent and mediating variables on the dependent variable: parental supervision. The results indicate that positive parental involvement can be predicted from higher scores in parental knowledge of cyberbullying, perception of parental competence, risk adjustment, and attribution of parental responsibility.
... The detrimental effect of social media usage, including marketing campaigns aimed at children, could be reduced by sufficient parental monitoring. Previous studies indicate that parental monitoring has protective impact in youth social media use (Khurana, Bleakley, Jordan, & Romer, 2015;Shin & Ismail, 2014). The complexity of social media platforms requires digital competences from parents, and they might experience difficulties while monitoring children's online activities; the parents' social media literacy might lead to use of more active monitoring strategies (Daneels & Vanwynsberghe, 2017). ...
Article
Growing rates of childhood obesity constitute a worldwide public health crisis. Consumption of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables could help to prevent obesity and related non-communicable illness. A prominent role in children’s food-related consumer socialization is played by social agents such as peers, siblings and social media. This study aims to explore the importance of peers, siblings and social media for children’s food-related consumer socialization. Using a parallel, mixed-methods approach, the study finds that peers’ influence on children’s eating behavior is more prominent for children’s healthy eating behavior than the influence of siblings. Siblings’ influence becomes important in the context of eating together with the whole family. Social media contributes to children's consumer socialization by exposing children to food and drink products shown on social media platforms that are frequently used by children to interact with peers and share experiences. Peer, sibling and social media influence can be used in creating marketing strategies to promote healthy eating behavior among children.
... In most cases, parents play the main role in children's social life. Studies show that parental mediation influences children's use of the internet and social networks by inducing appropriate online behaviors and preventing cyberbullying [28], contact with strangers [29], and online harassment [30]. Participants of our study indicated the use of at least a few of control measures. ...
Article
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Background and Objectives: Various content-related threats such as provocative content, disinformation, cyberbullying, or sexual and commercial messages might reach children by phone and have a negative effect on their health. Amongst parents who are able to control it, we aimed to assess parental attitudes towards the use of mobile phones among children and control measures taken. Materials and Methods: A total number of 619 parents of primary school children from a middle-sized town in Lithuania participated in this study. Parents anonymously filled out our original questionnaire. Distribution of the respondents was assessed according to control measures taken, threat awareness, and sociodemographic factors. Results: Most of the respondents (79.8%) thought that personal mobile phones might be harmful to children’s health, 99.5% of the parents used at least one control measure. Further, 91.9% of the respondents did not think that children might receive messages from strangers. Respectively, 85.5% and 95.2% of the parents thought that children do not receive offensive or sexual content messages. Many parents (25.5%) helped their children register to social networks. Parents with lower education and parents of younger children had lower awareness of threats (p < 0.05). Fathers, higher educated, single, and unemployed parents indicated application of fewer control measures (p < 0.05). Other sociodemographic factors were not related with threat awareness or control measures taken (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Nearly all parents of primary school children take measures in order to control their children’s usage of mobile phones but most of them underestimate content-related threats brought by mobile phones.
... No entanto, a falta de monitoramento parental é considerada um fator de risco significativo para a ocorrência de situações como a perpetração e a vitimização online (Korchmaros, Mitchell, & Ybarra, 2014). Esse dado foi corroborado pelos estudos de Khurana et al. (2015), cujos resultados apontaram uma associação entre práticas parentais de monitoramento e estabelecimento de regras acerca do uso da internet com menor probabilidade de riscos para os adolescentes, como o assédio online. Considera-se que os pais previnem de modo mais efetivo os riscos online se estiverem envolvidos e informados acerca da vida de seus filhos, do que se apenas restringirem comportamentos na internet. ...
Article
A exposição às redes sociais e a internet tem crescido de forma significativa, sendo cada vez mais frequente em crianças e adolescentes para diversas finalidades, representando um desafio para a parentalidade. As estratégias que os pais utilizam para lidar com esse comportamento podem se constituir em fatores de risco ou de proteção. Considerando os desafios comumente enfrentados pelos pais a fim de monitorar os filhos e protegê-los de determinados riscos relacionados à exposição às novas tecnologias, este artigo teórico objetivou descrever e discutir o uso das redes sociais e da internet na infância e na adolescência, assim como o impacto deste na parentalidade. A partir da revisão realizada, observou-se que os estudos sobre o tema indicam a importância da mediação e do monitoramento parental sobre a exposição de crianças e adolescentes às redes sociais e internet, resultando em um fator de proteção ao desenvolvimento. Além disso, observou-se que pais e filhos podem divergir com relação à percepção do controle parental exercido.
... Particularly, parental monitoring emphasizes that behavior control rather than psychological control can effectively reduce the internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors of children. Research has showed that high-quality parental monitoring can reduce Internet addiction (Ding et al., 2017) and online deviant behaviors (Jin & Zou, 2013, Kim & Kim, 2015, and protect against online harassment (Khurana et al., 2015). Moreover, parental monitoring can better buffer the adverse effects of online deviant behaviors (Ding et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Previous studies uncovered that perceived parental monitoring, personality, and self-control were three important external and internal factors that influenced adolescents’ online deviant behaviors. However, as the dark side of personality, the Dark triad, which implies a disagreeable disposition, lack of humility, belief of being able to predict future outcomes and an opportunistic life strategy, has rarely been used to explore its relationship with online deviant behaviors. Based on problem behavior theory, general aggression model, and models of risk factors and protective factors on problem/deviant behaviors, the current study investigated the relationship among perceived parental monitoring, the Dark Triad, and self-control on online deviant behaviors. A total of 1921 middle and high school students (aged 11–18 years) from China reported their online deviant behaviors (cyberbullying behavior, Internet rumors, deception on the Internet, and cyber obscenity/pornography), perceived parental monitoring, and the Dark Triad as well as the self-control level of individuals. The results of the Pearson correlation showed there were significant correlations among perceived parental monitoring, the Dark Triad, and self-control on online deviant behaviors. The results of the structural equation model (SEM) indicated that the Dark Triad partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental monitoring and online deviant behaviors. Self-control moderated the mediation effect of the Dark Triad. Specifically, self-control weakened the positive relationship between the Dark Triad and online deviant behaviors, and increased the negative relationship between perceived parental monitoring and online deviant behaviors. Our findings expand the applicable environment of the Dark Triad and emphasize its association with online deviant behaviors. Attention should be paid to the interaction of internal traits (e.g., personality and self-control) and explicit family environment (e.g., perceived parental monitoring) in online deviant behavior interventions.
... Restrictive mediation refers to parents restricting or banning, or insisting on supervising a range of online activities and/or access to digital tools and services (Livingstone & Byrne, 2018). While restrictive mediation can help to reduce children's risks and potential harm online (see Chang et al., 2015;Khurana et al., 2015), it can also limit children's digital skills and opportunities (Livingstone et al., 2017). ...
Article
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This factsheet presents findings from a study looking at the strategies New Zealand parents, caregivers and whānau use to mediate their children's experiences of online risk and harm.
... Machtbalancen und Valenzen in kommunikativen Figurationen, wie der sozialen Domäne Familie, können somit auch durch Prozesse ausserhalb der konkreten Domäne beeinflusst werden. Soziale Domänen reagieren hierauf wiederum figurationsintern, beispielsweise mit der Ausgestaltung und Modifikation medienerzieherischer Praktiken: So versuchen Eltern, ihre Kinder vor Medienangeboten zu schützen, deren Nutzung ihrer Ansicht nach mit Gefahren für die kindliche Entwicklung einhergehen (Khurana et al. 2015;Livingstone et al. 2017), sie im Ausbilden eigener (kompetenter) Mediennutzungspraktiken zu unterstützen (Pfetsch 2018), oder sie gezielt bei den Privatsphäreeinstellungen in sozialen Medien zu beraten (Wisniewski et al. 2015). Ausgehend vom Konzept kommunikativer Figurationen kann Medienerziehung somit als Erzeugung einer Machtbalance zwischen Eltern und Kindern konzipiert werden, die durch figurationsexterne Einflussfaktoren wie die technischmediale Entwicklung beeinflusst wird. ...
Article
Die familiale Medienerziehung stellt einen wichtigen Bestandteil des kindlichen Mediensozialisationsprozesses dar. Der Artikel diskutiert familiale Medienerziehung anhand des theoretischen Ansatzes der kommunikativen Figurationen (Hepp und Hasebrink 2014, 2017). Ein zentrales Merkmal kommunikativer Figurationen sind dynamische Machtbalancen, die sowohl zwischen den Akteurinnen und Akteuren innerhalb der Familie als auch in Beziehung zu anderen sozialen Domänen bestehen. Grundlage für die Betrachtung sind Daten der qualitativen Panelstudie ‹ConKids›, die den Sozialisationsprozess in einer tiefgreifend mediatisierten Gesellschaft erforscht. Der Ansatz, Medienerziehung aus einer figurationstheoretischen Perspektive zu beschreiben, ermöglicht es, den prozessualen Charakter des grundsätzlich asymmetrischen (Medien-)Erziehungsverhältnisses zu erfassen. Ausserdem beinhaltet er das Potenzial, die Wechselwirkungen zwischen der familieninternen Medienerziehung und figurationsexternen Einflussfaktoren zu berücksichtigen. Für das Sample der ‹ConKids-Studie› zeigt sich, dass sich die Machtpotenziale der Kinder durch den entwicklungsbedingten Autonomieerwerb mit zunehmendem Alter erwartungsgemäss erweitern. Hierbei gestalten sich die Machtverhältnisse zwischen Eltern und Kindern grundsätzlich dynamisch, nicht statisch. Als zweiten wichtigen Aspekt weisen die Daten aus dem Sample auf eine wahrgenommene Machtlosigkeit sowohl von Eltern als auch Kindern gegenüber figurationsexternen Einflüssen hin. Dies wirft die Frage auf, wie Familien hinsichtlich der Entwicklung umfassenderer Handlungskompetenzen unterstützt werden können.
... This association was indirectly affected by parent-child communication, such that adolescents with the support and encouragement fulfilled by their parents through communication were less likely to develop PIU (Boniel-Nissim & Sasson, 2018). In another study partially supporting our result, parental monitoring with communication, supervision, and tracking of adolescent behavior, was found to play a protective role in regulating adolescents' Internet use (Khurana et al., 2015). Given that parental involvement in education is undergirded by the mechanism of parent-child communication, in which parents' interactions with their adolescents are aimed to reduce problem behaviors by advocating for academic needs and support (Hill et al., 2004), it may be that parental involvement in education would serve as a protective factor against adolescent PIU behaviors. ...
Article
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Objective This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of parental involvement in adolescents’ education on the effects of bullying victimization and social withdrawal on problematic Internet use (PIU) among South Korean adolescents and to further examine whether parental involvement in education moderates the mediating effect of social withdrawal on the association between bullying victimization and PIU. Methods Data were derived from the 2018 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS), and the participants consisted of 388 adolescents (mean age = 15.05 years, SD = 0.80). The moderated mediation test was examined by the R software. Results The current study found significant moderating effects of parental involvement in education on the impacts of bullying victimization and social withdrawal on PIU. In further moderated mediation analyses, findings showed that the mediation effect of social withdrawal on PIU was moderated by parental involvement in education. Conclusions The findings underscore that parental involvement in education plays significant roles in attenuating the adverse effects of bullying victimization and social withdrawal on PIU.
... Those who tend to talk with their parents about various topics, also tend to talk with them about various experiences while surfing the internet, while those children and adolescents, who tend not to talk with their parents, do not talk with them about difficult experiences they have had while surfing on-line (Khurana, Bleakley, Jordan, & Romer, 2015;Zilka, 2019). Thus, it seems extremely important to examine the children's perceptions vis-à-vis those of their parents regarding involvement in online bullying. ...
... Moreover, these offline strategies can act as a supplement for online strategies to help prevent or resolve a cyberbullying situation (Khurana et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Despite the growing prevalence of cyberbullying in India, there is a lack of empirical research available to guide school-based interventions. Employing a survey of 402 teachers in Indian schools, the present study utilized the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework to examine the factors influential in encouraging teachers to intervene in school cyberbullying situations. The results reveal that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively explain 40.9% of the variance in intentions. Perceived responsibility accounts for additional variance explained. Conclusions inform the design of school-based interventions that aim to motivate teachers and provide them the resources necessary to mitigate the impact of cyberbullying in Indian schools.
... Also, from the family environment it is necessary to adopt a more responsible attitude. Works such as that of Valkenburg et al. (2013) or Khurana et al. (2015) found that when parents establish norms and limits on the use that their children make of technology (like not allowing mobile use after midnight), risky behaviours are reduced by half. ...
Article
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Recent research has warned of the growing participation of minors in online gambling, an illegal behaviour with an enormous addictive potential. The present study was proposed with a double objective: (1) having updated data about online gambling among adolescents and, (2) analysing its relationship with substance use and Problematic Internet Use [PIU]. For this purpose, a sample of 3188 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age (Mean=14.44; SD=1.67) was gathered, to whom was applied an ad hoc questionnaire with items regarding their internet use and substance consumption, as well as specific screening instruments (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test -AUDIT-, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test -CAST-, the Substance Use and Abuse subscale of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers -POSITuas-, and the Problematic Internet Use Scale for Adolescents-PIUSa-). The results showed that 8.4% of the sample had participated in online gambling during the prior year. It was also found that those who gambled on the Internet had higher rates of PIU and different online risky behaviours, as well as higher rates of substance consumption. Therefore, these are not isolated problems, making it necessary to employ an integral preventive approach to address them.
... Oczywiście nie jest to jedyne podejście zapewniające kontrolę nad czynnościami młodych osób. W literaturze przedmiotu można odnaleźć wiele wyników badań ukazujących zalety i wady takiego podejścia w odróżnienia od modelu liberalnego, opierającego się na mniejszej kontroli zachowań (Kirwil, 2009;Livingstone et al., 2011;Khurana et al., 2015;Shin, 2015). ...
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Rozwój technologii informacyjno-komunikacyjnych (ang. Information and Communications Technologies – ICT) ma swoje przełożenie na praktyki i badania związane z kształceniem i wychowaniem. Internet stał się ważnym środowiskiem biznesowym, kulturotwórczym, informacyjnym, edukacyjnym. Technologie informacyjno-komunikacyjne stały są kluczowym narzędziem przeobrażającym funkcjonowanie jednostek i grup społecznych. Intensywne wdrażanie i rozwój mediów cyfrowych przynosi wiele korzyści, związanych chociażby z szybkim dostępem do danych i informacji, usprawnia komunikację, umożliwia docieranie do nowych zasobów wspomagających rozwój kompetencji kluczowych (zob. Pyżalski, 2020). Ostatnie dwie dekady są czasem intensywnych zmian determinowanych przez ICT. Pozytywne oddziaływanie mediów w kontekście pedagogicznym zauważalne jest przez narastającą liczbę badań poświęconych włączaniu poszczególnych rozwiązań informatycznych jako efektywnych środków oraz form dydaktycznych zwiększających efektywność uczenia się i nauczania. Rozwój metodycznych rozwiązań i badań nad możliwościami ICT zrodził nowy nurt badań edukacyjnych, który określany jest w pedagogice mediów mianem paradygmatu szans. Kierunek ten jest zwłaszcza widoczny w metodykach szczegółowych, gdzie strony internetowe, urządzenia cyfrowe i aplikacje stały się równie efektywnymi środkami dydaktycznymi, co analogowe rozwiązania. Wspomniany paradygmat budzi jednak wiele kontrowersji metodologicznych i metodycznych oraz wymusza ciągłe udoskonalanie procedur badawczych, a także nieustanną zmianę przedmiotu badań (m.in. przez uwzględnianie nowych urządzeń, aplikacji, stron internetowych) ze względu na szybko rozwijające się społeczeństwo informacyjne (zob. Juszczyk, 2002; Siemieniecki, 2007; Plebańska, Kula, 2011; Wawrzak-Chodaczek, 2012; Pyżalski, 2012c; Plichta, 2017; Wątróbski et al., 2018; Huk, 2019). Dydaktyka i wychowanie w erze dominacji mediów cyfrowych wzbudzają także zainteresowanie rodziców, polityków i publicystów. Zmiany następujące za sprawą powszechnego włączenia nowych mediów w różne sektory są na tyle zauważalne, że obsługa mediów cyfrowych jest jedną z kompetencji kluczowych. W ostatnich latach pedagogika mediów jest intensywnie rozwijającą się subdyscypliną (Juszczyk, 2002; Wolák, 2013). O sytuacji tej świadczy lawinowo narastająca liczba publikacji metateoretycznych, popularno-naukowych i empirycznych. Pozytywne zmiany w edukacji zachodzące za sprawą ICT współwystępują jednak z negatywnymi następstwami. Technologie informacyjno-komunikacyjne same w sobie są neutralnymi narzędziami. Biorąc jednak pod uwagę sposoby wykorzystywania nowych technologii, zarówno badacze, jak i osoby znaczące w procesie wychowania dostrzegają występowanie szeregu zachowań ryzykownych zapośredniczonych przez media cyfrowe . Intensywny rozwój społeczeństwa wytworzył pozytywne i negatywne następstwa. Analizy zachowań ryzykownych z ostatnich lat wskazują na to, że dominującą tematykę stanowią opracowania poświęcone e-zagrożeniom, takim jak: cyberprzemoc i cyberagresja, uzależnienia od Internetu (problematyczne użytkowanie Internetu), seksting. Relatywnie małe zainteresowanie pedagogów mediów, czy też rodziców (Orange, 2016) dotyczy zachowań związanych z piractwem. Łamanie norm w zakresie pobierania i udostępniania plików podlegających ochronie jest zagadnieniem marginalizowanym w literaturze przedmiotu. Zachowania klasyfikowane jako piractwo nie są tematem przewodnim opracowań dotyczących negatywnych aspektów funkcjonowania w cyberprzestrzeni m.in. ze względu na mniej ostre kryteria etyczne w przeciwieństwie do chociażby takich e-zagrożeń, jak seksting i cyberstalking. Piractwo jest jednym z najmniej do tej pory rozpoznanych zjawisk w pedagogice mediów. Biorąc pod uwagę unikatowość opracowań poświęconych skali i mechanizmom związanym z ochroną i łamaniem prawa autorskiego, postanowiono, że niniejsza publikacja zostanie poświęcona temu najmniej poznanemu zachowaniu ryzykownemu. W opracowaniu piractwo zdefiniowano jako nieautoryzowane kopiowanie produktów cyfrowych – oprogramowania (w tym gier), e-booków, muzyki, filmów z powodu innego niż tworzenie kopii zapasowej, bez uzyskania zgody właściciela praw autorskich bądź majątkowych (Gopal et al., 2004). Piractwo utożsamiane jest w opracowaniu z takimi określeniami, jak nieautoryzowane pobieranie i udostępnianiem plików. Piractwo w monografii związane jest nie tylko z udostępnianiem plików w internecie (najcięższy wymiar penalizacji zachowań), lecz również z wymianą w przestrzeni offline, a także z pobieraniem z wykorzystaniem zróżnicowanych sposobów. Warto zaznaczyć za Czetwertyńskim (2019: 129), że zjawisko nieautoryzowanego kopiowania cyfrowych dobór kultury cechuje się nieprecyzyjną terminologią, a poszczególne pojęcia składowe opisujące piractwo nie mają uniwersalnych definicji, co budzi wiele zastrzeżeń i tworzy jednocześnie negatywne skojarzenia (np. użycie terminu „piractwo”). Uwzględniając jednak powszechność występowania w eksperckiej literaturze przedmiotu (w tym w raportach OECD, branży audiowizualnej, opracowaniach ekonomicznych czy socjologicznych) określeń, takich jak: piractwo cyfrowe, piractwo cyfrowych treści, piractwo komputerowe terminy te będą dominiwały w monografii jako główna zmienna poddana badaniom. Zaprezentowana monografia nie ma na celu jednoznacznej oceny piractwa w wymiarze etycznym, lecz ukazanie skali i mechanizmów piractwa wśród adolescentów reprezentujących dwa kraje z Grupy Wyszehradzkiej z uwzględnieniem wybranych mechanizmów warunkujących edukację i wychowanie w erze cyfrowej. Autor publikacji ma świadomość, że publikacja nie wpisuje się w dyskusję prawną związaną z ochroną lub łamaniem prawa autorskiego. Korzystając z danych empirycznych oraz różnorodnych, często wykluczających się i budzących zastrzeżenia sposobów definiowania i interpretowania piractwa autor oddaje czytelnikom pierwsze monograficzne opracowanie poświęcone ukazujące piractwo w perspektywie pedagogiki mediów na podstawie prób badawczych z Czech i Polski.
... Parental Active Internet Mediation Parental active internet mediation was measured using the Parental Mediation Scale from the study EU Kids Online (2010) (http://www.lse.ac.uk/ media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/EU%20Kids%20II% 20(2009-11)/Survey/Questionnaire%20for%20child.pdf.). The scale was designed for use in children and has been shown to have good reliability and validity (Khurana et al. 2015). In the present study, it was transited into Chinese through standard procedure to determine the Chinese version. ...
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Academic adaptation is an important aspect of children’s development, and it has been found to be closely associated with parent and peer related factors. In the current information era, the internet is also influencing children’s academic adaptation. Against this backdrop, we developed and tested a model in which active parental internet mediation (parents’ guidance and advice on children’s online behavior) was associated with children’s academic adaptation, further investigating the potential mediating role of video gaming and the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation. 683 Chinese elementary school students in Grades 4–6 were recruited to participate in this study. The children completed questionnaires at school during regular class time. The results indicated that: (a) after controlling for gender and age, active parental mediation was positively associated with academic adaptation; (b) video gaming was an mediating factor in the association between active parental mediation and academic adaptation; (c) the indirect effect of active parental mediation on academic adaptation through video gaming was moderated by deviant peer affiliation; specifically, for children with low deviant peer affiliation, the association between video gaming and academic adaptation was significant but insignificant for children with high deviant peer affiliation. Though, the relative small effect size of video gaming should be examined in the future studies to further clarify the associations and underlying mechanism between the main variables, the results have applied value for guiding children to use the internet responsibly and improving their academic adaptation.
... Further, it is possible that if bullying behavior is regularly modeled for them, they may become desensitized to the impact of bullying and aggression as they mature (Estévez et al., 2019). Additionally, as younger adolescents' internet use is typically more closely monitored by their parents compared to older adolescents (Khurana et al., 2015), it is possible that parental monitoring is related to active bystander intervention online. New efforts are necessary to engage adolescents of all ages, but especially older adolescents, in active bystander interventions online. ...
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... This has significant implications for practice and keeping children safe, particularly if risks are not identified, or if information is omitted or considered secondary. Participants explained that adults, particularly parents, are ill-informed and consistently poor role models, raising pertinent concerns following research proposing that parental control is the first level of protection for young people online (Khurana et al., 2014), with children concurring, 50% of UK children aged 11-17 think sometimes their parents do not understand enough about online issues' (Katz & El-Asam, 2020a). ...
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... Para reducir los riesgos, de los dos principales tipos de mediación, la mediación activa que supone dialogar, acompañar y orientar a los hijos sobre las actividades en línea, funciona mejor que la restrictiva -establecimiento de normas y límites en el tiempo y contenido de Internet- (Shin & Kang, 2016). Algunos autores resaltan que también la mediación restrictiva lo consigue, aunque indirectamente al limitar el acceso (Khurana et al., 2015) pero lo hace a costa de reducir las oportunidades que ofrece Internet (Livingstone et al., 2017). ...
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Objective This study investigated two research questions. First, how do parents monitor and regulate adolescent use of social media? Second, how do parental monitoring practices vary by adolescent and parent gender? Background Smart phones and Internet access are nearly universal among U.S. adolescents, yet most past research on online parental monitoring examined Internet use generally without a focus on social media. Method Data were obtained in 2019 with a web survey with items addressing parent and adolescent use of social media, parental monitoring of social media use, and parents' perceptions of the impact of social media on adolescents. Respondents were a state-representative sample of 389 Pennsylvania parents with an adolescent aged 12 to 17 years in their household. Results Mothers more frequently talked with their adolescent children about social media than fathers, and mothers were more likely to report consequences for breaking household rules about social media use. Mothers used more intrusive monitoring strategies than fathers. Parents were more likely to ask daughters about social media use than sons. Parents monitored social media use of opposite gender adolescents less frequently. Conclusions Results suggest strong differences in social media monitoring by parent and adolescent gender but in directions that do not necessarily align with the parental monitoring literature more broadly. Heavy use of more intrusive practices in the sample may indicate problems with trust or parental concern with adolescent self-disclosure.
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Importance This study presents evidence that cyberbullying victimization relates to internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems in adolescents and that the frequency of family dinners attenuate these associations.Objectives To examine the unique association between cyberbullying victimization and adolescent mental health (after controlling differences in involvement in traditional, face-to-face bullying) and to explore the potential moderating role of family contact in this association.Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional, observational study used survey data on 18 834 students (aged 12-18 years) from 49 schools in a Midwestern US state. Logistic regression analysis tested associations between cyberbullying victimization and the likelihood of mental health and substance use problems. Negative binomial regression analysis tested direct and synergistic contributions of cyberbullying victimization and family dinners on the rates of mental health and substance use problems.Exposures Frequency of cyberbullying victimization during the previous 12 months; victimization by traditional (face-to-face) bullying; and perpetration of traditional bullying.Main Outcomes and Measures Five internalizing mental health problems (anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt), 2 externalizing problems (fighting and vandalism), and 4 substance use problems (frequent alcohol use, frequent binge drinking, prescription drug misuse, and over-the-counter drug misuse).Results About one-fifth (18.6%) of the sample experienced cyberbullying during the previous 12 months. The frequency of cyberbullying positively related to all 11 internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems (odds ratios from 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.8] to 4.5 [95% CI, 3.0-6.6]). However, victimization related more closely to rates of problems in adolescents that had fewer family dinners.Conclusions and Relevance Cyberbullying relates to mental health and substance use problems in adolescents, even after their involvement in face-to-face bullying is taken into account. Although correlational, these results suggest that family dinners (ie, family contact and communication) are beneficial to adolescent mental health and may help protect adolescents from the harmful consequences of cyberbullying.
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Although recent research has demonstrated significant links between involvement in cyber bullying and various internalizing difficulties, there exists debate as to whether these links are independent of involvement in more traditional forms of bullying. The present study systematically examined the association between involvement in cyber bullying, as either a victim or a bully, and both depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation. Self-report data were collected from 399 (57 % female) Canadian adolescents in grades 8-10 (mean age = 14.2 years, SD = .91 years). Results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying, as either a victim or a bully, uniquely contributed to the prediction of both depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation, over and above the contribution of involvement in traditional forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational). Given the ever increasing rate of accessibility to technology in both schools and homes, these finding underscore the importance of addressing cyber bullying, with respect to both research and intervention, as a unique phenomenon with equally unique challenges for students, parents, school administrators and researchers alike.
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Telephone surveys of single and married mothers of teenagers in public schools, mothers of teenagers in religious schools, and mothers of homeschooled teenagers examined the influence that parenting styles and level of Internet access in the home have on parenting mediation of online content and time spent on the Internet (N =520). Specifically, how authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting styles as well as home and bedroom Internet access influence the evaluative and restrictive mediation techniques used by parents was investigated. Results indicate that parenting style has a significant effect on almost all mediation techniques studied, whereas increased access only influences time online. Additionally, technological blocking as a restrictive mediation technique was found to be highest among authoritative parents, followed by authoritarian and neglectful.
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Non-empirical publications have espoused the importance of monitoring/controlling children’s online and computer activities through monitoring software; however, no empirical research has verified whether this is a viable means for promoting responsible and safe internet use. This study examined the association between parenting behaviours and adolescent online aggression. The sample included 733 adolescents (451 females), between 10 and 18 years, from Western Canada. Participants completed a questionnaire that included questions on internet aggression, and parenting. The parenting questions were modified from Stattin and Kerr’s (2000) questionnaire to better suit the online environment. Results from the univariate least squares factor analysis revealed two distinct factors: (1) Parent Solicitation (parents ask where child is going on the internet), (2) Child Disclosure (child naturally tells parents what they are doing). Hierarchical Linear Regression analysis revealed that having a computer in the bedroom increased the likelihood of engaging in online aggression and that adolescent self-disclosure of online behaviours (and not controlling or monitoring online activities) was negatively associated with online aggression. These findings emphasize the importance of establishing good communication between parents and adolescents rather than investing money on monitoring software and on controlling adolescent internet use.
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Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. In the fall of 2008, 20,406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.
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Cyberbullying, the use of information and communication technologies to intentionally harm others, has become an important area of research. Studies have begun to investigate the extent of cyberbullying and its victims' personality characteristics. Less is known about the effect of specific online activities and the role of parental mediation on the likelihood of being bullied. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature conducting a secondary analysis of a representative sample of the U.S. youth population, the Teens and Parents survey conducted by the Pew and American Life Project (n = 935). The results indicate that the risk of youth being bullied is higher for adolescents who have an active profile on social networking sites and participate in chat rooms but not in playing games online. Gender differences emerge in risk factors. A few parental mediation techniques are protective, but most are not. The results indicate the need for more parental participation to reduce risks to youth arising from Internet use for interpersonal communication.
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The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face‐to‐face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11–16 years at Time 1 self‐reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school, outside of school, texting, and on‐line) annually for 2 years. Results indicated that all four dynamics were moderately stable over time. The following variables were found to bidirectionally reinforce and predict each other over time: traditional bullying and traditional victimization; traditional bullying and cyber bullying; and traditional victimization and cyber victimization. These results indicate that bullying and victimhood in both face‐to‐face and cyber‐based interactions are related but not identical interpersonal dynamics.
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The objective of this study was to identify factors that could predict youth's future technology-based interpersonal victimization and the pattern of that future victimization over time. Data from Growing up With Media, a national, longitudinal, online study were analyzed. At baseline, participants (N = 1,018) were 10- to 15-year-old English speakers who had used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. Twenty-nine percent reported repeat technology-based interpersonal victimization over a 2-year period (re-victimized group); 10% were victims during only Year 1 (desisted victimized group); and 17% reported victimization during only Year 2 (later victimized group). Of the individual risk factors examined, prior technology-based interpersonal victimization and current amount of Internet use had the strongest overall associations with pattern of technology-based interpersonal victimization over the subsequent 2-year period. There was substantial overlap among the individual risk factors. Thus, they could be thought of more simply in terms of four latent risk and three individual risk factors. On average, across these seven risk factors, repeat victims had the greatest average risk score (0.21) and the not victimized group had the lowest (-0.16). Repeat victims were more likely to be female and older and had more prior experience with problem behaviors, substance use, and negative parent-child relationships as compared with the other three groups. Being female, prior experience with problem behavior, prior substance use, and prior negative parent-child relationships were also associated with frequency of technology-based interpersonal victimization in the near (Year 1) and more distant (Year 2) future. Many of these risk factors related to technology-based victimization over time are malleable, suggesting opportunities for effective targeting of future prevention efforts.
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The authors studied the association between parenting practices and conduct problem behavior in a sample of 179 clinic-referred children and adolescents. Parenting practices were assessed using a multi-informant and multimethod assessment system. Conduct problems were the DSMIII-R criteria for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder assessed by a structured psychiatric interview with multiple informants. Results indicated that parents” involvement in their children”s activities was most strongly predictive of conduct problems in the adolescent age group (ages 13-17), whereas corporal punishment was most strongly associated with conduct problems in the middle age group (ages 9-12). Parents’ monitoring and supervision of their children”s behavior was moderately predictive of conduct problems in both of these age groups but only weakly predictive in the youngest age group (ages 6-9). Finally, parental consistency in using disciplinewas highly predictive of conduct problems in the adolescent age group and moderately predictive in the youngest age group.
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This study investigates gender differences in adolescent drug use in terms of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Females are found to be more highly monitored than males, whereas males are more exposed to deviant peers than are females. There is a significant interaction between parental monitoring and peer deviance for the sample as a whole. The effect of this interaction is greater among females, indicating that ex- posure to deviant peers is more important for the drug use of females in families where parental monitoring is poor.
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A commonly used measure of parental monitoring is parents' knowledge of adolescents' daily activities. This measure has been criticized on the grounds that parents get more knowledge about teenagers' daily activities through willing youth disclosure than through their own active monitoring efforts, but this claim was based on cross-sectional data. In the present study, we reexamine this claim with longitudinal data over 2 years from 938 seventh and eighth graders and their parents. Youth disclosure was a significant longitudinal predictor of parental knowledge in single- and cross-rater models. Neither measure of parents' monitoring efforts—control or solicitation—was a significant predictor. In analyses involving delinquency, parental monitoring efforts did not predict changes in delinquency over time, but youth disclosure did. We conclude that because knowledge measures do not seem to represent parental monitoring efforts, the conclusions from studies using these measures should be reinterpreted.
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The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = .63, 50% female) taken from Time 2 of the Flourishing Families Project, 96% of whom had complete data for Time 4 (N = 266). Active monitoring was the most common approach at the first and second time points, while active monitoring and deference were equally common by the final time point. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that restrictive and active monitoring decreased over time, while deference increased. In addition, both adolescent and parent characteristics were predictive of initial levels of all three types of monitoring, and of change in restrictive monitoring. Discussion focuses on developmental implications of these findings.
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This paper investigates practices of domestic regulation of media within the family, focusing on parental attempts to manage children’s access to and use of new media. Theoretically, the paper seeks to integrate the specific literature on domestic rules and regulation of media use with the broader literature on the rules and roles in social situations, arguing that parental strategies in relation to domestic media reveal both the enactment of and the negotiations over the typically informal and implicit rules and roles in family life. These issues are explored using data from two surveys: (1) the ‘Young People, New Media’ project surveyed 1300 children and their parents, examining the social, relational and contextual factors that shape the ways in which families develop rules for managing the introduction of the personal computer and the multiplication of television sets, among other new media changes, in the home; (2) the ‘UK Children Go Online’ project surveyed 1500 children and their parents, updating the picture by examining the introduction of the Internet into the family home. On the basis of these data, it is argued that despite the ‘newness’ of media as they successively arrive in the home, there are considerable consistencies over time in the responses of families, it being the slow-to-change relations between parents and children that shape patterns of domestic regulation and use.
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Young adolescents are quickly becoming avid users of social networking sites (SNSs); however, little is known regarding how they use these sites. The goal of the present study was to examine the extent to which young adolescents use SNSs, with whom they connect via these sites, and whether SNS use disrupts daily functioning. Among 268 middle-school students surveyed, 63% reported having their own profile page on an SNS. On average, adolescents reported having 196 SNS contacts (friends), most of whom were known peers. Young adolescents with an SNS spent most of their time viewing and responding to comments written on their profile page. Among the SNS users, 39% reported getting behind on schoolwork and 37% reported losing sleep at least once because they were visiting an SNS. As SNS use becomes embedded in young teens' daily lives, it is important to better understand how such use affects their daily adaptive functioning.
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Though much research has focused on the positive outcomes of parents' monitoring of adolescents' media use, few studies have examined predictors of parents' media monitoring. Accordingly, the current study was designed to assess both parent and child predictors of proactive media monitoring during adolescence. Participants consisted of 478 families who completed parenting and media questionnaires at two time points, approximately one year apart. Results revealed that both maternal and paternal authoritative parenting predicted proactive media monitoring. Specifically, parental connection and regulation were associated with increased levels of prearming (also called active mediation); regulation was associated with higher levels of cocooning (also called restrictive mediation); and autonomy was associated with higher levels of deference. Additionally, adolescents' self regulation, media use, and age all predicted lower levels of parental cocooning. This research highlights the importance of examining both parent and child factors when determining what strategies parents use to monitor the media.
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This longitudinal study examined the covariation between parents' use of control and solicitation, youth willingness to self-disclose to parents, and youth antisocial behavior from ages 13 to 14. Structural equation analyses were conducted on a combined sample of Italian (N = 152) and French Canadian (N = 151) adolescents. Analyses tested for longitudinal cross-lagged effects while controlling for stability and all concurrent associations. Although bivariate correlations showed consistent associations among these constructs, both concurrently and over one year, SEM results revealed virtually no cross-lagged effects, after controlling for concurrent associations and stability. These findings suggest that the actual causal effects of parenting and youth behavior may best be conceptualized as occurring in the moment, rather than over extended periods of time. Results also showed that parental control and solicitation demonstrated very different associations with youth antisocial behavior, and should therefore be considered separately for research and prevention.
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Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, parental support, and friends were examined. Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally representative sample of grades 6-10 (N = 7,182). The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with sociodemographic variables, parental support, and number of friends as predictors. Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially, or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, whereas girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, whereas girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal, or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal, and relational forms but was not associated with cyber bullying. Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differen