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Abstract

The production of high quality functional pasta from non-conventional raw materials represents a challenge. A partial substitution (15 g/100 g) of durum wheat semolina with long-chain inulin (HPX) and short-chain inulin (GR), Glucagel, psyllium and oat material (added individually and in combinations) was performed in order to increase the level of dietary fibre intake. The cooking, textural and colour characteristics of the pastas were evaluated and compared to control sample containing exclusively durum wheat semolina. Generally, material addition to the durum wheat pasta increased cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption, whilst reduced firmness and resistance to uniaxial extension of pastas. Raw spaghetti samples resulted significantly darker (L*) and more redness (a*) than control pasta. In the cooked pasta, all inulin enriched samples were brighter than semolina pasta. Pasta prepared with 15 g/100 g semolina of oat flour showed the best performance (except for the colour) compared to the other experimental pasta samples, but was significantly different to control durum wheat sample. Combinations of fibre rich additions were studied with the inclusion of inulin GR having a less deteriorating effect when added in combination with oat flour. This illustrates that some fibre rich sources may act better in combinations than separately.

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... The snacks food industry has become a vivacious sector and optimistic future looks promising and bright due to its massive versatility regarding nutrition, taste, starch-protein network as well as processing methods (Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, & Brennan, 2015;Saeleaw & Schleining, 2010). Most of the snacks are enriched with starch followed by a high level of fat and deficient in micro nutrients, e.g., calcium (Ca) and essential amino acids (Desai, Brennan, & Brennan, 2018). ...
... Wheat flour (a major ingredient for snacks food) along with other ingredients, such as, fish meat (Nawaz et al., 2019b;Nawaz et al., 2019d), green leafy vegetables (Sahariah et al., 2016), waxy wheat flours (Zhang, Zhang, Xu, & Zhou, 2014), rice starch (Saeleaw & Schleining, 2010), dietary fibers (Brennan, Kuri, & Tudorica, 2004), potato powder (Nawaz et al., 2019b) and food additives are widely used in snack products (Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, & Brennan, 2015). However, WF based snacks have some drawbacks, for example, low water holding capacity, poor long term stability (Thammahiwes, Riyajan, & Kaewtatip, 2017), high oil and water absorption, and the consumer's allergen to gluten protein (De Giorgio, Volta, & Gibson, 2016). ...
... Moreover, it might be attributed to the weak protein-starch network between CS and fish bone protein that reduced the water availability for cassava starch molecules. Similar results were also stated for snacks by previous studies (Brennan, Kuri, & Tudorica, 2004;Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, & Brennan, 2015). In our finding, WHC was decreased with the increase of CS. ...
Article
Gluten protein based snacks have been a major concern for allergen, low nutrition and physio-chemical properties. In this study, wheat flour (WF) was replaced with cassava starch (CS) at different levels [10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%(w/w)] to prepare fried snacks. The addition of CS significantly (P<0.05) increased hardness and pasting properties while gluten network, oil uptake, water holding capacity, and expansion were decreased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of amide I, α-helix (1650-1660 cm⁻¹), along with amide II region (1540 cm⁻¹) changed when CS was added. Starch-protein complex was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis while no starch-protein-lipid complex was observed. The micrographs from scanning electron microscopy showed that starch-protein matrix was interrupted when ≥40%(w/w) CS was added. Furthermore, in vitro calcium bioavailability was decreased slightly with the addition of CS. The results suggest the feasibility of adding 40% CS as an alternative to WF in snacks.
... Consequently, the manufacture of high DF products needs a proper selection of fibre type and content, in order to satisfy sensory acceptability while delivering nutritional benefits. Replacement of durum wheat semolina with a combination of different DFs may represent a valuable strategy to obtain high DF-enriched pastas with concomitant good cooking quality and reduced glycaemic index (GI), since some DFs work better in combination than individually added (Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, & Brennan, 2015a, 2015b Abbreviations: G', storage modulus; G ′′ , loss modulus; tan δ, loss tangent; CL, cooking loss; d.b., dry basis; OCT, optimum cooking time; DF, dietary fibre; PSH, psyllium seed husk; IAUC, incremental area under the curve; WA, water absorption. Peressini, Cavarape, Brennan, Gao, & Brennan, 2020). ...
... These authors added psyllium to semolina at 150 g/kg substitution and found a reduction in glyacemic response for cooked fresh-extruded pasta and dry pasta (Foschia et al., 2015a;Peressini et al., 2020). Unfortunately, supplementation was detrimental for pasta cooking behaviour, and also for sensory acceptability (Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, & Brennan, 2015b;Peressini et al., 2020). Since both nutritional benefit and cooking quality are important in a functional product, further studies are required to evaluate if it is possible to satisfy both aspects at a lower psyllium supplementation. ...
... For cooked pasta, colour parameters confirmed trends obtained before cooking (Table 2). Similar findings were reported for fresh pasta containing 150 g/kg psyllium (Foschia et al., 2015b). Previously, colour appearance score of cooked pasta was not changed upon addition of 75 g/kg PSH plus 75 g/kg Barley Balance (source of β-glucan) to durum wheat semolina (Peressini et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Psyllium seed husk (PSH) is a soluble dietary fibre with interesting health benefits, including reduction in blood glucose level in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Its supplementation in pasta represents a challenge due to a negative impact of high PSH levels on product acceptability. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the substitution of semolina with different levels of PSH on cooking properties, microstructure and in vitro glycaemic response of pasta. Dry pasta samples enriched with PSH were produced by replacing durum wheat semolina with 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg PSH. Cooked enriched pastas were firmer and sticker than the control. Cooking loss increased with increasing PSH levels above 25 g/kg with values below the technological acceptable limit of 80 g/kg. Semolina substitution with 50–100 g/kg psyllium was effective in lowering the predictive glycaemic response of enriched pasta in comparison with the control. Scanning electron microscopy and dough rheology (dynamic frequency and temperature sweep tests) suggested that this decrease was related to the formation of fibre aggregates limiting starch swelling. Semolina replacement with 50 g/kg PSH has the potential to provide a health benefit with minimal impact on cooking features of functional pasta.
... The World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consider pasta a good vehicle for the addition of different nutrients to diet, since proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals can be added [5]. Dietary Fibers (DF) with their physiological functions play an important role in decreasing the glycemic index [6][7][8]. ...
... Several recent studies have focused on pasta enriched with vegetables, chickpea flour, defatted soy flour, inulin and dietary fibers [3,8,[23][24][25]. In a recent work [26], was also noted that the dough The different types of dough were prepared in the laboratory using a kneader. ...
... Cooked pasta samples were analyzed to determine the swelling index (SI, g water/g dry pasta) [23] and water absorption index (WAI: Weight of cooked pasta-weight of raw pasta/weight of raw g/100g) according to the method used by Foschia et al. [8], 13g of fettuccine were cut into 5cm long pieces and cooked until their optimal cooking time in 200mL of boiling distilled water. Subsequently, they were drained and rinsed with another 50ml of distilled water at room temperature for 1 minute, dried and weighed. ...
... Relatively low in fat and sodium levels give a reason to consider pasta as a healthy food [9]. ...
... In the event that the protein coagulation wins, starch particles are caught in the system alveoli advancing rmness of cooked pasta. On the o chance that the starch swelling wins, the protein coagulates in discrete masses, coming up short on a constant system, and pasta will demonstrate nonabrasiveness and typically stickiness [9]. e associations between protein system development and starch gelatinization within the sight of water are identi ed with various textures and cooking characteristics of pasta [27]. ...
... Pasta which has been developed with bran fractions and debranned kernels has displayed higher contents of total dietary fiber, arabinoxylans, protein and ash compared to conventional pasta with adequate scope of cooking characteristics. Foschia et al. [9] have revealed that incorporation of various dietary fiber into pasta cause a huge increment in water absorption than noted for conventional pasta. Expanded level of starch gelatinization and interruption of the protein starch network are the major reasons for the increased water absorption of pasta [22,30,68]. ...
Article
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Pasta is a widely consumed food in all over the world. Coarse semolina obtained from durum wheat and water are the main ingredients of conventional pasta products. e amount of gluten and quality level of durum wheat, are two important factors for the superiority of nished pasta. Market price of durum wheat is higher than the common wheat and it contributes no more than 5% of the world wheat production. us, to come across the challenge of emerging pasta consumption, new eld of research that is dealing with the incorporation of nonconventional ingredients to the conventional formula of pasta has initiated. e compositions of raw materials which are used for pasta preparation directly a ect the physical, chemical, and textural properties of the product. erefore, incorporation of nonconventional ingredients can lead to a contradictory e ect of pasta quality. is review will focus on the various types of nonconventional ingredients that are being incorporated in pasta products and their e ect on the quality attributes of di erent pasta products.
... Pasta produced from semolina durum or common wheat flour is one of the most popular cereal products and can be a suitable food matrix for fortification with functional ingredients. Many studies focus on the possibility of enriching pasta with high-fiber raw materials, including oat flour, β-glucan concentrates [25][26][27][28][29][30][31], legume components [32], or pomaces [33,34]. It should be noted that the addition of both insoluble and soluble fractions of dietary fiber can weaken the protein-starch matrix and has a negative effect on the cooking and textural qualities of pasta [17,34,35]. ...
... The high content of dietary fiber (xanthan gum, β-glucans) present in these samples ( Table 2) was associated with greater water absorption. As shown in literature reports, distortion of the protein network by the addition of dietary fiber can induce increased water absorption [26]. Foschia et al. [26] observed an increase in water absorption in pasta products when trying to replace semolina with dietary fiber raw materials. ...
... As shown in literature reports, distortion of the protein network by the addition of dietary fiber can induce increased water absorption [26]. Foschia et al. [26] observed an increase in water absorption in pasta products when trying to replace semolina with dietary fiber raw materials. High-WAI products quickly satisfy hunger and maintain longer satiety [52]. ...
Article
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The functional properties of β-glucans derived from oats and barley are confirmed by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. This study aimed to assess the effect of adding 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% oat (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucans to physicochemical properties, as well as the cooking and sensory qualities of durum wheat pasta. Additionally, to improve the cooking and sensory qualities of pasta, we added 5% of xanthan gum and vital gluten. The present study showed that the addition of β-glucans led to an increase of the water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), and viscosity of products. At the same time, an increase in the content of fat, ash, and dietary fiber was observed. The addition of (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucans influenced the cooking quality of the pasta, extending the minimum cooking time and increasing the loss of dry matter. At the same time, the color of the product changed. In the case of cooked pasta, the addition of β-glucans decreased the brightness and increased the yellowness and redness. It was found that the products enriched with 10-15% of β-glucans, as well as 5% of xanthan gum and vital gluten would yield functional pasta that may offer health benefits beyond its nutritional value. Further, this could influence high cooking and sensory quality.
... The test parameters were set as test speed = 0.2 mm/s, post test speed = 10 mm/s, and distance of 5 mm. Tension test setting was according to [27]. The A/SPR spaghetti/noodle rig (Settings: Pre-test speed, 3 mm/s; test speed, 3 mm/s; initial distance, 10 mm; Final Distance 120 mm) was used in the test. ...
... The same authors reported no significant change in breaking force when incorporating 5-15% shiitake mushroom powder to durum wheat to produce pasta. Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, and Brennan [27] found that breaking force was decreased when durum wheat was substituted with 15 g/100 g dietary fibre (inulin, psyllium and oat material). Table 4. ...
... The firmness of RCJ1 is the lowest of all tested samples, possibly because of more water swelling (see Table 3 swelling index) by the starch granules, which in turn created a softer texture. Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, and Brennan [27] found that incorporating short-chain inulin leads to a dramatic decrease in pasta firmness and increased water absorption. Gull, Prasad, and Kumar [15] reported a significantly lower firmness than control when 2-10% carrot pomace was added to the pasta formula. ...
Article
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Vegetable pasta is a premium product, and its consumption may deliver health benefits by increasing vegetable intake. This study investigated the replacement of semolina with juice, puree, and pomace of spinach and red cabbage. The effect of replacement on chemical composition, cooking performance (cooking loss, swelling index, water absorption), texture quality (elasticity, firmness), and colour was evaluated. The cooking loss of pasta made with spinach juice and spinach puree at 1 g/100 g substitution was the same as the control, while all other samples had a higher cooking loss. Spinach pasta had a higher breaking force but lower breaking distance in the tensile test than the control, while red cabbage pasta had a lower breaking force and breaking distance. Spinach juice fortified pasta was firmer than the control. Red cabbage juice pasta was less firm than other forms of fortified pasta at 1 g/100 g substitution level. Spinach and red cabbage juice are better colorants than puree or pomace as they change the colour of the pasta more dramatically at the same substitution level. Cooking performance and texture quality of spinach juice pasta were better than other samples, which indicates a premium pasta product for the food industry.
... Firmness of the pasta is a true reflection of the bond strength and the integrity of the protein matrix present in the cooked pasta and also a good indicator of guaranteed acceptance of product by the consumer [9,20]. Firmness is related to the physical competition between protein coagulation in a continuous network and swelling of starch granules with cooking loss during pasta cooking [21]. Similar to results in the present study, Lu et al. [22] also reported that substitution of semolina with mushroom powder significantly increased the firmness of pasta and the highest firmness was recorded at 5 g 100 g −1 substitution level and further substitution at higher level results in reduced firmness of pasta. ...
... Interaction of fish proteins with gluten proteins in the pasta network resulted in the formation of firmer structure in the pasta. They also reported that pasta samples with high cooking loss also exhibited high firmness values while high moisture content and swelling power resulted in pasta with low firmness values [21]. The increase in the pasta firmness could also be attributed due to resistance of particles during cooking or due to increase in protein content which induced strong protein matrix inside pasta [27,28]. ...
Article
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Suitability of protein isolates recovered from pangas processing waste was explored for supplementing pasta and influence of supplementation was evaluated on the protein digestibility, textural, morphological and sensory characteristics. Results showed that addition of pangas protein isolates (PPI) significantly (p < 0.05) improves the protein digestibility of pasta from 68.45 to 78.80 g 100 g −1. Protein pasta supplemented with 5.0 g 100 g −1 PPI exhibited highest firmness and toughness values. The microstructure obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a compact, homogeneous and dense network of starch and protein in control pasta whereas non-uniform network of starch and protein was observed in supplemented pasta because of the presence of non-gluten protein in PPI. The PPI incorporation resulted in higher onset (100.74 °C to 117.97 °C), peak (109.34°C to 122.91 °C) and conclusion (115.06°C to 130.64 °C) temperature but, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the enthalpy of gelatinization (2.75 to 2.41 J g −1). A non-significant (p > 0.05) change in the sensory attributes of PPI supplemented pasta was observed. However, intensity of fish flavour increased in the pasta from 1.5 to 4.4 with increased PPI levels. Among different level tested, pasta supplemented with 5.0 g 100 g −1 isolates gave better sensory scores and low fish flavour intensity in pasta.
... Boiling water was added at 70% (w/v) and mixed for 20 min based on previous research [12]. Semolina pasta as a control was prepared by adding 30% water at 41 • C [18]. Pasta dough was then extruded through the spaghetti die 2.25 mm diameter. ...
... Cooked pasta (5 g) were cut with a knife to obtain a 2-5 mm size. The reducing sugars released over 120 min were evaluated for each pasta type as described by Foschia et al. [18]. ...
Article
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The effects of egg white protein and soy protein isolate addition on the nutritional and digestibility of gluten-free pasta based on banana flour were studied. The level of protein additions (soy protein or egg white protein) were 0, 5, 10 and 15% of banana flour (w/w). Pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina was used as a control. Soy protein isolate inclusion into banana pasta increased total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacities, while egg white protein decreased the TPC and antioxidant capacities with the increasing level of addition. Starch digestibility was affected by the type of protein addition. Egg white protein lowered starch digestibility compared to soy protein isolate. Protein inclusion in banana pasta also altered protein digestibility, amino acid profiles and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Soy protein isolate increased protein digestibility of gluten-free pasta compared to egg white protein. Protein enrichment gave better amino acid profiles of banana pasta compared to semolina pasta with egg white protein and performed a better PDCAAS compared to soy protein isolate. These results showed that soy protein isolate and egg white protein addition enhanced nutritional qualities and digestibility properties of gluten-free banana pasta.
... According to Tiga et al. [43], as the quinoa content increases, the gelatinization decreases, and the parameters of temperature, screw speed, and low moisture content in the extrusion process can alter the starch granule and fragment it; as a consequence, there is no interaction with the protein. These results relate to the cooking losses that are presented in Table 4, where it is also observed that F1, F2, and F3 presented the highest values of cooking loss, high swelling, and water absorption index of the pasta; similarly, Foschia et al. [44] published that the higher moisture content and swelling index indicate a lower firmness value of pasta-like products, according to that reported in this research. Similar results in color and maximum rupture strength were reported by Lorusso et al. [45] in pasta substituted partially with fermented quinoa. ...
... In gluten-free pasta, like F1, F2, and F3, the starch polymers are less encapsulated in the matrix due to the lack of a gluten network, thus hindering excessive swelling of the starch granules and, consequently, dispersion of components in the cooking water. The highest value of leaching of solids is seen in F3 (7.98 g/100 g); however, pasta presenting cooking loss < 8 g/100 g is of acceptable quality, according to Foschia et al. [44]. Similar values were reported by Larrosa et al. [46]. ...
Article
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Quinoa is a promising raw material for the production of foods with high nutritional quality. This study used quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), egg white, and yucca starch to obtain an extruded pasta. By means of a proximate analysis, the nutritional content of the raw materials, uncooked and cooked pasta, was evaluated. The effects of quinoa flour on the protein composition, physical properties (color, texture, loss through cooking, water absorption, and swelling indices), moisture, DSC, and SEM were evaluated through its comparison with a commercial pasta (control) formulated with quinoa (PCQ). The values obtained during the study were subjected to a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the interaction between the factors and the variables by using a statistical program. Incorporation of quinoa flour in the formulations (F1, F2, and F3) increased notoriously the protein content (p<0.05) and decreased the carbohydrate content, and no significant differences were observed for lipids and ash. The energy value increased due to the essential amino acids present in quinoa. The values obtained for L∗, a∗, and b∗ increased with the increase in quinoa flour, and significant differences for b∗ (p<0.05) were attributed to the characteristic color of quinoa, drying time, and moisture content. The lack of molecular interaction between starch and protein due to the conditions used in the extrusion process influenced the decrease in rupture strength, increase in the water absorption and swelling indices, and losses due to cooking (8 g/100 g) within an acceptable range. Consequently, affected by the enthalpy of fusion, the starch granules of the quinoa flour did not gelatinize, as observed in the SEM micrographs. The results obtained and the parameters used in the extrusion process influenced the characteristics of the pasta, indicating that quinoa flour is a promising raw material for obtaining gluten-free products.
... 11 Although different dietary fibres have been used in numerous studies, use of different dietary fibres as combinations was only investigated in products such as extruded breakfast products 12 and psyllium, oat flour and inulin in pasta. 13,14 Oat (Avena sativa) is a very common cereal having positive health effects on serum cholesterol such as attenuation of blood glucose with its soluble fibre β-glucan. Oat flour and/or fibre has been used in numerous studies as a dietary fibre source for cakes or muffins. ...
... 5 Although some recent studies evaluated the effects of individual uses of different types of fibres in muffins, 15,16,38,39 the studies on the combined soluble and insoluble fibre usage is limited, the only in rice flour cakes; 24 extruded breakfast products 12 and pasta. 13,14 Therefore, this study aims to fill in the gap in literature by evaluating either individual or combined usage of different uncommon such as date seed flour, quinoa flour and oat bran flours with dietary fibre in muffins by emphasizing the changes in their quality. ...
Article
Muffins are desirable bakery products both for their sensorial properties and for ease to be baked with numerous ingredients. Flours of date seed (D), oat bran (O) and quinoa (Q) with different insoluble dietary fibre contents were used in this study, as substitutions to wheat flour either individually (10%, w/w) or as combinations (5% each, w/w) in muffin samples. Suggested combined usage of ingredients aimed to increase the dietary fibre content of muffins while pertaining their overall quality attributes. Total moisture, ash and protein, dietary fibre, weight loss %, volume, specific volume, weight, colour and textural parameters were tested. Results revealed that, quinoa and oat bran flour substituted samples (QO) had the highest cake volume (84.5 ml) and specific volume (2.63 ml/g). Date seed and quinoa flour substitution (DQ) was the best combination with the closest hardness values to control (muffins with 100% wheat flour) samples (0.6 N), rather than an increase. Springiness (2.40 N) and cohesiveness (0.81 mm) were also close to that of control. Samples having date seed flour and quinoa (DQ) and date seed flour and oat bran flour (DO), had also the highest fibre contents, respectively. Thus, combining different fibrous ingredients instead of using them individually efficiently prevented the muffin quality loss. The best combination achieved was the date seed flour with quinoa flour (DQ) giving promising results to achieve healthier muffin production.
... Notably, different cooking methods affected the nutritional content, pH, and water-holding capacity of the dietary fiber-supplemented meat products due to their differences in heat and mass transfer processes (Singh et al. 2015b;Yadav et al. 2016;Pathera et al. 2017). Foschia et al. (2015) studied the use of dietary fibers (short-chain inulin, long-chain inulin, psyllium) and oat bran in improving the nutritional quality of pasta made with durum wheat semolina. The new pasta products showed acceptable textural properties, optimal cooking time, swelling, and water absorption capacity. ...
... The new pasta products showed acceptable textural properties, optimal cooking time, swelling, and water absorption capacity. In contrast, an adverse effect on the integrity of the protein-starch network was observed when dietary fibers were mixed with psyllium fiber to substitute for durum wheat semolina (Foschia et al. 2015). This observation is similar to the findings of Juszczak et al. (2012) that the quality of pasta is dependent on the manufacturing conditions, type, and amount of dietary fibers included (Juszczak et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
Being the most widely cultivated and consumed plant food, cereals have been known to humans since ancient times. The rich nutritional profile of cereals, namely, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates; together with the abundance of certain secondary metabolites makes cereals an excellent source of high value nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. This chapter describes the types, characteristics, and food/health applications of the major nutritional and bioactive molecules from cereals.
... This finding is significant since it is a metric used to assess cooking quality from a consumer and industry perspective [46]. The swelling index measures the amount of water absorbed by cooked macaroni, owing to starch gelatinization and protein hydration [47]. The swelling index did not significantly differ (p ≤ 0.05) amongst all macaroni formulations, indicating that the substances utilised in bead preparation did not interact with macaroni starch [48]. ...
... This might be owing to the absence of a continuous gluten network along with the alginate presence, resulting in increased starch hydration and an increase in the macaroni weight. The addition of EB and FAP to macaroni may affect its structure by making the gluten network weaker, which is important for retaining amylose throughout the cooking process [47]. Because FAP may have been attached to the inner or outer part of the produced microspheres throughout encapsulation, FAP bound to the beads' outer shells and impacted the gluten network. ...
Article
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Azolla might be considered an alternative and promising dietary ingredient for antioxidants. There have not been any reports on the incorporation of free Azolla fern powder (FAP) or its microcapsules in foods, especially fresh pasta, yet. Microencapsulation was used to mask the undesirable taste and odour of Azolla, as well as to preserve its antioxidant potential. The current study concentrated on two major goals. The first goal was to use alginate as a wall material for FAP encapsulation, as well as to characterise the FAP microcapsule for its encapsulation efficiency, solubility, and thermal stability. The second goal was to assess the impact of integrating FAP or its microcapsules into fresh macaroni on its colour parameters, cooking quality, texture properties, and sensory characteristics. The microspheres had a high encapsulation efficiency (88.19%) and a low water solubility (85.23 g/kg), making them suitable for use in foods that require cooking in water. When compared to free Azolla powder, encapsulation reduced the antioxidant activity loss rate by 67.73%. All the cooking and textural properties of fresh macaroni were not significantly affected, except for water absorption and weight gain, but the overall acceptability index (85.13%) was not affected by microcapsule incorporation.
... Higher dietary fiber content is usually associated with higher water content due to the tendency of dietary fiber to absorb and retain water (Wang, Rosell and de Barber, 2002). This result was in accordance to those obtained by Bashir et al. (2012) and Foschia et al. (2015) in which addition of chickpea flour and dietary fiber increased the moisture content of pasta. Both CP and CM pasta also had significantly higher (p<0.05) ...
... Gluten is the type of protein responsible for the elasticity of products which contain wheat flour, including pasta, and it mainly affects the water absorption, swelling index, optimum cooking time, cooking loss, texture, appearance, and taste of pasta in general. Inclusion of dietary fiber in the form of chickpea flour and moringa leaves would affect the integrity of protein-starch network, resulting in lower values of springiness especially after cooking (Foschia et al., 2015). This also might be the reason why, albeit insignificant, control pasta had the highest chewiness index value after cooking. ...
... Bran is the main by-product of cereal milling and is a great source of phenolic compounds and minerals. Despite its functionality, its use in pasta-making is challenging, since it has adverse effects on the quality of the final products, such as an increase of cooking loss, swelling index, and water absorption in pasta [85]. Recently, bran aqueous extract was used in the production of spaghetti [47]. ...
Article
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Consumption of food products rich in phenolic compounds has been associated to reduced risk of chronic disease onset. Daily consumed cereal-based products, such as bread and pasta, are not carriers of phenolic compounds, since they are produced with refined flour or semolina. Novel formulations of pasta have been thus proposed, in order to obtain functional products contributing to the increase in phenolic compound dietary intake. This paper aims to review the strategies used so far to formulate functional pasta, both gluten-containing and gluten-free, and compare their effect on phenolic compound content, and bioaccessibility and bioavailability thereof. It emerged that whole grain, legume and composite flours are the main substituents of durum wheat semolina in the formulation of functional pasta. Plant by-products from industrial food wastes have been also used as functional ingredients. In addition, pre-processing technologies on raw materials such as sprouting, or the modulation of extrusion/extrusion-cooking conditions, are valuable approaches to increase phenolic content in pasta. Few studies on phenolic compound bioaccessibility and bioavailability in pasta have been performed so far; however, they contribute to evaluating the usefulness of strategies used in the formulation of functional pasta.
... The Sustainability,Agri,Food and Environmental Research,, X(X), 202X http://dx.doi.org/10.7770/safer-V0N0-art2303 10 detailed results are shown in Figure 4. The relative differences in water absorption were not significantly different among all the treatment groups which can be attributed to the water absorbing properties of MLP probably due to fibre content (Foschia, 2015). ...
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Malnutrition is an escalating severe problem worldwide and impacting the majority of the Indian population. Under the Corona pandemic, it is all the more getting difficult to fulfil the nutritional requirements with limited types of stored foods as compared to a variety of freshly available food. In such a scenario incorporating the immune-boosting nutritional ingredients in a commonly consumed food may be proven as a smart and nutritional approach to fighting with the on-going COVID-19 infection. Hence, as an alternative to fresh food, the use of fortified high-nutrient ingredients can be an expressive approach e.g. inclusion of fortified pasta in meals. The fortification of pasta with Moringa oleifera leaves powder can be one of the cost-effective approaches and, a best immunity booster supplement for enhancing the nutritional value of pasta-based products and that can be stored for several months. The Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing underutilized tree with a high nutritional potential of India and its leaves are rich sources of bioactive components, vitamin A, C, and Iron content etc. In the current study, the preparation of pasta fortified with varying quantity of Moringa oleifera leaves powder was attempted, followed by cooking quality analysis (viz., cooking time & cooking weight, cooking loss and water absorption) and sensory attributes evaluation based on 9 points hedonic scale (including the color, taste, texture, flavor and overall acceptability). The results from the qualitative as well as quantitative analysis suggest that the fortification of pasta with Moringa oleifera differentially modifies the sensory characteristics of the pasta in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that the supplement of fortified pasta with Moringa oleifera could act as a natural immune booster and has the potential to reduce the chances of COVID-19 infection in the Indian population.
... A reduction greater than 50% was achieved, in accordance with the results obtained for oat bran (Foschia et al. 2015b). This incorporation resulted in darker pastas and increased both cooking time and cooking loss, but decreased the breaking strength, besides improving the absorption of water during cooking (Foschia et al. 2015a). These changes were related to some psyllium properties such as its dark color, and greater water absorption capacity, but also to the lower content of gluten in pastas. ...
Article
Psyllium gum is a hydrocolloid found in the husk of seeds from Plantago ovata. Psyllium husk has been used in traditional medicine in areas of India and China. Its consumption has been shown to provide nutritional benefits, such as the capacity to reduce the glycaemic index, to minimize the risk of cardiovascular diseases, to decrease cholesterol and constipation problems and others. Thus, interest in the incorporation of psyllium in food products is twofold. First, it can be a natural alternative to the use of other gums and hydrocolloids considered additives. Second, it can be used to improve the nutritional properties of products in which it is incorporated. However, for this purpose, it is necessary to add great quantities of psyllium. This review analyses the potential use of psyllium in distinct food products, considering its advantages and inconveniences as well as possible solutions for undesired effects. Among the analyzed products there are bakery products and, in particular, gluten-free breads where psyllium has been used as a gluten substitute. The incorporation of psyllium into dairy products such as yogurts and those derived from fruits, among others, is also addressed.
... The cooking quality of pasta in terms of optimal cooking time, cooking loss, swelling index, and water absorption index was determined using the methods of Foschia et al. (2015a). Ten g of each pasta sample was broken into ~5 cm length and cooked in 100 mL boiling distilled water for its optimal cooking time. ...
Article
Wheat bran was treated with a cellulase preparation and used in the production of high fiber pasta by the partial substitution of durum semolina. The nutritional, textural, and cooking quality of bran-incorporated pasta was measured. In addition, the potentials of vital gluten addition and/or transglutaminase treatment in improving the quality of bran-incorporated pasta were investigated. The use of cellulase-treated wheat bran resulted in a higher soluble fiber content, a more balanced insoluble to soluble fiber ratio, and a lower predicted glycemic index of pasta compared to that of untreated bran. The addition of vital gluten or treatment with transglutaminase improved the cooking performance, textural properties, and overall acceptability of pasta. In particular, the combination of vital gluten addition and transglutaminase treatment was more effective in improving the quality of pasta with cellulase-treated wheat bran.
... Pasta with 10% BSGT replacement received the lowest scores in terms of both stickiness and firmness. It should be taken into account that the detrimental or positive effects of fiber addition to semolina depend also on the source of the fiber itself, as previously observed [45][46][47]. In particular, it could be inferred that the addition of einkorn spent grain affected to a minor extent the global quality of enriched pasta, likely due to higher protein content and lower β-glucan content than are found in tritordeum spent grains. ...
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Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to produce four macaroni pasta formulations enriched with BSG at ratios of 5 g and 10 g/100 g of semolina. Einkorn BSG showed the highest values for all the parameters analyzed—proteins, total dietary fiber (TDF) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)—except for β-glucan. TDF increased up to 42 and 68% in pasta samples enriched with 10% of BSG from tritordeum and einkorn, respectively. The replacement of 10% of semolina with BSG from both cereals significantly increased the β-glucan content and TAC values. Finally, the addition of BSG from einkorn and tritordeum affected to a minimal extent the sensory properties of cooked pasta, which showed higher values of optimal cooking time and cooking loss, but lower total organic matter compared to semolina pasta. Results from the sensorial judgment fell in the good quality ranges for durum wheat pasta; the incorporation of 10% of einkorn BSG resulted in the best compromise in terms of technological, nutritional and sensorial aspects of enriched pasta.
... The proximate composition of Grass carp: protein 19, fat 2.2, moisture 77 and ash 0.9%, while its annual production was~6 MT during 2016(FAO, 2018. Thus, incorporation of fish meat in snack, especially in noodles (traditionally made from wheat and rice flour), has potential in order to move towards a healthy nutrition (Foschia et al., 2015). ...
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The present study reports the rheological, textural, structural and water distribution properties of fish meat noodles. The results showed that storage and loss modulus were increased when 20% fish meat was added while decreased with the addition of >20% fish meat, whereas loss rate behaved vice versa. The moisture and fat content increased significantly (P<0.05) while water absorption index was decreased upon the increment of fish meat compared to control. Lightness of dough and hardness of noodles decreased significantly (P<0.05) while redness and yellowness were increased. Similarly, less swelled starch granules and dominancy of protein network over starch granules were observed in microstructure. The amount of free water was increased while bound water was decreased when >20% fish meat was added during Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The findings suggest the feasibility of adding 15‐20% fish meat for the proper structure and chemistry of noodles.
... They relate this behaviour to the competitive hydration tendencies of the fibres, weakening the gluten network, which is responsible for retaining the solids during cooking (Tudoric� a, Kuri, & Brennan, 2002). In fact, Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, and Brennan (2015) found more than 10 g/100 g cooking loss in semolina pasta with Psyllium husk. In the present study, due to the absence of gluten, the pasta network was mainly formed by gelatinized starch. ...
Article
Gluten-free pasta is a technological challenge. The effect of Psyllium particle size, processing temperature and gel concentration on the quality of rice-based pasta was investigated. The rheological properties, i.e. maturation kinetics and mechanical spectra, of the Psyllium gels were studied and optimal conditions were set: 160–315 μm particle size, 4 g/100 g Psyllium husk concentration thermally processed at 40 °C. Cooking quality parameters, texture properties, nutritional composition, antioxidants and digestibility of pasta were determined. Consequently, the use of Psyllium husk in gluten-free pasta showed good overall properties. Moreover, the pre-gelatinization step of rice flour can be eliminated, resulting in a final gluten-free pasta formulation with Psyllium gel and rice flour (50/50) with high digestibility.
... Tension test was conducted with an A/SPR spaghetti/noodle rig probe (settings: pre-test speed: 3 mm/s; test speed: 3 mm/s; post test speed:5 mm/s; initial distance: 10 mm and final distance: 100 mm) to determine the tension resistance of the cooked spaghetti samples, according to the method of Foscia et al. [18]. The results, stated as the maximum breaking strength, were evaluated by averaging the nine measurements from three different cooking replications. ...
... A possible explanation for this might be that starch and protein contents in the stem were lower than that in cap and whole mushroom (Table 1). It has been reported that the increase of CL in pasta or noodles might the result of the weakening of the gluten network (Foschia, Peressini, Sensidoni, Brennan, & Brennan, 2015a). ...
Article
A high glycaemic index diet causes a rapid increase in blood sugar level and may lead to chronic metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Shiitake is rich in bioactive compounds. Wheat flour noodles were enriched with shiitake (Lentinus edodes) powder (cap, stem, whole) at different levels to investigate the effects of shiitake addition on the nutritional composition, physical and textural properties. In vitro digestion was conducted to determine the glycaemic glucose equivalents and bioaccessibility of antioxidants in digesta. The addition of 15% shiitake stem powder in the noodles resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in reducing sugars released after in vitro digestion. Digesta also exhibited cellular antioxidant ability on IEC-6 cells after H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results show the potential beneficial use of shiitake, especially the stem, as a high-value ingredient to improve the nutritional profile and reduce the glycaemic index of foods.
... However, the cooking loss in all samples, except for GCPC 30%, was within the acceptable range claimed by Smatanova and Lacko-Bartosova (2014), that is, less than 8%. Swelling index is defined by Foschia et al. (2015) as the degree of water absorbed due to protein hydration and starch gelatinization in cooked pasta. For the same possible reason of CL observation in the present study, the swelling index and water absorption index showed an inverse relation with the level of GCPC supplemented in the noodle samples (Table 4). ...
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of wheat flour noodles supplemented with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% grass carp protein concentrate (GCPC). Proximate composition, color analyses, cooking properties (cooking time, cooking loss, swelling index and water absorption index), texture profile analyses (TPA), and sensory evaluations were performed. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in the crude protein (18.94-35.19%), crude fat (0.88-1.06%), and ash (0.89-1.02%) were recorded for GCPC supplemented cooked noodles. Brightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of GCPC 10-30% fortified cooked noodles was recorded as 77.00-69.97, 1.50-2.81 and 19.08-22.25, respectively. Cooking loss (CL) and optimal cooking time were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased with increased level of GCPC from 0%-30%, with readings of 6.13% −8.90% and 7.53-11.77 min, respectively. Swelling and water absorption indices showed a decreasing trend at 2.33-1.77 and 102.6-78.49%, respectively. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreasing trend in hardness (24.50-19.03N) was observed for cooked noodles with increased level of GCPC, while the remaining TPA parameters were significantly different at p> .05. Sensory analyses showed higher preference for control noodles and noodles fortified with 10% GCPC.
... The moisture content in noodles supplemented with 10% of mushroom powder shows lower enrichment than the control. According to Foschia et al. [94], the reduction of water is due to the competing of fibre in powdered mushrooms with starch during noodle formation, causing the reduction of starch swelling and water absorption. Besides, the fibre content in noodles with 10% additional powdered mushroom shows significant difference with the control which suggests lower moisture content in noodles. ...
... However, two-way-ANOVA revealed that stickiness is affected by both, the type (P<0.001) and the inclusion level (P<0.001) of BSG-derived ingredients used. The presence of fibre increases the absorption of free water and elevates the degree of interaction with free amylose (Foschia et al., 2015) decreasing pasta stickiness. Furthermore, the stronger and more robust gluten network interacts with starch and prevents the leaching of amylose during cooking, which results in less amylopectin on the pasta surface and, thus, a lower stickiness (Bustos et al., 2015). ...
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Brewer's Spent Grain (BSG), rich in fibre and protein is mostly used for animal feed but has great potential to be used as an ingredient for cereal based products. Originated from BSG, the two ingredients EverVita Fibra (EVF) high in fibre; and EverVita Pro (EVP) high in protein, were used to produce fibre-enriched pasta and compared to semolina, wholemeal flour and a commercial fibre-rich pasta. Analysis of gluten network development and pasting properties revealed the formation of a stronger network by the incorporation of EVP resulting in a compact pasta structure which led to a higher pasta firmness and tensile strength and a decrease in predicted glycaemic index compared to the controls. EVF resulted in an inferior product compared to EVP but was comparable to the semolina control. Hence, EVF and EVP have the potential to increase nutritional value of pasta while maintaining or even improving pasta quality and encouraging the recycling of by-streams for food production.
... Therefore, producing a low GI (Hager et al., 2013), due to their compact structure; however, with fiber addition, they can provide a further GI reduction, as verified by Chillo et al. (2011), in durum wheat pastas with addition of up to 10% β-glucan. Therefore, pastas can be healthier when added with wheat bran (Sobota et al., 2015) and other fiber sources, such as oat bran, psyllium, inuline (Foschia et al., 2015), and resistant starch (Aravind, Sissons, Fellows, Blazek, & Gilbert, 2013). ...
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Whole wheat pasta is rich in fiber and antioxidants, but presents dark color and altered cooking characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of yellow (YNC) and pink (PNC) natural concentrates in fresh whole wheat pasta, on its fiber content, and technological, and antioxidant properties. Control pasta (CP) was prepared (70:30 w:w whole grain wheat (WGF): refined wheat flour (RWF)). YNC and PNC were applied (1 to 2 g/100 g) in pastas containing 60 to 70 g/100 g of WGF, following a 22 experimental design, with three central points. YNC and PNC modified whole wheat pastas color, without altering their technological characteristics. Yellow pasta (YP1, 60:40 WGF:RWF w:w, 1 g YNC/100 g) and pink pasta (PP9, 70:30 WGF:RWF w:w, 1 g PNC/100 g) presented similar texture, weight gain and cooking loss to CP, and they were selected for antioxidants analysis. The three pastas had high fiber content (above 6 g/100 g), and PNC caused a significant increase in total phenolics content in raw and cooked whole wheat pasta. The natural-colored concentrates are an alternative for modifying the color of whole wheat pasta while adding functional value to it
... The EWB40 and EWB50 samples showed a marginally higher thickness than samples having a same amount of untreated bran. This might be due to the reduced IDF content, since the IDF was demonstrated to adversely affect the development of gluten network (Foschia et al., 2015). ...
Article
A commercial cellulase preparation (Viscozyme Cassava C) was employed to process wheat bran to improve the ratio of insoluble to soluble dietary fibre. The effects of initial moisture content, enzyme dosage, and incubation time on the content of soluble and insoluble fibre during the enzymatic treatment were investigated. The appropriate conditions for the cellulase treatment were initial moisture content of 0.75 g water/g dry matter, enzyme dosage of 9 U/g dry matter, and incubation time of 120 min under which the ratio of insoluble to soluble fibre of wheat bran was lowered by 42%. Untreated and cellulase‐treated wheat bran were incorporated into cookies at levels of 0, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Cookie with 50% cellulase‐treated bran showed 21% lower ratio of insoluble to soluble fibre as well as 14% lower hardness and 13% higher overall acceptability than sample with the same amount of untreated bran.
... The improvement in hardness of cookies with 50% cellulase-treated DRB could be attributed to the significant decrease in TDF content. Dietary fibers may exert disruptive effects on the formation of gluten network due to the physical disruption and competitive hydration [36], leading to a weakened protein network and in turn a softened texture of cookies. In addition, the biochemical conversion of IDF into SDF may improve the aggregation of gluten molecules due to the lowered piercing effect of dietary fibers [37], resulting in a gluten matrix with reduced physical damage. ...
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Deoiled rice bran is source of dietary fiber derived from the oil extraction process of rice bran. This material has a low soluble dietary fiber content, which needs to be improved from the nutritional perspective. In this work, a cellulase preparation was used to treat deoiled rice bran for the reduction in content of insoluble fiber and increase in that of soluble fiber. The effects of technological parameters on the insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber content of deoiled rice bran were evaluated, including cellulase dosage and incubation time. The determined treatment conditions under which a lowered insoluble fiber content and an improved soluble fiber content could be achieved were cellulase dosage of 6 U/g dry weight and incubation time of 2 h. The untreated and cellulase-treated deoiled rice bran were incorporated into cookies at different levels (0, 20, 30, 40, and 50%, on the basis of composite flour) to formulate cookies with increased fiber content. Cookies incorporated with cellulase-treated deoiled rice bran showed a lower insoluble fiber content, coupled with a higher soluble fiber content compared to products containing untreated bran. The addition of both types of deoiled rice bran increased the spread factor and decreased the hardness of cookies. However, cookies with 50% cellulase-treated deoiled rice bran particularly showed a higher hardness than cookies having untreated bran at the same level. Deoiled rice bran processed with cellulase preparation could be considered as good source of dietary fiber for making cookies with improved soluble fiber content.
... This could explain the higher stretching forces observed for GL-enriched pasta compared to the control sample. Other authors also observed a similar relationship between the WI index and the stretching forces of pasta during a uniaxial extension test [36]. ...
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Food enrichment is commonly applied to increase the pro-health and dietary value of final products. This study aimed to evaluate how green leek powder (GL) added to semolina influenced the physicochemical, sensory, and cooking characteristics of the pasta. The pasta was prepared by partially substituting semolina with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g/100 g of GL. Then, the pasta samples were assessed for color, cooking properties, sensory features, mechanical properties, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA). The results indicated that GL significantly decreased the lightness and increased the yellowness of cooked pasta. The total color difference between the control pasta and enriched pasta samples ranged from 2.54 to 6.89 and 5.60 to 11.06 (for uncooked and cooked pasta, respectively). The addition of GL also caused an increase in the optimal cooking time and cooking loss. Moreover, a significant increase in stretching force was observed in cooked pasta. Sensory evaluation revealed that substitution of semolina with up to 2 g/100 g GL did not affect the smell, taste, and color of pasta. Most importantly, GL-enriched pasta was characterized by higher TPC and higher AA compared to the control samples. In summary, our results recommend partial replacement of semolina by GL (up to 3 g/100 g) in pasta production.
... plant powder showed an insignificantly lower SI [3.17-2.81 g water (g dry pasta) -1 , respectively] compared to the control variant [3.23 g water (g dry pasta) -1 ]. Foschia et al. (2015) explained this by the competition of starch with (Tudorică et al. 2002;Krishnan et al. 2012). Concerning the WAI, Table 1 shows that the substitution of plant powders for wheat flour caused a significant decrease in the WAI, especially in BPPp. ...
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Pasta is very popular among different groups of the population, being a healthy and cheap product. Therefore, pasta is a promising object for its enrichment with functional ingredients. The paper examined the possibility and feasibility of using red bell pepper powder (BPP) and parsley leaf powder (PLP) in order to enhance the pasta biological value. Recipes of spaghetti pasta production with the addition of red BPP and PLP were developed. The effect of powders from red bell pepper and parsley leaf incorporation on the physicochemical and culinary properties of pasta was studied. The enrichment of pasta induced a decrease in optimal cooking time, swelling index (SI) and water absorption index (WAI). The addition of plant powders decreased the lightness of pasta significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control sample. On the other hand, the addition of vegetable powders has a positive influence on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of pasta. In enriched pasta, the polyphenol content has doubled (pasta with 10.0% BPP) or even tripled (pasta with 10.0% PLP). The received scores from the sensory evaluation showed that pasta fortified with PLP and red BPP can be a technological alternative to provide nutritionally enriched pasta.
... Moreover, Singh et al. [67] reported that protein isolates from pangas decreased the firmness and toughness of pasta when the concentration of this additive did not exceed 7.5%. These indices of pasta texture are very important parameters for pasta quality assessment and are related to the strength of the protein network and swelling of starch granules [70]. Notably, protein isolates from pangas showed no significant influence on pasta appearance, colour, and palatability and had a less negative influence on pasta flavour. ...
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Wheat pasta is one of the most important cereal products and is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, simple formulation, long shelf life, and high energetic value. Wheat pasta is usually obtained from refined flour rich in carbohydrates but with low content of phytochemicals, micronutrients, and fibre. The increased demand of consumers for healthy foods has generated interest among both researchers and food producers in developing functional food products. This review showcases the current trends in pasta fortification. Changes in the nutritional value, cooking quality, sensory attributes, and antioxidant properties of durum and common wheat pasta enriched with both plant and animal raw materials are discussed.
... Pasta is one of the most important foods, traditionally made from durum wheat semolina and water (Marti & Pagani, 2013). Nowadays, it is even more popular thanks to its nutritional profile and research aimed at increasing its nutritional content by adding vegetable and/or animal flours (Bustos et al., 2013;Foschia et al., 2015). Monteiro et al. (2016) andParvathy et al. (2017) increased the protein content by adding tilapia flour. ...
Article
Fettuccine‐type pasta was made from wheat semolina mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 % of huitlacoche mushroom powder (HMUP), and the effect on quality, physicochemical, antioxidant capacity, and color properties was studied. Proximate analysis studies on the pasta showed that a higher content of HMUP in the mixture increases lipids, fiber, and ash levels, without affecting protein content. Cooking time in the pasta decreased with increasing HMUP. Quality parameters as cooking loss, cooking weight gained, solubility index, and swelling were influenced by increased HMUP in the pasta. Luminosity (L*) values decreased drastically as HMUP increased. Cooking also influenced color parameters (ΔL* and ΔC*), Antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) and total phenols increased with higher HMUP concentrations in raw and cooked pasta. These results suggest that HMUP could be incorporated into semolina flour to prepare fettuccine‐type pasta, conferring healthy characteristics due to the preservation of antioxidant capacity after cooking.
... Pasta, commonly prepared from wheat flour or semolina flour, is consumed everywhere throughout the world. Pasta is a popular food product because of its' versatility, low cost, ease of preparation and nutritional quality [84] . Due to scarcity of Essential Amino Acids (EAA) like lysine, tryptophan, threonine and methionine [85] , and other essential nutrients like dietary fiber and vitamins in wheat-proteins, enrichment with nutritious raw materials containing EAA-rich-protein and fatty-acid-rich-lipids increases the nutritional quality of pasta in terms of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals contents [86] . ...
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Surimi refers to concentrated myofibrillar protein extracted from fish flesh by washing minced meat, separated from bones, skin, and guts with added cryoprotectant and is kept under frozen storage as block form. With the advancement of food technology, surimi is converted to dry surimi powder to use in dry mixing that could help industries to modify the formulation of surimi-derived products, especially surimi powder fortified value-added products, resulting in more homogenous blends and easier protein standardization, thus improving the nutritional quality and amino acid profile of cereal based snack products like pasta, noodles, biscuits, spaghetti etc. to satisfy the consumer preference of low-carbohydrate, protein and fiber rich ready-to-cook food products, and consumer gets the nutrition from fish; this leads to economic empowerment as well as development of a country aiming at achieving self-confidence and financial independence to fight the social disparities, livelihood insecurities and social barriers.
... This disruption therefore increases the cooking loss. This situation was also reported by Rayas-Duarte et al., 1996and Foschia et al., 2015. Cleary and Brennan (2006 were also explained about this effect where a partial or complete substitution of durum wheat semolina with other non-gluten flour reduced the quality of pasta such as increasing the cooking loss. ...
... The cooking performance is an important factor in a consumer's judgment of pasta quality (Foschia et al., 2015). Table 1 shows that the OCT values varied from 288 s to 661 s for pasta formulation 8 (X 1 = 96.67%, ...
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The aim of the present work was to optimize the formulation of a new functional pasta containing durum wheat semolina, whole barley flour, and inulin ingredients to enhance both the technological and textural properties of this product using the mixture design approach. Optimally formulated pasta with acceptable technological and textural properties as close as possible to those of control pasta was studied. The microstructure analysis of cooked and uncooked pasta was performed. Cox response trace plots revealed that the increasing amounts of whole barley flour and durum wheat semolina resulted in an increase in the cooking quality parameters and yellowness. However, pasta firmness was negatively influenced by inulin and whole barley flour addition. The ingredient composition of the optimally formulated pasta, which leads to the best technological and textural properties, was 94.8% durum wheat semolina, 3.7% whole barley flour, and 1.5% inulin. This optimal formulation had an optimal cooking time of 335.24 s, a swelling index of 2.15%, and a cooking loss of 10.44%. The firmness values and the color parameters were also satisfactory. The microstructure of the optimally formulated cooked pasta showed the presence of few not gelatinized starch granules incorporated into the protein matrix as compared to the control pasta. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Three ingredients, durum wheat semolina, whole barley flour, and inulin, were used for the production of new functional pasta using a mixture design approach. The obtained optimally formulated pasta, with good technological and textural properties, was rich in several dietary fibers. This allows the application of whole barley flour and inulin in the cereal industry and can be of interest to the human diet.
... For instance, the inclusion of non-starch ingredients in fresh pasta formulation affected dry matter, swelling index, protein content and textural attributes (Littardi et al., 2020;Nilusha et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2021). Soluble and insoluble fibre affected water uptake during cooking and weakened pasta structure (Foschia et al., 2015;Krawecka et al., 2020;Makhlouf et al., 2019). The use of legumes flour reduced the optimal cooking time and water uptake, but increased cooking loss and hardness (Teterycz et al., 2020). ...
Article
Given the great innovation in pasta formulations, elucidating factors that will impact pasta behaviour during cooking is essential when alternative ingredients are incorporated. Whole wheat (W), vegetable (V) and gluten free (GF) pastas (from raw to overcooked) were analysed using a multiscale approach and compared with a standard (STD) formulation. Macroscopic (moisture content and hardness), mesoscopic (viscoelastic properties and degree of gelatinization) and molecular (1H NMR relaxometry) properties were evaluated and coupled with discrimination analysis (by means of principal components analysis and partial least square). Results from 2-ways ANOVA indicated that the cooking time (CT) was the main factor influencing the studied properties overlapping the effect of pasta formulation (PF). The application of partial least square analysis was effective in indicating viscoelastic properties and several molecular mobility indicators as typifying features able to describe pasta behaviour during cooking and discriminating GF from their gluten-containing counterparts.
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Egg white protein, and soy protein, were incorporated into a banana and cassava flour blend (75:25) to produce gluten‐free pasta. The objectives of study was to investigate the effects of the different protein sources on the physico‐chemical properties of gluten‐free pasta. The levels of protein inclusion were 0, 5, 10 and 15% of composite flour (w/w) for each type of protein. Pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina was used as controls. The protein fortification affected the total starch, resistant starch and protein content of gluten‐free pasta compared to semolina pasta. No significant effects of soy/egg white protein addition were found in either insoluble or soluble dietary fibre content. Cooking properties of pasta (optimum cooking time, swelling index, water adsorption index, and cooking loss) and texture properties (firmness and extensibility) were affected by the level of protein addition and the type of protein. Results showed the utilisation of 25% cassava flour and protein inclusion have a promising application in gluten‐free pasta production.
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Pasta is a popular food item among consumers all over the world. They have high energy value, low cost and long shelf life. However, the biological value of these products is quite low. Adding components rich in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals to their composition will significantly improve their nutritional value. The purpose of the article is to analyze the possibility of producing pasta with the addition of derivatives from the processing of wild berries Sambucus nigra, Viburnum opulus, Hippophae rhamnoides L., which have a rich nutrient composition and are available raw materials. The technology, developed in the work for processing berries by osmotic dehydration, allows the use of gentle drying modes, which contributes to the maximum preservation of their biological value. Sensory evaluation of pasta was carried out according to the Croatian Official Methods, moisture content of pasta was determined by drying to constant weight. Sensory analysis of pasta showed that the addition of powders does not lead to a deterioration in their quality. Their appearance, taste, smell, shape and elasticity are improved. The quality of the pasta samples, containing 5 % of the powder, was determined as “good” according to the results of the evaluation of the tasting group. And the samples with a powder content of 10 % have a "high" quality. The addition of powders has practically no effect on the drying conditions and moisture content of the finished products. With the addition of Viburnum opulus powders, the moisture content is reduced compared to controls. Humidity of all samples is within the permissible limits, which indicates their resistance to storage
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Maize and orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) composite (100:0, 50:50, 70:30, 80:20) flours were extruded into pasta using a twin-screw extruder. The cooking quality, textural and nutritional properties of the pasta were assessed. An increase in the proportion of OFSP flour added increased the cooking loss but decreased cooking time and water absorption capacity of pasta. The dietary fibre in the OFSP flour caused a loosening of the compact structure of the pasta, disrupting the compact protein-starch matrix of maize, resulting in higher cooking loss and sticky pasta. Extruded pasta had low cooking time due to pre-gelatinized starch, which promotes greater water absorption and heat dissemination during cooking. Extruded pasta samples had lower beta-carotene, probably due to cis-trans isomerization, fragmentation, and oxidative decomposition, but the pasta showed higher antioxidant properties, likely due to Maillard reaction and caramelization products with reducing properties. These results indicate that OFSP can be composited with maize flour and extruded to produce good quality and nutritious gluten-free pasta.
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Rice protein (RP) has attracted interest as a hypoallergenic protein. In this study, RP was used to improve cooking quality, physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice spaghetti (GFRS). GFRS samples were developed by replacing rice flour with rice protein concentrate at 0% (control), 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% (w/w), processed through a single screw extruder. Pasting properties and gel texture of rice flour, protein content, microstructure, cooking quality, texture properties, and sensory attributes of GFRS were determined and compared with GFRS without RP and wheat spaghetti. Substitution of rice flour by 5%–10% RP significantly decreased cooking time and cooking loss. GFRS with 5%–10% RP was more porous than GFRS without RP. Sensory evaluation showed that GFRS containing 2.5% and 5% RP had a high overall linking score which was comparable with wheat spaghetti. Results suggested that RP showed potential to improve the cooking quality and physicochemical properties of GFRS with high acceptability.
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Upcycling and repurposing of side streams from food processing have become a necessity to merge our world into a more sustainable future. Brewers spent grain (BSG) is a highly abundant and nutrient rich by-product of the brewing industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fermentation on BSG (FBSG) while also examining the effects of including fibre rich BSG and FBSG ingredients on techno-functional and nutritional properties of semolina-based pasta. The gluten network formation, starch gelatinisation, texture, cooking loss, optimal cooking time, in vitro starch digestibility and ultrastructure of the pasta was investigated. BSG and FBSG inclusion weakened gluten network properties versus the semolina control but was more favourable than the wholemeal control. Addition of BSG and FBSG produced pasta with a greater nutritional profile, having a higher fibre content and lower predicted glycaemic index compared to semolina pasta. BSG and FBSG addition enhanced tensile strength and pasta firmness versus wholemeal pasta. An increased reduction in the predicted glycaemic index was noted with FBSG inclusion at the higher level of addition compared to BSG, suggesting fermentation of BSG may further enhance nutritional properties of the BSG ingredient.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blanching and spinach drying methods on the physicochemical and cooking properties of enriched pasta. Blanched and unblanched spinach were subjected to fixed bed drying and foam mat drying and used to enrich the pasta. The pasta enriched with blanched spinach showed more desirable physicochemical properties, for both drying methods. The blanching associated with fixed bed drying resulted in a greener enriched pasta with a higher total chlorophyll content (9.66 mg/100 g d.b.). On the other hand, foam mat drying contributed to less degradation of total carotenoids and antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH methods), with values of 798.01 µg of lutein/100 g d.b., 7.14 µM Trolox/g d.b. and 84.81% RSC, respectively. The spinach flours used for enrichment did not significantly affect the technological properties of the pasta. Spinach blanched and dried in a foam mat to obtain flour represents a potential alternative for enriching the pasta, since this processing contributed to the greater preservation of the product's compounds.
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Background and objectives Fusilli pasta enriched with sea bass concentrate (Dicentrarchus labrax) was developed with the aim of increasing its content in proteins and especially in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) like Ω-3. Pasta made from two types of cereals (wheat and spelt) and fish by-product with or without a natural antioxidant were cooking prior to consumption and nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics were evaluated. Findings Enriched developed pasta showed high levels of protein, fat and fibre and the fatty acid profiles confirmed a substantial enrichment in bioactive compounds (Ω-3 fatty acids). The cooking of pasta before consumption was able to reduce bacterial loads guaranteeing food safety and improving nutritional availability. Furthermore, an increase in the MUFA and PUFA content was revealed, which could represent an advantage to offer a better source of functional ingredients (EPA & DHA). Conclusions The combination of heat from cooking with formulations containing antioxidants seems to offer a remarkable synergistic effect to preserve unsaturated fatty acids with desirable nutritional properties. Significance and novelty Pasta enriched with bioactive compounds from fish by-product after cooking treatment before consumption appears to be an effectiveness option to improve healthy human nutrition.
Article
The technological feasibility of incorporation of anthocyanin‐rich black rice bran (BRB) in preparation of functional pasta was examined. Nutritional analysis revealed an overall increase in protein, fat, mineral and crude fibre content upon addition of BRB. BRB addition above the level of 15% resulted in decline of buyer acceptance as reflected in the sensory scores. Optimization based on quality characteristics and sensory acceptance showed that BRB supplemented pasta (15 % BRB) had higher protein (9.99 versus 8.58 g/100 g), fibre (2.79 versus 1.37 g/100 g) and anthocyanin (165.27 versus 0.00 mg/100 g). Incorporation of BRB to the pasta product led to lower water uptake, cooking time, pasta firmness, and stickiness with higher cooking losses. Microstructure and pasting characteristics confirmed the disruption of starch‐protein matrix by addition of BRB and a decline in peak viscosity along with grain swelling ability. The results advocate BRB as a potential component for pasta preparation.
Chapter
Fiber consumption is related to health benefits, and considering this approach, the production of main meals with high fiber content may increase the daily fiber intake and provide income to communities depending on bamboo. This chapter presents the study of fettuccine formulation elaborated with bamboo fibers (BF) (60 μm and 145 μm, respectively BFA and BFB), in comparison with white fibers: Psyllium and cellulose fiber (PCF) (80:20 and 50:50, respectively PCFA and PCFB), wheat stalk fiber (WSF) (60 μm and 145 μm, respectively WSFA and WSFB), and a mixture of Psyllium and BF (PBF). Fettuccine was produced and evaluated by technological characteristics of replacing Triticum durum semolina by 3.5% and 7% of each fiber, totaling 14 trials plus the standard formulation (SF), 100% semolina, and the obtained data were analyzed by analysis of variance (p < 0.05). All formulations showed a lighter color; pasta with BFA and WSFA presented the most comparable parameters to the standard formulation. The results suggest that it is possible to use up to 7% of BF in pasta with no prejudice to color, texture, and flavor. Thus, pasta could be a gateway to introduce its essential raw material as an ingredient in food industries and provide regional economic benefits.
Article
This study evaluates the proximate composition, amylose, resistant starch, pasting properties, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacities, and amino acid profiles of banana flour and cassava flour in comparison to semolina flour. Banana flour and cassava flour have a lower protein content (4.54% and 1.41%) but higher total dietary fiber (16.46% and 10.99%) than semolina flour (12.36% and 7.07%, respectively). The two gluten‐free flours have a lower amylopectin content compared to semolina flour. Banana flour shows high nutritional qualities (resistant starch, TPC, and antioxidant capacities) compared to cassava and semolina flours. The amino acid evaluation shows that banana and cassava flours have a better ratio of total essential amino acid to total amino acid (35.37% and 29.95% vs 23.34%) but have lower limiting essential amino acid values (0.98% and 1.51% vs 11.12%) than semolina flour. Understanding the different physicochemical, functional, and nutritional properties of banana and cassava flours helps to inform the development of gluten‐free cereal products based on these flours. Physicochemical, pasting properties and nutritional qualities of banana flour and cassava flour are investigated alongside semolina flour. The two gluten‐free flours have varied physicochemical, functional, and nutritional property characteristics compared to semolina flour and show great potential to be utilized in the development of gluten‐free cereal products.
Article
Incorporation of bioactive containing fruits and/or vagetables into carbohydrate‐rich food matrix are effective strategies to develop food products with functional health benefits. In this study, blackcurrant powder was added into pea starch, and mung bean starch to form pastes to investigate the effects of blackcurrant powder on physicochemical and nutritional properties of the starch pastes. The predictive in vitro glycaemic response of the pastes was highlighted by in vitro glyceamic glucose equivalent assay and alpha‐amylase inhibitory activity assay. Both assays showed that blackcurrant powder attenuated (p < 0.05) reducing sugar released, through the inhibition of α‐amylase. The colour profiles and textural properties of the pastes were modified by the additions of blackcurrant berry powder at different levels. Nutritional characteristics of the pastes, including total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were significantly changed (p < 0.05) with the addition of blackcurrant powder.
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Pasta is a ready to eat extruded product having higher nutritional properties. It is really suited for daily balance diet because of the higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acid. Mixing, extrusion, drying, cooling and packaging are the major steps used in the production of pasta. Pasta can be produced from different cereals like sorghum, maize, wheat, rice, oats and the addition of these cereals can change the textural, functional, physiochemical properties and microstructure of pasta. The yellow color is the most acceptable range of pasta by customers. Pasta helps to Lower glycaemic index and type 2 diabetics and reduce abdominal obesity. Pasta is a nutritious food helps to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.This review paper provides an updated information about the different cereals used, fortification of pasta with different plant and animal sources, production technologies, effect of thermal treatments, extrusion conditions, microstructure, and colorimetry of pasta.
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Chickpea flour contains large fractions of protein and dietary fiber, which offer benefits for human health. This work studied the characteristics and in vitro starch digestibility of pastas with blends of semolina and chickpea flour. Texture analysis showed that chickpea flour induced significant reductions in hardness and elasticity of cooked pasta. The addition of the chickpea increased protein solubility (150-200%). The accessible thiols showed a marked increase, indicating that the formation of a protein network relied on sulfhydryl crosslinking between proteins and other pasta components. FTIR analysis showed that the above characteristics may be linked to the secondary structure of proteins since chickpea tend to form structures with a high content of β-sheet configurations. The main advantage of using chickpea is in the in vitro digestibility since the effective starch content decreased from 74.67 ± 0.95 g/100 g for semolina pasta to 41.25 ± 1.17 g/100 g for chickpea pasta. The rapidly and slowly digestible starch fractions exhibited notable reductions of up 45%, which was attributed to the formation of complexes and to protective physical barriers of proteins on the starch granule. Non-conventional flours offer certain benefits for pasta formulations, but also certain challenges to stabilizing the pasta structure.
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Wheat durum pasta was added with dietary fiber from green pea, corn or polydextrose at levels of 6, 12 and 18 g/100 g. Texture analysis showed that the dietary fiber produced cooked pasta with increased hardness, reduced elasticity and cohesiveness, the effect was magnified by the level of fiber content. The optimum cooking time decreased with the addition of dietary fiber, while the cooking loss exhibited an increase of 9-11% for dietary fiber contents of 18 g/100 g. The yellowness of pasta was non-significantly affected by dietary fiber contents up to 12 g/100 g. FTIR analysis of the cooked pasta indicated that dietary fiber affected only the secondary structure of proteins, which discarded chemical interactions between the dietary fiber and proteins. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was decreased from about 91.87% for the control pasta to 32.40, 54.05 and 25.98% for the green pea fiber, corn fiber and polydextrose added at an 18 g/100 g level, respectively. A principal component analysis showed that the IVPD was inversely aligned with the dietary fiber content. It was proposed that the dietary fiber limited the IVPD by acting as a physical barrier obstructing the action of proteolytic enzymes.
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The effect of guar gum (0–10%) added to flour (maize, potato, rice, and wheat) prior to extrusion on the microstructure, physical properties (texture, expansion, density, pasting) and nutritional properties (starch digestibility) was investigated. The inclusion of guar gum did not decrease starch digestibility; rather, at 10% guar gum rapidly digestible starch increased by 24%, 15%, 25% and 43%, in maize, potato, rice and wheat flour-based products, respectively. In general, increases in starch digestibility appear to be related to the weaker microstructure (i.e., lower textural hardness), larger matrix surface area, and lower viscosity (pasting properties) of extrudates containing guar gum. These results suggest that microstructural changes affect the starch digestibility of extrudates; nevertheless, probably other factors such as particle size during digestion may also play an important role.
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Cereal Chem. 77(2):133–139 Pearling by-products and the pearled products of two commercial stocks of hulled barley, pearled according to an industrial process consis-ting of five consecutive pearling steps, were analyzed for β-glucans, dietary fiber (total, soluble, and insoluble), protein, lipid, ash, and diges-tible carbohydrate. The data showed that the pearling flour fractions, abraded in the fourth and fifth hullers, contained interesting amounts of β-glucans (3.9–5.1% db) from a nutritional point of view. These fractions were subsequently enriched in β-glucans using a milling-sieving process to double β-glucan content (9.1–10.5% db). Functional pastas, enriched with β-glucans and dietary fiber, were produced by substituting 50% of standard durum wheat semolina with β-glucan-enriched barley flour frac-tions. Although darker than durum wheat pasta, these pastas had good cooking qualities with regard to stickiness, bulkiness, firmness, and total organic matter released in rinsing water. The dietary fiber (13.1–16.1% wb) and β-glucan (4.3–5.0% wb) contents in the barley pastas were much higher than in the control (4.0 and 0.3% wb, respectively). These values amply meet the FDA requirements of 5 g of dietary fiber and 0.75 g of β-glucans per serving (56 g in the United States and 80 g in Italy). At present, the FDA has authorized the health claim "may reduce the risk of heart disease" for food containing β-glucans from oat and psyllium only.
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Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) is the preferred raw material for the production of pasta worldwide and some speciality bread common in parts of Italy and the Mediterranean region. The quality of such foods in terms of texture, colour, flavour and appearance are determined by raw material quality, processing methods and other ingredients. This review focuses on the raw material composition and how these influence the dough characteristics and the end product quality. Protein has been known as an important component having an influence on the quality of pasta and bread. The glutenin and gliadin proteins, the types present and their ratio have been shown to influ-ence dough properties. Attempts to increase the number of high molecular weight glutenin subunits to obtain more varied dough proper-ties has the potential to improve the breadmaking properties of durum flour. Starch is more than an inert filler and recent research has shown the affect of varying the amylose content and ratio of large to small starch granules on pasta quality can be significant. Potentially new durum germplasm could be created and used in new food products. Other minor components like non-starch carbohydrates and lipids have received less attention. The former can have a large impact on the water absorption of durum flours and alter dough properties. Enzymes like lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase together with the lipid yellow pigments strongly impact the appearance of pasta foods. The results of recent research about these components on both pasta and bread quality using durum wheat are discussed.
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Investigation of two inulins with differing degrees of polymerisation and crystallinity demonstrated different levels of integration with the starch–gluten matrix during pasta preparation. The impact of higher molecular weight inulin incorporation on technological and sensory properties was minimal, with deterioration in properties becoming significant only at 20% incorporation, while lower molecular weight had a greater negative impact on pasta firmness, cooking loss, and sensory acceptability. In vitro starch digestion of pasta was reduced with up to 5% addition of inulin of degree of polymerisation 12–14 (FH-D), but increased with high levels of addition. These effects were not observed in inulin with a degree of polymerisation of 7–8 (LV-100). Microscopy showed the starch granules were apparently encapsulated by a protective coat of inulin FH-D, but at 20% a disruption to the matrix was evident. For inulin FH-D, XRD analysis of digested pasta found a maximum crystallinity which coincided with the maximum reduction in starch hydrolysis, suggesting that a stronger gluten matrix enhanced by added inulin is indeed structurally different at the nanometre level.
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Dried pasta represents a primary food in the diet of many populations who mainly perceive its quality in terms of cooking performances. Indeed, this and other aspects of pasta quality arise from several technological parameters starting from the usage of durum wheat semolina as raw material. In this paper, the chemical and physical characteristics of semolina directly related to dried pasta quality are discussed, taking into account the biochemical phenomena involving semolina components and occurring during the whole pasta-making chain. The quality of pasta is also discussed with relation to drying conditions which account for both the ultrastructural changes in protein and starch organization and the occurrence of unnatural molecules arising from the Maillard reaction. The information provided here suggests that a comprehensive evaluation of pasta quality should include heat-damage induced by processing conditions.
Article
High-fiber, high-complex carbohydrate diets have been useful in regulating blood lipids, blood glucose, and insulin response - factors that are significant in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease and diabetes. Breads and pastas with increased levels of dietary fiber (including β-glucans) were produced by substituting barley flour fractions enriched with β-glucan for 5, 20, or 40% of the standard flours. The dry milled/sieved and water-extracted barley fractions contained 42 and 51% total dietary fiber (TDF) and 19 and 33% β-glucans, respectively. Bread, in which the dry milled/sieved barley flour fraction replaced 20% of the standard flour, contained 4.2 times the TDF, 7.6 times the total β-glucans, and 0.8 times kcal per serving compared to the control. This bread was judged acceptable in laboratory acceptance tests although loaf volume was reduced and color was slightly darker than the control. Pastas in which barley fractions replaced 20 or 40% of the wheat semolina provided 5.4 to 10.4 g TDF per serving (compared with 2 g in the control). These pastas, which could be labeled as good or high-fiber sources, respectively, had acceptable sensory quality although they were darker in color than the control. Kilocalories in a serving of these pastas with 20 and 40% flour substitution were 11 and 16%, respectively, lower than in the control. When the water-extracted barley fraction was substituted in breads and pastas, color scores and acceptability improved over those containing the dry milled/sieved barley fraction.
Article
The aim of this experimental work was to evaluate the effect of inulin addition on dough rheological properties, texture and sensory quality of extruded snacks. Two commercial fructan products of different degree of polymerisation (DPn) were used at levels from 2% to 7% (DPn=10 for inulin GR; DPn=23 for inulin HPX). Dough rheological properties were investigated using dynamic measurements in the linear viscoelastic range (frequency sweep and time cure tests) and farinograph test. Colour, specific volume (Vs), mechanical and sensory properties of snacks were evaluated. Fibre enrichment lowered dough consistency due to a reduction in water absorption. Large differences in elastic properties of samples were observed between 25 and 95°C due to incompatibility between inulin and starch and different kinetics of starch gelatinization. The magnitude of G' decreased with the increase in fibre content and GR had a greater effect than HPX. Inulin GR increased product expansion and hardness compared with the reference. No significant differences in Vs and mechanical properties were observed between reference and inulin HPX enriched samples up to 5%, while lower values were observed at 7%. Short-chain inulin lowered the extent of non-enzymatic browning. Snacks made with 5% inulin HPX can be used to enhance the fibre content without impacting negatively on product quality.
Article
Specific dietary requirements, e.g. celiac disease, as well as increased consumer demand for products of high nutritional value, makes the production of pasta from alternative cereals interesting. Raw material characterisation showed that the utilisation of oat and teff flour is beneficial as these ingredients contain higher levels of fibre and mineral composition is superior to that of wheat. Starch properties significantly influence pasta quality and therefore damaged starch levels, amylase activity, pasting properties and gelatinisation temperatures of the flours were investigated. Fresh egg pasta based on wheat, oat and teff flour was produced. Sensory properties of oat spaghetti were found to be very close to that of wheat pasta but improvement of smoothness and aroma is necessary, while teff spaghetti showed reduced sensory quality. An invitro enzymatic digestion was performed using a dialysis system to mimic the behaviour of pasta as eaten and make predictions on the glycemic index (GI). The predicted GI was highest for wheat pasta, followed by teff and oat. Ultra structure was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy, allowing the visualisation of differences in starch granule size and shape as well as gelatinisation occurring during the cooking process.
Article
Pasta is traditionally manufactured using only durum wheat semolina, but it is possible to incorporate other flours or ingredients into pasta in order to increase its nutritional value to the consumer, compared to conventional pasta. For this reason, pasta was prepared substituting durum wheat semolina with 15% of enriched dietary fibre flours (Glucagel, inulin Raftiline® HPX, inulin Raftiline® GR, psyllium and oat). Moreover, all dietary fibres (excluded Glucagel) were added in combination in order to evaluate their possible antagonistic or synergic effect on predicted glycaemic response. In general, all enriched dietary fibre pasta sample showed a significant decrease (except for pasta containing a combination of 7.5% inulin Raftiline® GR and 7.5% oat bran flour) in reducing sugars released and standardised AUC values compared to control pasta. However, this study showed that the combination of dietary fibres in pasta formulation led to an antagonistic effect on the predicted glycaemic response.
Article
A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different sample preparation steps, prior to the in vitro starch digestion process, on the predictive in vitro glycemic response of durum wheat pasta (control), and pasta made with durum wheat semolina and pea flour combinations. The physico-chemical, textural, and cooking quality of the pastas were also assessed. The evaluation of the different preparations processes illustrated that the maceration of the samples prior to starch digestion significantly increased the extent of starch degradation and hence the area under the curve (AUC) of reducing sugar released during the digestion process. Mastication of the samples prior to in vitro assessment increased the initial reducing sugar content of samples but yielded the lowest recorded AUC for all samples. The replacement of durum wheat semolina with pea flour significantly reduced the samples AUC compared to the control samples when prepared by mastication. This difference was not apparent for the samples prepared by maceration. The results indicate that the choice of the preparation step used prior to in vitro starch digestion procedures can significantly affect the predictive glycemic response – AUC values of samples, and hence manipulate differences attributed to product composition or structure. This may have an impact in terms of choosing the most appropriate method of glycemic analysis for the food industry.
Article
The objective of the present research was to analyse the combined effect of pregelatinised cassava starch and bagasse (70:30) flour, cassava starch and amaranth flour on the cooking properties of pasta, verify the acceptance and buying intention of the product with the best technological characteristics, and finally compare them with commercial products made with regular and whole wheat flour. The vermicelli-type pasta obtained in this study in the proportion of 10:60:30 (pre-gelatinised flour:cassava starch:amaranth flour) showed the best results in the quality tests, with a cooking time of 3 min, mass increase of 101.5% and 0.6% solids loss to the cooking water, superior to the commercial pasta. Acceptance testing showed that this was a very good pasta (score of 7.2 on a 9-point scale) and obtained 42% buying intention amongst the consumers. The elaboration of pasta containing pregelatinised cassava starch and bagasse (70:30) flour, cassava starch and amaranth flour was shown to be a feasible alternative with respect to the technological and sensory aspects, and could be consumed by those suffering from gluten intolerance.
Article
The cooking quality of pasta based on soft wheat flour and supplemented with three percentages of oat flour was studied. Results showed that oat flour modified deeply the cooking quality of spaghetti in comparison with samples based on only soft wheat flour. These effects were attributed to both starch-lipid complex formation and presence of β-glucans that weak gluten network. An increase in optimal cooking time with increase in oat percentages was observed (480 vs. 630 min). Samples enriched with oat flour showed a good-quality cooking total organic matter (TOM values ranged from 1.4 to 2).
Article
The objective of this work was to study the effects of the combination of resistant starch type II (RSII), resistant starch type IV (RSIV) and oat bran (OB) on technological and nutritional properties of pasta, applying response surface analysis. Cooking properties were improved by combining RSII and RSIV in pasta formulation, while OB addition negatively affected all technological attributes, and a negative synergistic effect was observed between this fibre and resistant starches in cooking losses. Considering nutritional properties, substitution of bread wheat flour with resistant starch type II and IV increased starch resistant to digestion and OB addition increased pasta starch hydrolysis. A positive synergistic effect was observed on glycaemic index by combining both types of resistant starches. Finally, we optimised the formulation considering three aspects separately: technological properties, nutritional attributes and these two features together. The combination of RSII 12.6, RSIV 3.1 and OB 0.6 g per 100 g of wheat flour will allow to obtain a pasta with low glycaemic index (GI = 69) and good technological characteristics.
Article
Cereal products are consumed daily by the majority of the population. Popular belief is that these cereal products, rich in carbohydrates, produce a high glycaemic response and may not be a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic throughout the world. Recently the food industry has investigated ways of improving the overall nutritional balance of carbohydrate rich foods and focused on increasing their dietary fibre (DF) contents at the expense of readily digestible carbohydrates. It is well documented that dietary fibre is involved in disease prevention and enhanced health of consumers. Moreover, the food industry can take advantage of the physicochemical properties of fibre to improve the viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics and shelf-life of their products. The focus of this review paper is on the influence of DFs (inulin, fructo-oligofructose, β-glucans, arabinoxylans and resistant starch) supplementation on the quality and nutritional aspects of common foods containing cereals- pasta, bread, muffins/cakes and extruded snacks. This review reports on the evidence regarding fibre enrichment of cereal foods and looks at the advances and future trends in enriched dietary fibre cereal products.
Article
Bread wheat flour was substituted with broad bean (Vicia faba) flour in order to obtain nutritionally enhanced spaghetti evaluated by a chemical score. Three substitution levels were tested: 10%, 20% and 30% and the farinographic behavior of blends were analyzed. Spaghetti-type pasta was made using a Brabender extruder with a non-compression screw and a nozzle with three 1.5 mm diameter holes. A temperature of 40 °C and a speed of 60 rpm were applied. The cooked spaghetti were assessed for this physical–chemical behavior, firmness and stickiness as traits of quality. The farinograph mixing curve showed a rise in water absorption and a decrease in dough development time with greater weakening, when the substitution level increases. The resulting pasta presented acceptable cooking characteristics and sensory attributes, as well as a significant improvement in their protein content and quality. The addition of 30% of broad bean flour contributes to an important increase in the nutritional quality of the spaghetti without affecting their texture, flavor or physical–chemical properties.
Article
Insoluble fibres are important in human health and disease prevention and can be incorporated into food. High fibre pasta prepared with bran is typically inferior quality compared to durum pasta. This study compared spaghetti prepared from durum semolina substituted with various amounts of either durum bran or germ (pollard) dried at high temperature. Pasta was evaluated for cooking properties, texture, sensory, fibre content, antioxidant status (AO) and in vitro starch digestibility to determine the dose producing acceptable quality. Pollard at 10% substitution had minimal impact on quality with higher AO and fibre. Above 30%, pasta had undesirable colour, sensory properties and higher starch digestion. Although bran substituted pasta had undesirable sensory and technological properties, especially at 30% incorporation, it does provide more dietary fibre and antioxidants than regular pasta and does not affect starch digestibility. Interestingly, a significant amount of AO was retained in the cooked pasta. The study illustrates the value of structural analysis to explain observed technological properties of the product with fibre inclusion.
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of inulins with varying degree of polymerization on rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free starch-based dough. The share of inulin reduced the values of consistency coefficient, as well as storage and loss moduli, and increased creep compliance. Inulin preparation with the highest average degree of polymerization had the strongest impact on viscoelastic properties of the obtained dough. The presence of inulin also caused a significant decrease of viscosity upon pasting, and an increase of gelatinization temperatures TOg, TP1g, TP2g, and TEg. Addition of inulin had no effect on gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), while it strongly reduced the enthalpies of retrograded amylopectin after storage. Water binding properties of inulin seem to be the key factor, responsible for modification of dough properties, because they influence solvent availability for other constituents of such system.
Article
Foods containing elevated levels of health functional components such as resistant starch and ployphenolic antioxidants may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta incorporating either red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30% and 40% substitution of durum wheat semolina (DWS) was prepared and compared to pasta made from 100% DWS (control) for content of starch fractions, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity, before and after cooking. Total, digestible and resistant starch contents were determined by the AOAC method; individual phenolic acids and anthocyanins by reverse phase-HPLC analysis; total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by the ABTS assay. The addition of both RSF and WSF increased the resistant starch content, bound phenolic acids, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity at all incorporation levels compared to the control pasta; while free phenolic acids and anthocyanins were higher in the RSF-containig pasta only. Cooking did not change the resistant starch content of any of the pasta formulations. Cooking did however decrease the free phenolic acids, anthocyanins, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity and increased the bound phenolic acids of the sorghum-containing pastas. The study suggests that these sorghum flours may be very useful for the preparation of pasta with increased levels of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants.
Article
To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.
Article
The quality of nine spaghetti typologies, produced by using wheat durum semolina as a base plus the addition of buckwheat and durum wheat bran, was investigated. The quality of the produced spaghetti was compared with that of spaghetti made only of durum semolina (CTRL). Tests were run on the samples to determine breakage susceptibility and colour of dry spaghetti, the cooking resistance, instrumental stickiness at optimal cooking time (OCT) and overcooking, the cooking loss and sensorial attributes at the optimal cooking time. Results suggest that the breakage susceptibility decreases with the addition of 15% and 20% bran, the spaghetti dry colour changes with the addition of buckwheat flour and bran compared to the spaghetti made only of durum semolina, while the cooking resistance, instrumental stickiness and the cooking loss, in general, were equal to that of the CTRL. However, the addition of buckwheat flour and bran affected the sensorial attributes differently.
Article
Wheat bran (WB) and oat bran (OB), which are rich in dietary fiber content, were blended separately with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The incorporation of WB and OB increased the farinograph water absorption from 58.3 to 64.1 and 62.3%, respectively. The dough stability decreased from 10 to 5.5 and 7.0 min. The increase in maximum pressure value was greater upon the addition of WB. The peak viscosity value decreased from 818 to 673 Brabender units (BU) upon the addition of WB. The addition of either WB or OB in the preparation of instant vermicelli made the strands tough. The moisture content and oil uptake decreased from 6.5 to 5.1% and from 18.3 to 16.6%, respectively. The cooked weight decreased, while the cooking loss increased with increasing levels of either of the bran. Combination of WB (5%) and OB (10–15%) resulted in instant vermicelli of acceptable quality having total dietary fiber content of 6.12%. High-fiber ingredients exhibit many properties that influence the physiological functions of foods. Consumption of high-fiber products has shown several health benefits. There is a need to have products enriched with dietary fiber. Wheat bran and oat bran, which are good sources of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, respectively, have been used in the preparation of various bakery products. The utilization of such sources has also helped in reducing the oil uptake during processing. This study would surely help the industry in developing fiber-rich instant vermicelli using the naturally available fiber-rich sources.
Article
Cereal Chem. 65(3):244-247 Apple fiber was characterized by chemical and physical methods and volume by 14%. Apple fiber was added to cookie and muffin at a found to be a good dietary fiber source and superior water binder to wheat replacement level of at least 4% without a large adverse effect on cookie and and oat brans. Addition of 4% hydrated apple fiber to bread reduced loaf muffin quality. Dietary fiber is the indigestible component of foods that includes cellulose, hemicellulose, lignins, pectins, gums, and mucilages (Williams 1985). Its beneficial effects on human health have received much attention. Lack of adequate dietary fiber in the diet is associated with constipation, diverticulosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer (Trowell et al 1985), and increased consumption of dietary fiber has been advocated. For instance, when the British Health Education Council (1983) recommended multiple changes in the national diet, a 50% increase in dietary fiber was proposed, the largest single-component change in the present diet (Trowell et al 1985). High-fiber foods are becoming more available in the United States. Wheat and oat bran are the conventional dietary fiber sources, but other fiber sources, such as potato peel, have been added to bread and cereal products (Toma et al 1979). Tree Top Inc. has developed a method of producing apple fiber powder from the pomace after juice extraction. The apple pomace is separated from the juice using an improved mechanical filtering system. The residue is dehydrated with a spray dryer and screened through USS 40-mesh screens (Morris 1985). The fiber is brown to brownish red in color, bland in taste, and has no musty or "off" flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the apple fiber chemically and physically and evaluate its effects on bread, cookies, and muffins. Wheat and oat brans were used for comparison.
Article
Cereal Chem. 65(3):186-191 Using a bakers' patent flour from hard red spring wheat, it was possible to formulate satisfactory high-fiber breads containing 20% corn bran, 20% wheat bran, 15% field pea hulls, or 15% wild oat bran. The bread formulations for the straight dough method of breadmaking were optimized at 45 ppm KBrO3 and 0.5% SSL (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate) High-fiber diets based on whole grain cereals, legumes, fruits, and vegetables are now being prescribed in the treatment and management of various colonic and circulatory disorders (Staub et al 1983). The nonstarchy polysaccharides of the plant cell wall, which resist digestion by mammalian a-amylases, are the principal sources of dietary fiber for humans. Interest in fiber-enhanced foods has resulted in the use of refined cellulose, cereal brans, and legume hulls to fortify target foods such as baked goods, breakfast cereals, and snack foods (Vetter 1984). The use of refined cellulose as a fiber ingredient is not permitted in some countries such as Canada, and certain natural sources of fiber have come into widespread use after only limited investigation. Wheat bran is the traditional source of dietary fiber added to baked goods (Dubois 1978), and supplementation at the 7.5% level of flour replacement in the dough formulation is about the maximum level if product quality is to be maintained (Pomeranz et al 1977, Satin et al 1978, Cadden et al 1983).