Article

Chapter 3 Food Literacy: Bridging the Gap between Food, Nutrition and Well-Being

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This chapter argues that a new approach to food is needed in light of the poor nutritional health status of Canadians, and recent changes in food-related habits, environments and norms. Due to diminishing understanding around food and its uses, the concept of "food literacy" or being food literate is being explored as a new approach to food that has the potential to facilitate healthy food relationships. Food literacy extends beyond nutritional recommendations and cookery lessons, to fostering important and vital connections between food, people, health and the environment both theoretically and practically. This chapter will review current constructs of food literacy presented in the literature and explore the importance of educating for food literacy in order to rectify issues raised with respect to current food related concerns and ideologies. Finally, this chapter will identify why food literacy as a new approach to food should be examined within the larger context of emerging well-being frameworks. However, further work is still needed that examines how to best translate food literacy and well-being knowledge and skills through familial, cultural, educational and private sector institutions. Procuring food and maintaining good health through diet has been one of humankind's main pursuits, and has always had its challenges. However, despite significant technological advancements in food production and transportation methods and scientific progression in nutrition research, the ability of people to maintain health and well-being through food and nutrition has paradoxically become increasingly difficult. The relationship people have with food is becoming ever more disordered as obesity and diet-related chronic disease rates soar, and messages emphasizing diet and nutrition are numerous and conflicting from public health authorities promoting healthy eating and from food companies marketing their vast and diverse products for profit. Some may argue that as a society we have never been more food centered while at the same time we have never been so far removed from the food we eat, figuratively and literally. Consequently, these rapid developments have shaped our current and complex food environment which is intertwined with shifting societal issues. As a result, our multifaceted food system has become increasingly complicated to navigate, highlighting the critical need to examine ways to re-establish our relationship with food in order to achieve health and well-being. In light of these issues, the concept of food literacy has emerged in the literature and educational programs. Food literacy extends beyond nutritional recommendations and

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Moreover, one-third of the people surveyed did not know that non-GMO foods contained genes [4]. Comical at first, the example nevertheless reveals an increasing problem in America regarding the lack of knowledge about food [5]. ...
... Additionally, a perceived decline in food related knowledge and skill sets is linked to the exceptional rise in obesity and diet-related disease in developed countries [5,6]. According to a recent Center of Disease Control (CDC) report on obesity statistics, the organization estimated the prevalence of obesity among adults at an alarming 40% [7][8][9]. ...
... Yet, this definition put forth by Vidgen & Gallegos [6], like many others, has not gone without criticism. The definition does not focus on nutrient acquisition or avoidance and there is an absence of any psychological variable in this model [5]. Moreover, environmental health and social justice are also not prioritized in this definition, whereas others have included these aspects [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial urbanization has allowed individuals to become increasingly spatially and psychologically distanced from the food system and agricultural practices. Food literacy (FL) has been described as a promising approach to reconnect the city with the country and furthermore address public health issues such as obesity and diet-related disease. The present study examined urban gardening through the lens of the FL approach to determine whether a relationship exists between gardening and FL. The research further investigated the relationship between FL and gardener demographics, participation in educational garden events and socialization among gardeners. Data was collected using an online questionnaire targeted to reach community gardeners (n = 181) in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The research utilized a novel exam and self-perception based measurement tool to assess gardeners’ level of FL. Results indicated a moderately positive relationship between the years of gardening experience and higher individual FL scores. Participants with higher levels of FL were older individuals and more highly educated. There was no significant difference in FL between gardeners who attended educational events and those that had not. The present research presents an initial investigation into the relationship between food literacy and gardening. This research indicates gardening may warrant consideration in holistic approaches to food literacy but further investigation would be valuable.
... Factors contributing to poor dietary habits are complex, and improving eating behavior requires an interdisciplinary approach that acknowledges the social context [1]. Among the different factors affecting eating behaviors, food literacy has recently been considered a key factor in improving diet quality, health, and well-being [2]. Food literacy is a construct that affects an individual's ability to assess food and nutrition information, comprehend food labels, perform food safety precautions, use healthy cooking methods, apply dietary recommendations and make healthy food choices [3][4][5]. ...
... Parents, especially mothers, are important agents in the promotion of health, behavior, and abilities of their children; they create food environments and play a key role in structuring their children's first experiences with food and eating through their own beliefs, food practices, perspectives, eating attitudes, knowledge, and understanding of the benefits of food and nutrients on health (1). The literature suggests that well-educated parents have a skill set that includes the ability to develop and facilitate children's food and nutrition skills, for example, improving the critical thinking about media to defend from the persuasive influences of food advertisements (food and nutrition critical skills), opportunities to make food selections independently, such as by selecting a healthy snack at a convenience store after school using reading and understanding of food labels (food choice skills and food label literacy), obtain, interpret and apply of nutrition information (2,3). The children of well-educated parents may better obtain, process, interpret and apply information that shapes their knowledge and attitudes about nutrition [58]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Food and nutrition literacy is a key factor in shaping healthy dietary behaviors and may result in decreasing decrease the prevalence of overweight. Empirical research on food and nutrition literacy and its outcomes is limited, especially among children and adolescents. Thus, this study investigates the link between Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) with eating behaviors, academic performance, and overweight in 10-12 years old students in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This study was performed through two phases: 1) Proposing a conceptual model of the relationship between FNLIT and its determinants and outcomes, based on the existing evidence and previous models, and 2) Testing the proposed FNLIT model through a cross-sectional study on 803 primary school students (419 boys and 384 girls, from 34 public and 10 private primary schools), aged 10-12 years using structural equation modeling. Demographic, socio-economic, and household food security characteristics were collected by interviewing the students and their mothers/caregivers using a questionnaire. FNLIT was measured by a self-administered, locally designed, and validated questionnaire. Results: The fit indices suggested a reasonably adequate fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ2/df = 2.03, p < 0.001, goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.90, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.88, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.91, incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.91, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, standardized root mean residual (SRMR) = 0.06). SES was directly and positively related to FNLIT and its subscale in students. FNLIT score had a positive direct (non-mediated) relationship with healthy eating behavior and academic performance. This pattern was strongly reversed in unhealthy eating behavior. There was a full mediation relationship between FNLIT and overweight/obesity via healthy eating behaviors. SES predicted academic performance partially through the mediating effect of Food Label Literacy (FLL). The results indicated that despite the direct relationship between SES and academic performance, an indirect but negative relationship existed with food insecurity. The finding also revealed the fully mediating role of Food Choice Literacy (FCL) in the relationship between demographic factors and healthy eating behaviors. Our study also found that Interactive Food and Nutrition Literacy (IFNL) protected unhealthy eating behaviors, and FCL predicted healthy eating behaviors in children. Conclusion: Our study draws attention to FNLIT, especially the skills domain, including IFNL, FCL, and FLL, as the most important determinant of healthy eating behavior, academic performance, and weight status in school-age children reduces social inequalities in children's development. To ensure an adequate level of FNLIT, educators should assess and plan to enhance food literacy skills in children and adolescents.
... Food literacy explains healthy food behaviors and the ability of healthy nutrition [18]. According to literature, health literacy and nutrition are related with healthy behaviors and decisions for well-being, therefore food literacy is associated with health literacy to enhance human and community health [19][20][21]. SFLQ is known as a measurement tool for food literacy in literature and it has been shown that it could be useful to determine food literacy among adults [13]. We decided to describe university students' food literacy level using SFQL and identify cut-off point to determine adequate-excellent and inadequate-limited food literacy. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in weights of primary school students who could not attend school in the last year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Students height and weight were recorded in March 2020 and in March 2021 by the researchers. The study was completed with the participation of 29 female and 29 male. The percentile values obtained in the first measurement ranged from 3.5 to 96.5, with a mean value of 46.94 ± 29.31 and a median value of 44.0. In the second measurement performed a year later, the percentile values ranged from 3.5 to 97, with a mean value of 58.29 ± 31.37 and a median value of 61.5. The percentile values of students significantly increased over the last 1 year (p = 0.000). The prevalence of childhood obesity may increase in the future, and children of this generation may face health problems more.
... Food literacy explains healthy food behaviors and the ability of healthy nutrition [18]. According to literature, health literacy and nutrition are related with healthy behaviors and decisions for well-being, therefore food literacy is associated with health literacy to enhance human and community health [19][20][21]. SFLQ is known as a measurement tool for food literacy in literature and it has been shown that it could be useful to determine food literacy among adults [13]. We decided to describe university students' food literacy level using SFQL and identify cut-off point to determine adequate-excellent and inadequate-limited food literacy. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Preventing obesity and non-communicable disease is possible by making the right eating habits from early ages, therefore increasing food literacy level might be enforced in the preventive programs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to measure university students’ food literacy level using “A short food literacy questionnaire (SFLQ) for adults” and determining cut-off point compared with health literacy. METHODS: Questionnaire was about Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test, Turkey Health Literacy SCALE-32 (TSOY-32) and Short Food Literacy Questionnaire (SFLQ). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed by calculating the specificity and sensitivity of the scale cut-off values, and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. RESULTS: The score from SLFQ increased with the improvement of general health perception and having food label reading habit (respectively; p = 0.003; p < 0.001). The mean SFLQ score increases with the increased level of TSOY-32 health literacy (P < 0.001). Finally, according to the results, classification of individuals with SFLQ is≥31 points as Adequate-Excellent food literacy and < 31 points as Inadequate-Limited food literacy. CONCLUSION: Describing food literacy in two categories will be easy to demonstrate the connection between food literacy and healthy food consumption behaviors.
... Nowadays consumers, especially children, are increasingly disconnected from the understanding of how and where their food is produced and the gap between food and the consumer, in this case the children, is getting bigger, while lifestyle diseases caused by malnutrition and obesity are increasing in the western world (Dyg, 2014). Often lack of food knowledge and the increase of obesity is being compared and with good reason, as several studies have shown these are often interlinked (Dyg, 2012) (Rush & Yan 2017) (Colatruglio & Slater, 2014). It is on the basis of these findings that Wageningen University & Research started developing a school-based nutrition education programme called Taste Lessons that later became part of the Learn4Health programme. ...
... food production, food processing, food distribution and marketing, food consumption, and food waste) is becoming more complex and the relationships individuals have with the food system are continually changing and growing in complexity (Lang 2003;Popkin, Adair, and Ng 2012;Popkin and Gordon-Larsen 2004). Contemporary citizens are more disconnected from how, when and where food is produced, the processes associated with food moving from farm to plate and the impacts of these processes on health and environment (Bellotti 2010;Colatruglio and Slater 2014;Lea and Worsley 2008). This modern food culture is characterized by a loss of cooking skills, frequent consumption of home-away foods and an increased reliance on highly processed and convenience food (Lichtenstein and Ludwig 2010;Monteiro et al. 2013;Savige et al. 2007). ...
Article
Food literacy education at senior secondary school could provide immediate health benefits to adolescents. In the long term, this will help strengthen the relationship between citizens and the food system. The aim of this paper is to explore food system professionals’ opinions of the importance of senior secondary school food literacy education. A purposive sample of 34 food system professionals from different sub-sectors within the Australian food system were interviewed individually in late 2015 and early 2016. Interviews were analysed using the template analysis technique. Many participants indicated that food literacy education helps students establish healthier eating patterns. Some participants suggested that food literacy education helps students join in food-related career pathways and some believed that this education helps students understand and question the food system and related issues. Moreover, some participants mentioned that the senior secondary school years are when it is most appropriate to deliver some of the broad aspects of food literacy, while some pointed out the importance of starting food literacy education in primary school. Furthermore, participants indicated the importance of food literacy education in school, referring to low food and nutrition knowledge and skills among modern consumers and inadequate family support for students to develop healthier food patterns. In conclusion, senior secondary school food literacy education helps students develop healthy eating patterns, and prepare them to make wise decisions in relation to food. This highlights the importance of provision of comprehensive food literacy education for senior secondary school students. Access the full text through this link: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/KuiBFUbCDFZg96QkTY38/full
Chapter
Shifting societal issues and government policy initiatives continues to create demands on the school curriculum in addressing public health concerns in both developed and developing countries. Public health concerns, such as the rising incidence of malnutrition and non-communicable diseases can be addressed through a school curriculum that teaches and promotes healthy dietary patterns and life styles. This chapter examines efforts being made to transfer food and nutrition education and well-being competencies to learners through educational institutions. Drawing from various literature, factors influencing the incorporation of food in the school curriculum are highlighted. The benefits of integrating food in the school curriculum are also interrogated. Food education approaches adopted in educational interventions are discussed. Also presented in this chapter are three different curriculum frameworks that have been designed to guide the teaching of food in primary and secondary schools at international and local level. A key issue emerging in this chapter is that the school will continue to play a critical role in the development of healthy dietary behaviours and nutrition-related knowledge among children and adolescents since it provides an appropriate environment to teach and reinforce healthy eating behaviour through a well-structured competency-based curriculum.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the relevance of cooking skills to modern living and health promotion practices. Drawing on UK data and particularly the 1993 English Health and Lifestyles Survey but in terms common to many western economies, the paper explores the health education implications of the possible demise of cooking skills. The paradox of low skills and confidence alongside high interest in food is explored. The evidence linking cooking skills to health is explored. A schema of different policy and theoretical perspectives on the teaching of cooking skills is outlined. Although even within the UK there is variation in educational practice, a case is made for the inclusion of cooking skills within a co-ordinated health promotion approach, based on a health development framework. Cooking classes or some practical aspect of ‘hands-on’ skills could feature in a young person's curriculum at some stage at school as part of a wider education about life skills and citizenship. There is little point in purveying nutrition advice about healthy eating if people lack the skills to implement it. Equally, it is insensitive to target cooking skills only at females or certain socio-economic groups as a form of remedial education. Changes in the role of cooking within culture illustrates wider social changes in which health can too easily be marginal.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey provides the most recent measured body mass index (BMI) data for children and adolescents. However, different methodologies exist for classifying BMI among children and youth. Based on the most recent World Health Organization classification, nearly a third of 5- to 17-year-olds were overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity differed between boys and girls (15.1% versus 8.0%), most notably those aged 5 to 11, among whom the percentage of obese boys (19.5%) was more than three times that of obese girls (6.3%). These estimates indicate a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among children than do estimates based on International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Canada has not increased over the last decade, it remains a public health concern, given the tendency for excess weight to persist through to adulthood and lead to negative health outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a restructuring of the "food as health" paradigm to "food as well-being." This requires shifting from an emphasis on restraint and restrictions to a more positive, holistic understanding of the role of food in overall well-being. The authors propose the concept of food well-being (FWB), defined as a positive psychological, physical, emotional, and social relationship with food at both individual and societal levels. The authors define and explain the five primary domains of FWB: food socialization, food literacy, food marketing, food availability, and food policy. The FWB framework employs a richer definition of food and highlights the need for research that bridges other disciplines and paradigms outside and within marketing. Further research should develop and refine the understanding of each domain with the ultimate goal of moving the field toward this embodiment of food as well-being.
Article
Full-text available
A considerable literature addresses worker deskilling in manufacturing and the related loss of control over production processes experienced by farmers and others working in the agri-food industry. Much less attention has been directed at a parallel process of consumer deskilling in the food system, which has been no less important. Consumer deskilling in its various dimensions carries enormous consequences for the restructuring of agro-food systems and for consumer sovereignty, diets, and health. The prevalence of packaged, processed, and industrially transformed foodstuffs is often explained in terms of consumer preference for convenience. A closer look at the social construction of “consumers” reveals that the agro-food industry has waged a double disinformation campaign to manipulate and to re-educate consumers while appearing to respond to consumer demand. Many consumers have lost the knowledge necessary to make discerning decisions about the multiple dimensions of quality, including the contributions a well-chosen diet can make to health, planetary sustainability, and community economic development. They have also lost the skills needed to make use of basic commodities in a manner that allows them to eat a high quality diet while also eating lower on the food chain and on a lower budget. This process has a significant gender dimension, as it is the autonomy of those primarily responsible for purchasing and preparing foodstuffs that has been systematically undermined. Too often, food industry professionals and regulatory agencies have been accessories to this process by misdirecting attention to the less important dimensions of quality.
Article
Full-text available
According to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, Canadians consumed an average of 110 grams (26 teaspoons) of sugar a day, approximately 20% of their total energy intake. While over 30% of this sugar came from vegetables and fruit, 35% came from the "other" foods category, which consists of items such as soft drinks, salad dressings and candy. The top ten sources of sugar accounted for approximately 85% of daily sugar intake. Beverages (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks and regular soft drinks) represented 44% of the sugar consumed by children and adolescents, and 35% of that consumed by adults. Diabetics' average sugar intake was less than that of non-diabetics, but at 17%, exceeded the recommended 10% cut-off of total daily calories.
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the aetiology of employed mothers' food choice and food provisioning decisions using a qualitative, grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews using the Food Choice Map were conducted with eleven middle-income employed mothers of elementary school-age children. Results demonstrated that the women exhibited conflicting identities with respect to food choice and provisioning. As 'good mothers' they were the primary food and nutrition caregivers for the family, desiring to provide healthy, homemade foods their families preferred at shared family meals. They also sought to be independent selves, working outside the home, within the context of a busy modern family. Increased food autonomy of children, and lack of time due to working outside the home and children's involvement in extracurricular activities, were significant influences on their food choice and provisioning. This resulted in frequently being unable to live up to their expectations of consistently providing healthy homemade foods and having shared family meals. To cope, the women frequently relied on processed convenience and fast foods despite their acknowledged inferior nutritional status. Using Giddens' structuration theory, the dynamic relationships between the women's food choice and provisioning actions, their identities and larger structures including socio-cultural norms, conditions of work and the industrial food system were explored. The ensuing dietary pattern of the women and their families increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including obesity. These results have implications for public health responses to improve population health by shifting the focus from individual-level maternal influences to structural influences on diet.
Article
Full-text available
To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were obtained by interviewing these food experts over 3 months. The identification of food skills forms the preliminary data for the first study of 3 in the design of programs in secondary schools. The data were reviewed for emerging themes and were coded by applying content analysis procedures. Food skills required for young people were described under 4 themes as the areas of expertise required for young people to live independently. Understanding these skills would support teachers in designing programs that would address behavioral capabilities to improve young people's food preparation and eating behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Over the past century, a major shift in North American food practices has been taking place. However, the literature on this topic is lacking in several areas. Some available research on food and cooking practices in the current context is presented, with a focus on how these are affecting health and how they might be contributing to health inequalities within the population. First, cooking and cooking skills are examined, along with the ambiguities related to terms associated with cooking in the research literature. Food choice, cooking, and health are described, particularly in relation to economic factors that may lead to health inequalities within the population. The importance of developing an understanding of factors within the wider food system as part of food choice and cooking skills is presented, and gaps in the research literature are examined and areas for future research are presented. Cooking practices are not well studied but are important to an understanding of human nutritional health as it relates to cultural, environmental, and economic factors.
Article
Full-text available
The present study describes the trajectory of the energy gap (energy imbalance) in the Canadian population from 1976 to 2003, its temporal relationship to adult obesity, and estimates the relative contribution of energy availability and expenditure to the energy gap. It also assesses which foods contributed the most to changes in available energy over the study period. Annual estimates of the energy gap were derived by subtracting population-adjusted per capita daily estimated energy requirements (derived from Dietary Reference Intakes) from per capita daily estimated energy available (obtained from food balance sheets). Food balance sheets were used to assess which foods contributed to changes in energy availability. Adult obesity rates were derived from six national surveys. The relationship to the energy gap was assessed through regression analysis. Between 1976 and 2003, per capita daily estimated energy availability increased by 18 % (1744 kJ), and increased energy availability was the major driver of the increased energy gap. Salad oils, wheat flour, soft drinks and shortening accounted for the majority of the net increase in energy availability. Adult obesity was significantly correlated with the energy gap over the study period. The widening energy gap is being driven primarily by increased energy availability. The food commodities driving the widening energy gap are major ingredients in many energy-dense convenience foods, which are being consumed with increasing frequency in Canada. Policies to address population obesity must have a strong nutritional focus with the objective of decreasing energy consumption at the population level.
Article
Full-text available
To examine the self-reported importance of taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control on personal dietary choices and whether these factors vary across demographic groups, are associated with lifestyle choices related to health (termed health lifestyle), and actually predict eating behavior. Data are based on responses to 2 self-administered cross-sectional surveys. The main outcomes measured were consumption of fruits and vegetables, fast foods, cheese, and breakfast cereals, which were determined on the basis of responses to questions about usual and recent consumption and a food diary. Respondents were a national sample of 2,967 adults. Response rates were 71% to the first survey and 77% to the second survey (which was sent to people who completed the first survey). Univariate analyses were used to describe importance ratings, bivariate analyses (correlations and t tests) were used to examine demographic and lifestyle differences on importance measures, and multivariate analyses (general linear models) were used to predict lifestyle cluster membership and food consumption. Respondents reported that taste is the most important influence on their food choices, followed by cost. Demographic and health lifestyle differences were evident across all 5 importance measures. The importance of nutrition and the importance of weight control were predicted best by subject's membership in a particular health lifestyle cluster. When eating behaviors were examined, demographic measures and membership in a health lifestyle cluster predicted consumption of fruits and vegetables, fast foods, cheese, and breakfast cereal. The importance placed on taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control also predicted types of foods consumed. Our results suggest that nutritional concerns, per sc, are of less relevance to most people than taste and cost. One implication is that nutrition education programs should attempt to design and promote nutritious diets as being tasty and inexpensive.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the major changes in diet and physical activity patterns around the world and focuses on shifts in obesity. Review of results focusing on large-scale surveys and nationally representative studies of diet, activity, and obesity among adults and children. Youth and adults from a range of countries around the world. The International Obesity Task Force guidelines for defining overweight and obesity are used for youth and the body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2) and 30 cutoffs are used, respectively, for adults. The nutrition transition patterns are examined from the time period termed the receding famine pattern to one dominated by nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs). The speed of dietary and activity pattern shifts is great, particularly in the developing world, resulting in major shifts in obesity on a worldwide basis. Data limitations force us to examine data on obesity trends in adults to provide a broader sense of changes in obesity over time, and then to examine the relatively fewer studies on youth. Specifically, this work provides a sense of change both in the United States, Europe, and the lower- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. The paper shows that changes are occurring at great speed and at earlier stages of the economic and social development of each country. The burden of obesity is shifting towards the poor.
Article
Full-text available
Obesity has risen dramatically in the past few decades. However, the relative contribution of energy intake and energy expenditure to rising obesity is not known. Moreover, the extent to which social and economic factors tip the energy balance is not well understood. This exploratory study estimates the relative contribution of increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity to obesity in developed countries using two methods of energy accounting. Results show that rising obesity is primarily the result of consuming more calories. We estimate multivariate regression models and use simulation analysis to explore technological and sociodemographic determinants of this dietary excess. Results indicate that the increase in caloric intake is associated with technological innovations as well as changing sociodemographic factors. This review offers useful insights to future research concerned with the etiology of obesity and suggests that obesity-related policies should focus on encouraging lower caloric intake.
Article
High population rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases warrant an examination of the role of food and nutrition education in health promotion. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study explored student enrolment trends in, and perceptions of, Home Economics Food and Nutrition education in a Canadian province. Enrolment in Home Economics Food and Nutrition courses for grades 7–12 was examined from 2000 to 2010 using administrative data. Perceptions of Home Economics Food and Nutrition education by home economics teachers and superintendents were investigated through in-depth interviews using a grounded theory approach. Results revealed that, although enrolment, including boys, increased slightly over the study period, the majority of children do not take Home Economics Food and Nutrition classes. Further, enrolment decreased significantly from grades 7 (45.77%) to 12 (7.61%). Home Economics Food and Nutrition education faces significant challenges to its future viability. These include: many school administrators, non-home economics teachers and some parents do not value Home Economics Food and Nutrition education; Home Economics Food and Nutrition education is seen as less valuable than math and science for future career planning; outdated curriculum and teaching infrastructure; reduced numbers of new home economics teachers; decreasing student food knowledge and skills; and changing social norms regarding food and eating (increased use of convenience foods across population groups, a youth ‘fast food culture’ and fewer family meals). Results also indicated that Home Economics Food and Nutrition education is seen as critically important for youth, given that one third of Canadian children are now overweight or obese, fast and highly processed foods make up an increasing proportion of Canadians' diets, and there are increasing dilemmas being faced with food production and food safety. These results signal a growing tension between societal trends towards technological solutions in education and everyday living, and the growing acknowledgement of the externalities associated with these trends including poor health and environmental impacts. Consequently, evidence-based food and nutrition education that is relevant for today's food environment and busy lifestyles is warranted to improve the health of current and future generations. This should be based on a comprehensive food and nutrition framework including functional, interactive and critical ‘food literacy’. Policy measures are urgently required to ensure all youth have access to food literacy education.
Article
This essay introduces and defines the ideology or paradigm of nutritionism, which is generally characterized by a reductive focus on the nutrient composition of food. More specifically, it is where the nutri-biochemical level of engagement with food and the body becomes the dominant way of understanding the relationship between food and bodily health, and at the expense of other levels and ways of understanding and engaging with food. Nutritionism is the dominant paradigm within nutrition science, informs much dietary advice, and has become a primary means for the engineering and marketing of food products. A number of characteristics of nutritionism are defined, including nutritional reductionism, biomarker reductionism, genetic nutritionism, the functional body, the myth of nutritional precision, the nutritional gaze, and nutritional tinkering, nutri-quantification, the erasure of qualitatative food distinctions, nutrient fetishism, the 'good and bad nutrient' discourses, nutri-commodification, and the nutricentric person. A number of types of foods and types of food marketing are also introduced and defined, including nutritionally engineered foods, transnutric foods, nutritionally marketed foods and functionally marketed foods.
Article
The alarming increase in childhood obesity has captured the attention of a broad set of citizens and institutions, with calls for action becoming increasingly powerful. Particular questions are being raised about the impacts of food marketing on children. The Internet has become an important marketing communications tool and is being used by advertisers to target children. This has prompted calls for a review of online marketing practices from public health officials, policy makers, consumer advocates, and industry groups. The objectives of this study are to inform decision makers about the nature of online marketing to children and to identify practices that may raise policy concerns. The authors report results of the first systematic content analysis of food marketers' Web sites that either target children directly or contain content of interest to them. The authors identify 11 online marketing practices of public policy relevance. They discuss the empirical findings in terms of these issues and outline research needs.
Article
"We all witness, in advertising and on supermarket shelves, the fierce competition for our food dollars. In this engrossing exposé, Marion Nestle goes behind the scenes to reveal how the competition really works and how it affects our health. The abundance of food in the United States--enough calories to meet the needs of every man, woman, and child twice over--has a downside. Our over-efficient food industry must do everything possible to persuade people to eat more--more food, more often, and in larger portions--no matter what it does to waistlines or well-being. Like manufacturing cigarettes or building weapons, making food is big business. Food companies in 2000 generated nearly $900 billion in sales. They have stakeholders to please, shareholders to satisfy, and government regulations to deal with. It is nevertheless shocking to learn precisely how food companies lobby officials, co-opt experts, and expand sales by marketing to children, members of minority groups, and people in developing countries. We learn that the food industry plays politics as well as or better than other industries, not least because so much of its activity takes place outside the public view. Editor of the 1988 Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health, Nestle is uniquely qualified to lead us through the maze of food industry interests and influences. She vividly illustrates food politics in action: watered-down government dietary advice, schools pushing soft drinks, diet supplements promoted as if they were First Amendment rights. When it comes to the mass production and consumption of food, strategic decisions are driven by economics--not science, not common sense, and certainly not health. No wonder most of us are thoroughly confused about what to eat to stay healthy. An accessible and balanced account, Food Politics will forever change the way we respond to food industry marketing practices. By explaining how much the food industry influences government nutrition policies and how cleverly it links its interests to those of nutrition experts, this path-breaking book helps us understand more clearly than ever before what we eat and why." © 2002, 2007, 2013 by The Regents of the University of California.
Article
Background: Food marketing contributes to childhood obesity. Food companies commonly place display advertising on children's web sites, but few studies have investigated this form of advertising. Objectives: Document the number of food and beverage display advertisements viewed on popular children's web sites, nutritional quality of advertised brands and proportion of advertising approved by food companies as healthier dietary choices for child-directed advertising. Methods: Syndicated Internet exposure data identified popular children's web sites and food advertisements viewed on these web sites from July 2009 through June 2010. Advertisements were classified according to food category and companies' participation in food industry self-regulation. The percent of advertisements meeting government-proposed nutrition standards was calculated. Results: 3.4 billion food advertisements appeared on popular children's web sites; 83% on just four web sites. Breakfast cereals and fast food were advertised most often (64% of ads). Most ads (74%) promoted brands approved by companies for child-directed advertising, but 84% advertised products that were high in fat, sugar and/or sodium. Ads for foods designated by companies as healthier dietary choices appropriate for child-directed advertising were least likely to meet independent nutrition standards. Conclusions: Most foods advertised on popular children's web sites do not meet independent nutrition standards. Further improvements to industry self-regulation are required.
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behaviour of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Design: A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. Setting: After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. Participants: The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Variables measured: Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Analysis: Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P < .05). Results: Approximately 59% reported family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Conclusions and implications: Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE.
Article
Objective: This study assessed the associations between the perception of self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 417 working parents with at least one child between the ages of 2 and 5 years completed a self-administered questionnaire. The association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies referred to as home-based or "away from home" food strategies, and was verified with logistic regression analysis. Results: High self-efficacy among working parents was associated with planning a menu for the upcoming week (OR=1.171-1.959), preparation of healthy meals with only few ingredients on hand (OR=1.152-1.495), and preparation of meals in advance (OR=1.131-1.364), which are home-based food strategies. Low self-efficacy was linked to adoption of «away from home» food strategies such as eating in fast-food restaurants (OR=0.713-0.898). Conclusion: self-efficacy related to meal management stands out as one of the priority consideration in planning nutrition interventions targeting working parents. Actions related to acquiring cooking skills, planning menus, and drawing up grocery lists would also be of value.
Article
This paper argues that the emergence of convenience food reflects the re-ordering of the time-space relations of everyday life in contemporary society. It is suggested that the notion of convenience food is highly contested. Britons are ambivalent about serving and eating convenience food. However, many people are constrained to eat what they call convenience foods as a provisional response to intransigent problems of scheduling everyday life. A distinction is drawn between modern and hypermodern forms of convenience, the first directed towards labour-saving or time compression, the second to time-shifting. It is maintained that convenience food is as much a hypermodern response to de-routinisation as it is a modern search for the reduction of toil. Convenience food is required because people are too often in the wrong place; the impulse to time-shifting arises from the compulsion to plan ever more complex time-space paths in everyday life. The problem of timing supersedes the problem of shortage of time. Some of the more general social implications of such a claim are explored.
Article
Many societies have traditionally considered cooking nourishing food for the family to be a natural occupation of women. This article outlines the findings of a small-scale, interpretive study focusing on older Canadian women's participation in planning, preparing, serving, and sharing food for Christmas. The 20 participants, who each took part in one of three focus group discussions, ranged in age from 65 to 93. They were recruited through the Women's Institute in Alberta, Canada and all were from a rural background. Analysis revealed that the meanings of preparing food for family and others at Christmas are shaped by personal, social, cultural, historical, and religious influences. The findings open lines of inquiry into ways these and the next generation of women support the continuation of traditional practices and resist and adjust to change.
Article
Decades ago, discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy. But in the 1970s, diets began to shift towards increased reliance upon processed foods, increased away-from-home food intake, and increased use of edible oils and sugar-sweetened beverages. Reductions in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior began to be seen as well. The negative effects of these changes began to be recognized in the early 1990s, primarily in low- and middle-income populations, but they did not become clearly acknowledged until diabetes, hypertension, and obesity began to dominate the globe. Now, rapid increases in the rates of obesity and overweight are widely documented, from urban and rural areas in the poorest countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to populations in countries with higher income levels. Concurrent rapid shifts in diet and activity are well documented as well. An array of large-scale programmatic and policy measures are being explored in a few countries; however, few countries are engaged in serious efforts to prevent the serious dietary challenges being faced.
Article
To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15-18 years), emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and the mid-to-late twenties (24-28 years), as well as 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults)-I, EAT-II and EAT-III (n 1321). Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73 % of males, 80 % of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24 % of males, 41 % of females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (P < 0·01); those who frequently prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (P < 0·001), but not as adolescents. Emerging adult food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables and dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Food preparation behaviours appeared to track over time and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood.
Article
Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized literacy test results. Structural equation models were applied to confirm hypothesized relationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance, and revealed that body weight affected self-esteem negatively and that school performance affected self-esteem positively. Body weight did not affect school performance, and self-esteem did affect neither body weight nor school performance. Subsequent multi-level logistic regression showed that obese students, relative to normal weight students, were more likely (1.44; 95% CI: 1.12-1.84), and students with good school performance, relative to those performing poor, were less likely (0.39; 95% CI: 0.26-0.58), to have low self-esteem. Diet quality and active living had positive effects on both school performance and self-esteem. The study findings further establish obesity as a risk factor for low self-esteem and add to the rationale to promote healthy eating and active living among children and youth as this will prevent chronic diseases and improve mental health and cognitive development.
Article
To determine the intake distribution and food sources of sodium among young children. Dietary intake was determined for 190 children, 16 months to 6 years of age, using a food frequency questionnaire completed by interviewing a parent. Dietary intake of all nutrients, including dietary sodium, was analyzed. The major food sources of sodium were assessed by grouping foods into categories based on Canada's Food Guide, with subsequent subdivision into food type categories. Dietary sodium intakes were skewed, with a median intake of 2021 mg/d and 5th-95th percentile range of 888-3975 mg/d. The sodium intake of 91.6% of children was above the recommended 1000 or 1200 mg/d for children 1-3 or 3-6 years, respectively, and 85% and 54% had intakes above the tolerable upper limits of 1500 and 1900 mg/d, respectively. The 5 food sources providing the highest amount of sodium were soups, processed/fast foods, dairy products, breads, and processed meats. Children are vulnerable to high sodium intake as a result of their food patterns and the high sodium content of these foods. This report demonstrates that Canadian children have high sodium intakes. Knowledge of feeding practices involving high-sodium foods can assist parents and caregivers in reducing the high sodium intake of young children.
Article
Home economics, otherwise known as domestic education, was a fixture in secondary schools through the 1960s, at least for girls. The underlying concept was that future homemakers should be educated in the care and feeding of their families. This idea now seems quaint, but in the midst of a pediatric obesity epidemic and concerns about the poor diet quality of adolescents in the United States, instruction in basic food preparation and meal planning skills needs to be part of any long-term solution.
Article
To assess and identify correlates of adolescents' and parents' compliance with food guide pyramid recommendations (FGPR) and weight-control behaviors (WCB). Data were collected from a random sample of adolescents (2,021) and parents (1,231) and were analyzed using multiple and logistic regression. Only 7% eight graders, 4% eleventh graders, and 3% parents met all FGPR. The most significant predictors of FGPR and WCB include knowledge, attitudes, and eating concerns. Extreme dieters were less likely and moderate dieters were more likely to meet recommendations. Results have relevance for developing nutritional programs for adolescents.
Article
One in 7 US children and adolescents is obese, yet little is known about their health-related quality of life (QOL). To examine the health-related QOL of obese children and adolescents compared with children and adolescents who are healthy or those diagnosed as having cancer. Cross-sectional study of 106 children and adolescents (57 males) between the ages of 5 and 18 years (mean [SD], 12.1 [3] years), who had been referred to an academic children's hospital for evaluation of obesity between January and June 2002. Children and adolescents had a mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) of 34.7 (9.3) and BMI z score of 2.6 (0.5). Child self-report and parent proxy report using a pediatric QOL inventory generic core scale (range, 0-100). The inventory was administered by an interviewer for children aged 5 through 7 years. Scores were compared with previously published scores for healthy children and adolescents and children and adolescents diagnosed as having cancer. Compared with healthy children and adolescents, obese children and adolescents reported significantly (P<.001) lower health-related QOL in all domains (mean [SD] total score, 67 [16.3] for obese children and adolescents; 83 [14.8] for healthy children and adolescents). Obese children and adolescents were more likely to have impaired health-related QOL than healthy children and adolescents (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-8.7) and were similar to children and adolescents diagnosed as having cancer (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.8-2.3). Children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea reported a significantly lower health-related QOL total score (mean [SD], 53.8 [13.3]) than obese children and adolescents without obstructive sleep apnea (mean [SD], 67.9 [16.2]). For parent proxy report, the child or adolescent's BMI z score was significantly inversely correlated with total score (r = -0.246; P =.01), physical functioning (r = -0.263; P<.01), social functioning (r = -0.347; P<.001), and psychosocial functioning (r = -0.209; P =.03). Severely obese children and adolescents have lower health-related QOL than children and adolescents who are healthy and similar QOL as those diagnosed as having cancer. Physicians, parents, and teachers need to be informed of the risk for impaired health-related QOL among obese children and adolescents to target interventions that could enhance health outcomes.
Article
To describe food-preparation behaviors, cooking skills, resources for preparing food, and associations with diet quality among young adults. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in a sample of young adults who responded to the second wave of a population-based longitudinal study. Measures pertaining to food preparation were self-reported and dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, both by a mailed survey. Males (n = 764) and females (n = 946) ages 18 to 23 years. Cross-tabulations and chi2 tests were used to examine associations between food preparation, skills/resources for preparing foods, and characteristics of young adults. Mixed regression models were used to generate expected probabilities of meeting the Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives according to reported behaviors and skills/resources. Food-preparation behaviors were not performed by the majority of young adults even weekly. Sex (male), race (African American), and living situation (campus housing) were significantly related to less frequent food preparation. Lower perceived adequacy of skills and resources for food preparation was related to reported race (African American or Hispanic) and student status (part-time or not in school). The most common barrier to food preparation was lack of time, reported by 36% of young adults. Young adults who reported frequent food preparation reported less frequent fast-food use and were more likely to meet dietary objectives for fat (P < 0.001), calcium (P < 0.001), fruit (P < 0.001), vegetable (P < 0.001), and whole-grain (P = 0.003) consumption. To improve dietary intake, interventions among young adults should teach skills for preparing quick and healthful meals.
Article
The study sought to develop an understanding of how employed mothers constructed time for food provisioning for themselves and their families. A grounded theory approach and semistructured, in-depth interviews. A metropolitan area of approximately 1 million people in the northeastern United States. Thirty-five low-wage employed mothers were purposively recruited to vary in occupation, race/ethnicity, education, household composition, and age using workplace, community, convenience, and snowball sampling. Low-wage employed mothers' constructions of time for food. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Most mothers expressed feelings of time scarcity. Mothers described 3 timestyles that reflected how they constructed time. Timestyles reflected mothers' experiences of strain and time scarcity, usual time management strategies, and sense of control over time. Mothers prioritized feeding their children but wanted to complete meals quickly in order to move on to other tasks. Recognizing issues of time scarcity and individual differences of timestyles and time management strategies can help researchers better understand food choice practices and assist practitioners in identifying practical food provisioning strategies for low-wage employed mothers. Food policies and recommendations should be evaluated for their relevance to the time scarcity and work strain issues that these mothers faced.
Understanding consumer trends can present new opportunities. Retrieved from the Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development website
  • Zayak-Reynolds
Zayak-Reynolds. (2004). Understanding consumer trends can present new opportunities. Retrieved from the Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development website: http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca
Savoury dishes for adult education and counselling. Retrieved from www Estimating the effects of energy imbalance on changes in body weight in children
  • S Schnögl
  • R Zehetgruber
  • S Danninger
  • M Setzwein
  • R Wenk
  • M Freudenberg
  • C Müller
  • M Groeneveld
  • E Ravussin
Schnögl, S., Zehetgruber, R., Danninger, S., Setzwein, M., Wenk, R., Freudenberg, M., Müller, C., & Groeneveld, M. (2006). Savoury dishes for adult education and counselling. Retrieved from www.foodliteracy.org Swinburn, B. A., Jolley, D., Kremer, P. J., Salbe, A. D., & Ravussin, E. (2006). Estimating the effects of energy imbalance on changes in body weight in children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(4), 859-863.
Canadian food trends to 2020: A long range consumer outlook Retrieved from http://stayactiveeathealthy.ca/files/Canadian_Food_Trends_2020_0.pdf Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada The Canadian consumer behavior, attitudes and perceptions toward food products. Ottawa: Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada
  • Agri-Food Agriculture
  • Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2005). Canadian food trends to 2020: A long range consumer outlook. Retrieved from http://stayactiveeathealthy.ca/files/Canadian_Food_Trends_2020_0.pdf Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2010). The Canadian consumer behavior, attitudes and perceptions toward food products. Ottawa: Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada. Retrieved from http://www.atssea.agr.gc.ca/can/pdf/5505-eng.pdf
Obesity in Canada: A joint report from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Institute for Health Information Retrieved from http://www.phacaspc .gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/oic-oac/index-eng Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation's children
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2011). Obesity in Canada: A joint report from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Retrieved from http://www.phacaspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/oic-oac/index-eng.php Puhl, R. M., & Latner, J. D. (2007). Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation's children. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 557.
In praise of slow: How a worldwide movement is challenging the cult of speed
  • C Honoré
Honoré, C. (2004). In praise of slow: How a worldwide movement is challenging the cult of speed. Toronto: Vintage Canada.
Unhappy meals. The New York Times Retrieved from http The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world
  • M Pollan
Pollan, M. (2007, January 28). Unhappy meals. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Popkin, B. M. (2001). The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. The Journal of Nutrition, 131(3), 871S-873S.
Assessment of obesity and its complications in adults
  • I Hramiak
  • L Leiter
  • T L Paul
  • E Ur
Hramiak, I., Leiter, L., Paul, T. L., & Ur, E. (2007). Assessment of obesity and its complications in adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178, 36-39.
Is that the way the cookie crumbles?: Consumer deskilling in food systems and the journey toward food sovereignty Retrieved from http Is there a culinary skills transition? data and debate from the UK about changes in cooking culture
  • S Kornelson
Kornelson, S. (2009). Is that the way the cookie crumbles?: Consumer deskilling in food systems and the journey toward food sovereignty. Wilfred Laurier University. Retrieved from http://www.agbio.ca/ Docs/Guelph2009SocialSciences/Kornelsen_S_2009.pdf Lang, T., & Caraher, M. (2001). Is there a culinary skills transition? data and debate from the UK about changes in cooking culture. Journal of the HEIA, 8(2), 2-14.
Nutrition insights: Report card on the diet quality of children
  • M Lino
  • S A Gerrior
  • P P Basiotis
  • R S Anand
Lino, M., Gerrior, S. A., Basiotis, P. P., & Anand, R. S. (1998). Nutrition insights: Report card on the diet quality of children. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
Making something out of nothing: Food literacy among youth, young pregnant women and young parents who are at risk for poor health. Retrieved from the Ontario Society of Nutrition Professionals in Public Health website: http://www
  • E Desjardins
  • K Hailburton
Desjardins, E. & Hailburton, K. (2013) Making something out of nothing: Food literacy among youth, young pregnant women and young parents who are at risk for poor health. Retrieved from the Ontario Society of Nutrition Professionals in Public Health website: http://www.osnpph.on.ca/resources/ Food%20Literacy%20Study.LDCPOntario.Final.Dec2013.pdf
Manitoba school nutrition handbook
Healthy Child Manitoba. (2006). Manitoba school nutrition handbook. Winnipeg, MB: Government of Manitoba.
Defining food literacy, its components, development and relationship to food intake: A case study of young people and disadvantage
  • H Vidgen
  • D Gallegos
Vidgen H, & Gallegos D. (2012). Defining food literacy, its components, development and relationship to food intake: A case study of young people and disadvantage. Brisbane, Queensland: Queensland University of Technology.
Le temps dans tous ses états temps de travail, temps de loisir et temps pour la famille à l'aube du XXIe siècle
  • G Pronovost
Pronovost, G. (2007). Le temps dans tous ses états temps de travail, temps de loisir et temps pour la famille à l'aube du XXIe siècle. Montréal, Que.: Institut de recherche en politiques publiques.