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Cosmetic effects of Prunus padus bark extract

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Abstract

Prunus padus bark extract was tested for use as a natural cosmetic ingredient. P. padus bark extract was obtained by hot water extraction and succeeding maturing processes. Total polyphenol and flavonoid concentrations were measured, and safety test (cell toxicity test), efficacy tests (antioxidation, antiwrinkle, whitening), and temperature stability tests were conducted in experiments. Total polyphenol and flavonoid concentrations were 714.7±0.5 mg/g and 72.1±2.2mg/g, respectively. Compared with other natural antioxidants, polyphenol concentration in P. padus bark extract was extremely high. P. padus bark extract showed lower cell toxicity in 100–500 μg/ml concentration by MTT assay. P. padus bark extract indicated 71% DPPH free radical scavenging activity (antioxidation), 36% elastase inhibition (antiwrinkle), and 38% tyrosinase inhibition (whitening) at 350 μg/ml, respectively. W/O/W lotion formulation containing 1% P. padus extract was prepared and stability tests were done to see variations in cosmetic properties. Viscosity, pH, particle size, and appearance of lotion containing 1% P. padus extract maintained stable condition for 28 days. Particle size of lotions showed homogeneous 362–426 nm ranges during stability tests. From this study, P. padus bark extract displayed strong possibility as a natural antioxidative cosmetic agent.

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... Do grupy roślin stanowiących źródło substancji rozjaśniających skórę można zaliczyć także wiele innych gatunków, szczególnie azjatyckich, np. Fagus crenata, Sapium sebiferum, Zelkova serrata, Rhus vernciflua, Nelumbo nucifera, Astragalus sinicus, Prunus padus, Pinus pinaster, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Aloë, Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng oraz grzyby: Sporotrichum pruinosum, Ganoderma lucidum [7,18,26,28,29,44,54,68,81,82]. ...
... Obok zdolności do przeciwdziałania powstawaniu plam hiperpigemntacyjnych poprzez inhibicję tyrozynazy, stwierdzono dla takiego ekstraktu także aktywność przeciwzmarszczkową, wynikającą z hamowania elastazy, oraz aktywność antyoksydacyjną. Ekstrakt taki cechowała wysoka zawartość polifenoli i flawonoidów (odpowiednio 714,7±0,5 mg/g i 72,1±2,2mg/g), a kosmetyk o formulacji lotionu z dodatkiem 1% ekstraktu zachowywał stabilną formułę przez 28 dni [18]. ...
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Streszczenie Składniki wybielające skórę są obecne w wielu roślinach, grzybach i bakteriach. Stanowią one cel wielu badań w przemyśle kosmetycznym. Obok ekstraktów o działaniu wybielającym, stosowane są czyste substancje aktywne pochodzenia naturalnego lub poszukiwane są związki syntetyczne o ta-kim działaniu. Działanie większości substancji sprowadza się do zakłócenia procesów melanogene-zy, tylko nieliczne substancje mają aktywność rozkładu melaniny. Wstęp W wielu kulturach pojmowanie piękna wiąże się nie tylko z młodą i jędrną, ale tak-że z jasną i pozbawioną zmian pigmentacyjnych, nieskazitelną skórą. Przebarwienia skórne w wielu kulturach (szczególnie azjatyckich) mogą stanowić problem natury es-tetycznej, a często także i psychologicznej [42]. Skłania to do poszukiwania składników kosmetyków mogących pomóc w zapobieganiu powstawania przebarwień lub w ich usuwaniu. Taki efekt można uzyskać unikając czynników sprzyjających powstawaniu przebarwień, np. promieni słonecznych, lub sięgając do tego, czym dysponuje współ-czesna branża kosmetyczna. Obecnie kosmetologia dysponuje dość szerokim wachla-rzem komponentów rozjaśniających skórę, ale wciąż są poszukiwane nowe, zwłasz-cza takie, które w bezpieczny i prosty sposób zlikwidują plamy i przebarwienia.
... The above-mentioned effect of the bark was also pointed out by other authors who assessed the antioxidant activity using the DPPH-free radical scavenging assay. The antioxidative effect of P. padus bark water extract was 71% at 350 µg/mL and higher than 70% at all concentrations [21]. The effects of bark components may be multidirectional. ...
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The study assessed the health-promoting properties and the content of minerals in the bark of bird cherry (Prunus padus L.), which was then used as an ingredient in functional teas. The infusions were made with the use of Matricaria chamomilla L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Calendula officinalis L., and then combined with the bark in various proportions. The prepared infusions were tested for antioxidant activity, ability to reduce copper ions and iron ions, as well as the ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. In the next stage, the antimicrobial activity and the ability to inhibit the enzyme cycloxygenase-2 were assessed. Bird cherry bark contains a high potassium content of 19.457 ± 762 mg/kg d.m. In all the tests evaluating the antioxidant activity, infusions from the bark of bird cherry alone and with its 30% addition had the strongest properties. The analyzed infusions also have the ability to reduce Cu(ii) ions; they are active to reduce Fe(iii) ions and scavenge hydroxyl radical. The highest antimicrobial activity was found for teas with 20 and 30% bark, especially against Listeria monocytogenes (25.0–27.0 mm) (±3.0). The bark infusion was also found to have the highest inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) – 77.0%.
... In 2015, scientists from Korea also studied the total content of polyphenol in methanolic extracts from the bark of P. padus [27]. The bark was also a research material for another group of scientists who determined the high content of phenolic in water extracts and it was suggested by them that this could be a way to eliminate it from the environment [28]. Those benefits may also be the result of the high antioxidant potential, e.g., the reduction activity [27]. ...
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Prunus padus L., is not very popular plant, it is commonly found due to low soil requirements and easy to settle in various places. As for now, concerning food technology, there is no wide application for P. padus. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using bird cherry bark as an ingredient in herbal functional teas. In the first step, the conditions for extraction of the bark were electrochemically optimized. It was proven that the highest content of polyphenols could be found in the sample consisting of chamomile, linden flower, and calendula (7939.8 ± 106.6 mg/100 g dm). In the beta-carotene bleaching test, the highest activity could be spotted for calendula tea (16.7 ± 1.1c%) and chamomile tea (15.0 ± 2.0c%) and concerning the test for linden flower tea without added bark (134.4 ± 15.1b μg ascorbic acid /mL). The property of the tested teas to inhibit cholinesterases was proven. What is more, P. padus bark infusion showed the highest activity of 15.8 ± 1.1d μg neostigmine/mL, for acetylcholinesterases (AChE) inhibition and 21.2 ± 1.0c μg neostigmine/mL for butyrylcholinesterases (BChE). The same tea also showed the highest activity to reduce ions of iron (Fe(III)): 25.3 ± 0.9c μg Trolox /mL and glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase inhibition, 87.0 ± 1.1e% and 64.9 ± 2.0d% respectively. The use of P. padus bark may be vital in the preventive care concerning modern-age diseases and allow for the production of a new range of products with distinctive sensory characteristics and functional properties and, at the same time, in combating the spread of P. padus in the farm and forest ecosystem.
... Moreover, although PP seeds, fruits, flowers, and other species have been reported to have in-vivo protective activity against UV-induced photoaging and in-vitro antiwrinkle and skin whitening activates [15,23,[27][28][29][30][31][32], this has never been reported for PP leaves extract. ...
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Polyphenols are known dietary antioxidants. They have recently attracted considerable interest in uses to prevent skin aging and hyperpigmentation resulting from solar UV-irradiation. Prunus persica (L.) leaves are considered by-products and were reported to have a remarkable antioxidant activity due to their high content of polyphenols. This study aimed at the development of a cosmeceutical anti-aging and skin whitening cream preparation using ethanol leaves extract of Prunus persica (L.) (PPEE) loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to enhance the skin delivery. Chemical investigation of PPEE showed significantly high total phenolic and flavonoids content with notable antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene assays). A unique acylated kaempferol glycoside with a rare structure, kaempferol 3-O-β-4C1-(6″-O-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetyl glucopyranoside) (KDPAG) was isolated for the first time and its structure fully elucidated. It represents the first example of acylation with 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid in flavonoid chemistry. The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies against a human keratinocytes cell line revealed the non-toxicity of PPEE and PPEE-SLNs. Moreover, PPEE, PPEE-SLNs, and KDPAG showed good anti-elastase activity, comparable to that of N-(Methoxysuccinyl)-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethyl ketone. Besides, PPEE-SLNs and KDPAG showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher anti-collagenase and anti-tyrosinase activities in comparison to EDTA and kojic acid, respectively. Different PPEE-SLNs cream formulae (2% and 5%) were evaluated for possible anti-wrinkle activity against UV-induced photoaging in a mouse model using a wrinkle scoring method and were shown to offer a highly significant protective effect against UV, as evidenced by tissue biomarkers (SOD) and histopathological studies. Thus, the current study demonstrates that Prunus persica leaf by-products provide an interesting, valuable resource for natural cosmetic ingredients. This provides related data for further studying the potential safe use of PPEE-SLNs in topical anti-aging cosmetic formulations with enhanced skin permeation properties.
... It was also reported that lipophilic extracts from leaves, inflorescences and fruits have an anti-inflammatory effect (Magiera et al. 2019). Bark extracts are also useful ingredients in cosmetics since they have antioxidant, antiwrinkle, and whitening effects (Hwang et al. 2014). In Europe, P. padus was evaluated to have excellent potential for healthy food materials, as well as, a great value as a medicinal resource (Donno et al. 2018). ...
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We applied seven pairs of primer-restriction enzyme combinations to investigate the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of Prunus padus populations with AFLP markers. The values obtained for average of effective alleles (A e), percentage of polymorphic loci (%P), Shannon’s diversity index (I), and expected heterozygosity (H e) were 1.38, 81.4, 0.357, and 0.223%, respectively. The expected heterozygosity (Hj) obtained by using a Bayesian method was 0.256. The level of genetic diversity obtained for P. padus was low compared to that of Prunus species and other species with a similar life history. The inbreeding coefficient (F IS) from the approximated Bayesian method was 0.767. This value was lower than that obtained for Ulmus davidiana, which undergoes both sexual and asexual reproduction. However, the value obtained was larger than that for other species that undergo sexual reproduction, such as, Carpinus laxiflora, Phellodendron amurense, and Acer pseudosieboldianum. The value of genetic differentiation was 0.245 from AMOVA (ΦST) and 0.278 from Bayesian method (θII). The obtained level of genetic differentiation was large compared to that of other Prunus species plants and other species with a similar life history. According to UPGMA and Bayesian clustering, 11 populations were divided into two genetic groups. However, some populations were detected as weak genetic structures according to the geographical distribution. It was occurred by forest succession, asexual propagation strategies to adapt local environmental change, and gene flow being gradually decreased due to population fragmentation by demographic disturbances.
... The extract showed 71% free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (antioxidant), 36% elastase inhibition (anti-wrinkle action) and 38% tyrosinase inhibition (whitening action) at 350 μg/mL. The preparation in the form of lotion, containing 1% of P. padus bark extract, showed that the viscosity, pH, particle size and appearance of the lotion remained stable for 28 days [141]. The lotion particle size was stable (362-426 nm) during stability tests. ...
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Wild cherry is a plant observed in the form of trees or shrubs. This species comprises about twenty kinds of plants and the most popular are two, Prunus padus L. and Prunus serotina L., whose properties and content of phytochemical compounds are subject to studies. Wild cherry contains many active compounds, including tocopherols, vitamins, polyphenols and terpenes, which can have beneficial effects on health. On the other hand, wild cherry contains cyanogenic glycosides. Nevertheless, current research results indicate pro-health properties associated with both P. serotina and P. padus. The aim of this study was to collect and present the current state of knowledge about wild cherry and to review available in vitro and in vivo studies concerning its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antidiabetic activity. Moreover, the current work presents and characterizes phytochemical content in the leaves, bark and fruits of P. padus and P. serotina and compiles data that indicate their health-promoting and functional properties and possibilities of using them to improve health. We find that the anatomical parts of P. padus and P. serotina can be a valuable raw material used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as a source of bioactive compounds with multi-directional action.
... Yapar, Ynal and Erdal (2013) observed viscosity reduction of the formulations after incorporating the plant extract in their studies, whereas they found that the formulation was stable even after incorporation of extract. Similarly, stable formulations were developed by incorporation of extracts, such as Prunus padus bark extract (Hwang et al., 2014), and Opuntia ficus indica Mill. in different cosmetic vehicles (Ribeiro et al., 2015). ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of Kalanchoe brasiliensis extract, followed by the development of an oil in water emulsion containing the K. brasiliensis leaves extract and evaluating its clinical moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing sodium acrylates/ Beheneth-25 methacrylate Crosspolymer (and) hydrogenated polydecene (and) lauryl glucoside and 0.5% of extract were prepared. The extract was considered as non-irritating through skin irritant tests. The stability testing was carried out in different conditions for 90 days. The skin hydration was measured by capacitance measurement and transepidermal water loss using biophysical techniques. The results indicate that the formulation containing 0.5% of extract increased the hydration of the stratum corneum up to 5 h after application on the forearm. The transepidermal water loss was reduced when compared to the untreated area and placebo area. Therefore, we can conclude that the increased skin hydration and protection of barrier function can be attributed to the K. brasiliensis extract. This research presents a new raw material from the Brazilian Caatinga biome and shows its possible application in the development of cosmetic products.
... padus and P. spinosa) showed a total antioxidant value of 2.95 and 0.26 mmol Trolox/100 g FW, respectively, i.e. 11 times lower in P. spinosa than in P. padus. High concentration of anthocyanins was determined in P. padus fruits by Kucharska et al., [26] while Hwang et al. [27] recommend the bark extract of P. padus as a cosmetic agent with natural antioxidant properties. ...
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In the hereby study the total phenolic, total flavonoids, phenolic compounds, the mineral content and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of seven wild species (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Prunus spinosa L., Rosa canina L., Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Rubus fruticosus L., Prunus padus, Cornus mas L.) were investigated. The results indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) in the total phenolics and total flavonoids content, between the seven analyzed species. These ranged from 184.69 to 727.29 mg GAE/100 g FW and 17.27 to 165.55 mg QE/100 g FW, respectively. The antioxidant activity found in fruits was not directly affected by total phenolic content. This activity was linked to a larger extent to the type of individual phenolic compounds and to a lesser extent to the total phenolic content, because fruits with higher total phenolic content have not always presented the highest values of antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis of methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolic acids (i.e. gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salycilic, elagic and trans-cinnamic) and flavonoids (i.e. catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in each individual mineral between fruits from wild flora. The fruits tissues of wild species turned out to be a good source of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and boron (B). The results demonstrated that wild species possessed great potential for food production as sources of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and minerals, for food supplements or functional foods.
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Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) becomes unstable in the aqueous phase by oxygen, light and alkali, etc. The properties are limited in application to cosmetics. The most important factor that determines the destabilization of ascorbic acid in the aqueous phase was tried to understand considering its molecular deformation and degradation. In this study, we changed the polyols and emulsification technique for the stability of ascorbic acid. Then we observed the color and concentration change of ascorbic acid at room temperature and high temperature () for 6 weeks and identified the stability using HPLC regularly. As a result, we found that glycerin was the most appropriate polyol for stability of the ascorbic acid. Also the technique of nonaqueous emulsification stabilized ascorbic acid than P/S emulsification. Also, P/S emulsification, glycerin was more stable than propylene glycol. By the results we suggest that ascorbic acid could be stabilized by nonaqueous emulsification method and this data could be applied to stabilization methods for cosmetic products.
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Water extract from Nelumbo nucifera was tested for possible functional cosmetic agent. Whitening effect was measured by tyrosinase inhibition assay and DOPA-oxidase inhibition assay, and anti-wrinkle effect was checked by elastase inhibition assay. DOPA-oxidase inhibition effect (whitening effect) of Nelumbo nucifera’s leaf, seed and flower extract was 59%, 57% and 50%, respectively. Nelumbo nucifera’s leaf, seed and flower extract showed 56%, 49%, and 54% elastase inhibition (anti-wrinkle effect) at 200 μg/ml, while adenosine indicated 26% inhibition. Water cream including Nelumbo nucifera’s root, leaf, flower, stem extract did not cause significant skin irritation. Water cream including 4% Nelumbo nucifera extract was stable for 30 days under various temperature conditions. From the study, Nelumbo nucifera’s leaf, flower and seed extracts showed strong possibility for whitening and anti-wrinkle functional cosmetic agent.
Article
Vitamin C is used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant activity, although a high dose (500 mg) may act as a pro-oxidant in the body1, 2. Here we show that 100 g of fresh apples has an antioxidant activity equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C, and that whole-apple extracts inhibit the growth of colon- and liver- cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that natural antioxidants from fresh fruit could be more effective than a dietary supplement.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Prunus padus Linne has been widely used as a traditional medicine, with beneficial effects in numerous diseases, including stroke, neuralgia and hepatitis. In this study, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the methylene chloride fraction of P. padus (MPP). Materials and methods: In vitro studies, the anti-inflammatory effects of MPP were examined using IFN-γ/LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophage model. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of MPP in vivo, trypsin-induced paw edema test was also conducted. The anti-nociceptive activities of MPP were measured using various experimental pain models including thermal nociception methods such as the tail immersion test and the hot plate test as well as chemical nociception methods like acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin test. To determine whether analgesic activity of MPP is connected with the opioid receptor, we carried out combination test with naloxone, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist. Results: In the current study, MPP showed potent inhibitory effect on IFN-γ/LPS-induced NO production. MPP also suppressed not only iNOS enzyme activity but also iNOS expression. Moreover, MPP inhibited COX-2 expression dose dependently. IFN-γ/LPS stimulation induced the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus but it was attenuated in the presence of MPP. In vivo study revealed that MPP could reduce paw volume after subplantar injection of trypsin. In addition, MPP showed potent analgesic activities both thermal and chemical nociception compared to tramadol and indomethacin. Furthermore, pre-treatment of naloxone slightly suppress the analgesic activity of MPP indicating that MPP acts as a partial opioid receptor agonist. Conclusions: In the present study, MPP showed potent anti-inflammatory properties through not only by suppressing various inflammatory mediators in vitro, but reducing the inflammatory edema in vivo. MPP also exhibited strong anti-nociceptive activities via both central and peripheral mechanism by acting as a partial opioid agonist. Based on these results we suggest that P. padus has the potential to provide a therapeutic approach to inflammation-mediated chronic diseases as an effective anti-inflammatory agent and painkiller.
Article
Bird cherry (Prunus padus) anthocyanins were extracted with acidified methanol, fractionated by column chromatography on Toyopearl HW40(S) and purified in a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge. The pigment composition was very simple, as there were only two compounds. The anthocyanins cyanidin-3-rutinoside (60%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (40%) were determined using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.© 2002 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The levels of total polyphenols and o-diphenols were determined in virgin oils and in chloroform/methanol-extracted oils. The solventextracted oils were richer in polyphenols than the virgin oils. High polyphenol content was associated with a high resistance to oxidation of the oils. A linear relationship was found between polyphenol content and the oxidative stability of the virgin oils during storage at 60 C. After removal of the polyphenols, the oxidative stability of the oils decreased considerably and seemed to depend on polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.
Article
Porcine amniotic fluid was investigated for use as a functional cosmetic ingredient. From safety tests by MTT (5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, cell viability was above 90% for 50–1,000 μg/mL concentration and porcine amniotic fluid was safe for cosmetic ingredient. From stability tests, cream containing 1% porcine amniotic fluid maintained constant physical properties for color, pH and viscosity during 28 days, and porcine amniotic fluid was stable for a cosmetic agent. Efficacy tests were done for antiwrinkle (elastase inhibition and collagenase synthesis inhibition), whitening (tyrosinase inhibition and DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenyl-alanine) oxidation inhibition) and antioxidation. At 500 μg/mL concentration, elastase inhibition of porcine placenta amniotic fluid was 33%, whereas that of adenosine as reference was 14%. However, porcine amniotic fluid showed relatively insignificant effect on collagenase synthesis inhibition, whitening and antioxidation activity. From this study, porcine amniotic fluid showed potential for a future antiwrinkle cosmetic agent. Key wordsPorcine Amniotic Fluid–Antiwrinkle–Whitening–Safety–Stability
Article
Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in various skin diseases including, premature aging of the skin and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Chronic UV radiation exposure-induced skin diseases or skin disorders are caused by the excessive induction of inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc. The use of chemopreventive agents, such as plant polyphenols, to inhibit these events in UV-exposed skin is gaining attention. Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse or retard the process of these harmful events in the UV-exposed skin. A wide variety of polyphenols or phytochemicals, most of which are dietary supplements, have been reported to possess substantial skin photoprotective effects. This review article summarizes the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols, such as green tea polyphenols, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin and genistein, on UV-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc., with a focus on mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effects of these polyphenols. The laboratory studies conducted in animal models suggest that these polyphenols have the ability to protect the skin from the adverse effects of UV radiation, including the risk of skin cancers. It is suggested that polyphenols may favorably supplement sunscreens protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage.
Article
A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
Article
Male humpbacks modify their sexual displays when exposed to man-made noise.
Article
The main focus and efforts for the next few years in the area of emulsion technology will be to improve stability and control the release of active matter in double emulsions (3rd World Congress on Emulsions, Lyon, France, September 2002). Almost any possible blends of low-molecular weight emulsifiers, oils, cosolvents and coemulsifiers have been already tested. Biopolymers, synthetic graft and comb co-polymers and polymerizable emulsifiers that impart steric or mechanical stabilization with improved stability and better controlled release were explored. Amphiphilic macromolecules, natural occurring or synthetic, that increase the viscosity of each of the phases, complex with the oil or the emulsifiers and form systems that will behave much like microcapsules, microspheres and/or mesophasic liquid crystals have been mentioned as possible new technologies for improved stability. This review will concentrate only on the most recent findings that can enhance stability of the double emulsions and/or will reduce droplets sizes for potential food applications. The attempts and achievements include: selection of food-grade blends of emulsifiers to enhance emulsion stability at both inner and outer interfaces and use of new polymeric amphiphiles (carriers, complexing agents, natural polymeric emulsifiers) to control and reduce the reverse micellar transport phenomena and to control the addenda transport.
Article
There are many cosmetic ingredients, such as preservatives and fragrances, known to elicit adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the side-effects of cosmetic preservatives, by evaluating objective and subjective skin irritation. The method comprised of 2 parts. In part 1, we tried to compare 24-hr patch test results with the sensory irritation potential of several preservatives. In part 2, skin cumulative irritation test for 21 days and sensory irritation test were performed to compare various combinations of preservatives in 4 types of formulations. Our data showed that methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, phenoxyethanol (PE) and chlorphenesin (CPN) have similar objective skin irritation potential at the minimal inhibitory concentration of each preservative, but CPN has higher potential than other preservatives in subjective irritation. Sensory irritation of preservatives changed according to formulation type, and PE combined with CPN highly increased irritation. There was correlation between antimicrobial activity and skin objective irritation but not sensory irritation. Influence on skin sensory irritation varies with the combination of preservatives. Therefore, for the development of new preservatives and cosmetics, it is important to evaluate skin sensory irritation of preservatives used in cosmetic products according to the type of formulations.
Cosmeceuticals and active cosmetics
  • P Elsner
  • H I Mailbach
  • P. Elsner