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Consumer Attitudes and Shopping Intentions toward Pop-up Fashion Stores

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Abstract

Pop-up retail refers to the practice of opening a transitory, short-term, and often unannounced retail sales space. Such a space may be set up in a movable container or in an existing structure to offer consumers experiential shopping and face-to-face interaction with brand representatives. The retail industry has rapidly embraced pop-up retail as a feasible distribution channel for reaching consumers, launching new products, and testing niche markets. Pop-up stores may also be operated as promotional events; the purpose of which is to increase brand awareness rather than to make sales.
J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147 139
Consumer Attitudes and Shopping Intentions toward Pop-up Fashion Stores
Pop-up Fashion Store
Jay Sang Ryu1)
Abstract
Pop-up retail refers to the practice of opening a transitory,
short-term, and often unannounced retail sales space. Such a
space may be set up in a movable container or in an existing
structure to offer consumers experiential shopping and
face-to-face interaction with brand representatives. The retail
industry has rapidly embraced pop-up retail as a feasible dis-
tribution channel for reaching consumers, launching new prod-
ucts, and testing niche markets. Pop-up stores may also be op-
erated as promotional events; the purpose of which is to in-
crease brand awareness rather than to make sales.
Researchers have compared consumer behavior in the context
of such varied retail outlets as traditional brick-and-mortar
stores and online stores. However, researchers have not here-
tofore investigated consumer behavior associated with pop-up
fashion stores, even though a wide range of retailers utilize the
pop-up format. Since pop-up retail is a distinct type of retail
outlet, consumers’ attitudes and shopping intentions toward
pop-up stores may differ from those they harbor toward tradi-
tional brick-and-mortar stores or online stores. The research
goal of identifying variables that influence consumers’ attitudes
and intentions relative to pop-up fashion stores is important to
developing effective pop-up retail strategies that will, in turn,
allow fashion brands to diversify their distribution channels and
thus reach more consumers and better promote their brands.
Six hypotheses were proposed based on the review of liter-
ature: fashion involvement positively affects fashion-oriented
impulse buying behavior (hypothesis 1a) and attitudes toward
pop-up fashion stores (hypothesis 1b). Similarly, the need for
hedonic shopping experiences positively effects impulse buying
behavior (hypothesis 2a) and attitudes toward pop-up fashion
stores (hypothesis 2b). Finally, fashion-oriented impulse buying
behavior positively effects attitudes toward pop-up fashion
stores (hypothesis 3), which in turn, effects shopping intentions
at the stores (hypothesis 4).
The data was collected from 245 consumers at the airports
in two major cities in the West and Southwest regions of the
US. The sample was comprised of women (60.8 %) and men
(39.2 %) with an average age of 34.1 years. The fit statistics
of the measurement model confirmed an excellent model fit:
χ2=252.82 with 160 df at p-value<0.001; RMSEA of 0.047
(90% CI for RMSEA=0.035-0.058); CFI of 0.99; and NFI of
1) Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Fashion Merchandising Program, School of
Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas State UniversitySan Marcos,
Tel.: +1 512 245 4620,
E-mail
: jryu@txstate.edu
2011 KAMS. All rights reserved.
0.97. Cronbach’s alpha for latent constructs ranged from 0.88
to 0.98, and factor loadings were in the range of 0.71 to 0.96
with p-values<0.01. The construct reliability ranged from 0.84
to 0.97, and the average variance extracted ranged from 0.58
to 0.90. The overall fit indices of the research model indicated
a good model fit: χ2=288.67 with 163 df at p-value<0.001;
RMSEA of 0.053 (90% CI for RMSEA=0.042-0.063); CFI of
0.99; and NFI of 0.97.
Fashion involvement had a positive effect on fash-
ion-oriented impulse buying behavior, supporting Hypothesis 1a
(γ=0.54, p<0.001). There was no significant positive effect of
fashion involvement on attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores,
rejecting Hypothesis1b. The need for hedonic shopping experi-
ences had a significant positive effect on fashion-oriented im-
pulse buying behavior and attitude toward pop-up fashion
stores, supporting both Hypotheses 2a (γ=0.31, p<0.001) and
2b (γ=0.32, p 0.001). Fashion-oriented impulse buying had no
significant positive effect on attitudes toward pop-up fashion
stores, rejecting Hypothesis 3. Positive consumer attitudes to-
ward pop-up fashion stores increased participants' shopping in-
tentions with regard to the stores, supporting hypothesis 4 (β
=0.72, p<0.001).
Operating pop-up fashion stores may be an effective retail
strategy for suiting the interests of hedonic consumers. The
idea of stores “popping-up” unexpectedly may be appealing
enough to catch some consumers’ attention but attention alone
may not be sufficient motivation to get consumers to take the
next step, that is, shopping at a given store. Although pop-up
stores are meant to be open for only a short period of time,
retailers should attend to such considerations as the quality of
merchandise, store layout and ambience, window displays, and
customer service so as to create a desirable shopping environ-
ment and experience. The non-significant association between
fashion involvement and attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores
suggests that consumers, even those who are highly interested
in fashion, may not be entirely aware of the benefits or even
the concept of pop-up fashion stores.
This study also revealed no significant positive effect of
fashion-oriented impulse buying on attitudes toward pop-up
fashion stores. The lack of connection was probably due to
lack of experience with pop up retailers. Therefore, retailers
could focus on increasing consumer awareness of pop-up retail
as an innovative and exciting retail distribution channel by uti-
lizing social networking services such as Facebook and Twitter
to facilitate immediate word-of-mouth promotion to create buzz
about pop-up stores.
Global fashion brands may apply a pop-up retail strategy to
retail internationalization and test the potential of entering mar-
140 J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147
kets before committing to the markets. Established global fash-
ion brands may use pop-up stores to identify ideal locations
for future permanent stores in foreign markets and as promo-
tional events to engage in interactive brand communication
with the consumer. For emerging global fashion brands, pop-up
stores could function as a means to understand the consumer.
By interacting with the consumer in pop-up store settings,
fashion brands can scrutinize consumer responses to brand po-
sitioning and product offerings and increase brand awareness.
They could also increase their presence in the global market
through setting up stores in a pop-up shopping mall.
Keywords: Pop-up retail, Impulse buying, Hedonic shopping,
Fashion involvement, Fashion marketing
Pop-up Fashion Store
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χ2=252.82 (df=160, p-val-
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1. Introduction
Pop-up retail is a term used to describe the practice of
opening a transitory, short-term, and often unannounced retail
sales space (“Pop-up retail”, 2005). The retail industry has rap-
idly embraced pop-up retail as a feasible distribution channel
for reaching consumers, launching new products, testing niche
markets, and increasing brand awareness (Kim, Fiore, Niehm,
& Jeong, 2010; Niehm, Fiore, Jeong, & Kim, 2007; “Pop-up
retail”, 2005). As compared to a traditional store, opening a
pop-up store offers a retail opportunity with relatively low risk
and low start-up expenses (Del Rey, 2010). Such a space may
be set up in a movable container or in an existing structure
(e.g., an empty store or gallery) to offer consumers experi-
ential shopping and face-to-face interaction with brand repre-
sentatives (Gordon, 2004; “Pop-up retail”, 2005). Pop-up stores
may also be operated as promotional events; the purpose of
which is to increase brand awareness rather than to make sales
(Niehm et al., 2007; Sherman, 2009).
By creating experiential retail settings, retailers increase con-
sumers’ knowledge about and recognition of the retailer and
decrease their association with competitors (Woodside &
Walser, 2007). Experiential shopping environments are often
created by manipulating aspects of a store’s environment (e.g.,
music, scents, lighting) (Varley, 2005). A store “popping-up” is
one way to manipulate its environment. Niehm et al. (2007)
suggested that because pop-up retail incorporates the experi-
ential marketing concept into retailing, it is an effective and
J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147 141
innovative way to accommodate consumers’ desire for enter-
tainment and pleasant experiences to be part of their shopping.
Pop-up retail is especially important in the fashion industry.
The concept of pop-up retail is believed to have been first ini-
tiated by a fashion brand, Commes des Garçons, (Hutchison,
2009; Walker, 2011) but it has since been applied by dis-
counters (e.g., Target), specialty stores (e.g., Gap), department
stores (e.g., Macy's), luxury brands (e.g., Louis Vuitton), and
non-store retailers (Hutchison, 2009; Moin, 2011; Sherman,
2009; Walker, 2011). While pop-up retail is particularly effec-
tive in urban areas (Surchi, 2011), the retail format can be ex-
panded to communities of various sizes and types (Niehm et
al., 2007; Sherman, 2009).
Researchers have compared consumer behavior in the context
of such varied retail outlets as traditional brick-and-mortar
stores and online stores (e.g., Chiang, Zhang, & Zhou, 2006;
Danaher, Wilson, & Davis, 2003). However, researchers have
not heretofore investigated consumer behavior associated with
pop-up fashion stores, even though a wide range of retailers
utilize the pop-up format. Since pop-up retail is a distinct type
of retail outlet (Niehm et al., 2007), consumers’ attitudes and
shopping intentions toward pop-up stores may differ from those
they hold toward traditional brick-and-mortar stores or online
stores. The research goal of identifying variables that influence
consumers’ attitudes and intentions relative to pop-up fashion
stores is important to developing effective pop-up retail strat-
egies that will, in turn, allow fashion brands to diversify their
distribution channels and thus reach more consumers and better
promote their brands.
2. Literature Review and Hypotheses
Development
2.1. Fashion Involvement
Involvement is a motivational state of excitement or interest
stimulated by an object or circumstance (O’Cass, 2004). Highly
fashion-involved consumers are knowledgeable about fashion
and are consequently active consumers of fashion products
(Seo, Hathcote, & Sweaney, 2001). Furthermore, consumers
who are highly involved in a product category tend to be im-
pulse buyers of that product category. For example, it has
been demonstrated that students studying fashion (high involve-
ment in a category) express a strong impulse-buying tendency
toward fashion products (Park, Kim, & Forney, 2006).
Fashion-involved consumers are confident in their fashion pur-
chases (O’Cass, 2004), and this confidence may drive them to
make quick and impulsive purchase decisions. Thus, the fol-
lowing hypothesis was developed.
H1a. Fashion involvement has a positive effect on fash-
ion-oriented impulse buying behavior.
Fashion involvement is also believed to influence consumers’
fashion store patronage decisions (Kopp, Eng, & Tigert, 1989;
McKinney, Legette-Traylor, Kincade, & Holloman, 2004). For
instance, consumers with high fashion involvement tend to
shop at specialty and department stores rather than at discount
stores (McKinney et al., 2004; Tatzel, 1982). They also prefer
new fashion styles (Park et al., 2006); these products are most
likely available at specialty or department stores rather than at
discount stores. As previously noted, pop-up fashion stores are
designed for testing new markets and launching new lines
(Moin, 2011; Sherman, 2009). Thus, fashion-involved consum-
ers may hold positive attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores.
H1b. Fashion involvement has a positive effect on attitudes to-
ward pop-up fashion stores.
2.2. Hedonic Shopping Experience
Shopping is a source of entertainment and enjoyment for
many consumers (Prus & Dawson, 1991). These consumers
seek fun and excitement from their shopping in a manner sim-
ilar to those individuals who seek fun from their leisure activ-
ities (Lunt & Livingstone, 1992) and they place importance on
having a hedonic shopping experience (Sanchez-Franco &
Roldan, 2005). Consumers seeking hedonic shopping experi-
ences tend to be impulse buyers (Hausman, 2000). Hedonic
shopping is related to consumers’ emotional experiences with
products or stores, which in turn affect their impulse buying
tendencies (Kalla & Arora, 2011). Indeed, Park et al. (2006)
found that experience-seeking consumers also impulsively pur-
chased apparel. Building on these findings, the following hy-
pothesis was developed.
H2a. The need for hedonic shopping experiences has a positive
effect on fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior.
Consumers’ satisfaction with hedonic shopping experiences
affects their attitudes toward shopping channels (Childers, Carr,
Peck, & Carson, 2001). Since pop-up stores are hedonic by
definition, offering consumers surprises and shopping excite-
ment (Kim et al., 2010; Niehm et al., 2007), consumers who
seek hedonic shopping experiences may perceive shopping at
pop-up stores to be a fit with their shopping needs. In that
vein, Kim et al. (2010) found that shopping enjoyment is one
of the psychographic characteristics affecting consumers’ ac-
ceptance of pop-up stores. Building on these findings, the fol-
lowing hypothesis was developed.
H2b. The need for hedonic shopping experiences has a pos-
itive effect on attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores.
2.3. Fashion-oriented Impulse Buying Behavior
Through in-depth interviews, Yu and Bastin (2010) identified
characteristics of impulse buyers; they like to buy products
new and to buy things on the spot. Impulse buying is also
supported by consumers’ emotional states, including excitement
142 J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147
Fig. 1. Proposed structural model for shopping intentions toward pop-up fashion stores
and positive feelings (Lee & Johnson, 2010; Park & Forney,
2011). Combined, these findings imply that because fash-
ion-oriented impulse buyers like excitement, buying new, and
making purchases quickly, they may hold positive attitudes to-
ward pop up stores because they provide opportunities to buy
new products on the spot, they are unexpected, and offer
shopping excitement.
In addition, consumers sometimes plan to be “unplanned,”
such that the phrase “planned spontaneity” has been introduced
to explain their behavior (“Planned spontaneity”, 2003).
Planned spontaneity is a consumer’s spontaneous decision-mak-
ing behavior concerning where to go or what to do (“Planned
spontaneity”, 2003) and underlies the pop-up retail strategy
(“Pop-up retail”, 2005). The most relevant concept in applying
planned spontaneity in a pop up context is planned impulse
buying. Planned impulse buying is a situation where one plans
to purchase something in advance but impulsively decides what
specific product to buy at the store (Kalla & Arora, 2011).
Thus, pop up retailing might provide an environment that fuels
fashion oriented impulse buying. Based on this reasoning, the
following hypothesis was developed.
H3: Fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior has a positive
effect on attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores.
2.4. Attitudes and Shopping Intentions
One of the fundamental premises of the valueattitudebe-
havior hierarchy is that a positive attitude leads to a corre-
sponding behavioral intention (Homer & Kahle, 1988; Milfont,
Duckitt, & Wagner, 2010). This relationship between attitudes
and behavioral intentions has been tested in the context of
consumers’ choice of retail channels. Pan and Zinkan (2006)
found that consumers’ positive attitudes toward a store or store
type increase the likelihood of their shopping at that store or
store type. Similarly, Kim, Kim, and Kumar (2003) confirmed
a positive link between consumers’ attitudes and shopping in-
tentions toward online fashion retailers. Kim et al.’s (2010)
and Niehm et al.’s (2007) also found positive effects of con-
sumers’ attitudes on their shopping intentions in the context of
pop-up retail. Based on these findings the following hypothesis
was proposed.
H4: Attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores have a positive
effect on shopping intention toward pop-up fashion stores.
The research model (Figure 1) depicts the six hypotheses
proposed based on the review of literature: fashion involvement
positively affects fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior
(hypothesis 1a) and attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores
(hypothesis 1b). Similarly, the need for hedonic shopping expe-
riences positively effects impulse buying behavior (hypothesis
2a) and attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores (hypothesis 2b).
Finally, fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior positively ef-
fects attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores (hypothesis 3),
which in turn, effects shopping intentions at the stores
(hypothesis 4).
3. Method
3.1. Measurements
A self-administered questionnaire developed from existing
scales and the extant literature was used to deliver the meas-
ures of the five constructs (Table 1). Fashion involvement (α
=.88, 4 items), need for hedonic shopping experiences (α=.97,
4 items), and fashion-oriented impulse buying (α=.93, 4
items) were measured with items modified from Park et al.,
(2006). The measurements for attitudes (α=.97, 4 items) and
shopping intentions toward pop-up fashion stores (α=.98, 4
items) were modified from the items used in other consumer
shopping intention studies (Kim et al., 2010; Niehm et al.,
2007; Yang, 2010). Participants responded to all items using
seven-point Likert scales (1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly
agree). Demographic information - gender, age, income level,
J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147 143
Variables CSSaComposite reliabilitybVariance extractedc
Fashion involvement (
α
=.88) 0.84 0.58
1. I usually have one or more outfits of the very latest style. 0.80
2. An important part of my life and activities is dressing smartly. 0.76
3. I am interested in shopping at boutique or fashion specialty stores rather than at department stores for
my fashion needs. 0.77
4. I usually dress for fashion, not comfort, if I must choose between two. 0.71
Need for Hedonic Shopping Experience (
α
=.97) 0.95 0.83
1. I want to satisfy my sense of curiosity. 0.84
2. I want to be offered new shopping experiences. 0.89
3. I want to feel like I am exploring new shopping experience. 0.95
4. I want to visit fun and exciting stores. 0.95
Fashion-oriented impulse buying (
α
=.93) 0.92 0.75
1. I buy clothing with a new style if I see it. 0.95
2. I buy to try out a garment with a new feature. 0.78
3. I like to buy new clothing that just came out. 0.75
4. I like to buy clothing with an interesting feature. 0.95
Attitude (
α
=.97) 0.97 0.88
1. The idea of pop-up fashion stores is appealing to me. 0.93
2. The idea of pop-up fashion stores is interesting to me 0.94
3. The idea of pop-up fashion stores is pleasant to me. 0.94
4. Overall, a pop-up fashion store would provide a good shopping experience. 0.94
Shopping intention (
α
=.98) 0.97 0.90
1. I would shop at pop-up fashion stores. 0.96
2. The probability that I would visit pop-up fashion stores is high. 0.94
3. Given the chance, I intend to shop at pop-up fashion stores. 0.96
4. The probability that I would shop at pop-up fashion stores is high. 0.94
Notes:
χ
2=252.82(df=160), p-value< 0.001; RMSEA=0.047; CFI=0.99; and NFI=0.97;
aCompletely standardized solution;
bComposite reliability=square of the summation of the factor loadings/(square of the summation of the factor loadings + summation of error variances);
cVariance extracted=summation of the square of the factor loadings/(summation of the square of the factor loadings + summation of error variances)
Table 1. Results of measurement model testing
and average monthly expenditure for clothing - of participants
was also collected.
The questionnaire included the following description and ex-
amples of pop-up fashion stores (“Gap unveils”, 2009;
Hutchison, 2009) to help unaware participants understand the
concept:
“A pop-up fashion store refers to a non-permanent,
short-term sales space for clothing. The store may be open for
a few days, weeks, or months. Examples of pop-up fashion
stores are the following:
Gap opened a pop-up store in Los Angeles for two months
to sell its premium jeans.
Levi’s opened a one-day pop-up store in London to launch
ts new line of denim jeans.”
3.2. Sample and Data Collection
Because airport consumers are apt participants in research
concerning impulse buying behaviors (Omar & Kent, 2001),
the data were collected at two airports serving major cities in
the West and Southwest regions of the U.S. Every tenth per-
son sitting in the airport terminal was asked to participate. A
total of 870 people were approached. The questionnaire was
completed by 250 yielding a 28.7 % response rate. Upon ex-
clusion of incomplete questionnaires, responses from 245 in-
dividuals were included in the data analysis.
4. Results
4.1. Participant Characteristics
The participants, women (60.8 %) and men (39.2 %) had an
average age of 34.1 years. Participants (68%) reported a family
income level of over $50,000; the average reported monthly
expenditure for clothing ranged from $50 to $2000. Some par-
ticipants (36.3%) had seen or heard of pop-up retail and some
participants (27.3%) had previously visited pop-up stores.
4.2. Measurement Model Testing
The reliability and validity of the measurement model using
confirmatory factor analysis were tested (Table 1). The fit sta-
tistics confirmed an excellent model fit: χ2=252.82 with 160
df at p-value<0.001; RMSEA of 0.047 (90% CI for
RMSEA=0.035-0.058); CFI of 0.99; and NFI of 0.97.
Cronbach’s alpha for latent constructs ranged from 0.88 to
0.98, and factor loadings were in the range of 0.71 to 0.96
with p-values<0.01. The construct reliability (CR) ranged from
0.84 to 0.97, and the average variance extracted (AVE) ranged
from 0.58 to 0.90. These values exceeded recommended levels
of 0.70 for the CR and 0.50 for the AVE (Fornell & Larcker,
1981).
144 J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147
Hypothesis Path Standardized coefficient t-value
H1a Fashion involvement à Impulse buying behavior 0.54* 8.33
H1b Fashion involvement à Attitude/Pop-up fashion stores 0.03 0.32
H2a Hedonic shopping experience à Impulse buying behavior 0.31* 5.13
H2b Hedonic shopping experience à Attitude/Pop-up fashion stores 0.32* 4.04
H3 Impulse buying behavior à Attitude/Pop-up fashion stores 0.09 0.88
H4 Attitude/Pop-up fashion stores à Shopping intention 0.72* 13.86
Note: * p<0.001
Table 2. Results of hypotheses testing
Fig. 2. Results of structural model for shopping intentions toward pop-up fashion stores
4.3. Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing
The proposed research model and hypotheses were tested
with structural equation modeling (Figure 2 and Table 2). The
overall fit indices indicated a good model fit: χ2=288.67 with
163 df at p-value<0.001; RMSEA of 0.053 (90% CI for
RMSEA=0.042 - 0.063); CFI of 0.99; and NFI of 0.97.
Fashion involvement had a positive effect on fash-
ion-oriented impulse buying behavior, supporting Hypothesis 1a
(γ=0.54, p<0.001). Fashion-involved consumers were more
likely to exhibit impulse buying behaviors when purchasing
fashion products. This result was consistent with the findings
of Jones, Reynolds, and Arnold (2006) and Park et al. (2006).
There was no significant positive effect of fashion involve-
ment on attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores. Thus, data did
not support Hypothesis1b. This outcome may have emerged as
a consequence of participants’ lack of experience with or un-
derstanding of pop-up retail. As noted previously, more than
60% of the participants had no knowledge of pop-up retail be-
fore participating in this study and more than 70% had no ex-
perience with a pop-up store. Because many of the participants
were unfamiliar with the pop-up retail concept, it probably was
difficult for them to report their attitudes simply because they
had not formed an opinion yet.
The need for hedonic shopping experiences had a significant
positive effect on fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior and
attitude toward pop-up fashion stores, supporting both
Hypotheses 2a (γ=0.31, p<0.001) and 2b (γ=0.32, p<0.001).
Consistent with the findings of previous researchers, partic-
ipants who sought new and pleasant shopping experiences were
more likely to exhibit fashion-oriented impulse buying behav-
iors (Hausman, 2000; Park et al., 2006) and to report favor-
able attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores (Kim et al., 2010).
Fashion-oriented impulse buying had no significant positive
effect on attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores, thus, the data
did not support Hypothesis 3. Previous researchers charac-
terized fashion-oriented impulse buyers as those who are ex-
cited about shopping for new and stylish fashions and who
make an instant purchase decision at the store (Park & Forney,
2011; Yu & Bastin, 2010). It was predicted that the concept
of pop-up stores appearing unexpectedly would be a pleasant
surprise and offer shopping excitement to consumers, which
would in turn support inclinations toward fashion-oriented im-
pulse buying. The lack of a significant relationship may have
also been as a result of a lack of experience with and knowl-
edge of pop up retailing and therefore, difficulty indicating at-
titudes that may not yet have existed.
Another possible explanation is related to the relationship
between consumers’ impulsiveness and purchase return
behavior. Kang and Johnson (2009) found that consumers who
impulsively purchase fashion products also frequently return
their purchases. Impulsivity is fueled by the knowledge that
something can easily be returned if regret follows the purchase
decision. Because pop-up stores are open temporarily, consum-
ers may perceive purchases to be risky because of uncertainty
regarding the ability to return merchandise. This belief may
J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147 145
prevent impulse consumers from holding positive attitudes to-
ward pop-up stores.
Positive consumer attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores in-
creased participants' shopping intentions with regard to the
stores, supporting hypothesis 4 (β=0.72, p<0.001). When con-
sumers perceived pop-up fashion stores to be interesting and to
offer fun shopping experiences, they reported being more likely
to intend to shop at the stores. This result supported many
consumer behavioral intention studies that have confirmed a
positive link between attitude and patronage intention in a re-
tailing context (Kim et al., 2010; Milfont et al., 2010; Niehm
et al., 2007).
5. Conclusions
5.1. Discussion and Implications
Fashion involvement and the need for hedonic shopping ex-
periences had positive effects on fashion-oriented impulse buy-
ing, but only the latter had a positive effect on consumers’ at-
titudes toward pop-up fashion stores. Consumers’ shopping in-
tentions at the pop-up stores were positively affected by their
attitudes toward the stores.
Operating pop-up fashion stores may be an effective retail
strategy for suiting the interests of hedonic consumers. The
idea of stores “popping-up” unexpectedly may be appealing
enough to catch some consumers’ attention but attention alone
may not be sufficient motivation to get consumers to take the
next step, that is, shopping at a given store. Although pop-up
stores are meant to be open for only a short period of time,
retailers should attend to such considerations as the quality of
merchandise, store layout and ambience, window displays, and
customer service so as to create a desirable shopping environ-
ment and experience.
The non-significant association between fashion involvement
and attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores suggests that con-
sumers, even those who are highly interested in fashion, may
not be entirely aware of the benefits, or even the concept, of
pop-up fashion stores. Therefore, retailers should focus on in-
creasing consumer awareness of pop-up retail as an innovative
and exciting retail distribution channel. Surchi (2011) pointed
out that word-of-mouth (WOM) is effective in pop-up retail
promotion. Retailers could utilize social networking services
such as Facebook and Twitter to engage consumers in WOM
promotion designed to create buzz about pop-up stores.
Publicity and media exposure are also good methods to inform
consumers about pop-up retail. Location-based marketing using
mobile smartphones and social networking services could also
be an effective means of targeting consumers who are in the
proximity of pop-up stores.
Surchi (2011) explained that some global fashion brands
have employed a pop-up retail strategy to test specific store
locations for their feasibility before committing to the estab-
lishment of a permanent flagship store in a highly competitive
and saturated market. This same strategy could be applied to
retail internationalization. To reduce the risk of internationaliza-
tion failure, fashion brands may want to test the potential of a
market with pop-up stores before committing to those markets.
Established global fashion brands may use pop-up stores to
identify ideal locations for future permanent stores in foreign
markets and as promotional events to engage in interactive
brand communication with the consumer. For emerging global
fashion brands, pop-up stores could function as a means to un-
derstand the consumer. By interacting with the consumer in
pop-up store settings, fashion brands can scrutinize consumer
responses to brand positioning and product offerings and in-
crease brand awareness (Surchi, 2011).
The world’s first pop-up shopping mall built from 61 ship-
ping containers, Boxpark, is the next level of pop-up retail and
is set to debut in London in October 2011 (Scott, 2011). The
pop-up shopping mall creates an enjoyable shopping environ-
ment, utilizes a community space, allows emerging fashion
brands to open their shops at reduced rates, and is a collective
effort to increase consumer traffic (Meinhold, 2011). Since the
pop-up shopping mall is a collage of movable shipping con-
tainers, it can easily travel to one location to another and one
foreign market to another (Meinhold, 2011). This mobility
could become a new paradigm of retail internationalization pro-
viding a low-risk and low-cost option. Fashion brands could
increase their presence in the global market efficiently by set-
ting up a stores in a pop-up shopping mall and moving
around the world.
As noted earlier, consumers may believe purchasing at
pop-up stores is risky because they think they are unable to
get a refund or exchange their purchase once the store
disappears. This risk factor must be addressed regardless of lo-
cation but is particularly important when operating pop-up
stores globally. Consumer attitudes toward retailers’ return poli-
cies vary depending on each market’s retail system. For exam-
ple, compared to US retailers, Korean retailers are reluctant to
refund money to consumers and Korean consumers are ac-
customed to not getting refunds (Jin & Sternquist, 2003).
Although it is still advised that pop-up stores implement a sol-
id return policy, its boundary may be set after reviewing each
market’s retail system on merchandise returns. In addition,
Kang & Johnson (2009) found that innovative consumers are
less influenced by retailers’ restrictive return policies. Global
fashion brands may use pop-up stores specifically targeting an
innovative consumer so that they can manage the issue of risk
effectively.
It has been postulated that one of the factors underlying the
success of pop-up retail venues is the spontaneous nature of
many consumers’ decision-making processes (“Planned sponta-
neity”, 2003; “Pop-up retail”, 2005). However, this study re-
vealed no significant positive effect of fashion-oriented impulse
buying on attitudes toward pop-up fashion stores. The lack of
connection was probably due to lack of experience with pop
up retailers. Even when provided with the definition of pop up
146 J.S. Ryu / Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 2-3 (2011) 139-147
retail, participants may not have held sufficient information to
form attitudes about this type of retailer thus, they both did
not have knowledge of how pop up retailing could enable
their impulse buying nor how pop up retailers might facilitate
their impulsive buying aptitude.
5.2. Limitations and Future Research
Pop-up retail is a relatively new retail format and lack of
significant findings may have been the result of participants
being unfamiliar and inexperienced relative to this strategy.
Future researchers could recruit participants from among shop-
pers at pop-up stores to ensure that participants possess both a
knowledge and experience with pop-up retail, and thus fully
investigate what variables are predictive of shopping at this
type of venue. Lee and Johnson (2010) found that a con-
venience-oriented store layout is a strong facilitator of impulse
buying of fashion. It would thus be interesting and useful to
examine how store layout and the atmosphere of pop-up fash-
ion stores affect consumers’ attitudes toward the stores and be-
havioral intention. Additionally, future researchers could identi-
fy perceived risks (e.g., being unable to return or exchange a
purchase) and perceived benefits (e.g., exclusivity) associated
with shopping at pop-up stores.
(Received: May 15, 2011)
(Revised: August 10, 2011)
(Accepted: August 12, 2011)
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Apparel offers consumers a high hedonic value associated with experiential pleasure. Being fashion driven with a focus on newness and change, apparel products can create an illusion of something fantastic. In turn, this subjects apparel to various hedonic behaviors such as impulse buying. The more consumers browse apparel stores to get an idea about the latest trends in the market, rather than relying on a shopping list, the greater the possibility of impulse shopping. Moreover, consumers are likely to be more divergent on what they want than what they need. This suggests apparel as a product category as a stimulus effecting impulse purchases. Impulse buying is considered a pervasive phenomenon in modern lifestyles and it accounts for a substantial percentage of products sold across a broad range of categories. One explanation may be that consumers buy products for a variety of non-economic reasons or hedonic tendency, such as fun, fantasy and social or emotional gratification. By stimulating consumers to recognize product needs, in-store browsing plays an important role in influencing impulse buying behavior. Also, impulse buying is activated by the emotions aroused in the proximity of an appealing object. This emotional response may occur largely without regard to financial or other consequences. Based on the extant literature, we developed a conceptual framework to analyze how predictors (hedonic tendency, in-store browsing, and shopping emotion) affect apparel impulse buying. Five hypotheses were tested during an apparel shopping episode to determine if: hedonic tendency is positively related to shopping emotion (H1); hedonic tendency is positively related to in-store browsing (H2); in-store browsing is positively related to shopping emotion (H3); in-store browsing is positively related to impulse buying typologies (H4); and shopping emotion is positively related to impulse buying typologies (H5). A questionnaire was developed based on literature review. Data were obtained from 290 college students enrolled at a southwestern state university in the U.S. Following verification the measurement items, path analysis was conducted using LISREL 8.53. A path model shows that six paths have significantly positive relationships. This empirical study of assessing and predicting apparel impulse buying extends the understanding of predictors for and provides an extended structural model of apparel impulse buying. This study reveals three typologies underlying apparel impulse buying: Fashion-oriented impulse buying, Memory-oriented impulse buying, and Browsing-oriented impulse buying. Findings indicate a consumer?s hedonic tendency is a significant predictor of shopping emotion and in-store browsing and it is pertinent to apparel impulse buying. This suggests that hedonic tendency can drive consumers to act on apparel impulse buying when they experience a positive feeling and are in-store browsing. This result implies that positive shopping emotion tends to reduce decision complexity, including impulse buying. Therefore, typologies of apparel impulse buying can be predicted in a path model by an attitudinal component (e.g., hedonic tendency and in-store browsing) and emotional factors (e.g., satisfied and excited). In particular, shopping emotion serves as an important mediating predictor of impulse buying of apparel products. This suggests that impulse buying of college students is more conjunct with an emotional unplanned purchase of apparel products. Also, this finding supports impulse buying as satisfying a hedonic need or providing emotional gratification. This study provides insights to retailers and researchers in understand structural relationships between consumer characteristics and impulse buying of apparel products.
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Purpose This paper seeks to investigate relationships between apparel return behavior and fashion innovativeness, buying impulsiveness, and consideration of return policies of US consumers. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sample of 246 undergraduates studying in the USA completed a questionnaire that contained measures of apparel returns, fashion innovativeness, buying impulsiveness, and consideration of return policies. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings It was found that apparel return behavior of participants was positively related to buying impulsiveness and to consideration of return policies. These two variables were also significant predictors of frequency of apparel returns. Fashion innovativeness was not significantly related to participants' apparel return behavior. In addition, participants' consideration of return policies was not related to their innovative or impulsive purchase behaviors. Practical implications Findings are useful to retailers to better understand characteristics of frequent returners and to make informed decisions about developing optimal return policies that prohibit excessive product returns yet do not inhibit consumers' purchasing. Originality/value There is limited research on potential effects of adopting restrictive return policies. The study begins to examine whether leniency in return policy might potentially influence the behavior of innovative or impulsive consumers.