Article

Proposing a Definition of Candy in Moderation

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Abstract

Advice to practice “moderation” in eating conveys that reasonable amounts of specific foods or beverages can fit into healthful meal patterns. However, interpretation of moderation varies widely between both health professionals and consumers. Evidence suggests that candy can have a place in an overall lifestyle that supports health, wellness, and happiness. Recognizing the importance of managing calories, a proposed definition for consuming candy in moderation offers realistic and practical advice for individuals wishing to include confections within the context of a healthful diet and lifestyle. Quantifying candy in moderation is proposed as a range of up to 50 to 100 calories per day depending on energy needs. This amount falls within dietary guidance from leading health authorities for calories from added sugars and fats. The purpose of this article was to summarize current intakes of candy, examine the potential role of candy in health and well-being, and provide support for a proposed definition of “candy in moderation” for those who choose to consume confections, including chocolates, hard and chewy candy, and chewing gum.

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... Children did not, however, mention portion size as it relates to candy consumption. This provides insight for avenues on future obesity prevention efforts in that intervention messaging should emphasize that while candy is not required in the diet, consuming candy "in moderation", that is, portion-controlled amounts eaten on occasion, may be more effective for developing healthy eating behaviors than complete restriction (Hornick, Duyff, Murphy, & Shumow, 2014). The enjoyment of candy in moderation using strategies such as mindfulness and attention control may promote children's self-regulation of these foods, rather than restriction of candy, which often leads to later overconsumption. ...
... MyPlate tips from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans acknowledge both the frequency of eating occasions and portion size in their recommendation that small portions of treats such as candy may be eaten on occasion rather than eliminated completely from the diet (USDA., 2011). What constitutes "small", or "candy in moderation," has been defined as 50e100 calories per day for adults (Hornick et al., 2014). However, a child-specific definition is warranted given children's differing daily energy needs. ...
... Candy has played an important role in cultural traditions and celebrations for thousands of years and continues to be enjoyed by most people as an occasional treat. Frequency data indicate that 97% of Americans report candy consumption at least once per year (1). Behavioral nutrition research strategies provide insight into how individuals can enjoy treats, such as candy, in moderation in the context of an overall healthful eating plan. ...
... Evidence suggests that moderation through portion control may be more effective than elimination or restriction of a highly palatable food in relation to weight management and improved dietary health (2)(3)(4)(5)(6). A definition of moderation proposed for candy intake is an amount equivalent of up to an average of 50-100 kcal/d for adults, to fit within a range of energy needs when nutrient-dense foods are chosen first (1). This amount of candy is equivalent to 20-30% of the maximum daily allowance for solid fats and added sugars in diets, ranging from 1800 to 3000 kcal/d. ...
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Nearly all Americans (97%) report eating candy at least once per year; yet, on a given day, only approximately one-fourth of the US population aged ≥2 y consumes candy. Among all Americans, candy contributes a relatively small proportion of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat to the total diet, and recent research suggests that current levels of candy consumption are not associated with risk of weight gain and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. Providing guidance for the consumption of candy in moderation requires an understanding of various behavioral health-related factors that influence candy consumption. A roundtable of behavioral nutrition experts, researchers, and nutrition educators met to discuss recent data on intakes of candy, health outcomes associated with usual candy intake, and the impact of behavioral strategies, including restriction, education, and environmental awareness, on modifying eating behaviors to achieve moderate intakes of candy. Restricting access to palatable foods, whether self-imposed or by parental control, may have potentially negative consequences. Techniques and insight into how to adopt "moderation" in candy consumption, from effective parental practices to environmental strategies that facilitate behavior change without a high degree of effort, were identified as important next steps toward sustainable dietary guidance related to the role of candy and other treats in a healthy lifestyle. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
... Murphy, Bi, & Bodor, 2012). This amount is equivalent to one-half of a fun size bar (Hornick, Duyff, Murphy, & Shumow, 2014). Chocolate is a popular candy not only in the US but consumed around the world. ...
... Children did not, 332 however, mention portion size as it relates to candy consumption. This provides insight for 333 avenues on future obesity prevention efforts in that intervention messaging should emphasize 334 that while candy is not required in the diet, consuming candy " in moderation " , that is, portion335 controlled amounts eaten on occasion, may be more effective for developing healthy eating 336 behaviors than complete restriction (Hornick, Duyff, Murphy, & Shumow, 2014). The enjoyment 337 of candy in moderation using strategies such as mindfulness and attention control may promote 338 children's self-regulation of these foods, rather than restriction of candy, which often leads to 339 later overconsumption. ...
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Objective: There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Methods: Participants were children aged 5–8 years (n = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a “snack” or “candy” pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. Results: All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for “dessert like foods,” such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Conclusion: Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior.
... People in the U.S. are estimated to consume candy once every 2 to 3 days on average (Hornick, Duyff, Murphy, & Shumow, 2014). Consumption is higher in other areas of the world (Forbes, 2015). ...
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There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P < .0001), saturated fatty acid (27.9 ± 0.26 vs 26.9 ± 0.18 g; P = .0058), and added sugar (25.7 ± 0.42 vs 21.1 ± 0.41 g; P < .0001) intake were higher in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Body mass index (27.7 ± 0.15 vs 28.2 ± 0.12 kg/m(2); P = .0092), waist circumference (92.3 ± 0.34 vs 96.5 ± 0.29 cm; P = .0051), and C-reactive protein (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/dL; P = .0487) levels were lower in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Candy consumers had a 14% decreased risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = .0466); chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks.
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A 2-day forum was convened to (1) discuss ways to translate the 2009 American Heart Association added sugars recommendations into actions in areas such as regulation, food labeling, nutrient content claims, and practical application in the American diet; (2) review surveillance methodology and metrics for tracking and understanding the impact of reducing added sugars in the diet; and (3) initiate the development of a framework for future collaboration to help Americans implement science-based guidance relative to added sugars. More than 100 multinational participants representing scientists from academia and government and stakeholders engaged in food production, development, and processing, food manufacturing and servicing, food and nutrition policy, and nutrition recommendations for the public attended the conference. Presentations included definitions and examples of added sugars, current US and international added sugars perspectives, added sugars in diets of individuals and in the food supply, food technology behind added sugars, added sugars and health, food manufacturer perspectives, added sugars food-labeling considerations, and examples of positive approaches to improve eating behaviors and the food environment. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted after the plenary sessions to allow participants to contribute their expertise and thoughts. The American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference is the first step in an important process that facilitates collaboration across science, public health, and industry to foster innovation, partnerships, policy, and implementation of new products and services for the benefit of the health and well-being of the American public. Science has advanced in the area of added sugars and health, creating mounting pressure to use better methods for translation and dissemination of the science for consumer education and for food companies to respond by producing foods and beverages with fewer added sugars. The new science also reinforces the importance of preventing, rather than simply treating diseases, especially overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Reducing added sugars consumption is a good target for addressing obesity, along with other sources of excess calories. However, the potential unintended consequences of substituting added sugars with ingredients that may not reduce calories and of increasing other macronutrients or food groups that may not result in a net health gain must be considered. Although there are many challenges to incorporating added sugars to the food label as was discussed during the conference, disclosure of added sugars content on food and beverage labels is an essential element in consumer education and can provide the information and motivation for making healthier food choices. This conference demonstrated the value of interactive dialogue among multiple sectors and disciplines. More disciplines should be at the table to bring expertise to discuss cross-cutting issues related to public policies and offer diverse insights to finding a solution.
Article
Randomized clinical trials have shown that chocolate intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and observational studies have found an inverse association between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure (HF). We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,823 women aged 48 to 83 years without baseline diabetes or a history of HF or myocardial infarction who were participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. In addition to answering health and lifestyle questions, participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire. Women were followed from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2006, for HF hospitalization or death through the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. Over 9 years of follow-up, 419 women were hospitalized for incident HF (n=379) or died of HF (n=40). Compared with no regular chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95) for women consuming 1 to 3 servings of chocolate per month, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93) for those consuming 1 to 2 servings per week, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.62) for those consuming 3 to 6 servings per week, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.73 to 2.08) for those consuming ≥1 servings per day (P=0.0005 for quadratic trend). In this population, moderate habitual chocolate intake was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed with intake of ≥1 servings per day.
Article
While a diet rich in anti-oxidant has been favorably associated with coronary disease and hypertension, limited data have evaluated the influence of such diet on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC). In a cross-sectional design, we studied 2217 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and CAC was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. There was an inverse association between frequency of chocolate consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.66-1.35), 0.78 (0.53-1.13), and 0.68 (0.48-0.97) for chocolate consumption of 0, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.022), adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, waist-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, ratio of total-to-HDL-cholesterol, non-chocolate candy, and diabetes mellitus. Controlling for additional confounders did not alter the findings. Exclusion of subjects with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus did not materially change the odds ratio estimates but did modestly decrease the overall significance (p = 0.07). These data suggest that chocolate consumption might be inversely associated with prevalent CAC.
Article
A priority for research is to identify individuals early in development who are particularly susceptible to weight gain in the current, obesogenic environment. This longitudinal study investigated whether early individual differences in inhibitory control, an aspect of temperament, predicted weight outcomes and whether parents' restrictive feeding practices moderated this relation. Participants included 197 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents; families were assessed when girls were 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years old. Measures included mothers' reports of girls' inhibitory control levels, girls' reports of parental restriction in feeding, girls' body mass indexes (BMIs), and parents' BMIs, education, and income. Girls with lower inhibitory control at age 7 had higher concurrent BMIs, greater weight gain, higher BMIs at all subsequent time points, and were 1.95 times more likely to be overweight at age 15. Girls who perceived higher parental restriction exhibited the strongest inverse relation between inhibitory control and weight status. Variability in inhibitory control could help identify individuals who are predisposed to obesity risk; the current findings also highlight the importance of parenting practices as potentially modifiable factors that exacerbate or attenuate this risk.
Article
We propose a self-control analysis of the role of availability in valuation. We explored the hypothesis that, when temptation becomes available, counteractive self-control processes render it less valuable. We found evidence for devaluation of available temptation among gym users before they choose to forgo an unhealthy snack rather than after they make their choice (Study 1), and among students evaluating leisure activities when their decision to enroll in an uninteresting class is reversible rather than irreversible (Study 2).
Article
The authors conducted a systematic review of original studies that was designed to assess the impact of polyol-containing chewing gum on dental caries compared with the effect with no chewing gum. The authors searched MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar up to May 2008 to identify peer-reviewed articles that compared polyol-containing chewing gum with no chewing gum. The authors extracted study characteristics, data on incremental dental caries and quality by consensus. Data on prevented fraction (PF) were pooled across studies. The results of 19 articles with data from 14 study populations showed that the use of xylitol, xylitol-sorbitol blend and sorbitol were associated with mean PF (95 percent confidence interval) of 58.66 percent (35.42-81.90), 52.82 percent (39.64-66.00) and 20.01 percent (12.74-27.27), respectively. For the sorbitol-mannitol blend, it was 10.71 percent (-20.50-41.93), which was not statistically significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. Although research gaps exist, particularly on optimal dosing and relative polyol efficacy, research evidence supports using polyol-containing chewing gum as part of normal oral hygiene to prevent dental caries.
Article
Dark chocolate (DC) is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. Since DC has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, our study examined its effect on platelet reactivity, inflammation, and lipid levels in healthy subjects. In 28 healthy volunteers, we analyzed the effect of one week of DC (providing 700 mg of flavonoids/day). The primary outcome was to determine the effects of DC consumption on platelet activity measured by flow cytometry (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]- and arachidonic acid [AA]-induced total and activated glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa as well as P-selectin expression). In addition to this, we measured the effect of DC on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipid cholesterol (LDL) levels. Following seven days of regular DC ingestion, LDL fell by 6% (120 +/- 38 vs 112 +/- 37 mg/dL, P < 0.018) and HDL rose by 9% (66 +/- 23 vs 72 +/- 26 mg/dL, P < 0.0019). ADP- and AA-induced activated GPIIb/IIIa expression was reduced by DC [27.3 +/- 27.8 vs 17.4 +/- 20.5 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), P < 0.006; and 9.2 +/- 6.5 vs. 6.1 +/- 2.2 MFI, P < 0.005, respectively]. DC reduced hsCRP levels in women (1.8 +/- 2.1 vs. 1.4 +/- 1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.04). One week of DC ingestion improved lipid profiles and decreased platelet reactivity within the total group while reducing inflammation only in women. Regular dark chocolate ingestion may have cardioprotective properties. Further long-term research is warranted to evaluate the effect of flavonoids on cardiovascular health and to determine whether DC's beneficial effects are related to flavonoids or some yet unknown component. This research is based on a larger study which was presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2007.
Article
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that all foods can fit into a healthful eating style. The ADA strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize the total diet, or overall pattern of food eaten, rather than any one food or meal. If consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity, all foods can fit into a healthful diet. Public policies that support the total diet approach include Reference Dietary Intakes, Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Nutrition Labeling and Healthy People 2010. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Eating practices are influenced by taste and food preferences, concerns about nutrition and weight control, physiology, lifestyle, environment, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, dietetics professionals plan communications and educational programs that utilize theories and models related to human behavior. Communication campaigns/programs should implement an active, behaviorally focused approach within the larger context of food choices. Nutrition confusion can be reduced by emphasizing moderation, appropriate portion size, balance and adequacy of the total diet over time, the importance of obtaining nutrients from foods, and physical activity.
Article
The relation between being deprived of a food and intake and craving for that food was investigated in restrained and unrestrained eaters. For 1 week, 103 female undergraduate students were assigned to be chocolate deprived, vanilla deprived, or nondeprived. Only chocolate deprivation was expected to elicit cravings, as chocolate is not easily substituted, whereas vanilla is. The main effect of chocolate deprivation on consumption was qualified by an interaction with restraint. Chocolate-deprived restrained eaters consumed more chocolate food than did any other group. Restrained eaters experienced more food cravings than did unrestrained eaters and were more likely to eat the craved food. Moreover, restrained eaters deprived of chocolate spent the least time doing an anagram task before a "taste-rating task" in which they expected that chocolate foods might be available. Converging measures of craving indicate that deprivation causes craving and overeating, but primarily in restrained eaters.
Article
There is growing interest in possible beneficial effects of specific dietary components on cardiovascular health. Platelets and leukocytes contribute to arterial thrombosis and to inflammatory processes. Previous studies performed in vitro have demonstrated inhibition of platelet function by (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, flavan-3-ols (flavanols) that are present in several foods including some cocoas. Also, some modest inhibition of platelet function has been observed ex vivo after the consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products by healthy adults. So far there are no reports of effects of cocoa flavanols on leukocytes. This paper summarizes 2 recent investigations. The first was a study of the effects of cocoa flavanols on platelet and leukocyte function in vitro. The second was a study of the effects of consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage by healthy adults on platelet and leukocyte function ex vivo. Measurements were made of platelet aggregation, platelet-monocyte conjugate formation (P/M), platelet-neutrophil conjugate formation (P/N), platelet activation (CD62P on monocytes and neutrophils), and leukocyte activation (CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils) in response to collagen and/or arachidonic acid. In the in vitro study several cocoa flavanols and their metabolites were shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, P/M, P/N, and platelet activation. Their effects were similar to those of aspirin and the effects of a cocoa flavanol and aspirin did not seem to be additive. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation by flavanols, but this was not replicated by aspirin. 4'-O-methyl-epicatechin, 1 of the known metabolites of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin, was consistently effective as an inhibitor of platelet and leukocyte activation. The consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage also resulted in significant inhibition of platelet aggregation, P/M and P/N, and platelet activation induced by collagen. The inhibitory effects were related to their flavanol content. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation, but here it was concluded that cocoa constituents other than flavanols may contribute to the inhibition that was observed. It can be concluded that cocoa flavanols, their metabolites and possibly other cocoa constituents can modulate the activity of platelets and leukocytes in vitro and ex vivo. The research suggests that the consumption of certain cocoa products may provide a dietary approach to maintaining or improving cardiovascular health.
Article
Consumers report that chewing gum can reduce cravings and the likelihood of snacking. The present study set out to examine the effects of chewing gum on subjective appetite and snack energy intake (EI) in 60 participants (40 females, 20 males, 21.7+/-4 years; BMI=22.7+/-3.4) who came to the laboratory four times for lunch and then returned 3 h later for a snack. Participants consumed salty or sweet snacks after chewing gum (sugar-free or regular) for 15 min hourly after lunch or had no-gum. Hunger, desire to eat and fullness were rated immediately after lunch (T0) and hourly post-lunch (T1 and T2) until just before snack (T3). Chewing gum reduced EI by 36 cal (401.8+/-22 kcal) compared to no-gum (437.7+/-23 kcal; p=0.04). Rated hunger increased from T0 to T3 (p<0.001); however, this was less after gum compared to no-gum (p<0.01). Desire to consume salty and sweet snacks also increased. However, desire to eat sweet snacks (but not salty) increased less after gum compared to no-gum (p=0.004). Therefore, chewing gum suppressed appetite, specifically desire for sweets and reduced snack intake. This supports anecdotal reports by consumers and could inform weight control strategies.
Article
A single-dose ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely reverses endothelial dysfunction. To investigate the time course of endothelial function during daily consumption of high-flavanol cocoa, we determined flow-mediated dilation (FMD) acutely (for up to 6 hours after single-dose ingestion) and chronically (administration for 7 days). The study population represented individuals with smoking-related endothelial dysfunction; in addition to FMD, plasma nitrite and nitrate were measured. The daily consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink (3 x 306 mg flavanols/d) over 7 days (n=6) resulted in continual FMD increases at baseline (after overnight fast and before flavanol ingestion) and in sustained FMD augmentation at 2 hours after ingestion. Fasted FMD responses increased from 3.7 +/- 0.4% on day 1 to 5.2 +/- 0.6%, 6.1 +/- 0.6%, and 6.6 +/- 0.5% (each P < 0.05) on days 3, 5, and 8, respectively. FMD returned to 3.3 +/- 0.3% after a washout week of cocoa-free diet (day 15). Increases observed in circulating nitrite, but not in circulating nitrate, paralleled the observed FMD augmentations. The acute, single-dose consumption of cocoa drinks with 28 to 918 mg of flavanols led to dose-dependent increases in FMD and nitrite, with a maximal FMD at 2 hours after consumption. The dose to achieve a half-maximal FMD response was 616 mg (n=6). Generally applied biomarkers for oxidative stress (plasma, MDA, TEAC) and antioxidant status (plasma ascorbate, urate) remained unaffected by cocoa flavanol ingestion. The daily consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has the potential to reverse endothelial dysfunction in a sustained and dose-dependent manner.
Article
We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.
Article
Perceived deprivation describes a feeling of not eating what or as much as one would like, despite being in energy balance. This construct was previously found to correlate with the Restraint Scale in obese binge eaters and current dieters [Timmerman, G. M., & Gregg, E. K. (2003). Dieting, perceived deprivation, and preoccupation with food. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(4), 405-418]. The current study examined perceived deprivation and restraint in 66 normal weight college females with no history of eating disorders. Perceived deprivation was significantly correlated with restraint generally and with dietary concern in particular; this relationship was due to perceived limits on what, rather than how much, food was eaten. This relationship may have important implications for understanding the motivation underlying restrained eaters' aberrant eating behaviors and the nature of their susceptibility to weight gain.