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Hypoglycemic Activity of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Yam (Dioscorea hispida Dents) Prepared by Aqueous, Papain, and Tempeh Inoculum Assisted Extractions

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This research studied the hypoglycemic effect of water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) extracted from yam (Dioscorea hispida) tuber by three different methods: aqueous extraction, papain assisted extraction, and tempeh inoculums assisted extraction. The two later extraction methods were aimed to remove WSP binding protein to have more pure WSP. The hypoglycemic activities were evaluated by means in vivo test on alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats, glucose response test (GRT), in situ glucose absorption test using everted sac, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis. All yam WSP extracts exhibited ability to decrease blood glucose level in hyperglycemia condition as well as inhibited glucose absorption and SCFA formation. The order of hypoglycemic activity was tempeh inoculums assisted- >papain assisted- >aqueous WSP extracts. GRT and in situ glucose absorption test showed that order of inhibition was papain assisted- >tempeh inoculums assisted- >aqueous WSP extracts. Digesta of caecum of yam WSP extracts oral fed rats had more SCFA than control. Tempeh inoculums assisted WSP extract exhibited the most significant hypoglycemic activity.
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... The use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract taro and yam WS-NSP has been reported recently (Chukwuma, Islam, and Amonsou 2018). Furthermore, the use of an enzyme (papain) and fermentative microorganism (tempeh inoculum) have also been explored to support the extraction of WS-NSP from yam (Estiasih, Harijono, and Rahmawati 2012) and to minimize the amount of free protein that is co-extracted with the WS-NSP. A schematic diagram showing the general extraction process of the WS-NSP of root and tuber crops using the above-mentioned extraction methods is shown in Figure 1. ...
... A relatively lower protein content (5%) was reported for the sweetpotato's WS-NSP (Ozaki et al. 2010). Yam's WS-NSP was also reported to contain a protein fraction with Mw in the range of 10 to 50 kDa (Myoda et al. 2006;Estiasih, Harijono, and Rahmawati 2012). In contrast, some studies had reported that sweetpotato and yam WS-NSP did not contain protein (Yuan et al. 2017;Zhao et al. 2005a), which can be explained by the extraction methods used in these studies. ...
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This review critically evaluates and discusses groundwork and recent studies on the extraction, characteristics, properties, bioactivities, and applications of the water-soluble non-starch polysac-charides (WS-NSPs) of root and tuber crops. Early studies have focused on the use of conventional extraction methods for the extraction of the WS-NSPs and there are limited information on the characteristics and properties of the extracted materials. In recent years, novel extraction techniques such as microwave, ultrasound, and enzyme-assisted extractions have been utilized to improve the yield and functionality of the WS-NSPs. However, low yield and co-extraction of other biological compounds remain a challenging obstacle for commercial uses. A better understanding of the characteristics and properties was recently afforded by employing advanced analytical techniques to investigate the chemical composition and molecular structures of the WS-NSPs. Recent bioactivities of the WS-NSPs that demonstrated their potential in the prevention and management of metabolic diseases like diabetes, obesity, cancer, and in improving gut health and immunity had received considerable attention. Also, many studies have confirmed the potential use of the WS-NSPs of root and tuber crops in a wide range of food and pharmaceutical applications. These bioactivities of WS-NSPs warrant further investigations on this interesting biomaterial.
... Generally, yam products have a lower glycemic index than potato products [31]. Researchers have shown that yams have health beneficial compounds such as dioscorin, diosgenin, and water-soluble polysaccharides which have hypoglycemic effects [32] [33]. ...
... Dari hasil analisa kadar protein dalam tepung umbi bentul didapatkan hasil sebesar 3,45%. Hasil kadar protein hampir sama dengan penelitian Estiasih, (2012) dimana kadar protein tepung Dioscorea alata dari berbagai daerah yang dianalisa sebesar 3,03 -9,05% 5 . Kadar protein tepung bentul pada penelitian ini lebih rendah daripada tepung gandum, yaitu sekitar 10% 6 , tetapi lebih tinggi daripada tepung ubi jalar (±3%) 7 . ...
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... KGM has been considered as potentially emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes. KGM is useful in improving diabetes control, reducing associated risk factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and ameliorating insulin resistance (Chearskul et al., 2007;Estiasih et al., 2012;Harijati et al., 2011;Vuksan et al., 2001). Moreover, KGM showed hypocholesterolemic effects. ...
... Uwi Dioscoreaceae High carbohydrates, fiber, mineral and vitamin (Wanasundera and Ravindan 1994); high protein, carbohydrate and vitamin C (Udensi et al. 2008) Dioscorea bulbifera Uwi gantung Dioscoreaceae High carbohydrates and easy to produces tubers; rich of flavonoid, phenolics, reducing sugars, starch, diosgenin, ascorbic acid, and citric acid (Chopade et al. 2012) Dioscorea hispida Gadung Dioscoreaceae High demands, can be processed into variety of foods, hypoglycemic index which is good for diabetes diet (Estiasih et al. 2012), The tuber production of Amorphophallus spp. in agroforestry system may reach up to 8-9 tonnes/ha (Arisoesilaningsih et al. 2009). Farmers in Nganjuk Regency, East Java mostly planted Dioscorea spp. in agroforestry system intercropped with tree plants or in land between rice fields without any special agronomy practices and may harvested about 15-20 tubers per plant (Trimanto and Hapsari 2015). ...
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